nep-eur New Economics Papers
on Microeconomic European Issues
Issue of 2013‒10‒25
twenty papers chosen by
Giuseppe Marotta
University of Modena and Reggio Emilia

  1. When do adults learn? A cohort analysis of adult education in Europe By Beblavý, Miroslav; Thum, Anna-Elisabeth; Potjagailo, Galina
  2. The impact of European Union austerity policy on women's work in Southern Europe By Lina Gálvez-Muñoz; Paula Rodríguez-Modroño; Tindara Addabbo
  3. Cost Containment and Managed Care: Evidence from German Macro Data By Andree Ehlert; Dirk Oberschachtsiek; Stefan Prawda
  4. Determinants of Foreign Technological Activity in German Regions – A Count Model Analysis of Transnational Patents (1996-2009) By Eva Dettmann; Iciar Dominguez Lacasa; Jutta Günther; Björn Jindra
  5. The European Union Emissions Trading System : should we throw the flagship out with the bathwater ? By Frédéric Branger; Oskar Lecuyer; Philippe Quirion
  6. Has Atypical Work Become Typical in Germany?: Country Case Studies on Labour Market Segmentation By Werner Eichhorst; Verena Tobsch
  7. Do Long-term Unemployed Workers Benefit from Targeted Wage Subsidies? By Michael Lechner; Benjamin Schünemann; Conny Wunsch
  8. Seasonality in smoking behaviour: Re-evaluating the effects of the 2005 public smoking ban in Italy By Emilia Del Bono; Klaus Grünberger; Daniela Vuri
  9. Firm competitiveness and the European union emissions trading scheme By Chan, Hei Sing; Li, Shanjun; Zhang, Fan
  10. Road Connectivity and the Border Effect: Evidence from Europe By Mauro Pisu; Henrik Braconier
  11. Simulating poverty in Europe : the potential contributions of employment and education to reducing poverty and social exclusion by 2020 By Ajwad, Mohamed Ihsan; Simler, Kenneth; Azam, Mehtabul; Dasgupta, Basab; Bonch-Osmolovskiy, Misha; Topinska, Irena
  12. Was it worth it? An empirical analysis of over-education among Ph.D. recipients in Italy By Giuseppe Lucio Gaeta
  13. Quantifying the Effects of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans By Hector G. LOPEZ-RUIZ; Panayotis CHRISTIDIS; Hande DEMIREL; Mert KOMPIL
  14. Heavy subsidization reduces free-ridership : Evidence from an econometric study of the French dwelling insulation tax credit By Marie-Laure Nauleau
  15. Competition through Cooperation? The Case of the German Postal Market By Toufic M. El Masri
  16. Disability, life satisfaction and social interaction in Italy By Tindara Addabbo; Elena Sarti; Dario Sciulli
  17. "Employment in Poland 2011 - Poverty and jobs" By Magda, Iga; Bukowski, Maciej; Buchholz, Sonia; Lewandowski, Piotr; Chrostek, Paweł; Kamińska, Agnieszka; Lis, Maciej; Potoczna, Monika; Myck, Michał; Kundera, Michał; Oczkowska, Monika
  18. Labour market externalities and regional growth in Sweden: The importance of labour mobility between skill-related industries By Ron Boschma; Rikard Eriksson; Urban Lindgren
  19. Gender and Competition: Evidence from Academic Promotions in France By Clément Bosquet; Pierre-Philippe Combes; Cecilia García-Peñalosa
  20. Academic knowledge as a driver for technological innovation? Comparing universities, small and large firms in knowledge production and dissemination By Dornbusch, Friedrich; Neuhäusler, Peter

  1. By: Beblavý, Miroslav; Thum, Anna-Elisabeth; Potjagailo, Galina
    Abstract: Adult learning is seen as a key factor for enhancing employment, innovation and growth, and it should concern all age cohorts. The aim of this paper is to understand the points in the life cycle at which adult learning takes place and whether it leads to reaching a medium or high level of educational attainment. To this end we perform a synthetic panel analysis of adult learning for cohorts aged 25 to 64 in 27 European countries using the European Labour Force Survey. We find, as previous results suggest, that a rise in educational attainment as well as participation in education and training happens mostly at the age range of 25-29. However, investment across the life cycle by cohorts older than 25 still occurs: in most countries in our sample, participation in education and training as well as educational attainment increases observably across all cohorts. We also find that the decline with age slows down or is even reversed for older cohorts, for both participation in education and educational attainment. Finally, we can identify a Nordic model in which adult learning is achieved through participation in education and training, a Central European model in which adult learning occurs in the form of increasing educational attainment and a liberal model in which both approaches to adult learning are observable.
    Date: 2013–05
  2. By: Lina Gálvez-Muñoz; Paula Rodríguez-Modroño; Tindara Addabbo
    Abstract: Contrary to consolidated economic theory principles, in Europe (but also in other world regions), austerity policy has been implemented instead of stimulus measures which have proven to be successful in crisis associated with credit crunch and insufficient demand. These policies cannot be only considered as an "austericide" due to ideological blindness. They also need to be considered as a strategy for imposing an economic and social reform which proved too difficult to be implemented in the years previous to the great recession. The ongoing fiscal contraction policies include the typical adjustment measures which are now driving the European economy towards a new type of insertion within the international economy. And as a consequence, they imply deep changes on the gender division of work deepening gender inequality. This article analyses the different effects of European Union austerity policy on women and men’s participation in the labour markets in two Southern European countries beaten by the Debt crisis: Spain and Italy. During the first part of this economics crisis, unemployment grew higher for men than for women, but in the second phase with the all sectors hit by the recession and the implementation of harsh austerity policies affecting public-sector jobs, women are also losing their jobs at the same rate than men. We have estimated labour supply models for individuals aged 25 to 54 living in couples with or without children by gender by using the EU-SILC 2011 micro data for Spain and Italy. The analysis carried out shows a strong countercyclical added-worker effect for women in response to transitory shocks in partner’s earnings, in contrast with a procyclical discouraged-worker effect for men. However though the added-worker effect prevails for women in Spain, in Italy still the discouraged worker effect dominates. The results show also a positive effect of the provision of childcare services on women’s labour supply. A cut in social and care services due to austerity promotion may turn the tendency to a decline in women’s participation and employment rates in the labour force with the subsequent loss of total well-being, due to gender differences in education performance, and especially of women’s well-being.
    Keywords: gender, labour supply, austerity policy, Great Recession
    JEL: J22 J16 H53 E62
    Date: 2013–10
  3. By: Andree Ehlert (Leuphana University of Lueneburg, Germany); Dirk Oberschachtsiek (Leuphana University of Lueneburg, Germany); Stefan Prawda (Leuphana University of Lueneburg, Germany)
    Abstract: The major German health care reforms undertaken since the late 1990s resulted in the adoption of selective contracting mechanisms in a formerly sectorally separated health care system. These reforms marked the launch of managed care in Germany that is expected to yield both a higher quality of care and cost containment. We investigate if managed care had an in fluence on the structure of health care expenditure in Germany during the start-up phase of managed care from 2004 to 2008. We focus on pharmaceutical spending by statutory sickness funds (i.e. German law- enforced health insurance). We followed a macroeconomic evaluation approach based on a regional panel data set in contrast to previous research and were thus able to control for a comprehensive set of regional and demographic variables. We discuss alternative model specifications and include a range of sensitivity analyses. Our results suggest that in contrast to public perception the share of managed care contracts has a positive impact on pharmaceutical spending.
    Keywords: Managed care, Health care expenditure, Pharmaceutical expenditur, Panel data, German health care reform
    JEL: I11 I18 L14 O52
    Date: 2013–10
  4. By: Eva Dettmann; Iciar Dominguez Lacasa; Jutta Günther; Björn Jindra
    Abstract: This paper analyses the determinants of spatial distribution of foreign technological activity across 96 German regions (1996-2009). We identify foreign inventive activity by applying the ‘cross-border-ownership concept’ to transnational patent applications. The descriptive analysis shows that foreign technological activity more than doubled during the observation period with persistent spatial heterogeneity in Germany. Using a pooled count data model, we estimate the effect of various sources for externalities on the extent of foreign technological activity across regions. Our results show that foreign technological activity is attracted by technologically specialised sectors of regions. In contrast to existing findings this effect applies both to foreign as well as domestic sources of specialisation. We show that the relation between specialisation and foreign technological activity is non-linear and that it is influenced by sectoral heterogeneity. Externalities related to technological diversification attract foreign R&D only into ‘higher order’ regions.
    Keywords: foreign direct investment, technology, Europe, patent data
    JEL: O32 O33 R12
    Date: 2013–10
  5. By: Frédéric Branger (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD] : UMR56 - CNRS : UMR8568 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales [EHESS] - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - AgroParisTech); Oskar Lecuyer (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD] : UMR56 - CNRS : UMR8568 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales [EHESS] - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - AgroParisTech); Philippe Quirion (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD] : UMR56 - CNRS : UMR8568 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales [EHESS] - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - AgroParisTech)
    Abstract: The European Union Emissions Trading System (EU-ETS), presented as the ''flagship'' of European climate policy, is subject to many criticisms from different stakeholders. Criticisms include the insufficient carbon emissions reduction, the competitiveness losses and the induced carbon leakages, the unfair distributional effects, the frauds and the existence of several other overlapping climate policy instruments. We review these criticisms and find the EU-ETS brought small but real abatements. The competitiveness losses and carbon leakages do not seem to have occurred. The distributional effects have indeed been unfair and fraud has been important. Finally, the scheme does not justify abandoning other climate policies. Some of these problems could have been avoided and can still be corrected by rethinking flexibility mechanisms and by adding some control over the carbon price.
    Keywords: EU-ETS; climate policy; carbon price; flexibility mechanisms; carbon leakage; competitiveness; frauds; distributional effects
    Date: 2013–07
  6. By: Werner Eichhorst; Verena Tobsch
    Abstract: This paper gives an overview of the transformation of the German labor market since the mid-1990s with a special focus on the changing patterns of labor market segmentation or ‘dualization’ of employment in Germany. While labor market duality in Germany can partially be attributed to labor market reforms promoting in particular non-standard forms of employment and allowing for an expansion of low pay, structural changes in the economy as well as strategic choices by employers and social partners also play a prominent role.
    Keywords: Germany, non-standard work, low pay, labor market segmentation
    JEL: J21 J31 J58
    Date: 2013
  7. By: Michael Lechner; Benjamin Schünemann; Conny Wunsch (University of Basel)
    Abstract: We evaluate a wage subsidy program that is targeted at long-term unemployed workers in Germany. We use an alternative identification procedure compared to empirical studies con­ducted so far. Exploiting the particular program regulations and large administrative data we estimate the impact of program availability using a regression discontinuity framework. Our results suggest no significant impact of the availability of the subsidy on labor market out­comes of the target group. Even though our analysis lacks some statistical power, our findings do not support the substantial positive effects obtained from matching studies. As our ap­proach does not require observability of all drivers of selection, previous empirical studies justifying government expenditures on wage subsidies based on matching methods should be reconsidered.
    Keywords: Wage subsidy, long-term unemployment, regression discontinuity
    JEL: J08 J23
    Date: 2013
  8. By: Emilia Del Bono (ISER, University of Essex, IZA); Klaus Grünberger (University of Rome "Tor Vergata"); Daniela Vuri (University of Rome "Tor Vergata")
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of the public smoking ban which came into effect in Italy on January 2005 on individual smoking behaviour. Current empirical evidence supports the existence of a negative effect of the Italian ban on smoking prevalence and consumption in the general population. This is in contrast to what has been found in some other European countries. Our analysis shows that the apparent success of the Italian smoking ban is due to the fact that existing results do not take into account seasonal differences in smoking behaviour. Using quarterly data from the 1999/2000 and 2004/2005 Italian Health Surveys and adopting a difference-in-difference approach that nets out monthly variation in smoking rates, we show that the Italian smoking ban had no impact on individual smoking behaviour for the population as a whole, and only small effects on some groups of individuals.
    Keywords: Smoking, cigarette consumption, public smoking ban, treatment effects.
    JEL: I12 I18 K32 C31
    Date: 2013–10–18
  9. By: Chan, Hei Sing; Li, Shanjun; Zhang, Fan
    Abstract: The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme is the first international cap-and-trade program for carbon dioxide and the largest carbon pricing regime in the world. A significant concern over the Emissions Trading Scheme has been the potential impact on the competitiveness of industry. Using data on 5,873 firms in ten European countries during 2001-2009, this paper assesses the impact on three variables through which the effects on firm competitiveness may manifest -- unit material costs, employment and revenue. The analysis focuses on the three most heavily-emitting industries under the program -- power, cement, and iron and steel. Empirical results indicate that the Emissions Trading Scheme has had different impacts across these three sectors. Although no impacts are found on any of the three variables in the cement and iron and steel industries, a positive effect is found on both material costs and revenue in the power sector. The effect on material costs likely reflects fuel-switching to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, while that on revenue may be partly due to cost pass-through to consumers in a market that is less exposed to competition outside the Europen Union. Overall the findings do not substantiate concerns over carbon leakage, job loss or industry competitiveness during the study period.
    Keywords: Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases,Climate Change Economics,Energy Production and Transportation,E-Business,Environment and Energy Efficiency
    Date: 2013–10–01
  10. By: Mauro Pisu; Henrik Braconier
    Abstract: Several studies have reported a large negative effect of national borders on the volume of trade. We provide new estimates of the border effect for continental Europe using road rather than great circle – or “as-crows-fly” – distance. Road distances for 48 180 European city pairs have been extracted from Bing Maps Routing Services. As our dataset also has information on travel time, we are able to consider costs related to time in addition to those depending on distance. We find that for the same great circle distance and the same city size, the road distance between two cities located in the same country is around 10% shorter than that between cities located in different ones. Travel speed is also higher between cities in the same country. We find that by using measures based on the actual road distance rather than the great circle distance, the negative effect of international borders on goods trade in a standard gravity equation is lowered by around 15%. Time-related trade costs account for an additional 10% reduction in the border effect. Overall these results point to the importance of road networks – and road transport policy in general – to enhance market integration.
    Date: 2013–06
  11. By: Ajwad, Mohamed Ihsan; Simler, Kenneth; Azam, Mehtabul; Dasgupta, Basab; Bonch-Osmolovskiy, Misha; Topinska, Irena
    Abstract: This paper sheds light on the impact of improving employment and education conditions on poverty and social exclusion indicators. More specifically, it answers the following question: Will achieving the Europe 2020 national targets on employment and education lead countries to achieve the Europe 2020 poverty and social exclusion target with no other policy interventions? The paper presents a simple partial equilibrium model that is flexible enough to be implemented in a number of different settings and uses widely available household survey data. The simulation model analyzes poverty and social exclusion outcomes in response to changes in education completion rates and employment rates. The model is applied to ten of the European Union's new Member States -- Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia -- and the model's performance is evaluated through a validation exercise. The Europe 2020 national employment targets are ambitious in many of the new Member States, given historical employment patterns in the countries. Especially in light of the slow and uncertain recovery, labor markets remain weak and employment rates in 2020 could fall short of rates targeted by national policy makers. In this eventuality, the poverty and social exclusion goals may not be reached in many of the new Member States without additional policy measures.
    Keywords: Rural Poverty Reduction,Health Systems Development&Reform,Labor Policies,Achieving Shared Growth,Poverty Monitoring&Analysis
    Date: 2013–10–01
  12. By: Giuseppe Lucio Gaeta (University of Naples L’Orientale, Department of Social Sciences and Humanities)
    Abstract: This paper aims to provide an empirical examination of factors associated with overeducation among Ph.D. graduates in Italy. Our investigation is based on recently released data collected by the Italian National Institute of Statistics by means of interviews with a large sample of Ph.D. recipients, carried out a few years after they obtained their Ph.D. degree. We measured the mismatch between their current job and previous Ph.D. studies using two direct subjective evaluations of over-education, which distinguish between the usefulness of the Ph.D. title to get the current job position and to perform the current work activities. Even if the incidence of over-education varies according to the measurement applied, we found that it is highly widespread among Ph.D. recipients. Our econometric analyses are aimed at identifying factors associated with over-education and are based on the standard probit model and the bivariate probit model with sample selection which allows to control for self selection into employment. Our results show that over-education is significantly correlated with: i) a number of Ph-D. related variables, such as the scientific field of study, having attended courses or visiting periods abroad; ii) some job-related characteristics, such as working in the academia or being mainly involved in research related activities; iii) the channel of access to the job; iv) residential location. This paper contributes to the literature focusing on job-education mismatch by providing, to the best of our knowledge, the first empirical analysis of over-education among Ph.D. recipients in Italy; moreover, it provides some useful insights to evaluate the professional doctoral graduates in Italy.
    Keywords: over-education, Ph.D. recipients, self-selection
    Date: 2013–09
  13. By: Hector G. LOPEZ-RUIZ (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Panayotis CHRISTIDIS (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Hande DEMIREL (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Mert KOMPIL (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: In an effort to counteract negative effects stemming from urban transport activities, many cities in Europe have engaged in planning for the sustainability of urban mobility. As with any change concerning the transport sector, uneasiness about the prospect of having to change the way cities are currently organized -in order to cut down on transport-linked nuisances- has generated a great number of questions on the best way to achieve sustainability in urban transport. The European Commission is considering a European support framework for the implementation of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans in EU Member States. This consideration is consistent with the 2011 White Paper proposal to increase coordination between transport authorities and transport policy deciders. Consequently, an interest on how different urban measures can be used in order to render transport activities more sustainable has given way to research concerning the impacts and effects that policy measures might have on socio-ecological systems. These studies rely, mainly, on experts' opinions and past experiences in order to develop a common scorecard on how a transport system might react to different measures. This technical note uses the expert scoring information available in current scientific literature in order to explore the impacts and effects that different urban measures may have in planning for sustainability on a European wide level.
    Keywords: Sustainable, Urban, Mobility, Plans, SUMP, policy
    Date: 2013–07
  14. By: Marie-Laure Nauleau (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD] : UMR56 - CNRS : UMR8568 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales [EHESS] - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - AgroParisTech)
    Abstract: This econometric study assesses the efficiency of the tax credit implemented in France in 2005 on dwelling retrofitting investments. A before-after estimation is performed at the extensive and intensive margins on micro data over 2001-2011, focusing on insulation measures (windows, walls, roofs, floor, ceilings). After 2-years of latency with no significant effect, the tax credit has had an increasing significant positive effect at both margins between 2007 and 2010, with a decrease in 2011, in line with the tax credit rate evolutions. Focusing on opaque surfaces insulation, the positive effect only started in 2009, when a reform included labor cost in the tax credit base for these retrofitting measures. The percentage of subsidized households that would have invested even in the absence of the subsidy decreases from 79% in 2007 to 43% in 2010. The annual additional private investment in retrofitting generated by 1€ of public expenses was estimated at 3.4€ on average (standard deviation : 2.4) between 2007 and 2010.
    Keywords: Energy conservation; residential sector; thermal insulation; tax credit; free-ridership; before/after estimation; France
    Date: 2013–07
  15. By: Toufic M. El Masri (Leuphana University Lueneburg, Germany)
    Abstract: How can small and medium-sized German postal providers ensure nationwide geographical coverage without the aid of the former monopolist? A closer look at the industry revealed that postal providers in Germany engage in different types of cooperation in order to expand their geographical coverage independently from the market leader. In order to shed light on the effects of cooperation, I conducted a theoretical analysis using a spatial economic model complemented by a brief game-theoretical discussion. Moreover, I provide the first descriptive and case study evidence from unique data collected in 2010 and 2011, within the framework of a German postal market survey. I found that small postal providers cooperate with each other in order to extend their geographical service area and to succeed in the market. Furthermore, I also found – in both the theoretical analysis as well as in the evidence – that there is a negative counter-effect stemming from this cooperation.
    Keywords: Cooperation, Competition, Germany, Network Industries, Postal Sector
    JEL: D24 L22 L51 L97
    Date: 2013–10
  16. By: Tindara Addabbo; Elena Sarti; Dario Sciulli
    Abstract: This paper will focus on the living conditions of disabled people with different degree of limitations as regards to daily activities. In a first step of analysis we focus on the predictors of four specific domains of life satisfaction. In a second step, we attempt to define the different well-being dimensions of disabled people by using the indicators available in the 2011 ISTAT Survey on social inclusion of people with disabilities and by comparing the well-being attainments with respect to the different levels of functional limitations. Given the relevance of social interaction in the life satisfaction of individuals, we focus on this dimension of well-being by analysing the effect of functional limitations on its development, measured by using the observable indicators on the satisfaction of interaction with friends and relatives, the extent of this interaction, and frequency and satisfaction on internet use.
    Keywords: disability, well-being, life satisfaction, social interaction
    Date: 2013–10
  17. By: Magda, Iga; Bukowski, Maciej; Buchholz, Sonia; Lewandowski, Piotr; Chrostek, Paweł; Kamińska, Agnieszka; Lis, Maciej; Potoczna, Monika; Myck, Michał; Kundera, Michał; Oczkowska, Monika
    Abstract: This edition is devoted to the issue of poverty. Growth of prosperity is not distributed evenly among the Polish citizens, and some of them still cannot satisfy even basic needs. The improvement of an overall economic situation reduces risk of poverty in general. However, in case the risk occurs, efficient and effective support measures should be provided. First part of the report defines poverty, and explains the extent of the connection with such phenomena as economic deprivation or social exclusion. It is vital, as the exact criterion of poverty is ambiguous. Having discussed these issues, we elaborate on the characteristics of poverty in Poland as compared to those observed in other Member States of the European Union, as well as their regional and local dimensions. The key element of this part is to determine the causes of poverty, i.e. to what extent poverty results from the features of national and regional economy, and to what extent from individual characteristics of people. The topics introduced in this part form background for subsequent parts of the report. The second part is devoted to the poverty of certain social groups such as elderly, children, unemployed and rural. Conducted analyses allow to dispel some of the myths in this matter, as well as to bring out the characteristics that are particularly important from the perspective of creating the support instruments for groups that are at risk of poverty. The issue of poverty among children is scrutinised from the intergenerational perspective, and its determinants and possible measures of preventing the phenomenon are discussed. The third part focuses on relations between income inequalities and situation on the labour market. In this part changes in distribution of wages in Poland are confronted with the poverty dynamics. They are supplemented with a reflection on the impact on poverty exerted by changes in the Polish society, including (but not limited to) those concerning household structure or economic activity of women. The phenomenon of so called working poor is also scrutinised here. We determine, inter alia, whether the characteristics of household or of work performed are more important causes of in-work poverty. We also elaborate on the question if situation of poor households is persistent or low-paid employment enables them to get out of poverty. The fourth part discusses available tools and instruments to fight the poverty. The state of affairs described in first three parts allows to take a closer look on efficiency and effectiveness of social policy measures applied in Poland, both tax and benefit based. Special attention is drawn to the issue of financial support of families with children as an element of social and demographic policy. The key features of this part are simulations of the impact of hypothetical changes in currently functioning system on rate of poverty in Poland. The recommendations for public policy constitute the summary of the report.
    Keywords: Poverty, in-work poverty, earnings inequality, income inequality, tax and benefit policies
    JEL: I32 I38 J01 J31 J62 J68
    Date: 2013
  18. By: Ron Boschma; Rikard Eriksson; Urban Lindgren
    Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between labour market externalities and regional growth based on real labour flows. In particular, we test for the importance of labour mobility across so-called skill-related industries. We make use of a sophisticated indicator that measures the degree of skill-relatedness between all industries, and we employ actual labour flows between 435 4-digit industries within 72 Swedish functional labour market regions to estimate how labour market externalities are related to regional growth in the period 1998-2002. Both our fixed effect models and GMM-estimates demonstrate that a strong intensity of intra-regional labour flows between skill-related industries impacts positively on regional productivity growth, but less so on regional employment growth. Labour mobility between unrelated industries tends to dampen regional unemployment growth while a high degree of intra-industry labour flows is only found to be associated with rising regional unemployment.
    Keywords: agglomeration externalities, related variety, regional growth, labour mobility, related labour market externalities, skill-relatedness
    JEL: R11 R12 O18
    Date: 2013–10
  19. By: Clément Bosquet (London School of Economics and Political Science (SERC) and AixMarseille School of Economics); Pierre-Philippe Combes (Aix-Marseille University (Aix-Marseille School of Economics, EHESS & CNRS.); Cecilia García-Peñalosa (Aix Marseille University (Aix Marseille School of Economics), Cnrs and Ehess)
    Abstract: Differences in promotion across genders are still prevalent in many occupations. Recent work based on experimental evidence indicates that women participate less in or exert lower effort during contests. We exploit the unique features of the promotion system for French academics to look at women's attitudes towards competition in an actual labour market. Using data for academic economists over the period 1991-2008 we find that, conditional on entering the competition, there is no difference in promotions across the genders, which is diffcult to reconcile with either discrimination or a poorer performance of women in contests. In contrast, women have a substantially lower probability than men to enter the promotion contest. Our data does not support that this gap is due to differences in costs or in preferences concerning department prestige, indicating that women are less willing than men to take part in contests.
    Keywords: gender gaps, promotions, academic labour markets
    JEL: J7 I23
    Date: 2013–10–15
  20. By: Dornbusch, Friedrich; Neuhäusler, Peter
    Abstract: It is generally claimed that universities provide the scientific basis for future technological progress. Still, empirical evidence of the impact of direct links between universities and firms remains weak and is often at least inconsistent. This paper aims at contributing to the literature by analyzing how direct academic involvement affects the output of inventive activities of research teams in different organizational backgrounds. By applying a unique dataset of German academic and corporate patents, we find that boundary-spanning knowledge production with academic inventors raises the innovative performance of SMEs and MNEs. Furthermore, geographical proximity between team members is generally shown to be valuable for team performance in terms of the influence on future technological developments. At the same time, the results indicate that academic involvement helps inventor teams to profit from spatially distant knowledge sources. --
    Date: 2013

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