nep-eur New Economics Papers
on Microeconomic European Issues
Issue of 2015‒07‒18
23 papers chosen by
Giuseppe Marotta
Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia

  1. Life-Cycle Incidence of Family Policy Measures in Germany: Evidence from a Dynamic Microsimulation Model By Holger Bonin; Karsten Reuss; Holger Stichnoth
  2. Educational Attainment and Labor Market Performance: an Analysis of Immigrants in France By Akguc, Mehtap; Ferrer, Ana
  3. Why the Norwegians do not drink Organic Milk – An analysis of differences in the consumption of organic milk in Germany and Norway By von Saurma-Jeltsch, Ann-Kristin; von Meyer-Höfer, Marie
  4. System of financing innovation activities in the EU countries; Measuring the Impact of the Financial Crisis By Marek Urbaniak; Ricardo Paes Mamede
  5. Immigration, Amnesties and the Shadow Economy By Emanuele Bracco; Luisanna Onnis
  6. The Return to Labor Market Mobility: An Evaluation of Relocation Assistance for the Unemployed By Caliendo, Marco; Künn, Steffen; Mahlstedt, Robert
  7. Understanding Differences in Labour Market Attachment of Single Mothers in Great Britain and West Germany By Hannah Zagel
  8. Tempora mutantur, nos et mutamur in illis: religion and female employment over time By Fischer, Justina A.V.; Pastore, Francesco
  9. Individual and Workplace-Specific Determinants of Paid and Unpaid Overtime Work in Germany By Ines Zapf
  10. Education and Criminal Behavior: Insights from an Expansion of Upper Secondary School By Åslund, Olof; Grönqvist, Hans; Hall, Caroline; Vlachos, Jonas
  11. Does on-the-job informal learning in OECD countries differ by contract duration By Ferreira Sequeda M.T.; Grip A. de; Velden R.K.W. van der
  12. Innovation and exporting: a study on Eastern European firms By Silvia Bertarelli; Chiara Lodi
  13. Protecting Working-Age People with Disabilities: Experiences of Four Industrialized Nations By Burkhauser, Richard V.; Daly, Mary C.; Ziebarth, Nicolas R.
  14. The Great Trade Collapse and the Spanish Export Miracle: Firm-level Evidence from the Crisis By Peter S. Eppinger; Nicole Meythaler; Marc-Manuel Sindlinger; Marcel Smolka
  15. Do exporting firms benefit from retail internationalization? Evidence from France By Angela Cheptea; Charlotte Emlinger; Katrine Latouche
  16. Worker-level and Firm-level Effects of a Wage Subsidy Program for Highly Educated Labor: Evidence from Denmark By Kaiser, Ulrich; Kuhn, Johan Moritz
  17. The perception of inequality of opportunity in Europe By Paolo Brunori
  18. Uncertainty, flexible labour relations and R&D expenditure By Marco Di Cintio; Emanuele Grassi
  19. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education By Bennett, Patrick; La Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela
  20. The political economy of renewable energy policies in Germany and the EU By Strunz, Sebastian; Gawel, Erik; Lehmann, Paul
  21. Competitive tendering versus performance-based negotiation in Swiss public transport By Massimo Filippini; Martin Koller; Giuliano Masiero
  22. Migrants and Natives in EU Labour Markets: Mobility and Job-Skill Mismatch Patterns By Stefan Jestl; Michael Landesmann; Sandra M. Leitner
  23. Parental Time Investments in Children: The Role of Competition for University Places in the UK By Sevilla, Almudena; Borra, Cristina

  1. By: Holger Bonin; Karsten Reuss; Holger Stichnoth
    Abstract: This paper quantifies the life-cycle incidence of key family policy measures in Germany. The analysis is based on a novel dynamic microsimulation model that combines simulated family life-cycles for a base population from the 2009 wave of the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) with a comprehensive tax-benefit model. The results indicate that households in Germany benefit considerably from family- and marriage-related transfers, yet also reveal substantial variation behindthe population average. Moreover, it is shown that some measures, such as income tax splitting, may make individuals in fact worse off, in financial terms, over the long course, as a result of negative labour supply incentives which are reinforced through detrimental effects on human capital accumulation.
    Keywords: Dynamic microsimulation, family policy, Germany
    JEL: C53 C54 J12 J13 J22
    Date: 2015
  2. By: Akguc, Mehtap; Ferrer, Ana
    Abstract: Using a recent survey of immigrants to France, we provide a detailed analysis of the educational attainment and labor market performance of various sub-population groups in France. Our results indicate that immigrants to France are less educated than the native born and that these differences can be tracked down to differences in socioeconomic background for most groups of immigrants. Similarly, there is a significant wage gap between immigrant and native-born workers, but this is reduced and sometimes disappears after correcting for selection into employment. In most cases the remaining differences in education and labor market outcomes seem related to the area of origin of the immigrant as well as where the education of the immigrant is obtained.
    Keywords: Immigration, France, educational attainment, labor market performance of immigrants
    JEL: F22 J15 J61
    Date: 2015–07–07
  3. By: von Saurma-Jeltsch, Ann-Kristin; von Meyer-Höfer, Marie
    Abstract: Numerous studies have examined the consumption of organic products in various European countries and found a higher consumption of organic products in the northern European countries as opposed to the southern countries. While Germany is taking a pioneering position in Europe with the largest European market, Norway is falling out of this pattern. Based on a model determining organic consumption from a cross-national perspective developed by Thøgersen (2010) this study analyses, why significant differences in organic consumption of organic milk occur between Germany and Norway. Furthermore, it is discussed whether organic farming is a viable option for Norway since conventional farming in Norway is already considered as very environmentally friendly. The results of this study point to the weaknesses of the Norwegian organic market and give policy suggestions to resolve this. They contradict the widespread opinion among Norwegian consumers that Norwegian agriculture is almost organic. Norwegian agriculture is of no degree less industrialized than German agriculture; their problems are simply perceived to be of a lesser extent by consumers.
    Keywords: organic milk consumption, cross-national comparison, Germany, Norway, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Marketing, Q 13, Q18, Q19,
    Date: 2015–02
  4. By: Marek Urbaniak (Poznan University of Economics); Ricardo Paes Mamede (ISCTE - Lisbon University Institute)
    Abstract: This article represents an attempt to empirically explore the effects of the current financial crisis on R&D and innovation across the European countries and aims to contribute to the knowledge on the impact of the financial crisis on the financing of R&D and innovation in Europe. Using macro data, we investigate the statistics on financing R&D and innovation by sectors of performance and sources of funds. A direct effect of the crisis on R&D and innovation expenditure during the crisis is compared with the pre-crisis period. We demonstrate that the EU member states have improved their innovative activities over the 2004–2012 period. This article makes an attempt at filling in the gaps in analyses of the influence that the financial crisis exerts on the financing of R&D and innovation. It is a contribution to the debate regarding the impact of the financial crisis in Europe on the volume and structure of innovation financing by sectors of the economy.
    Keywords: financing innovation activities, R&D and innovation expenditures
    JEL: G01 E23 O31 O43 O52
    Date: 2015–01–01
  5. By: Emanuele Bracco; Luisanna Onnis
    Abstract: This paper explores the link between the shadow economy and immigration. We per- form an empirical analysis on a newly compiled dataset of Italian immigration and shadow economy estimates for the years 1995-2006, also exploiting the discontinuity created by the 2002 Italian immigration reform, which granted legal status to almost 700,000 illegal immigrants. Our data comprise local aggregate statistical information on the labour market and the economy, and a repeated cross section of households sur- veyed by the Bank of Italy. We find a robust positive relationship between the presence of immigrants and the shadow economy. This link is substantially weakened by the 2002 amnesty.
    Keywords: Shadow Economy, Immigration, Immigration Policies, Amnesties
    JEL: H26 J61
    Date: 2015
  6. By: Caliendo, Marco (University of Potsdam); Künn, Steffen (IZA); Mahlstedt, Robert (University of Potsdam)
    Abstract: In many European countries, labor markets are characterized by high regional disparities in terms of unemployment rates on the one hand and low geographical mobility among the unemployed on the other hand. This is somewhat surprising and raises the question of why only minor shares of unemployed job seekers relocate in order to find employment. The German active labor market policy offers a subsidy covering moving costs to incentivize unemployed job seekers to search/accept jobs in distant regions. Based on administrative data, this study provides the first empirical evidence on the impact of this subsidy on participants' prospective labor market outcomes. We use an instrumental variable approach to take endogenous selection based on observed and unobserved characteristics into account when estimating causal treatment effects. We find that unemployed job seekers who participate in the subsidy program and move to a distant region receive higher wages and find more stable jobs compared to non-participants. We show that the positive effects are (to a large extent) the consequence of a better job match due to the increased search radius of participants.
    Keywords: evaluation, active labor market policy, labor market mobility, Instrumental variable approach
    JEL: J61 J64 J68 D04 C26
    Date: 2015–07
  7. By: Hannah Zagel
    Abstract: This paper investigates the relationships between single mothers’ demographic and socio-economic circumstances and differences in their labour market attachment in Great Britain and West Germany. Employment of single mothers is a key issue in current policy debates in both countries, as well as in welfare state research. The heterogeneity of the group of women who experience single motherhood poses a challenge to contemporary social policy. To complicate the matter, single motherhood is not static but a result of family life dynamics. This paper provides an empirical insight into differences in labour market attachment of single mothers, investigating the demographic and socio-economic factors that distinguish careers dominated by full-time, part-time or non-employment. Considering 10-18 years of women’s careers, data from the British Household Panel Survey (1991-2008) and the German Socio-Economic Panel (1991-2008) (N= 678) are used for regression analysis. The findings suggest that, in both countries, young single mothers experience longer periods of non-employment. Vocational qualifications go together with part-time careers while high education attainments and school-age children allow for full-time employment. Part-time employment is a less common track for British compared to West German single mothers.
    Keywords: Single mothers, maternal employment, family-employment reconciliation, United Kingdom, West Germany
    Date: 2015
  8. By: Fischer, Justina A.V.; Pastore, Francesco
    Abstract: This study analyses whether the role of religion for employment of married women in Europe has changed over time and along women’s life cycles. Using information on 44’000 married European women from the World Values Survey 1981-2013, we find that in OECD-Europe there is little difference among women of any age since 1997. For non-OECD-Europe, we find differences by religion among young women, but not among those older than 40 years, which we attribute to an upbringing under communist regimes. Only Muslim women show a lower employment probability that persists across time, regions, and life cycles.
    Keywords: religion; labor market participation; modernization; gender; Europe; transition countries; Eastern Europe; OECD; World Values Survey
    JEL: D83 J16 J22 N34 Z12 Z13
    Date: 2015–07–16
  9. By: Ines Zapf
    Abstract: In Germany, overtime work is a well-established instrument for varying working hours of employees and is of great importance for establishments as a measure of internal flexibility. However, not all employees are affected to the same degree by a variation of the work effort through overtime work. Besides socio-demographic factors, workplace-specific factors that provide information about the position of employees in the establishment play an important role, too. So far, we do not know enough how these workplace-specific factors are associated with overtime work. This question is at the center of this study. In the analysis, women and part-time employees are taken into account, while previous studies mostly focused on full-time employees and/or male workers. On the basis of the data of the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), the results show a significant negative correlation between women and paid overtime and between part-time employees and unpaid overtime. If the employees performance is regularly assessed by a superior, paid overtime is less likely, while unpaid overtime becomes more likely. In executive positions, there is a significant positive correlation with paid and unpaid overtime work. Unpaid overtime is more likely with a growing autonomy in the employees’ workplace, whereas paid overtime becomes less likely. However, the length of the training period on the job as well as job related burdens due to a job at risk and a limited employment contract seem to have no association with paid or unpaid overtime.
    Keywords: Overtime work, internal flexibility
    JEL: J21 J24 J81
    Date: 2015
  10. By: Åslund, Olof (Institute for Evaluation of Labor Market and Education Policy (IFAU)); Grönqvist, Hans (Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI), Stockholm University); Hall, Caroline (IFAU and Uppsala Center for Labor Studies (UCLS)); Vlachos, Jonas (Department of Economics, Stockholm University and the Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: We study the impact on criminal activity from a large scale Swedish reform of vocational upper secondary education, extending programs from two to three years and adding more general theoretical content. The reform directly concerns age groups where criminal activity is high and students who are highly overrepresented among criminal offenders. The nature of the reform and the rich administrative data allow us to shed light on several behavioral mechanisms. Our results show that the prolonged and more general education lead to a reduction in property crime, but no significant decrease in violent crime. The effect is mainly concentrated to the third year after enrollment, which suggests that being in school reduces the opportunities and/or inclinations to commit crime.
    Keywords: Education; Delinquency
    JEL: K42
    Date: 2015–07–13
  11. By: Ferreira Sequeda M.T.; Grip A. de; Velden R.K.W. van der (GSBE)
    Abstract: Several studies have shown that employees with temporary contracts have a lower training participation than those who have a contract of indefinite duration. There is however no empirical literature on the difference in informal learning on-the-job between permanent and temporary workers. In this paper, we analyse this difference across twenty OECD countries using unique data from the recent PIAAC survey. Using an instrumented control function model with endogenous switching, we find that workers in temporary jobs engage in informal learning more intensively than their counterparts in permanent employment, although the former are, indeed, less likely to participate in formal training activities. In addition, we find evidence for complementarity between training and informal learning for both temporary and permanent employees. Our findings then suggest that temporary employment need not be dead-end jobs. Instead, temporary jobs with high learning content could be a stepping stone towards permanent employment. However, our results also suggest that labour market segmentation in OECD countries actually occurs within temporary employment due to the distinction between jobs with low and high learning opportunities.
    Keywords: Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity; Labor Contracts;
    JEL: E24 J24 J41
    Date: 2015
  12. By: Silvia Bertarelli; Chiara Lodi
    Abstract: This paper provides an empirical analysis about the relationship among innovation, productivity and exporting propensity within manufacturing firms of seven Eastern European Union countries. We analyse marginal effects of product, process and organisational-marketing innovations and test complementarity among them when the objective function is represented by the exporting propensity of a firm. Analysing CIS2008 data, we obtain that productivity improves exporting propensity; the more firms innovate the higher is their exporting probability; complementarity between process and organisational-marketing innovations is accepted in medium high and high technology firms. Complementary innovation strategies are detected for Bulgarian firms, even if Bulgaria is one of the least innovative Eastern European countries.
    Keywords: Propensity to export; Eastern Europe countries; Productivity; Complementarity; Product innovations; Process innovations; Organisational/Marketing innovations
    JEL: F14 O33
    Date: 2015–07–10
  13. By: Burkhauser, Richard V. (Cornell University); Daly, Mary C. (Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco); Ziebarth, Nicolas R. (Cornell University)
    Abstract: Although industrialized nations have long provided public protection to working-age individuals with disabilities, the form has changed over time. The impetus for change has been multi-faceted: rapid growth in program costs; greater awareness that people with impairments are able and willing to work; and increased recognition that protecting the economic security of people with disabilities might best be done by keeping them in the labor market. Here we describe the evolution of disability programs in four countries: Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States. We show how growth in the receipt of publically provided disability benefits has fluctuated over time and discuss how policy choices played a role. Based on our descriptive comparative analysis we summarize shared experiences that potentially benefit policymakers in all countries.
    Keywords: disability, disability insurance, cross-country comparison, Germany, US
    JEL: I10 I13 J14 J18
    Date: 2015–07
  14. By: Peter S. Eppinger; Nicole Meythaler; Marc-Manuel Sindlinger; Marcel Smolka
    Abstract: We provide novel evidence on the micro-structure of international trade during the 2008 financial crisis and subsequent global recession exploring a rich firm-level data set from Spain. The analysis is motivated by the surprisingly strong export performance of Spain in the aftermath of the great trade collapse (dubbed by some as the “Spanish export miracle”). The focus of our analysis is on changes at the extensive and intensive firm-level margins of trade, as well as on performance differences (jobs, productivity, and firm survival) across firms that differ in their export status. We find no adverse effects of the financial crisis on foreign market entry or exit, but a considerable increase in the export intensity of firms after the financial crisis. Moreover, we find that those firms that entered the crisis as exporters (and continued exporting throughout the crisis years) were more resilient to the crisis than those firms that restricted their sales to the domestic market. Finally, in contrast to exporters, non-exporters experienced a significant deterioration in their total factor productivity, which led to an overall decline in the productivity of a significant number of industries in Spanish manufacturing.
    Keywords: international trade, financial crisis, manufacturing, firm-level data,Spain
    JEL: F10 F14 G01 D24
    Date: 2015–04
  15. By: Angela Cheptea; Charlotte Emlinger; Katrine Latouche
    Abstract: We explore the link between globalization of the retail sector and the export activity of firms from their origin country. In a previous paper (Cheptea et al., 2015), we showed that exporting firms from countries with internationalized retail companies benefit more from this process than firms from other countries. Two mechanisms can explain this effect: a trade cost advantage for retailers’ domestic suppliers, or a shift in foreign demand from which benefit all origin country firms. In this paper we question which of the two mechanisms dominates. For that, we test whether retailers’ supplying firms benefit more from the overseas expansion of retailers than other origin country firms. We employ French firm-level data to evaluate the effect for the two types of firms. We identify retailers’ suppliers as firms that sell their products under French retailers’ brands or labels, i.e. French firms certified with the IFS standard. Our empirical objective is to estimate whether firms with IFS certification have better export performance on markets where French retailers operate. We find that certified French firms are more likely to export, and export larger volumes, than non-certified firms to markets where French retailers established outlets. We also show that when French retailers close down their activities in a market, IFS firms face a drop in exports to this market in the subsequent years. The results are robust to the use of different sets of firm- and country-specific fixed effects, are unaffected by possible selection and endogeneity biases, and the presence in export markets of other retailers. This difference in behavior for certified and non-certified exporting firms confirms the trade cost advantage of retailers’ suppliers, which is lost when French retailers exit from the destination country.
    Keywords: Mulitnational retailers, firm-level exports, Private standards
    JEL: F12 F14 F23
    Date: 2015–06
  16. By: Kaiser, Ulrich (University of Zurich); Kuhn, Johan Moritz (CEBR, Copenhagen)
    Abstract: We study the effects of a Danish wage subsidy program for highly educated workers on the labor market outcomes of the persons participating in the program and on the performance of the firms that hired these subsidized workers. Using data on the population of program participants, both individuals and firms, we find that the program had positive effects on employment and wages the year individuals participate in the program. For wages, we also find positive and statistically significant effects for the two subsequent years. At the program participating firm level, we find statistically significant effects on the number of highly educated employees for both the period of program participation and the subsequent time period.
    Keywords: wage subsidies, firm performance, program evaluation
    JEL: D04 O31 O38
    Date: 2015–07
  17. By: Paolo Brunori (University of Bari)
    Abstract: Does the way scholars measure inequality of opportunity correspond to how people perceive it? To answer this question we must first clarify how scholars define and measure inequality of opportunity, we will then discuss the possible mechanisms linking objective measures and subjective perception of the phenomenon, and finally we test our hypothesis by merging data coming from two sources: the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (2011) and the International Social Survey Programme data (2009). We show that individual perception of unequal opportunity is heterogeneous across countries and among individuals. Moreover, the prevailing perception of the degree of unequal opportunity in a large sample of respondents is only weakly correlated with its objective measure. We estimate a multilevel model considering both individual and country level controls to explain individual perception of unequal opportunity. Our estimates suggest that one of the most adopted measure of inequality of opportunity has no role in explaining its perception. Conversely, other country level variables and personal experiences of intergenerational social mobility are important determinants of how inequality of opportunity is perceived.
    Keywords: Inequality of opportunity, inequality perception, intergenerational mobility, attribution theory.
    Date: 2015–06
  18. By: Marco Di Cintio (Department of Management, Economics, Mathematics and Statistics; University of Salento); Emanuele Grassi (Department of Management, Economics, Mathematics and Statistics; University of Salento)
    Abstract: This paper examines the effects of uncertainty and flexible labour contracts on the Research and Development (R&D) expenditure. Using a panel of Italian manufacturing firms, we find a hump-shaped relationship between workforce flexibility and R&D outlays. Moreover, as predicted by the real options theory, our results suggest that product market uncertainty reduces R&D efforts and that flexible labour contracts countervail the adverse effect of uncertainty on R&D.
    Keywords: real options theory, R&D, uncertainty, temporary workers
    JEL: D22 D81 J41 O31
    Date: 2013–12
  19. By: Bennett, Patrick (Department of Economics, Copenhagen Business School); La Cour, Lisbeth (Department of Economics, Copenhagen Business School); Larsen, Birthe (Department of Economics, Copenhagen Business School); Waisman, Gisela (Regeringskansliet, Stockholm)
    Abstract: This paper explores potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking, which may influence natives and immigrants differently. The paper considers, both theoretically and empirically, the impact of negative attitudes and networking taking into account that these parameters may influence high and uneducated workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two ethnic groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper finds evidence that greater negative attitudes increase incentives for males to acquire education and that networking also increases immigrant education.
    Keywords: incentives; immigrants; education; attitudes
    JEL: I20 I24 J15
    Date: 2015–07–04
  20. By: Strunz, Sebastian; Gawel, Erik; Lehmann, Paul
    Abstract: In this paper, we employ a public choice perspective to analyze the development of policies for renewable energy sources (RES) in the EU in general and in Germany more specifically. In doing so, we explain the main characteristics of current RES policies in the EU by reference to the selfinterest driven motivations of voters, stakeholders and political actors. One important puzzle, which we address, is the following: How could effective RES-policies be introduced against the political opposition of fossil-fuel interest groups in the past? Via analyzing the German example in more detail, we show how over time a self-reinforcing interplay of ideological and financial RES support has emerged. Moreover, we demonstrate that observed specific design choices for EU RES policies, such as largely riskless remuneration schemes, high degrees of technology differentiation and decentralized decision-making across Member States, can be traced back to politicians' need to balance a variety of partly opposing interests. A major benefit of the presented analysis is that it provides a realistic assessment of the challenges for RES policy reform - any reform effort critically depends on its ability to balance stakeholder interests.
    Keywords: lobbying,public choice,renewable energy sources,subsidies,support policies
    JEL: D72 D78 H25 K32 Q42
    Date: 2015
  21. By: Massimo Filippini (Institute of Economics (IdEP), University of Lugano; Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich, Switzerland); Martin Koller (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich, Switzerland); Giuliano Masiero (Department of Management, Information and Production Engineering (DIGIP), University of Bergamo, Italy; Institute of Economics (IdEP), University of Lugano, Switzerland)
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to assess differences in the levels of cost efficiency of bus lines operated under competitively tendered contracts and performance-based negotiated contracts. Following the revision of the Swiss railways act in 1996, regional public authorities were given the choice between two different contractual regimes to procure public passenger transport services. We directly compare the impact of competitive tendering and performance-based negotiation by applying a stochastic frontier analysis to the complete dataset of bus lines (n=630) operated by the main Swiss company (Swiss Post) at the same time (in 2009) throughout the country. The overall results show that the differences in the levels of cost efficiency between the two contractual regimes are not signi?cant. Our findings are in line with recent evidence of cost convergence between competitive tendering and performance-based negotiation, and suggest that the practice of using both contractual regimes is challenging for the operators in terms of competitive pressure. The threat of competitive tendering may have a disciplining effect on negotiation since it prevents bus companies from bargaining inadequate rents and inducing asymmetric information advantages.
    Keywords: public bus contracts, competitive tendering, performance-based negotiation, cost efficiency
    JEL: C21 D24 H57 L92
    Date: 2015–06
  22. By: Stefan Jestl; Michael Landesmann (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Sandra M. Leitner (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: Summary This paper presents a descriptive account of labour mobility across the EU economies. The focus of the paper is on different patterns between migrants (‘foreign born’) and natives with regard to mobility, exploring in particular the potential of migrants to ‘grease the wheels’ (Borjas, 2001) of labour markets by either themselves showing higher mobility rates or impacting on the mobility patterns of natives or existing migrants themselves. The main indicators examined are the gross mobility and net employment creation rates (GERR and NECR respectively) taken over from Davis and Haltiwanger (1992, 1999). This paper contains a descriptive assessment while a companion paper (Landesmann and Leitner, 2015) undertakes an econometric analysis of the determinants of mobility patterns. We differentiate between the EU-15 and the NMS-8 and further between sub-regions (OMS-North, OMS-South, NMS-Central, Baltics). We analyse differences in mobility patterns in OMS and NMS as regards age groups, skill groups, gender, length of job tenure, etc. Apart from overall labour market mobility we also examine inter-regional and inter-sectoral mobility. A second part of the analysis covers measures of ‘job-skill (mis) matches’, again with a focus of analysing differences between migrants and natives in this respect.
    Keywords: labour mobility, European Union, worker flow analysis, employment reallocation, international migration, regional migration, labour turnover, job-skill mismatch
    JEL: F22 J61 J62 J63 R23
    Date: 2015–07
  23. By: Sevilla, Almudena (Queen Mary, University of London); Borra, Cristina (University of Seville)
    Abstract: We use novel diary surveys coupled with universities' administrative student data for the last three decades to document that increased competition for university places at elite institutions in the United Kingdom contributes to explain growing gaps in time investments between college and non-college educated parents. Competition for university places in the UK grew significantly during the 1980s and early 1990s, and gradually diminished afterwards. We find that the gap in time investments by college and non-college educated parents and their children widened up precisely during this first period, especially in terms of human capital enhancing activities.
    Keywords: parental time investments, children, college competition
    JEL: J13 J24
    Date: 2015–07

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