nep-eur New Economics Papers
on Microeconomic European Issues
Issue of 2014‒09‒29
24 papers chosen by
Giuseppe Marotta
Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia

  1. Nowcasting risk of poverty and income distribution in the EU in 2013 By Leventi, Chrysa; Navicke, Jekaterina; Rastrigina, Olga; Sutherland, Holly
  2. Labour market uncertainties for the young workforce in France and Germany: Implications for family formation and fertility By Marie-Thérèse Letablier; Anne Salles
  3. Substitution between fixed-line and mobile access: the role of complementarities By Lukasz GRZYBOWSKI; Frank VERBOVEN
  4. Heterogeneous policies, heterogenous technologies : the case of renewable energy By Francesco Nicolli; Francesco Vona
  5. Technology Spillovers and International Borders: A Spatial Econometric Analysis By Amjad Naveed; Nisar Ahmad
  6. Is temporary employment damaging to health? A longitudinal study on Italian workers By Elena Pirani; Silvana Salvini
  7. Health, Work and Working Conditions: A Review of the European Economic Literature By Thomas Barnay
  8. Determinants of Subjective Well-Being in Portugal: A Micro-Data Study By Sara Ramos; Elias Soukiazis
  9. The distributional effects of personal income tax expenditure By Avram, Silvia
  10. Speed 2.0. Evaluating access to universal digital highways By Gabriel Ahlfeldt; Pantelis Koutroumpis; Tommaso Valletti
  11. The effects of the EU equal-treatment legislation Directive for fixed-term workers: evidence from the UK By Salvatori, Andrea
  12. Inequality in the risk of job loss between young and prime-age workers: Can it be explained by human capital or structural factors? By Anna Baranowska-Rataj; Iga Magda
  13. Analysing Match Attendance in the European Rugby Cup By Vincent Hogan; Patrick Massey; Shane Massey
  14. Efficiency comparison for directly managed public hospitals for different geographical area in Italy By Claudio Pinto
  15. The rise or the fall of the wall? Determinants of low entrepreneurship in East Germany By Kuehn, Zoe
  16. Income Taxation, Transfers and Labour Supply at the Extensive Margin By Benczúr, P.; Kátay, G.; Kiss, A.; Rácz , O.
  17. Regional dynamics and start-ups: Evidence from French departments in 2011 By Nadine Levratto; Denis Carré
  18. Sickness Absende and Works Councils - Evidence from German Individual and Linked Employer-Employee Data By Daniel Arnold; Tobias Brändle; Laszlo Goerke
  19. Granting Birthright Citizenship: A Door Opener to Immigrant Children’s Educational Participation and Success By Felfe, Christina; Saurer, Judith
  20. Investigating the impact of Private Labels on National Brand prices in the Italian yogurt market By Castellari, Elena; Moro, Daniele Daniele; Platoni, Silvia; Sckokai, Paolo
  21. The Spatial Polish Wage Curve with Gender Effects: Evidence from the Polish Labor Survey By Badi Baltagi; Bartlomiej Rokicki
  22. Understanding Society Innovation Panel Wave 6: results from methodological experiments By Allum, Nick; Auspurg, Katrin; Blake, Margaret; Booker, Cara L.; Crossley, Thomas F.; d'Ardenne, Joanna; Fairbrother, Malcolm; Iacovou, Maria; Jäckle, Annette; Kaminska, Olena; Lynn, Peter; Nicoletti, Cheti; Oldfield, Zoe; Pudney, Stephen; Schnettler, Sebastian; Uhrig, S.C. Noah; Winter, Joachim
  23. The Impact of the Great Recession on Employment Polarization in Spain By Brindusa Anghel; Sara De la Rica; Aitor Lacuesta
  24. Emotional and Social Intelligence and Leadership Development in the Higher Education. An exploratory study By Fabrizio Gerli; Sara Bonesso; Anna Comacchio; Claudio Pizzi

  1. By: Leventi, Chrysa; Navicke, Jekaterina; Rastrigina, Olga; Sutherland, Holly
    Abstract: The at-risk-of-poverty rate is one of the three indicators used for monitoring progress towards the Europe 2020 poverty and social exclusion reduction target. Timeliness of this indicator is critical for monitoring the effectiveness of policies. However, due in part to the complicated nature of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC), estimates of the number of people at risk of poverty are published with a 2 to 3 year delay. This paper presents a method of estimating (‘nowcasting’) the current distribution of income between households, including the at-risk-of-poverty rate, using a tax-benefit microsimulation model (EUROMOD) based on the EU-SILC, combined with up-to-date macro-level statistics. The method is applied to 13 EU Member States experiencing differing economic conditions over the period, including those which have been affected comparatively little by the crisis as well as those which have suffered a major reduction in economic activity and employment.
    Date: 2014–06–11
  2. By: Marie-Thérèse Letablier (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS : UMR8174 - Université Paris I - Panthéon-Sorbonne, INED - Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques); Anne Salles (INED - Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Université Paris-Sorbonne - UFR Langues Etrangères Appliquées - LEA)
    Abstract: This contribution to the Gusto research project for the European 7th framework programme (Work Package 3: individual pathways to Flexibility and Sustainability) examines how employment uncertainty during the transition into the labour force differently impacts family formation in Germany and France. Based on a qualitative survey with young men and women in age of being parents, the paper explores how the individuals manage with uncertainty and economic insecurity to finalize their reproduction projects. The paper therefore contributes to an understanding of the contrasted fertility patterns in the two countries. It highlights variations in the perception of insecurity related in particular to differences in gender conventions and their related incidence on family patterns in the two countries. The paper also highlights the contrasted impact of trust in family policies, especially in their ability to secure individuals transitions.
    Keywords: Family formation; fertility decisions; economic insecurity; labour market uncertainty; precariousness
    Date: 2013–01
  3. By: Lukasz GRZYBOWSKI; Frank VERBOVEN
    Abstract: We study substitution from fixed-line to mobile voice access, and the role of various complementarities that may influence this process. We use rich survey data on 160,363 households from 27 EU countries during 2005-2012. We estimate a discrete choice model where households may choose one or both technologies, possibly in combination with internet access. We obtain the following main findings. First, there is significant fixed-to mobile substitution, especially in recent years: without mobile telephony, fixed-line penetration would have been 14% higher in 2012. But there is substantial heterogeneity across households and EU regions, with a stronger substitution in Central and Eastern European countries. Second, the decline in fixed telephony has been slowed down because of a significant complementarity between fixed-line and mobile connections offered by the fixed-line incumbent operator. This gives the incumbent a possibility to maintain to some extent its position in the fixed-line market, and to leverage it into the mobile market. Third, the decline in fixed telephony has been slowed down because of the complementarity with broadband internet: the introduction of DSL avoided an additional decline in fixed-line penetration of almost 9% in 2012. The emergence of fixed broadband has thus been the main source through which incumbents maintain their strong position in the fixed-line network.
    Date: 2014–06
  4. By: Francesco Nicolli (Università di Ferrara); Francesco Vona (OFCE Sciences Po, Skema Business School)
    Abstract: This paper investigates empirically the effect of market regulation and renewable energy policies on innovation activity in different renewable energy technologies. For the EU countries and the years 1980 to 2007, we built a unique dataset containing information on patent production in eight different technologies, proxies of market regulation and technology-specific renewable energy policies. Our main findings show that lowering entry barriers is a more significant driver of renewable energy innovation than privatisation and unbundling, but its effect varies across technologies, being stronger in technologies characterised by the potential entry of small, independent power producers. Additionally, the inducement effect of renewable energy policies is heterogeneous and more pronounced for wind, which is the only technology that is mature and has high technological potential. Finally, the ratification of the Kyoto protocol – determining a more stable and less uncertain policy framework - amplifies the inducement effect of both energy policy and market liberalisation.
    Date: 2014–07
  5. By: Amjad Naveed (Department of Border Region Studies, University of Southern Denmark); Nisar Ahmad (Department of Border Region Studies, University of Southern Denmark)
    Abstract: The borders of the EU are open for the movement of resources but still there can be some strong negative effects of international borders on productivity and knowledge spillovers compared to the internal regional borders. These negative effects could be due to language barriers, cultural differences, local rules and regulation, legal issues, property rights, etc. These effects of international borders have economic significance that needs to be controlled when analyzing the regional knowledge spillovers. This aspect related to international borders has not been fully taken into account in the existing literature related to knowledge spillovers. Ignoring this effect might under or overestimate the effect of knowledge and technology spillovers. The results show that technology and knowledge spillovers are mainly coming from internal neighbor regions only, whereas spillovers across the international borders are statistically insignificant. Moreover, the results show that not properly incorporating border effects will lead to inaccurate estimates of the spillovers.
    Keywords: total factor productivity, knowledge spillovers, European regions, spatial econometrics, Extended Spatial Durbin Model
    JEL: C31 D24 O49 O52 R10
    Date: 2014–09
  6. By: Elena Pirani (Dipartimento di Statistica, Informatica, Applicazioni "G. Parenti", Università di Firenze); Silvana Salvini (Dipartimento di Statistica, Informatica, Applicazioni "G. Parenti", Università di Firenze)
    Abstract: Working conditions have dramatically changed over recent decades in all the countries of European Union: permanent full-time employment characterized by job security and a stable salary is replaced more and more by temporary work, apprenticeship contracts, casual jobs and part-time work. The consequences of these changes on the general well-being of workers and their health represent an increasingly important path of inquiry. We add to the debate by answering the question: are Italian workers on temporary contracts more likely to suffer from poor health than those with permanent jobs? Our analysis is based on a sample of men and women aged 16-64 coming from the Italian longitudinal survey 2007-2010 of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. We use the method of inverse-probability-of-treatment weights to estimate the causal effect of temporary work on self-rated health, controlling for selection effects. Our major findings can be summarized as follows: firstly, we show that the negative association between precarious employment and health is not simply due to a selection of healthier individuals in the group of people who find permanent jobs (selection effect), but it results from a causal effect in the work-to-health direction. Secondly, we find that the temporariness of the working status becomes particularly negative for the individual’s health when it is prolonged over time. Thirdly, whereas temporary employment does not entail adverse consequences for men, the link between precarious work and health is strongly harmful for Italian women.
    Keywords: Self-rated health; temporary contracts; Italy; causal inference; gender inequalities
    Date: 2014–09
  7. By: Thomas Barnay
    Date: 2014
  8. By: Sara Ramos (Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra, Portugal); Elias Soukiazis (Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra and GEMF, Portugal)
    Abstract: The Subjective Well-Being status has gained a growing research attention in social sciences during the last decades. The attention given by the academic world to this issue has been followed by the community in general. This line of research is still undeveloped in Portugal, and therefore needs further investigation. The purpose of this study is to analyze the determinants of Life Satisfaction and Happiness as proxies for Subjective Well-Being of the Portuguese citizens using micro-data from the European Quality of Life Survey. OLS regressions and Ordinal Logistic models are estimated to identify the main factors that explain well-being in Portugal. We find that trust in public institutions, satisfaction with material conditions, volunteering activities and employment status have a positive and significant effect on Life Satisfaction. Our evidence also shows that satisfaction with family, satisfaction with material conditions, participation in sport activities, optimism and the marital status are relevant factors in explaining citizen’s Happiness in Portugal. The results are similar using OLS or Maximum Likelihood estimation techniques on ordinal logistic models.
    Keywords: Happiness, Life Satisfaction, Subjective Well-Being, Ordinal Logit Models, Factor Analysis.
    JEL: C1 C25 M14 I31
    Date: 2014–08
  9. By: Avram, Silvia
    Abstract: Using EUROMOD, this study investigates the size and distributional effects of tax allowances and tax credits in 6 European countries. It also examines whether instrument design matters in shaping the redistributive effect, paying attention to both categorical and explicit income targeting .With few exceptions the impact of tax allowances and tax credits on inequality is small. Tax credits are generally more progressive than tax allowances. The design of the allowances/credits appears to be less important than the characteristics of the population they are targeting and/or other features of the income tax system in determining the redistributive effect. Consequently, tax concessions appear ill-suited to target resources towards households in the bottom part of the income distribution.
    Date: 2014–07–15
  10. By: Gabriel Ahlfeldt (London School of Economics); Pantelis Koutroumpis (Imperial College London); Tommaso Valletti (Imperial College London, University of Rome “Tor Vergata” & CEPR)
    Abstract: This paper shows that having access to a fast Internet connection is an important determinant of capitalization effects in property markets. We combine microdata on property prices in England between 1995 and 2010 with local availability of Internet broadband connections. Rich variation in Internet speed over space and time allows us to estimate the causal effect of broadband speed on property prices. We find a significantly positive effect, but diminishing returns to speed. Our results imply that an upgrade from narrowband to a high-speed first-generation broadband connection (offering Internet speed up to 8 Mbit/s) could increase the price of an average property by as much as 2.8%. A further increase to a faster connection (offering speeds up to 24 Mbit/s) leads to an incremental price effect of an additional 1%. We decompose this effect by income and urbanization, finding considerable heterogeneity. These estimates are used to evaluate proposed plans to deliver fast broadband universally. We find that increasing speed and connecting unserved households passes a cost-benefit test in urban and some suburban areas, while the case for universal delivery in rural areas is not as strong.
    Keywords: Internet, property prices, capitalization, digital speed, universal access to broadband
    JEL: L1 H4 R2
    Date: 2014–09–05
  11. By: Salvatori, Andrea
    Abstract: In 2002, the United Kingdom implemented the EU directive mandating equal treatment of fixed-term and permanent workers. This paper uses eleven years of data from the Labour Force Survey to assess whether the new legislation has led to a decrease in the average wage gap between fixed-term and permanent workers. For women, there is no evidence of that. For men, the wage gap appears to have closed after 2002. However, this gap was falling even before 2002 and some evidence of changes in the selection of workers after the implementation of the Directive cast doubts on the extent to which the closing of the gap can be ascribed to the new legislation.
    Date: 2014–05–23
  12. By: Anna Baranowska-Rataj (Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics); Iga Magda (Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics)
    Abstract: In this paper we identify the determinants of the gap in job stability between young and prime-age workers. Using recently developed decomposition techniques and the panel dimension of data from the Polish Labor Force Survey, we examine to what extent age heterogeneity in job stability is shaped by differences in the composition of young and prime-age workers with respect to individual and job-related characteristics, and to what extent it is driven by different effects of those characteristics on the risk of job separation. Our results show that while differences in education and experience between young and prime-age workers are important, these differences explain only one-third of the gap in job stability. A substantial part of the gap is related to the propensity of young people to work in the most volatile segments of the labor market. Young workers are more likely than prime-age workers to work under a fixed-term contract in a small firm in the private sector, and in an industry that has high rates of both job creation and destruction. Because large numbers of young people have a job in this relatively narrow segment of the labor market, their employment opportunities are very sensitive to changing economic conditions. We also find that the public sector offers prime-age workers a higher level of employment protection than the private sector, but that young people who work at state-owned firms are at higher risk of losing their job than their counterparts who are employed by private firms. This asymmetric effect of public sector employment substantially increases the gap in job stability levels between young and prime-age workers in Poland.
    Keywords: youth; job stability; job separations; structural perspective
    JEL: J21 J24 J63
    Date: 2014
  13. By: Vincent Hogan (University College Dublin); Patrick Massey (Compecon Ltd); Shane Massey (Trinity College Dublin)
    Abstract: Using data from 1,226 matches played over 18 seasons, we analyse match attendances in the group stages of the European Rugby Cup (ERC). We find that short-run (match) uncertainty had little effect on attendances. This finding is significant as the ERC has been replaced by a new competition which may be more unbalanced due to differences in the distribution of revenue between the participating teams. Medium-term uncertainty, i.e. the possibility of the home team reaching the knock-out stages, had a significant impact on attendances. Measures designed to make matches more attractive, e.g. bonus points for high scoring, had little effect.
    Keywords: Professional team sports, competitive balance, consumer demand
    JEL: D12 D21 L22 L23 L83
    Date: 2014–09–08
  14. By: Claudio Pinto (Università di Salerno, Italy)
    Abstract: In Italy (and in the other European countries) the debate of the difference in the efficiency in the hospital services production is a crucial, principally in the context of hospitals costs containment and regional responsbility in the managing, organizing and financing their own health care system. In this paper we compare the relative efficiency of the Italian directly managed hospitals using robust advanced m-order non-parametric frontier approach. In this manner we deal with the influence of outliers on the measurement and can control for the sample size difference. To compare the efficiency between different geographical area, we carried out two non parametric tests used in this literature. The hospital production model estimated here is in line with the literature of the non-parametric efficiency analysis on hospital sector, but limited data to force us to consider only acute (in ordinary and day hospital regime), surgical and assistance activity, eliminating emergency service and outpatient activity. The results suggest that in the 2007 statistically significant differences remain between North and South and Isles areas. Less marked are the differences between North and Centre, and Centre and South and Isles. The analysis of proportion give us a picture of these differences.
    Keywords: efficiency, directly managed hospitals, m-order frontier, non-parametric tests, geographical areas comparison
    JEL: D24
    Date: 2014–09
  15. By: Kuehn, Zoe (Departamento de Análisis Económico (Teoría e Historia Económica). Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.)
    Abstract: Between 1949 and 1989, communism restricted private entrepreneurship in East Germany, but even after reunification in 1990 entrepreneurship remained low compared to other transition economies. To quantify the determinants of low entrepreneurship in East Germany and its impact on economic outcomes, I set up a two-region model economy with occupational and migration choices. Individuals can become workers or entrepreneurs in East or West Germany. In line with German policy after reunification, in East Germany wages are fixed above labor productivity and there are capital subsidies. Managerial knowhow is a combination of innate talent and entrepreneurial parental background which only West Germans possess. Technological growth increases with the innate talent of entrepreneurs. Counter-factual experiments show that the missing tradition of entrepreneurship, while contributing to technological growth, accounts for almost 10 percentage points of the gap between East and West German GDP per capita. On the other hand, reunification (wage setting policy, migration possibilities, and subsidies) slowed down technological growth and increased the output gap by 7 percentage points.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Growth; Allocation of Talent; Social Mobility; Transition
    JEL: E24 F15 J22
    Date: 2014–07
  16. By: Benczúr, P.; Kátay, G.; Kiss, A.; Rácz , O.
    Abstract: This paper estimates the effect of income taxation and transfers on labour supply at the extensive margin, i.e., the labour force participation. We extend existing structural form methodologies by considering the effect of both taxes and transfers. Non-labour income contains the (hypothetical) transfer amount someone gets when out of work, while the wage is replaced by the difference between net wages and the amount of lost transfers due to taking up a job (gains to work). To incorporate these components of the budget set, we employ a detailed tax-benefit model. Using data from the Hungarian Household Budget Survey (HKF), we find that participation probabilities are strongly influenced by transfers and the gains to work, particularly for low-skill groups and the elderly. Moreover, the same change in the net wage leads to a much larger change in the gains to work for low earners, making them even more responsive to wages and taxation. Overall, we find that a single equation can capture a large heterogeneity of individual responsiveness to taxes and transfers. Our parametric estimates can be readily utilized in welfare evaluations, or microsimulation analyses of tax and transfer reforms.
    Keywords: participation decision, taxation, transfers.
    JEL: H24 H31 H53 I38 J21
    Date: 2014
  17. By: Nadine Levratto; Denis Carré
    Abstract: This paper seeks to determine the exact role played by regional dynamics in the creation of companies. The notion that territorial dynamics influence entrepreneurial activity seems to be backed up, first of all, by the fact that it is at the regional level that the direct influence of the ecosystem of wealth and of material, human and organizational resources is strengthened through agglomeration effects. We empirically address this question considering the case of French departments in 2011. In order to take into account the role played by the neighbourhood and the resulting spatial dependence, we estimate the sensitivity of both the overall entry rate and the entry rate in the manufacturing industry using spatial econometric estimation techniques, an approach which enables us to control the effect of spatial autocorrelation. Our results show that the creation of companies highly depends on local factors and that the source of local dependence differs according to the entry rate used as an explained variable. Whereas a spatial lag applies at the overall level, the creation of companies in the manufacturing industry is more oriented by exogenous shocks so that a spatial error model is more appropriate.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, entry rate, spatial dependence, French departments
    JEL: L26 R11 C21
    Date: 2014
  18. By: Daniel Arnold; Tobias Brändle; Laszlo Goerke
    Abstract: Using both household and linked employer-employee data for Germany, we assess the effects of non-union representation in the form of works councils on (1) individual sickness absence rates and (2) a subjective measure of personnel problems due to sickness absence as perceived by a firm's management. We find that the existence of a works council is positively correlated with the incidence and the annual duration of absence. We observe a more pronounced correlation in western Germany which can also be interpreted causally. Further, personnel problems due to absence are more likely to occur in plants with a works council.
    Keywords: Absenteeism, LIAB, personnel problems, sickness absence, SOEP, works councils
    JEL: J53 I18 M54
  19. By: Felfe, Christina; Saurer, Judith
    Abstract: Does granting birthright citizenship help immigrant children integrating in the host country's educational system? We address this question using a reform of the German naturalization law in 1999 that entitled children born after January 1, 2000 with birthright citizenship. We use a difference-in-difference design that compares children born shortly before and after the cut-off in years of policy change and years where no policy change took place. Our empirical analysis relies on administrative data from school entrance examinations and on the German Micro Census. We find positive effects on immigrant children's educational participation, both in non-mandatory preschool and upper secondary school. In addition, birthright citizenship enhances children's socio-behavioral development.
    Keywords: Education, Immigration Laws, Difference-in-Difference
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2014–09
  20. By: Castellari, Elena; Moro, Daniele Daniele; Platoni, Silvia; Sckokai, Paolo
    Abstract: Using a panel data set on the yogurt market for four hundred points of sale in Italy, we investigate, at the segment level, the interactions between private label (PL) market shares and national brand (NB) leader’s prices. We estimate a reduced form model which controls for the heterogeneity of point of sales and time using a two way fixed effect (FE) error components model (ECM). Consistently with several theoretical findings available in the literature, we expect retailers to use PL to discriminate prices among different groups of consumers. The analysis, however, shows not all segments of the market are influenced by PL shares. Specifically, for the most dynamic segments (functional and yogurt with snack), Pl shares are on average smaller and NB leader’s prices are not affected by their presence. Differently, in the most traditional segments (whole and skimmed yogurt), where PL exhibits on average a sizable presence, the analysis shows a positive effect between PL shares and NB prices. Results suggest leader’s product innovation and product introduction dynamics might play a role on retailer’s power to influence NB leader’s prices, retaining PL development.
    Keywords: Private Label, Dairy market, Price Competition, Agribusiness, Marketing, Q13 D40 L11,
    Date: 2014
  21. By: Badi Baltagi (Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University, 426 Eggers Hall, Syracuse, NY 13244); Bartlomiej Rokicki (University of Illinois)
    Abstract: This paper reconsiders the Polish wage curve using individual data from the Polish Labor Force Survey (LFS) at the 16 NUTS2 level allowing for spatial spillovers between regions. In addition it estimates the total and gender-specific regional unemployment rate elasticities on individual wages. The paper finds significant spatial unemployment spillovers across Polish regions. In addition, it finds that the results for the Polish wage curve are sensitive to genderspecific regional unemployment rates. This is especially true for women.
    Keywords: Wage Curve; Fixed Effects; Spatial Spillovers; Regional Labor Markets
    JEL: C26 J30 J60
    Date: 2014–08
  22. By: Allum, Nick; Auspurg, Katrin; Blake, Margaret; Booker, Cara L.; Crossley, Thomas F.; d'Ardenne, Joanna; Fairbrother, Malcolm; Iacovou, Maria; Jäckle, Annette; Kaminska, Olena; Lynn, Peter; Nicoletti, Cheti; Oldfield, Zoe; Pudney, Stephen; Schnettler, Sebastian; Uhrig, S.C. Noah; Winter, Joachim
    Abstract: This paper presents some preliminary findings from Wave 6 of the Innovation Panel (IP6) of Understanding Society: The UK Household Longitudinal Study. Understanding Society is a major panel survey in the UK. In March 2013, the sixth wave of the Innovation Panel went into the field. IP6 used a mixed-mode design, using on-line interviews and face-to-face interviews. This paper describes the design of IP6, the experiments carried and the preliminary findings from early analysis of the data.
    Date: 2014–07–16
  23. By: Brindusa Anghel; Sara De la Rica; Aitor Lacuesta
    Abstract: This article analyzes changes in the occupational employment share in Spain for the period 1997-2012 and the way particular sociodemographic groups adapt to those changes. There seems to be clear evidence of employment polarization between 1997 and 2012 that accelerates over the recession. Changes in the composition of the labour supply cannot explain the increase in the share of occupations at the low end of the wage distribution. Sector reallocation may have partially contributed to explain the polarization process in Spain during the years of expansion (1997-2007) but it is a minor factor during the recession. The polarization of occupations within sectors observed, especially during the recession, appears to be related to a decline in routine tasks which is compensated by an increase in occupations with non-routine service contents, which are found both in the low and high end of the wage distribution. Instead, jobs with a higher degree of abstract contents do not appear to increase their share in total employment during these 15 years. The paper finds that this process has affected males more strongly than females because of their higher concentration in occupations more focused on routine tasks. Among males, for workers under 30 years old, we find a decrease in the share of occupations with more routine tasks which turns into increases in those with more abstract content and particularly with more non-routine service content. Instead, male workers over 30 years old seem to remain in declining occupations to a greater extent. Females of different ages are not affected by the abovementioned changes.
    Date: 2014–09
  24. By: Fabrizio Gerli; Sara Bonesso; Anna Comacchio; Claudio Pizzi
    Abstract: Our study aims to contribute to the literature on leadership development through the lifespan, by providing an empirical evidence of the dynamic processes related to leadership development in early stages. This research advances the understanding on how higher education institutions can introduce a systematic approach to support leadership identity formation and self-regulation as primary outcome of leadership development process, by taking into account that individuals may undertake different developmental trajectories. We suggest that the implementation of the Intentional Change Theory in the academic context, which aims to help students to attain their desired professional future and to increase their self-awareness, could support leadership identity formation. Through the case study of the CaÕ Foscari Competency Centre (CFCC) of University of Venice (Italy), we discuss how the process of early identity formation and regulation of two groups of students, who have expressed a different intent about their job, may differ. Findings show some differences in the values and in the competency portfolio between the two groups of students. These differences suggest two different developmental trajectories of students aiming at an entrepreneurial career and students who expressed a different intent.
    Keywords: Emotional and social intelligence competencies; Intentional change theory; Higher education; Leadership identity formation and self-regulation.
    JEL: I23 J24 M12 M51 M53
    Date: 2014–08

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