nep-eur New Economics Papers
on Microeconomic European Issues
Issue of 2016‒10‒23
twenty-six papers chosen by
Giuseppe Marotta
Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia

  1. Emissions trading and productivity: Firm-level evidence from German manufacturing By Lutz, Benjamin Johannes
  2. 'And Yet, It Moves': Intergenerational Economic Mobility in Italy By Gianluca Violante; Alberto Polo; Paolo Acciari
  3. Is there a Retirement-Health Care utilization puzzle? Evidence from SHARE data in Europe. By Eve Caroli; Claudio Lucifora; Daria Vigani
  4. Childhood Housing and Adult Earnings: A Between-Siblings Analysis of Housing Vouchers and Public Housing By Fredrik Andersson; John C. Haltiwanger; Mark J. Kutzbach; Giordano E. Palloni; Henry O. Pollakowski; Daniel H. Weinberg
  5. Securing women's employment: A fertility booster in European countries? By Angela Greulich; Olivier Thevenon; Mathilde Guergoat-Larivière
  6. Gender Quota inside the Boardroom: Female Directors as New Key Players? By Antoine Rebérioux; Gwenaël Roudaut
  7. What drives employment growth and social inclusion in EU regions? By Di Cataldo, Marco; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés
  8. The Balanced Scorecard and Beyond – Applying Theories of Performance Measurement, Employment and Rewards in Management Accounting Education By Eisenberg, Paul
  9. Pre-commercial Procurement, Procurement of Innovative Solutions and Innovation Partnerships in the EU: Rationale and Strategy By Elisabetta Iossa, Federico Biagi and Paola Valbonesi
  10. Evaluation of best price clauses in hotel booking By Hunold, Matthias; Laitenberger, Ulrich; Schlütter, Frank
  11. Dancing with the Stars: Interactions and Human Capital Accumulation By Valerio Sterzi; Stefanie Stantcheva; Santiago Caicedo; Ernest Miguelez; Ufuk Akcigit
  12. Benefit Duration and Job Search Effort: Evidence from a Natural Experiment By Lichter, Andreas
  13. When rationing plays a Role By Del Boca, Daniela; Pronzato, Chiara; Sorrenti, Giuseppe
  14. The Changing Nature of Gender Selection into Employment: Europe over the Great Recession By Juan Dolado; Cecilia García-Peñalosa; Linas Tarasonis
  15. Benefit ‘myths’? The accuracy and inaccuracy of public beliefs about the benefits system By Ben Baumberg Geiger
  16. The Development and Happiness of Very Young Children By Paul Anand; Laurence Roope
  17. Panel regression analysis of electricity prices and renewable energy in the European Union By Cech, Marek
  18. Regulation, tax and capital structure: evidence from administrative data on Italian banks By Steve Bond; Kyung Yeon Ham; Giorgia Maffini; Andrea Nobili; Giacomo Ricotti
  19. An anatomy of Italian cities: evidence from firm-level data By Andrea Lamorgese; Andrea Petrella
  20. Social Transfers and Income Inequality in Bulgaria By Svilena Mihaylova; Silviya Bratoeva-Manoleva
  21. Multiple unemployment spells duration in Poland By Ewa Galecka-Burdziak
  22. Pension Saving Responses to Anticipated Tax Changes: Evidence from Monthly Pension Contribution Records By Claus Thustrup Kreiner; Søren Leth-Petersen; Peer Ebbesen Skov
  23. A copula-based clustering algorithm to analyse EU country diets By F. Marta L. Di Lascio; Marta Disegna
  24. Patterns and determinants of inventors' mobility across European urban areas By Clément Gorin
  26. Teacher Literacy and Numeracy Skills: International Evidence from PIAAC and ALL By Golsteyn, Bart H.H.; Vermeulen, Stan; de Wolf, Inge

  1. By: Lutz, Benjamin Johannes
    Abstract: I study the causal effect of the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) on the productivity of German manufacturing firms. Using administrative firm-level data, I estimate robust production functions for narrowly defined industries. This approach allows for an endogenous dynamic productivity process and corrects for simultaneous changes in input use or productivity after a firm is regulated by the EU ETS. After estimating the firm specific productivity, I employ a difference-in-differences framework in order to identify and quantify the average treatment effect of the EU ETS on the productivity of regulated firms. The results suggest no significant negative effect of the EU ETS on productivity. In contrast, the EU ETS had a positive effect on productivity during the first compliance period. An alternative identification strategy based on a combination of the difference-in-differences framework and nearest neighbor matching supports this finding. A subsample analysis provides evidence that the effect of the EU ETS is heterogeneous across industries.
    Keywords: Control of Externalities,Emissions Trading,Robust Production Function Estimation,Productivity,Difference-in-Differences
    JEL: D22 D24 Q52
    Date: 2016
  2. By: Gianluca Violante (NYU); Alberto Polo (NYU); Paolo Acciari (Italian Ministry of Economy and Finance)
    Abstract: This paper provides the first comprehensive measurement for Italy of the degree of intergenerational economic mobility (IEM). The empirical analysis is based on unique tax record data for a 10 percent sample of the Italian tax payers (over 2M observations) where one can link the SSN of parents in 1998-1999 to the SSN of their children roughly 15 years later. We report a number of different measures of IEM such as the intergenerational elasticity, the rank-rank relationship, and upward and downward directional rank mobility. We document how these measures vary geographically across regions and across family types. We compare our methodology with the `informational content of surnames' approach developed by Guell and Rodriguez-Mora and recently applied to Italian data. We demonstrate that, geographically, IEM is strongly correlated to a number of socio-economic indicators, in particularly quality of public schooling. Finally, we compare our estimates of intergenerational income mobility with estimates using the same methodology for the U.S., Canada, Sweden, and Denmark.
    Date: 2016
  3. By: Eve Caroli; Claudio Lucifora (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore; Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore); Daria Vigani (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore; Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore)
    Abstract: We investigate the causal impact of retirement on health care utilization. Using SHARE data (from 2004 to 2013) for 10 European countries, we show that health care utilization increases when individuals retire. This is true both for the number of doctor’s visits and for the intensity of medical care use (defined as the probability of going more than 4 times a year to the doctor’s). This increase turns out to be driven by visits to general practitioners’, while specialists’ visits are not affected. We also find that the impact of retirement on health care utilization is significantly stronger for workers retiring from jobs characterized by long hours worked - more than 48 hours a week and/or being in the 5th quintile of the distribution of hours worked. This suggests that at least part of the increase in medical care use following retirement is due to the decrease in the opportunity cost of time faced by individuals when they retire.
    Keywords: Retirement, Health, Health Care Utilization.
    JEL: J26 I10 C26
    Date: 2016–10
  4. By: Fredrik Andersson; John C. Haltiwanger; Mark J. Kutzbach; Giordano E. Palloni; Henry O. Pollakowski; Daniel H. Weinberg
    Abstract: To date, research on the long-term effects of childhood participation in voucher-assisted and public housing has been limited by the lack of data and suitable identification strategies. We create a national-level longitudinal data set that enables us to analyze how children’s housing experiences affect adult earnings and incarceration rates. While naive estimates suggest there are substantial negative consequences to childhood participation in voucher-assisted and public housing, this result appears to be driven largely by selection of households into housing assistance programs. To mitigate this source of bias, we employ household fixed-effects specifications that use only within-household (across-sibling) variation for identification. Compared to naive specifications, household fixed-effects estimates for earnings are universally more positive, and they suggest that there are positive and statistically significant benefits from childhood residence in assisted housing on young adult earnings for nearly all demographic groups. Childhood participation in assisted housing also reduces the likelihood of incarceration across all household race/ethnicity groups. Time spent in voucher-assisted or public housing is especially beneficial for females from non-Hispanic Black households, who experience substantial increases in expected earnings and lower incarceration rates.
    JEL: I38 J15 J31 J62 R23
    Date: 2016–10
  5. By: Angela Greulich (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Olivier Thevenon (INED - Institut national d'études démographiques); Mathilde Guergoat-Larivière (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CEE - Centre d'études de l'emploi - M.E.N.E.S.R. - Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche - Ministère du Travail, de l'Emploi et de la Santé)
    Abstract: This article gives evidence that differences in completed fertility among European countries emerge mainly as a result of fewer women having a second child in low fertility countries and analyses the impact of women’s employment on the probability of second child birth. With longitudinal data from the European Survey of Income and Living conditions (EU-SILC) and aggregated data from the OECD Family Database, we find that, on average within European countries, women in stable employment have a significantly higher probability of second childbirth than inactive or unemployed women. However, while female employment generally favours a transition to second childbirth in high-fertility countries, the impact is heterogenous in low-fertility countries. This points to a work-life balance conflict that is stronger in low-fertility countries. To address this issue, multilevel models are run to compare the role of various policies: not surprisingly, they show that childcare policies – which are the most effective policies to secure women’s employment – are the most likely to encourage couples to enlarge their families and that the positive effect of stable employment on fertility is reinforced by this policy.
    Keywords: low fertility, female employment, work-life balance, Europe, family enlargement
    Date: 2016–04–01
  6. By: Antoine Rebérioux (LADYSS - Laboratoire dynamiques sociales et recomposition des espaces - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - UPOND - Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense - UP8 - Université Paris 8, Vincennes-Saint-Denis - UP7 - Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Gwenaël Roudaut (Ecole Polytechnique [Palaiseau] - Ecole Polytechnique)
    Abstract: This paper examines whether women’s situation within French boards has improved following the adoption of a board-level gender quota in 2011. To do so, we focus on the individual role of female directors as proxied by their fees. Our sample includes the listed companies belonging to the SBF120 index over the 2006-2014 period. We first show that the quota has succeeded in opening the doors of boardrooms to new, unseasoned female directors (not present on the director labor market before the regulation). These unseasoned female directors have distinctive characteristics (in terms of independence, experience, age, nationality, etc.) as compared to other board members. More importantly, we show that women, whether unseasoned or seasoned, experience an inner glass ceiling, with “positional” gender segregation within French boards. In particular, companies have failed so far to open the access of the most important board committees (namely monitoring committees: audit, compensation and nomination) to women. It results in a within-firm gender fees gap of 5%. Overall, the quota has rather amplified this segregation process, with an increase in the average within-firm gender fees gap.
    Keywords: board, committees, gender quota, segregation, director fees
    Date: 2016–03–31
  7. By: Di Cataldo, Marco; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés
    Abstract: The European Union promotes development strategies aimed at producing growth with "a strong emphasis on job creation and poverty reduction" . However, whether the economic conditions in place in EU regions are ideal for the generation of high- and low-skilled employment and labour market inclusion is unclear. This paper assesses how the key factors behind EU growth strategies -infrastructure, human capital, innovation, quality of government- condition employment generation and labour market exclusion in European regions. The findings indicate that the dynamics of employment and social exclusion vary depending on the conditions in place in a region. While higher innovation and education contribute to overall employment generation in some regional contexts, low-skilled employment grows the most in regions with a better quality of government. Regional public institutions, together with the endowment of human capital, emerge as the main factors for the reduction of labour market exclusion - particularly in the less developed regions- and the promotion of inclusive employment growth across Europe.
    Keywords: employment; Europe; regions; skills; social exclusion
    JEL: J64 O52 R23
    Date: 2016–10
  8. By: Eisenberg, Paul
    Abstract: This study applies the prevailing scholarly theories of strategic management, employment decisions, cost accounting and share reward schemes to a panel of questions raised by Colin Drury (2012) in the case study of the fictitious company Integrated Technology Services (UK) Ltd., ITS (UK). The paper provides model answers which can be used when working with the case study at institutions of higher education. The merit of the work lies in three areas. First, it provides an overview of theories accepted by the academia that can be utilized for further research. Second, it contrasts pro and contra arguments. Thus it shows the limitations of the very theories when applied to scenarios inspired by practical problems. Third, it develops an innovative Balanced Scorecard for ITS (UK). The scorecard can be used as an example when working with Drury’s case study. But it is also suitable for real life situations of business entities faced with oppressive overheads and deteriorating net margins, building on highly skilled workforce and trying to preserve its differentiated profile.
    Keywords: Balanced Scorecard, Recruiting and Outsourcing, Target Costing, Hierarchy of Needs, Hygiene Factors and Motivators, Building Block Model
    JEL: A22 L21 L24 L25 L86 M10 M15 M41 M52 M53 M54
    Date: 2016–06–17
  9. By: Elisabetta Iossa, Federico Biagi and Paola Valbonesi
    Abstract: We consider alternative European public procurement mechanisms for acquiring R&D services and innovative solutions, focusing on Pre-commercial Procurement, Public Procurement of Innovative Solutions and Innovation Partnerships. For each of these mechanisms, we identify conceptually strengths and weaknesses. We highlight the role played by (i) economies of scope and externalities between R&D and large-scale production; (ii) degree of specificity of the innovation; (iii) role of SMEs in the market and level of market competition; (iv) risk of market foreclosure and supplier lock-in. This article contributes to the literature on incentives in demand-side innovation policy by tapping into the contractual design features and by offering relevant implications for academics and policy makers.
    Keywords: Innovation, Demand-side policies, Incentives, Pre-commercial Procurement, Public Procurement of Innovative Solutions, Innovation Partnership.
    JEL: O31 O32 O38 H57
    Date: 2016
  10. By: Hunold, Matthias; Laitenberger, Ulrich; Schlütter, Frank
    Abstract: We analyze the best price clauses (BPCs) of online travel agents (OTAs) using meta-search price data of more than 45,000 hotels in different countries. Although OTAs apparently have not changed their standard commission rates following the partial ban of BPCs in Europe, we find that BPCs do influence the pricing and availability of hotel rooms across online sales channels. In particular, the abolition of's narrow BPC is associated with the hotels' direct channel being the price leader more often. Moreover, hotels make rooms more often available at when it does not use the narrow BPC.
    Keywords: best price clauses,hotel booking,MFN,OTA,vertical restraints
    JEL: D40 L42 L81
    Date: 2016
  11. By: Valerio Sterzi (Université de Bordeaux); Stefanie Stantcheva (Harvard University); Santiago Caicedo (University of Chicago); Ernest Miguelez (Université de Bordeaux); Ufuk Akcigit (University of Chicago)
    Abstract: Does interacting with others contribute to human capital accumulation? We try to answer this question by using a novel panel dataset on European inventors matched to their employers. Our panel data comes from the European Patent Offices since the 1980s and contains information on inventors, their employers, and their patents. More interactions are very strongly correlated with higher subsequent productivities of inventors, as measured by their number and quality of patents. Using variation in labor market regulations and flexibility across sectors, countries and time as instruments, we document a causal link between interactions and productivity or human capital accumulation of inventors.
    Date: 2016
  12. By: Lichter, Andreas (IZA)
    Abstract: Findings of prolonged non-employment spells due to more generous unemployment benefits are commonly seen as an indication of reduced job search effort and moral hazard behavior. However, to date, there is hardly any direct evidence of benefit-induced reductions in search effort. This paper exploits quasi-experimental variation in the potential benefit duration in Germany paired with individual-level data on job search behavior to directly investigate this assumed relationship. The results of this study provide substantial support for strategic job search behavior in response to the generosity of the benefit scheme: the extension of the benefit duration caused job search effort to significantly decrease, lowering the number of filed applications and the probability of applying for a job that requires moving. In line with theory, it is shown that the reduction in search effort is accompanied by a significant decrease in the short-run job-finding rate. Instrumental variables estimates further provide causal evidence on the direct relationship between search effort and unemployment duration: a 10 percent increase in the number of filed job applications is found to increase the short-run job-finding probability by 1.3 percentage points.
    Keywords: job search, unemployment insurance, natural experiment, Germany
    JEL: D83 I38 J64 J68
    Date: 2016–10
  13. By: Del Boca, Daniela; Pronzato, Chiara; Sorrenti, Giuseppe
    Abstract: Our study explores the impact of selection criteria on the costs and benefits of early child care for mothers' employment, child development, and municipalities' revenues by exploiting the selection criteria of different Italian municipalities in assigning child care slots. In Italy, only around 13% of the demand for public child care coverage is met, and the number of applications exceeds the number of places in child care services in all regions. In conditions of excess demand, municipalities introduce selection criteria to give priority to families for whom access to public child care appears to be more valuable. We analyse through simulations the consequences of introducing different selection criteria, using a representative Italian sample of households with children under three years of age (EU-SILC), and the selection criteria employed by six representative Italian municipalities. Our results have interesting policy implications. The benefits for child outcomes and mothers' employment are stronger in municipalities where the selection criteria give priority to more disadvantaged households. However, in these contexts selected households are less able to contribute to the financial sustainability of the service.
    Date: 2016–10
  14. By: Juan Dolado (European University Institute); Cecilia García-Peñalosa (AMSE - Aix-Marseille School of Economics - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS) - Ecole Centrale Marseille (ECM) - AMU - Aix Marseille Université); Linas Tarasonis (AMSE - Aix-Marseille School of Economics - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS) - Ecole Centrale Marseille (ECM) - AMU - Aix Marseille Université)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to evaluate the role played by selectivity issues induced by nonemployment in explaining gender wage gap patterns in the EU since the onset of the Great Recession. We show that male selection into the labour market, traditionally disregarded, has increased. This is particularly the case in peripheral European countries, where dramatic drops in male unskilled jobs have taken place during the crisis. As regards female selection, traditionally positive, we document mixed findings. While it has declined in some countries, as a result of increasing female LFP due to an added-worker effect, it has become even more positive in other countries. This is due to adverse labour demand shifts in industries which are intensive in temporary work where women are over-represented. These adverse shifts may have more than offset the rise in unskilled female labour supply.
    Keywords: sample selection,gender wage gap
    Date: 2016–06
  15. By: Ben Baumberg Geiger
    Abstract: There is a widespread assumption that increasingly negative public attitudes to the benefits system are due to 'myths' held by the British public. However, there is little prior research on whether the public believe these 'myths', nor critical scrutiny of benefit 'truths'. This paper therefore investigates what British people believe about the benefits system, and the extent to which these beliefs can be regarded as correct. To do this, we use 46 measures from 18 datasets, and compare these perceptions to true figures obtained from a variety of sources. We find that - against expectations - there are some areas where people misperceive the benefits system in ways that do not seem likely to lead to harsh attitudes, or where the public are (on average) relatively accurate. Yet overall, our evidence shows that the British public do have low levels of understanding of the benefits system, primarily in ways that seem likely to undermine public support. People wildly overestimate unemployment benefits compared to pensions, and also overestimate how much unemployment claimants without children receive. Half of people believe that out-of-work benefit claims have risen in the past fifteen years, whereas they have fallen noticeably. And while it is difficult to know the true level of benefit fraud exactly, the public overestimate fraud compared to any reasonable figure. We conclude by discussing the implications for both understanding and changing attitudes towards benefits.
    Keywords: benefits, social security, public attitudes, myths
    JEL: I38
    Date: 2016–10
  16. By: Paul Anand; Laurence Roope
    Abstract: The paper demonstrates how Sen’s (1985) alternative approach to welfare economics can be used to shed light on the wellbeing of very young children. More specifically, we estimate versions of the three key relations from his framework using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP, 2012) Survey. Our primary models provide evidence that skills are related to involvement in cognate activities with a parent, indicating a behavioural relationship between capabilities and activities which is not explicit in Sen’s original set-up, but is key to the development and happiness of young children. A second set of models indicates that the daily activities of very young children are related to household income but that in some cases the association with parenting inputs is stronger. Thirdly, we report happiness regressions for the children which seem to suggest that shopping and reading are valued but that their distribution is limited in some cases – probably either by household income or parental education. Across the piece, we find that the number of siblings is negatively related to activity involvement with parents, as hypothesised by Becker, but positively related to everyday, motor and social skills. Combined with evidence from other studies, we conclude that the capability approach provides a useful framework for understanding the economics of wellbeing across the entire life course.
    Keywords: child development, well-being, happiness, daily activities, capabilities
    JEL: D60 I31 J13
    Date: 2016
  17. By: Cech, Marek
    Abstract: This paper provides an econometric panel data model with data collected from 13 member states of the European Union over the period between 2010 and 2013 analysing two energy and climate relationships. First, it investigates the impact of the share of renewable energy sources in the final electricity production on the European consumer electricity prices. Second, it analyzes whether the replacement of fossil fuels by renewable energy causes a significant decrease in the greenhouse gases (specifically carbon dioxide) emissions. The results of our model analysis suggest that household electricity prices in the studied countries increase with the deployment of renewable electricity production. On the contrary, a negative effect of the renewables used in energy consumption on the CO2 emissions produced was found by the model regression.
    Keywords: electricity price, renewable energy sources, energy policy, European Union
    JEL: Q20 Q40
    Date: 2016–10–16
  18. By: Steve Bond (University of Oxford); Kyung Yeon Ham (University of Oxford); Giorgia Maffini (University of Oxford); Andrea Nobili (Associazione Bancaria Italiana); Giacomo Ricotti (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: This paper explores the effect of taxation on the capital structure of banks. For identification, we exploit exogenous regional variations in the rate of the Italian tax on productive activities (IRAP) using administrative, confidential data on regional banks provided by the Bank of Italy (1998-2011). We find that IRAP rate changes do not always lead to a change in banks’ leverage: banks close to the regulatory constraints do not change their leverage when tax rates change. This holds true for both tax cuts and tax hikes. Among less constrained entities, the leverage of smaller banks is more responsive to changes in tax rates than that of larger banks. Overall, the tax system has little effect on the capital structure of banks, especially for larger and possibly more systemically important institutions; regulatory constraints instead seem to be a first-order determinant. Our findings cast doubt on the role of the tax system as a cause or tool for addressing the negative externalities of excessive leverage in the banking system.
    Keywords: capital structure, debt, regulation, corporate tax, banks
    JEL: G21 G32 G38 H25 H32
    Date: 2016–10
  19. By: Andrea Lamorgese (Bank of Italy); Andrea Petrella (Bank of Italy)
    Keywords: urban productivity premium, agglomeration, urban growth
    JEL: D24 O47 R30 A A A
    Date: 2016–10
  20. By: Svilena Mihaylova (Department of Economics, University of Economics – Varna); Silviya Bratoeva-Manoleva (Department of Economics, University of Economics – Varna)
    Abstract: The paper analyzes the distributional effects of social transfers in Bulgaria in the period 2000-2014, using income inequality decomposition by factor components. The results suggest that social transfers mitigate income inequality, but this effect varies depending on the type of transfer. Pensions exert the strongest influence due to their significant share in total income, which also rises over time. Family allowances are pro-poor in nature, but because of their small share in beneficiaries’ total income, their impact on overall inequality is much weaker. “Other social benefits” have the weakest inequality-reducing effect, which is due to their higher concentration towards the richest decile and increasing share in total income.
    Keywords: social transfers, income inequality, redistribution
    JEL: I38 H55 D31
    Date: 2016–10
  21. By: Ewa Galecka-Burdziak
    Abstract: I study multiple unemployment spells. I refer to Poland, as this country experiences high incidence of the long-term unemployment and long mean incomplete unemployment duration. I estimate conditional risk set model for multiple spells, and Cox model for 1st to 5th spell, separately. I use time-to-event data (complete spells) for almost 435000 individuals in the 2007-2014 period from five public employment offices. Almost 99% of the individuals have up to 5 spells, but ''only'' 60% of them experience one complete spell.I find that subsequent unemployment spells are on average shorter, but slightly more individuals experience longer subsequent spells. Thus, those who exit either learn how to seek job or decide to leave the pool. Younger males with primary education are better off at leaving the pool, but the impact of sex and education diminishes in subsequent spells. Tertiary education, since 2nd spell, also entails higher hazard of leaving the pool. Results indicate heterogeneity among job seekers and mismatch bet
    Keywords: unemployment duration, multiple unemployment spells, outflow from unemployment, hazard function
    JEL: J64 C41
    Date: 2016–10
  22. By: Claus Thustrup Kreiner; Søren Leth-Petersen; Peer Ebbesen Skov (Department of Economics,Auckland University of Technology, NZ)
    Abstract: A Danish tax reform, decided in May 2009 and taking effect from the beginning of 2010, lowered the marginal tax rate on top bracket taxable income from 63% to 56%. Because contributions to pension accounts are tax deductible, the reform provided an incentive to increase pension contributions before the change in taxation. Using high frequency panel data, we document an increase in pension contributions in the second half of 2009 in response to the anticipated change in taxation, and that this led to an increase in total savings. Length: 36 pages
    Keywords: Pension savings, tax incentives, high frequency individual data.
    JEL: H3
    Date: 2016–06
  23. By: F. Marta L. Di Lascio (Free University of Bolzano, Faculty of Economics and Management); Marta Disegna (Bournemouth University, Executive Business Centre)
    Abstract: The aim of the paper is to suggest a novel clustering technique to explore the changes of the food diet in 40 European countries in accordance with common European policies and guidelines on healthy diets and lifestyles. The proposed clustering algorithm is based on copulas and it is called CoClust. The CoClust algorithm is able to find clusters according to the multivariate dependence structure of the data generating process. The database analysed contains information on the proportions of calories from 16 food aggregates in 40 European countries observed over 40 years by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The findings suggest that European country diets are changing, individually or as a group, but not in a unique direction. Central and Eastern European countries are becoming unhealthier, while the tendency followed by the majority of the remaining countries is to integrate the common European guidelines on healthy, balanced, and diversified diets in their national policies.
    Keywords: Clustering; CoClust; Healthy diet; Convergence; Dietary energy; EU countries
    JEL: C10 I10 E20
    Date: 2016–10
  24. By: Clément Gorin (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - PRES Université de Lyon - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Highly skilled professionals are regarded as one of the main driver for the economic development of cities through their effect on innovative capabilities. Skilled individuals are mobile in space and tend to cluster within a limited number of urban areas, therefore a crucial question is what factors shape this flows and influence the divergent levels of economic development across urban areas. Building on these considerations, this paper takes advantage of a large-scale dataset to shed light on the patterns and determinants of inventors' mobility across European urban areas. First, a descriptive analysis is carried out to document the dynamics of inventors' mobility and their spatial dimension. Second, a gravity model is used to analyse how job opportunities and socio-professional networks influence the flows of inventors between urban areas. From a methodological perspective, this paper uses a spatial filtering variant of the Poisson gravity model, which accommodate the nature of the data, while controlling for multilateral resistance and spatial autocorrelation in mobility flows. The descriptive analysis suggest that inventors' mobility occurs primarily between relatively large and collocated urban areas, partly because of the high level of circular and intra-firm mobility. The econometric analysis shows that employment opportunities, social networks, as well as various forms of proximity are important determinants of inventors' mobility.
    Keywords: Inventors’ mobility, urban areas, job opportunities, socio-professional network, Poisson gravity model, spatial filtering
    Date: 2016
  25. By: Manuela Stranges; François-Charles Wolff (Dipartimento di Economia, Statistica e Finanza, Università della Calabria)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the trajectories of illegal migrants in Italy using unique individual data stemming from a centre for reception of refugees and asylum seekers located in the southern region of Calabria during the period 2008-2014. We find that inflows in the centre have some peaks associated to political crises and wars in origin countries and lead to frequent overcrowding, but economic conditions also matter. There are large differences in the timing of exit decisions. Exit motives related to the obtainment of any form of international protection increase time spent in the centre. Conversely, more than 80% of migrants from Syria or Palestine have left the centre by their own only one month after their entry, meaning that those origin groups do not intend to settle in Italy. Overall, our results put in evidence the limits of the Dublin system which does not allow migrants to reach the country they wish to live.
    Keywords: Illegal migrants, Refugees, Asylum seekers, Italy, Administrative data
    JEL: O15 F22 N3
    Date: 2016–10
  26. By: Golsteyn, Bart H.H. (Maastricht University); Vermeulen, Stan (Maastricht University); de Wolf, Inge (Maastricht University)
    Abstract: Using the OECD-studies PIAAC and ALL, this paper shows that teachers on average have better literacy and numeracy skills than other respondents in almost all of the 15 countries in the samples. In most countries, teachers outperform others in the bottom percentiles, while in some countries they perform better than others throughout the skill distribution. These results imply that the scope to improve teachers' skills varies between countries and that policy makers should take the shape of the skills distribution into account when designing interventions in order to most efficiently raise teachers' skills.
    Keywords: teachers, skills, human capital
    JEL: I2 J2 J45
    Date: 2016–10

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