nep-eur New Economics Papers
on Microeconomic European Issues
Issue of 2015‒06‒13
twenty-two papers chosen by
Giuseppe Marotta
Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia

  1. Maternal Employment Effects of Paid Parental Leave By Bergemann, Annette; Riphahn, Regina T.
  2. The Effect of Changes in the Statutory Minimum Working Age on Educational, Labor and Health Outcomes By Jimenez-Martin, Sergi; Vall-Castello, Judit; del Rey, Elena
  3. Life-cycle incidence of family policy measures in Germany: Evidence from a dynamic microsimulation model By Bonin, Holger; Reuss, Karsten; Stichnoth, Holger
  4. How Do Native and Migrant Workers Contribute to Innovation? By Fassio, Claudio; Montobbio, Fabio; Venturini, Alessandra
  5. Effects of Income Inequality on Population Health and Social Outcomes at the Regional Level in the EU By Sebastian Leitner
  6. The Shaping of Skills:Wages, Education, Innovation By Valeria Cirillo; Mario Pianta; Leopoldo Nascia
  7. The Effect of Statutory Sick Pay Regulations on Workers' Health By Halla, Martin; Pech, Susanne; Zweimüller, Martina
  8. How health plan enrollees value prices relative to supplemental benefits and service quality By Bünnings, Christian; Schmitz, Hendrik; Tauchmann, Harald; Ziebarth, Nicolas R.
  9. Trust and beliefs among Europeans: Cross-country evidence on perceptions and behavior By Dieckmann, Anja; Fischbacher, Urs; Grimm, Veronika; Unfried, Matthias; Utikal, Verena; Valmasoni, Lorenzo
  10. The unintended effects of increasing the legal working age on family behaviour By Cristina Bellés-Obrero; Sergi Jiménez-Martín; Judit Vall-Castello
  11. Do More of those in Misery Suffer From Poverty, Unemployment or Mental Illness? By Sarah Flèche; Richard Layard
  12. The burden of Germany's energy transition: An empirical analysis of distributional effects By Frondel, Manuel; Sommer, Stephan; Vance, Colin
  13. Non-mandatory say on pay votes and AGM participation: Evidence from Germany By Powell, Daniel; Rapp, Marc Steffen
  14. R&D policies for young SMEs: Input and output effects By Czarnitzki, Dirk; Delanote, Julie
  15. Towards a multidimensional poverty index for Germany By Suppa, Nicolai
  16. Labour market segmentation and pensions in the Polish defined-contribution scheme By Piotr Lewandowski; Kamil Stronski; Roma Keister
  17. Are Armington elasticities different across countries and sectors? A European study By Olekseyuk, Zoryana; Schürenberg-Frosch, Hannah
  18. Is There a Penalty for Becoming a Woman? Is There a Premium for Becoming a Man? Evidence from a Sample of Transsexual Workers By Geijtenbeek, Lydia; Plug, Erik
  19. Can Compulsory Dialogues Nudge Sick-Listed Workers Back to Work? By Markussen, Simen; Røed, Knut; Schreiner, Ragnhild C.
  20. Family Friendly Welfare at the National and Local Level: What Does the State Do for the Family and the Family For the State? By Paola De Agostini; Martina Menon; Federico Perali
  21. Understanding differences in labour market attachment of single mothers in Great Britain and West Germany By Zagel, Hannah
  22. Do financial markets react to regulatory sanctions? An event study of the French case By Rezaee, Amir; Kirat, Thierry

  1. By: Bergemann, Annette (University of Bristol); Riphahn, Regina T. (University of Erlangen-Nuremberg)
    Abstract: We study the short, medium, and longer run employment effects of a substantial change in the parental leave benefit program in Germany. In 2007, a means-tested parental leave transfer program that had paid benefits for up to two years was replaced by an earnings related transfer which paid benefits for up to one year. The reform generated winners and losers with heterogeneous response incentives. We find that the reform speeds up the labor market return of both groups of mothers after benefit expiration. The overall time until an average mother with (without) prior claims to benefits returns to the labor force after a birth declined after the reform by 10 (8) months at the median. We show that likely pathways for this substantial reform effect are changes in social norms and mothers' preferences for economic independence.
    Keywords: female labor supply, maternal labor supply, parental leave, parental leave benefit, child-rearing benefit, parents' money
    JEL: J13 J21
    Date: 2015–05
  2. By: Jimenez-Martin, Sergi (Universitat Pompeu Fabra); Vall-Castello, Judit (Universitat Pompeu Fabra); del Rey, Elena (Universitat de Girona)
    Abstract: In this paper we explore the effects of a labor market reform that changed the statutory minimum working age in Spain in 1980. In particular, the reform raised the statutory minimum working age from 14 to 16 years old, while the minimum age for attaining compulsory education was kept at 14 until 1990. To study the effects of this change, we exploit the different incentives faced by individuals born at various times of the year before and after the reform. We show that, for individuals born at the beginning of the year, the probabilities of finishing both the compulsory and the post-compulsory education level increased after the reform. In addition, we find that the reform decreases mortality while young (16-25) for both genders while it increases mortality for middle age women (26-40). We provide evidence to proof that the latter increase is partly explained by the deterioration of the health habits of affected women. Together, these results help explain the closing age gap in life expectancy between women and men in Spain.
    Keywords: minimum working age, policy evaluation, education, mortality
    JEL: J01 I12
    Date: 2015–06
  3. By: Bonin, Holger; Reuss, Karsten; Stichnoth, Holger
    Abstract: This paper quantifies the life-cycle incidence of key family policy measures in Germany. The analysis is based on a novel dynamic microsimulation model that combines simulated family life-cycles for a base population from the 2009 wave of the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) with a comprehensive tax-benefit model. The results indicate that households in Germany benefit considerably from family- and marriage-related transfers, yet also reveal substantial variation behind the population average. Moreover, it is shown that some measures, such as income tax splitting, may make individuals in fact worse off, in financial terms, over the long course, as a result of negative labour supply incentives which are reinforced through detrimental effects on human capital accumulation.
    Keywords: Dynamic Microsimulation,Family Policy,Germany
    JEL: C53 C54 J12 J13 J22
    Date: 2015
  4. By: Fassio, Claudio; Montobbio, Fabio; Venturini, Alessandra (University of Turin)
    Abstract: This paper uses the French and the UK Labour Force Surveys and German Microcensus to estimate the effects of the different components of the labour force on innovation at the sectoral level between 1994 and 2005, focusing in particular on the contribution of migrant workers. We adopt a production function approach in which we control for the usual determinants of innovation, such as R&D investments, stock of patents and openness to trade. To address for the possible endogeneity of migrants we implement instrumental variable strategies using both two-stage least squares with external instruments and GMM-SYS with internal ones. In addition we also account for the possible endogeneity of native workers and instrument them accordingly. Our results show that highly educated migrants have a positive effect on innovation even if the effect is smaller relative to the one of the educated natives. Moreover this positive effect seems to be confined to the high tech sectors and among highly educated migrants from other European countries.
    Date: 2015–05
  5. By: Sebastian Leitner (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the relationships between various measures of income inequality and variables describing population health and social outcomes at the regional level in the EU. Differences between the Central and East European new EU Member States (NMS) and non-NMS EU countries are highlighted. By applying fixed and random effects and cross-region regressions, we found negative relationships between income inequality and life expectancy, infant mortality, standardised death rates on various causes, rates of violent and property crime, rates of non-activity and early leave from education of young persons. The results indicate that redistributive policies might be an effective measure to reduce social harm and improve population health.
    Keywords: income inequality, population health, social phenomena, distribution, European Union, Central and Eastern Europe, regional analysis
    JEL: D31 I30
    Date: 2015–05
  6. By: Valeria Cirillo (Department of Statistical Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome); Mario Pianta (Department of Economics, Society & Politics, Università di Urbino "Carlo Bo"); Leopoldo Nascia (Istituto Nazionale di Statistica)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the role of wages, education and innovation in shaping employment structures in manufacturing and services of five European countries (Germany, France, Spain, Italy and United Kingdom), with specific respect to skills in the long term (1999-2011). Using data on employment by skill level and several measures of industries’ technological efforts provided by four waves of Community Innovation Survey, we study the relationship between micro and macro factors and employment dynamics by skill. As micro factors, we consider the role of education and wages by employee; as macro elements we study the role of technologies and demand shaping job growth by skill group. Relying on a sectoral demand curve deriving from a translong cost function, we empirically estimate the relationship between wages, education, technologies, demand and employment. The results reveal that skills are differently affected by education, wages and technologies and a variety of employment patterns has to be detected. In 1999-2011, manufacturing shows a pattern of relative skill upgrading; conversely a smoothed polarizing trend is detected in services. While a process of relative skill upgrading is detected in manufacturing; conversely a smoothed polarizing trend is detected in services.
    Keywords: Skills, Innovation, Labor markets, Wages, Education
    JEL: J31 O30
    Date: 2015
  7. By: Halla, Martin (University of Innsbruck); Pech, Susanne (University of Linz); Zweimüller, Martina (University of Linz)
    Abstract: Social insurance programs typically comprise sick leave insurance. An important policy parameter is how the cost of sick leave are shared between workers, firms, and the social security system. We show that this sharing rule affects not only absence behavior, but also workers' subsequent health. To inform our empirical analysis we propose a simple model, where workers' absence decision is taken conditional on the sharing rule, health, and a dismissal probability. Our empirical analysis is based on high-quality administrative data sources from Austria. Identification is guaranteed by idiosyncratic variation in the sharing rule (caused by different policy reforms and sharp discontinuities at certain tenure levels and firm sizes). An increase in either the workers' or the firms' cost share (both at the public expense) decrease the number of sick leave days. Variations in the workers' cost are quantitatively more important (by a factor of about two). Policy-induced variation in sick leave has a significant effect on subsequent health (care cost). The average worker in our sample is in the domain of presenteeism, i.e. an increase in sick leave (due to reductions in the workers' or the firms' cost share) would reduce health care cost.
    Keywords: statutory sick-pay regulations, sick leave, presenteeism, absenteeism, moral hazard, health care cost
    JEL: I18 J22 J38
    Date: 2015–05
  8. By: Bünnings, Christian; Schmitz, Hendrik; Tauchmann, Harald; Ziebarth, Nicolas R.
    Abstract: This paper empirically assesses the relative role of health plan prices, service quality and optional benefits in the decision to choose a health plan. We link representative German SOEP panel data from 2007 to 2010 to (i) health plan service quality indicators, (ii) measures of voluntary benefit provision on top of federally mandated benefits, and (iii) health plan prices for almost all German health plans. Mixed logit models incorporate a total of 1,700 health plan choices with more than 50 choice sets for each individual. The findings suggest that, compared to prices, health plan service quality and supplemental benefits play a minor role in making a health plan choice.
    Abstract: Dieses Papier untersucht empirisch die Rollen von Beitrag, Servicequalität und freiwilligen Zusatzleistungen im Rahmen der Krankenkassenwahl. Dazu verknüpfen wir repräsentative Paneldaten des SOEP der Jahre 2007 bis 2010 mit kassenspezifischen Indikatoren für (i) die Servicequalität, (ii) das Angebot von freiwilligen Zusatzleistungen und (iii) den Beitrag von fast allen deutschen Krankenkassen. Die verwendeten mixed logit Modelle basieren auf 1 700 individuellen Entscheidungssituationen, welche jeweils mehr als 50 Krankenkassen zur Wahl beinhalten. Die Ergebnisse deuten an, dass Servicequalität und freiwillige Zusatzleistungen eine - im Vergleich zu Beiträgen - untergeordnete Rolle in der Wahl der Krankenkasse spielen.
    Keywords: service quality,non-essential benefits,prices,health plan switching,German sickness funds,SOEP
    JEL: D12 H51 I11 I13 I18
    Date: 2015
  9. By: Dieckmann, Anja; Fischbacher, Urs; Grimm, Veronika; Unfried, Matthias; Utikal, Verena; Valmasoni, Lorenzo
    Abstract: We conduct an experimental study among European citizens regarding cross-cultural perceptions related to trust in two dimensions: volunteerism and honesty. We use representative samples from five major economies of the Euro area: France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Spain. We find that European citizens rely on nationality to infer behavior. Assessments of behavior show a north/south pattern in which participants from northern countries are perceived to be more honest and to provide more effort in a volunteering game than are participants from southern countries. Actual behavior is, however, not always in line with these assessments. Assessments of honesty show strong evidence of social projection: Participants expect other European citizens to be less honest if they are culturally closer to themselves. Assessments of volunteerism instead show a similar north/south-pattern in which both northern and southern Europeans expect higher performance of northerners than they do of southerners.
    Keywords: Cross-cultural perceptions,Europe,Honesty,Real effort,Representative experiment
    JEL: D82 D84 C93 Z13
    Date: 2015
  10. By: Cristina Bellés-Obrero; Sergi Jiménez-Martín; Judit Vall-Castello
    Abstract: We use an exogenous variation in the Spanish legal working age to investigate the effect of education on fertility and infant health. The reform introduced in 1980 raised the minimum legal age to work from 14 to 16 years old. We show that the reform increased educational attainment, which led to 1786 more women remaining childless and 3307 less children being born in the 10 generations after the reform. These negative effects operate through a postponement of first births until an age where the catching up effect cannot take place. We show that woman’s marriage market is one channel through which education impacts fertility, delaying the age at which women marry for the first time and reducing the likelihood that a woman marries. Even more importantly, this postponement in fertility seems to be also detrimental for the health of their offspring at the moment of delivery. The reform caused 2,789 more children to be born with less than 37 weeks of gestation, 268 died during the first 24 hours of life and 4,352 were born with low birth weight. We are able to document two channels that contribute to the negative effects on infant health: the postponement in age of delivery as well as a higher employment probability of more educated women, which enhances unhealthier behaviors (smoking and drinking).
    Date: 2015–05
  11. By: Sarah Flèche; Richard Layard
    Abstract: Studies of deprivation usually ignore mental illness. This paper uses household panel data from the USA, Australia, Britain and Germany to broaden the analysis. We ask first how many of those in the lowest levels of life-satisfaction suffer from unemployment, poverty, physical ill health, and mental illness. The largest proportion suffer from mental illness. Multiple regression shows that mental illness is not highly correlated with poverty or unemployment, and that it contributes more to explaining the presence of misery than is explained by either poverty or unemployment. This holds both with and without fixed effects.
    Keywords: Mental health, life-satisfaction, wellbeing, poverty, unemployment
    JEL: I1 I3 I31 I32
    Date: 2015–06
  12. By: Frondel, Manuel; Sommer, Stephan; Vance, Colin
    Abstract: Germany's energy transition has been accompanied by a near doubling of power prices for private households since the outset of the new millennium. Millions of poor households and those that are close to the poverty threshold are likely to suffer from these increases in electricity cost. Focusing on low-income households, this paper illustrates the distributional implications of Germany's energy transition by investigating their electricity cost burden between 2006 and 2012, using data from the German Residential Energy Consumption Survey (GRECS). Our estimates suggest that in 2012, on average, households at poverty risk allocated 5.5% of their income to power and, hence, paid nearly as much for covering their electricity consumption as for heating purposes. Given Germany's ambitious targets to expand the share of costly renewable technologies in electricity consumption, which has broad support among the electorate, it is to be expected that households' expenditure for power will increase in the upcoming years. This raises the urgent question of how to mitigate the regressive impact of further increasing electricity prices on poor households. Direct cash transfers are suggested here as a non-distortionary instrument for easing the burden of high prices, one that is directly targeted at those endangered by energy poverty.
    Abstract: Der Ausbau der erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland ging mit einer Verdopplung der Haushaltsstrompreise seit dem Jahr 2000 einher. Insbesondere leiden Millionen von armutsgefährdeten Haushalten unter dem Anstieg ihrer Stromkosten. Mit dem Fokus auf einkommensschwachen Haushalten stellt der vorliegende Beitrag die Verteilungswirkungen der Energiewende durch die Analyse der Stromkostenentwicklung privater Haushalte zwischen 2006 und 2012 dar. Basierend auf Primärdaten zum Energieverbrauch legen unsere Ergebnisse nahe, dass armutsgefährdete Haushalte im Jahr 2012 durchschnittlich 5,5% ihres Einkommens für Elektrizität ausgaben. Damit zahlten sie einen ähnlich hohen Betrag für Strom wie für den Bedarf an Heizenergie. Angesichts der ambitionierten Ziele Deutschlands, den Anteil teurer erneuerbarer Energien an der Stromerzeugung zu steigern, ist zu erwarten, dass sich die Stromausgaben in den kommenden Jahren weiter erhöhen werden. Dies zieht die Frage nach sich, wie die regressive Wirkung zukünftig steigender Strompreise abgefedert werden kann. Transferleistungen an armutsgefährdete Haushalte werden als ein unverzerrendes Instrument vorgeschlagen, ihre Belastung durch hohe Preise zu begrenzen.
    Keywords: energy transition,feed-in tariff,German Residential Energy Consumption Survey
    JEL: Q21 Q28 Q47
    Date: 2015
  13. By: Powell, Daniel; Rapp, Marc Steffen
    Abstract: Since August 2009, German legislation allows for voluntary Say on Pay Votes (SoPV) during Annual General Meetings (AGMs). We examine 1,169 AGMs of all German listed firms with more than 10,000 agenda items over the period 2010-2013 to identify (1) determinants and approval rates of voluntary SoPVs, (2) the effect of voluntary SoPVs on AGM participation, and (3) the effect of SoP on executive compensation. Our data reveals that in the first four years of the voluntary say on pay regime every second firm in our sample has opted for having a SoPV. The propensity for a SoPV increases with firm size, abnormal executive compensation and free float of shares. Indeed, smaller firms with concentrated ownership do not only have a lower propensity for a SoPV, but also show a higher propensity to opt for only limited disclosure of executive compensation. Approval rates of SoPVs are lower than the approval rate for the average AGM agenda item and this effect is stronger in (i) widely held firms as well as in (ii) firms with abnormal executive compensation. Additionally, SoPVs actually can increase AGM participation; however, this result is particularly evident for widely held firms. Finally, we find stronger pay for performance elements within total executive compensation, particularly when the effect of executive compensation is lagged over the years following the vote. Overall, our results are consistent with the view that firms use voluntary SoPV to gain legitimation for executive remuneration policies in firms with low ownership concentration. This is enforced, where (small) shareholders consider executive compensation a part of the agency problem of listed firms, and where (small) shareholders consider SoPVs as a possibility to actively influence corporate decisions, with these decisions leading to a higher degree of alignment between executive management boards and shareholders.
    Keywords: Corporate Governance,Executive Remuneration,Say on Pay,Annual General Meeting,Germany
    JEL: G30 G38 J30 J33
    Date: 2015
  14. By: Czarnitzki, Dirk; Delanote, Julie
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the current focus of EU policy makers on small and medium-sized, young independent firms in high-tech sectors. Therefore, the effect of subsidies on both R&D input and R&D output is compared between independent high-tech young firms (NTBFs), independent low-tech young firms (LTBFs) and their non-independent counterparts. A treatment effects analysis reveals that full crowding-out with regard to public funding is rejected for all firm types. However, the treatment effect is highest for independent high-tech firms. The indirect effect of subsidies on R&D output is evaluated within a patent production framework. These results show that independent high-tech firms have no lower output effects than other firms and thus suggest that the current policy focus on certain firm types is not ineffective.
    Keywords: R&D,subsidies,NTBFs,policy evaluation,treatment effects,patents
    JEL: H25 M13 O31 O38
    Date: 2015
  15. By: Suppa, Nicolai
    Abstract: This paper compiles a multidimensional poverty index for Germany. Drawing on the capability approach as conceptual framework, I apply the Alkire-Foster method using German panel data. I suggest new operationalizations for two dimensions: social participation and practical reason, the latter drawing on recent findings in experimental economics. The results are consistent with earlier findings, but also reveal several new insights. Specifically, numerous decompositions of the poverty index prove helpful in better tracking and understanding developments. Moreover, I find poor individuals to be adversely affected by general trends in deprivation indicators. Comparing multidimensional and income-based methods, I find only a modest overlap of people considered as poor by both approaches. Moreover, I address the role of income as a dimension in multidimensional poverty indices.
    Abstract: Der vorliegende Beitrag erstellt einen mehrdimensionalen Armutsindex für Deutschland. Konzeptionell eingebettet in den Capability-Ansatz, wird die Alkire-Foster Methode mit deutschen Paneldaten verwendet. Der Beitrag schlägt die Operationalisierung für zwei weitere Dimensionen vor: soziale Partizipation und praktische Vernunft, wobei letztere auf aktuellen Ergebnissen der Verhaltensökonomie basiert. Die empirischen Befunde sind konsistent mit früheren Ergebnissen, eröffnen aber auch neue Einsichten. Insbesondere die vielfältigen Zerlegungen des Armutsindexes erweisen sich als hilfreich, um wichtige Entwicklungen nachzuzeichnen und besser zu verstehen. Ein Vergleich von mehrdimensionalen mit einkommensbasierten Methoden offenbart eine nur mäßige Überschneidung der als arm identifizierten Personen. Schließlich wird auch die Rolle von Einkommen als weitere Dimension diskutiert.
    Keywords: multidimensional poverty,Alkire-Foster method,capability approach,SOEP
    JEL: I3 I32 D63 H1
    Date: 2015
  16. By: Piotr Lewandowski; Kamil Stronski; Roma Keister
    Abstract: In this paper we apply the cohort model of the pension scheme to analyse the impact of labour market segmentation, in particular the use of contracts on mandate, on expected retirement benefits in Poland. Heterogeneity of labour force and impact of differences in years of employment, contributions paid and account indexation are taken into consideration. The effects of policy instruments aimed at increasing the stream of contributions paid by workers with contracts of mandate are evaluated. We find that the expected retirement benefit in the segment of contracts of mandate is lower by 17% than in the segment of employment contracts. The major cause of this gap between segments are lower contributions in the case of men and shorter life-cycle employment in the case of women. The obligation to pay contributions on all contracts of mandate from the minimum wage level will enable closing the pension gap by ca. 4.4 pp. unless the obligation increases unemployment risk in the segment of contracts of mandate. Additional saving of 2% of the gross wage during spells of work on contract of mandate reduces the gap by less than 1 pp.
    Keywords: labour market segmentation, pensions, defined-contribution pension scheme
    JEL: J26 J32 J68
    Date: 2015–06
  17. By: Olekseyuk, Zoryana; Schürenberg-Frosch, Hannah
    Abstract: CGE models are widely used for policy evaluation and impact analysis especially with respect to trade reforms, tax reforms, energy sector reform and development policy analysis. However, the results of such models are often argued to be sensitive to the choice of exogenous parameters such as trade elasticities. Several authors show that the choice of the so-called Armington elasticities in the import demand function has a strong influence on the simulation results. Most existing estimates of Armington elasticities are only for the US. The few studies for other countries find substantially differing results. Nevertheless, many CGE modelers simply adopt the elasticities from the literature. This paper aims at providing estimated elasticities based on recent data for a larger group of European countries. Using cointegration and panel fixed effects analyses we estimate the first order condition resulting from cost minimization or utility maximization subject to the CES subutility or cost function in imports and domestic goods. The results show a rather large variation across sectors and countries and the magnitude is only partly comparable to the US elasticities. Moreover, in a small CGE application we are able to show that changing the elasticity set has a quantitative and even qualitative impact on CGE model results, which confirms the concern that one might end up with biased results due to a misspecification of the elasticities.
    Abstract: Berechenbare allgemeine Gleichgewichtsmodelle (engl CGE) finden weit verbreitet in der Politikberatung und Politikfolgenabschätzung Anwendung. Sie werden insbesondere zur Analyse von Handelspolitik, Steuerpolitik, Klimafolgenabschätzung und Entwicklungspolitik eingesetzt. Die Ergebnisse der Modelle gelten aber als anfällig bzgl. der Wahl exogener Modellparameter, im Besonderen der Wahl von Elastizitäten. In verschiedenen Studien konnte gezeigt werden, dass insbesondere die Wahl der Handelselastizitäten entscheidenden Einfluss auf Simulationsergebnisse haben kann. Aufgrund des erheblichen Aufwands, der zur Schätzung dieser sog. Armingtonelastizitäten notwendig ist, übernehmen dennoch viele Modelle die Elastizitätensätze anderer Länder (meist australische oder US-amerikanische Elastizitätensätze), ohne ihre Modellergebnisse auf Robustheit gegenüber der Parameterwahl zu schätzen. Der vorliegende Beitrag versucht diesen Kritikpunkt anzugehen, indem Elastizitäten für ein Panel von europäischen Staaten geschätzt werden. Die Autorinnen finden eine relativ breite Streuung der Ergebnisse und insb. erhebliche Unterschiede über die Länder und nur in manchen Fällen Ergebnisse der Größenordnung der am weitesten verbreiteten Elastizitäten. In einer beispielhaften Modellanwendung werden die geschätzten Elastizitäten alternativ in einem etablierten Modell verwandt, statt der dort enthaltenen. Im Ergebnis zeigt sich, dass es nicht nur einen quantitativen, sondern sogar z.T. einen qualitativen Einfluss auf die Simulation hat, welcher Elastizitätensatz Verwendung findet. Somit kann geschlussfolgert werden, dass die Gefahr einer Missspezifikation bei nicht ausreichend fundierten Parametern groß ist.
    Keywords: Armington,trade elasticities,computable general equilibrium,Europe
    JEL: F14 C68 F17
    Date: 2014
  18. By: Geijtenbeek, Lydia (University of Amsterdam); Plug, Erik (University of Amsterdam)
    Abstract: We study the earnings of transsexuals using Dutch administrative labor force data. First, we compare transsexuals to other women and men, and find that transsexuals earn more than women and less than men. Second, we compare transsexuals before and after transition using worker fixed effects models, and find a fall in earnings for men who become women and a smaller rise (if any) in earnings for women who become men. These earnings patterns, which hold for annual as well as hourly earnings, are consistent with a labor market model in which workers are discriminated for being female and transsexual.
    Keywords: transsexuals, gender, labor market outcomes, discrimination
    JEL: J16 J24 J71
    Date: 2015–05
  19. By: Markussen, Simen (Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research); Røed, Knut (Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research); Schreiner, Ragnhild C. (Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research)
    Abstract: We evaluate the impacts of a compulsory dialogue meeting for long-term sick-listed workers in Norway. The meeting is organised by the local social security administration after around six months of absence, and its purpose is to bring together the absentee, the employer, and the family physician to discuss whether arrangements can be made to facilitate partial or full work resumption. Our causal analysis is based on random-assignment-like geographical variation in the meeting propensity. We find that the meetings reduce absence duration considerably, both through a notification and an attendance effect. They also reduce the risk of premature labour market exit.
    Keywords: moral hazard, public social insurance, treatment effects, instrumental variables
    JEL: C21 H51 H55 I38 J22
    Date: 2015–05
  20. By: Paola De Agostini (ISER); Martina Menon (Department of Economics (University of Verona)); Federico Perali (Department of Economics (University of Verona))
    Abstract: The rising unemployment and poverty following the Great Recession have highlighted the importance of families as primary caregivers and actors of social protection as well as shown weaknesses and limitation of the existing welfare network in place across Europe. There is therefore a revitalized interest on evaluating how well national and local welfare systems support families, how they can be improved by revisiting what the State does for the family and what families do for the State and how these exchanges vary across Europe. In Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece the size of welfare transfers to families is negligible as compared to the other European countries characterized by either a Binsmarck or Beveridge style welfare systems because of a relatively weaker bargaining position of Mediterranean families in the social contract with the State. We discuss the relevance for the European policy to move toward a more harmonized social security system by devoting the first part of our study to the State transfers to families at the national and local level. The second part examines what families do for the State by describing how to value family time and household production activities placing special emphasis on the cost of raising children. The measurement difficulties explain why societies and governments know so little about family contributions. We show that these questions are of crucial importance to frame a harmonized proposal for a novel design of European welfare systems oriented to solve specific social problems while respecting budgetary constraints and fiscal consolidation policies.
    Keywords: Welfare reform, means testing, family support, valuing time, participation income
    JEL: I3 D13 J18
    Date: 2015–06
  21. By: Zagel, Hannah
    Abstract: This paper investigates the relationships between single mothers' demographic and socio-economic circumstances and differences in their labour market attachment in Great Britain and West Germany. Single mothers' employment is a key issue in current policy debates in both countries, as well as in research on the major challenges of contemporary welfare states. The heterogeneity of the group of women who experience single motherhood poses a challenge to social policy. To complicate the matter, single motherhood is not static but a result of family life dynamics. This paper provides an empirical insight into differences in labour market attachment of single mothers, investigating the demographic and socio-economic factors that distinguish careers dominated by full-time, part-time or non-employment. Women in the British and German contexts are considered in order to explore potential differences between two welfare state settings. Data from the British Household Panel Survey (1991-2008) and the German Socio-Economic Panel (1991-2008) are used for regression analysis. The findings suggest that, in both countries, entering single motherhood at a young age is associated with longer periods of non-employment; vocational qualifications go together with careers dominated by part-time employment; and single motherhood with school-age children allows for full-time employment careers, which are also facilitated by high education attainments. The analyses also suggest that, compared to German mothers, part-time employment is a less common track for British single mothers.
    Abstract: Es ist in den letzten Jahren zu einem zentralen sozialpolitischen Thema geworden, wie alleinerziehende Mütter besser in den Arbeitsmarkt integriert werden können. Nicht nur die Heterogenität der Gruppe Alleinerziehender stellt dabei eine besondere Herausforderung dar, sondern auch, dass es sich beim Alleinerziehen häufig um einen Lebensabschnitt handelt, der den Dynamiken des Familienlebens unterstellt ist. Dieses Arbeitspapier untersucht in vergleichender Perspektive zwischen Großbritannien und Westdeutschland, inwiefern Unterschiede in den Graden der Arbeitsmarkteinbindung alleinerziehender Mütter mit ihrer sozio-demographischen Lage zusammenhängen. Unterscheidend zwischen Vollzeit-, Teilzeit- und Nicht-Erwerbstätigkeit werden Daten des British Household Panel Survey (1991-2008) und des Sozio- ökonomischen Panel (1991-2008) aus 10 bis 18 Jahren der Erwerbskarrieren alleinerziehender Mütter mit Regressionsverfahren ausgewertet (N= 678). Die Analysen deuten darauf hin, dass Frauen die in jungem Alter alleinerziehend sind, in beiden Länderkontexten längere Perioden der Nicht-Erwerbstätigkeit haben als ältere Alleinerziehende. Zudem scheinen Mütter, die zum Zeitpunkt des Alleinerziehens eine Berufsausbildung abgeschlossen hatten, eher zu Teilzeitkarrieren zu neigen, während höhere Bildungsqualifikationen mit längeren Episoden der Vollzeiterwerbstätigkeit einhergehen. Im Vergleich zu den britischen alleinerziehenden Müttern weisen die westdeutschen längere Perioden der Teilzeiterwerbstätigkeit auf.
    Keywords: single mothers,maternal employment,familyemployment,reconciliation,Great Britain,West Germany,Alleinerziehende Mütter,Arbeitsmarkteinbindung alleinerziehender Mütter,Vereinbarkeit von Familie und Beruf,Großbritannien,West-Deutschland
    Date: 2015
  22. By: Rezaee, Amir; Kirat, Thierry
    Abstract: The paper offers an empirical analysis of the effects of sanctions decided by the Financial Markets Authority (AMF) on the reputation of firms in France. Using an event study, we intend to show the impact of three events on the stock prices : opening of an investigation by the AMF ; issuance of a monetary sanction ; publication of the information about sanction a newspaper. The reputational impact issue raises the broader issue of understanding of financial regulation enforcement operates in concreto. We find a strong negative impact of the announcement of sanction in press on the firms’ stock prices. We observe a reputational loss of the deferred firm following the disclosure of sanction in press. We observe also a weak decrease in stock prices when the firm has been notified of the opening of investigation on its misconducts, however we find no evidence on the impact of announcement of sanction directly to the firm on the stock prices. We carry out an OLS cross-section regression to assess the impact of the amount of sanction on the reputational loss of firm. The amount of monetary sanctions are too low, compared the market size of deferred companies, to influence stock prices and contribute in reputational loss.
    Keywords: Sanctions; Finances internationales; Autorité des marchés financiers; Finance regulation;
    JEL: K00
    Date: 2015–07

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