nep-eur New Economics Papers
on Microeconomic European Issues
Issue of 2013‒06‒24
twenty papers chosen by
Giuseppe Marotta
University of Modena and Reggio Emilia

  1. Does Part-Time Employment Widen the Gender Wage Gap? Evidence from Twelve European Countries By Eleonora Matteazzi; Ariane Pailhé; Anne Solaz
  2. Measuring performance: does the assessment depend on the poverty proxy? By Notten, Geranda
  3. Poverty and Well-Being: Panel Evidence from Germany By Andrew E. Clark; Conchita D’Ambrosio; Simone Ghislandi
  4. Do cartel breakdowns induce mergers? Evidence from EC cartel cases By Hüschelrath, Kai; Smuda, Florian
  5. Do pay-as-bid auctions favor collusion? Evidence from Germany's market for reserve power By Heim, Sven; Götz, Georg
  6. National minimum wage and employment of young workers in the UK By Jan Fidrmuc; J. D. Tena
  7. Should We Increase Instruction Time in Low Achieving Schools? Evidence from Southern Italy By Battistin, Erich; Meroni, Elena Claudia
  8. Mobility of top incomes in Germany By Jenderny, Katharina
  9. Is money all? Financing versus knowledge and demand constraints to innovation By Pellegrino, Gabriele; Savona, Maria
  10. What is going to change in EU rural development policies after 2013? Main implications in different national contexts By Mantino, Francesco
  11. CAP Effects on Agricultural Investment Demand in Europe By Guastella, G.; Moro, D.; Sckokai, P.; Veneziani, M.
  12. Do Preferential Trade Policies (Actually) Increase Exports? An analysis of EU trade policies By Cipollina, Maria; Laborde, David; Salvatici, Luca
  13. Measuring Well-Being: W3 Indicators to Complement GDP By Marco Giesselmann; Richard Hilmer; Nico A. Siegel; Gert G. Wagner
  14. Moving Towards a Single Labour Contract: Pros, Cons and Mixed Feelings By Nicolas Lepage-Saucier; Juliette Schleich; Etienne Wasmer
  15. Specialisation and/or Convergence: Structure of European Exports and Production By Kaitila, Ville
  16. Gender complementarities in the labor market By Giacomo De Giorgi; Marco Paccagnella; Michele Pellizzari
  17. Measuring Dynamic Efficiency under Uncertainty: An Application to German Dairy Farms By Wagner, Christina; Huettel, Silke; Odening, Martin; Narayana, Rashmi
  18. Direct payments, spatial competition and farm survival in Norwegian By Storm, Hugo; Mittenzwei, Klaus; Heckelei, Thomas
  19. CO2 emissions embodied in international trade: A multiregional Inputoutput model for Spain By Gemechu, Eskinder D.; Butnar, Isabela; Llop Llop, Maria; Sangwong, S.; Castells i Piqué, Francesc
  20. Consequences of the Five-a-Day Campaign: Evidence of French Panel Data By Silva, Andres; Etile, Fabrice; Jamet, Gaelle

  1. By: Eleonora Matteazzi (University of Verona); Ariane Pailhé (INED); Anne Solaz (INED)
    Abstract: One of five workers work part-time in Europe, mainly women. This article examines the extent to which the overrepresentation of women in part-time employment explains the gender hourly earnings gap in twelve European countries. Using the EU-SILC 2009 data, a double decomposition of the gender wage gap is implemented: between men and women employed full-time and between full-time and part-time working women. The high prevalence of part-time employment plays only a minor role. The nature of part-time employment and labor market segregation are much more important factors. A large share of the gender wage gap still remains unexplained, however.
    Keywords: labor force participation, working hours, wage gap, decomposition, segregation, part-time
    JEL: C31 C49 J21 J22 J24 J31 J71
    Date: 2013–03
  2. By: Notten, Geranda (Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Ottawa, and UNU-MERIT / MGSoG)
    Abstract: Poverty indicators often disagree about whether a person is poor or not. Yet, when it comes to assessing whether a programme is successful in reaching the poor the dominant practice is to use an income poverty indicator. This paper investigates whether the choice of welfare indicator influences the pro-poorness assessment of an intervention. Using the official European Union income and material deprivation indicators, this paper compares the outcomes of three performance indicators for three types of income transfers in six European countries. The analysis indicates that income transfers are assessed as far more successful when the information from both indicators is combined.
    Keywords: performance, poverty, income, material deprivation, transfers, European Union, EU-SILC
    JEL: I32 I38
    Date: 2013
  3. By: Andrew E. Clark (Paris School of Economics - CNRS); Conchita D’Ambrosio (Università di Milano-Bicocca, DIW Berlin and Econpubblica); Simone Ghislandi (Università Bocconi and Econpubblica)
    Abstract: We consider the link between poverty and subjective well-being, and focus in particular on the role of time. We use panel data on 42,500 individuals living in Germany from 1992 to 2010 to uncover four empirical relationships. First, life satisfaction falls with both the incidence and intensity of contemporaneous poverty. There is no evidence of adaptation within a poverty spell: poverty starts bad and stays bad in terms of subjective well-being. Third, poverty scars: those who have been poor in the past report lower life satisfaction today, even when out of poverty. Last, the order of poverty spells matters: for a given number of poverty spells, satisfaction is lower when the spells are concatenated: poverty persistence reduces well-being. These effects differ by population subgroups.
    Keywords: Income, Poverty, Subjective well-being, SOEP.
    JEL: I31 D60
    Date: 2013–03
  4. By: Hüschelrath, Kai; Smuda, Florian
    Abstract: We investigate the impact of cartel breakdowns on merger activity. Merging information on cartel cases decided by the European Commission (EC) between 2000 and 2011 with a detailed data set of worldwide merger activity, we find that, first, the average number of all merger transactions increase by up to 51 percent when comparing the three years before the cartel breakdowns with the three years afterwards. Second, for the subset of horizontal mergers, merger activity is found to increase even more - by up to 83 percent - after the cartel breakdowns. Our results not only suggest that competition authorities should consider mergers as potential 'second-best' alternative to cartels but also imply that resource (re)allocations in competition authorities, law practices and economic consultancies may become necessary to handle the increase in merger cases. --
    Keywords: antitrust policy,cartels,mergers,cartel breakdown,European Union
    JEL: L41 K21
    Date: 2013
  5. By: Heim, Sven; Götz, Georg
    Abstract: We analyze a drastic price increase in the German auction market for reserve power, which did not appear to be driven by increased costs. Studying the market structure and individual bidding strategies, we find evidence for collusive behavior in an environment with repeated auctions, pivotal suppliers and inelastic demand. The price increase can be traced back to an abuse of the auction's pay-as-bid mechanism by the two largest firms. In contrast to theoretical findings, we show that pay-as-bid auctions do not necessarily reduce incentives for strategic capacity withholding and collusive behavior, but can even increase them. --
    Keywords: Auctions,Collusion,Market Power,Energy Markets,Reserve Power,Balancing Power
    JEL: D43 D44 L11 L13
    Date: 2013
  6. By: Jan Fidrmuc; J. D. Tena
    Abstract: We analyze the impact of the UK national minimum wage (NMW) on the employment of young workers. The previous literature found little evidence of an adverse impact of the NMW on the UK labor market. We focus on the age-related increases in the NMW at 18 and 22 years of age. Using regression discontinuity design, we fail to find any effect of turning 22. However, we find a significant and negative employment effect for male workers at 21, which we believe to be an anticipation effect. We also find a negative effect for both genders upon turning 18. The age-related NMW increases may have an adverse effect on employment of young workers, with this effect possibly occurring already well in advance of reaching the threshold age.
    Keywords: minimum wage, employment, young workers, regression discontinuity design
    JEL: J21 J31
    Date: 2013–06–18
  7. By: Battistin, Erich (University of Padova); Meroni, Elena Claudia (University of Padova)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the short term effects of a large scale intervention, funded by the European Social Fund, that provides additional instruction time to students in low achieving lower secondary schools of Southern Italy. We control for sorting across classes using the fact that freshman are divided into groups distinguished by letters, they remain in the same group across grades and the composition of teachers in the school assigned to each group is substantially stable over time. We implement a difference-in-differences strategy, and compare contiguous cohorts of freshman enrolled in the same group. We contrast groups with and without additional instruction time in participating schools, to groups in non-participating schools that we select to be similar with respect to a long list of pre-programme indicators. We find that the programme raised test scores in mathematics in schools characterised by students from less advantaged backgrounds. We also find that targeting the best students with extra activities in Italian language comes at the cost of lowering their performance in mathematics. We go beyond average effects, finding that the positive effect documented for mathematics is driven by larger effects for the best students in the group.
    Keywords: education policies, instruction time, policy evaluation, quantile treatment effects
    JEL: C31 I28
    Date: 2013–05
  8. By: Jenderny, Katharina
    Abstract: Mobility of top incomes matters for both the openness of the income elite and the share of total income that this group receives. It is thus an important complement information to the growing snapshot literature on top income concentration. I use microlevel panel data of German income tax files that is highly representative for top income households. Top income mobility is assessed in four dimensions: (i) its stability over time, (ii) the degree of mobility between top income fractiles, (iii) the degree of mobility between equally sized groups and mobility in ranks, both of which do not depend on fractile sizes, and (iv) mobility's impact on distributional results. Mobility in terms of annual fractile changes is high between the richest top income fractiles, which is primarily due to tiny fractile sizes. When the fractiles' sizes are controlled for, top income recipients' mobility is lower than that of lower income tax units. --
    Keywords: income distribution,inequality,top incomes
    JEL: D31 D63 H24
    Date: 2013
  9. By: Pellegrino, Gabriele (University of Barcelona, and Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Piacenza and Milano); Savona, Maria (SPRU, University of Sussex,)
    Abstract: The paper adds to the scattered empirical evidence on the role of obstacles to innovation in a three-fold way. First, we correct for the usual sample selection bias by filtering out firms not interested in innovation from 'potential innovators'. We then analyse the impact of obstacles on the translation of firms' engagement in innovative activities onto actual innovative outputs. Second, we assess what mostly affects firms' rate of failure in this process, whether finance or, rather, knowledge or demand-related constraints. Third, we do so in a panel framework, which allows to account for endogeneity and firms' unobserved heterogeneity through individual effects. We find that demand- and market-related factors are as important as financing conditions in determining firms' innovation failures. This evidence puts much of the latest hype on finance in perspective and brings back into the picture traditional demand and market structure arguments of why firms fail to innovate. The empirical analysis is based on an unbalanced panel of firm data from four waves of the UK Community Innovation Survey (CIS) between 2002 and 2010 merged with the UK Business Structure Database.
    Keywords: Barriers to innovation, Innovative firms, Potential Innovators, Failed Innovators, Panel data
    JEL: C23 O31
    Date: 2013
  10. By: Mantino, Francesco
    Abstract: This paper will address the changes the CAP post‐2013 may bring to its second pillar in three EU countries with very different institutional settings (France, Italy and Spain). After the presentation of the legislative package put forward by the European Commission, a debate emerged in these countries on how to define rural development strategies for the period 2014‐2020. The presentation will discuss positive innovations and main challenges of the new rural development policies with respect to what happened in the 2007‐2013 period. In particular, the paper intends to focus on the following issues: 1)which relevant changes have been introduced in the framework of rules in the field of rural development; 2)how these changes can influence the preparation of the next programming period 2014-2020, looking more in depth at three countries (Italy, Spain and France);3) what lessons can be drawn from this reform and the initial implementation in three countries in terms of institutional changes and their likely success and failure.
    Keywords: common agricultural policies, rural development, institutional changes, International Relations/Trade, Q18,
    Date: 2013–06
  11. By: Guastella, G.; Moro, D.; Sckokai, P.; Veneziani, M.
    Abstract: The paper develops a comparative analysis, among selected European Union Member States, of the investment demand, for farm buildings and machinery and equipment, of a sample of specialised arable crop farms as determined – inter alia – by different types and levels of Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) support. The empirical analysis investigates the role of long and short run determinants of investment levels as well as accounts for the presence of irregularities in the cost adjustment function due to the existence of threshold-type behaviours. Throughout the estimated models a consistent and significant long-run dynamic adjustment towards lower levels of the farms’ capital stocks is detected. The effect of CAP support on both types of investments is positive, although seldom significant. The elasticities of average net investment with respect to CAP payments are employed to simulate the effects of the recently proposed, reductions in the Pillar I CAP Direct Payments (DPs). Since these reform options imply, almost exclusively, a reduction in the level of support granted through DPs, simulated effects largely respect the expectation of a worsening of the farm investment prospects for both asset types (i.e., a larger negative investment or a smaller positive one). Notable exceptions concern investment in machinery and equipment in France and Italy which improve, irrespectively of the magnitude of the implemented cuts in DPs.
    Keywords: farm investment, threshold models, simulations, FADN data, common agricultural policy, Agricultural and Food Policy, Demand and Price Analysis, International Relations/Trade, C23, C53, D92, Q12,
    Date: 2013
  12. By: Cipollina, Maria; Laborde, David; Salvatici, Luca
    Abstract: Trade preferences have been used by the European Union and most developing countries can export with preferential market access under different schemes. We study the trade impact of these policies using highly disaggregated 8-digit data in a theoretically grounded gravity model framework. We provide an explicit measure of preferential tariff margins, using alternative definitions based on a comparison between bilateral applied tariffs and two different reference points: the MFN duty or a CES price aggregator. From a policy perspective, preferential schemes have a significant impact on volumes of trade, although with significant differences across sectors. From the methodological point of view, our results show that the definition of the margin has a significant impact on the assessment of the policy impact.
    Keywords: Theoretical Gravity Model, Preferential trade agreements, Trade cost elasticity Sectoral trade flows, Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade, F13, F14,
    Date: 2013
  13. By: Marco Giesselmann; Richard Hilmer; Nico A. Siegel; Gert G. Wagner
    Abstract: Numerous people in Germany, including politicians and researchers, believe that the gross domestic product (GDP) is an outdated indicator of a society’s prosperity. Therefore, at the end of 2010, the German Bundestag, the federal parliament, established a study commission (Enquete-Kommission) tasked with developing an alternative to the GDP for measuring growth, prosperity, and quality of life. This commission has now submitted a proposal: to supplement the GDP with nine additional indicators, including a wide range of factors such as the distribution of income, biodiversity, and life expectancy. The ten indicators cover three dimensions of well-being—economy, ecology, and social wealth—and hence are called W3 Indicators. Replacing the gross domestic product by a single alternative index was rejected by the commission, however, since it is not possible to reduce citizens’ very different wishes and expectations to “a common denominator.” A representative survey of registered voters conducted by DIW Berlin and TNS Infratest shows that citizens consider the indicators proposed by the commission to be important. Respondents ranked preserving “democracy and freedom” as the most relevant indicator and “further increasing life expectancy” as the least relevant. The average per capita income – as an indicator of the gross domestic product – is the second least relevant factor as far as registered voters in Germany are concerned. However, the study also shows that opinions on the importance of different indicators vary widely. Moreover, there are systematic differences in the relevance of various policy areas for different social groups.
    Keywords: ratswd, ratswd working paper, data sharing, data management, germany, data availability, open access, research infrastructure, data, replication, data privacy, research data centre, infrastructure, GDP, BIP, quality of life, TNS Infratest, SOEP, W3 indicators, GDP and beyond
    JEL: B59 D63 H11 I32
    Date: 2013
  14. By: Nicolas Lepage-Saucier; Juliette Schleich; Etienne Wasmer
    Abstract: This paper discusses the pros and cons of a single labour contract. After reviewing the current state of dualism in labour markets and the recent labour reforms in Europe, we discuss the various proposals to eliminate dualism. Next, we emphasise the costs of dualism and discuss whether they would be addressed by introducing a single labour contract. We notably introduce a distinction between reforms based on introducing a single contract with progressive seniority rights (CPSR) or a single contract with long probation periods (CLPP).We argue that their gains and costs are very different, especially with regards to the stigma effects and dualism. We also consider alternative reforms: the introduction of a single labour contract as such, and alternative reforms independent of the labour contract but addressing the issue of dualism (training, access to housing and to credit) and compare their costs and benefits.<P> We then build a simple model where both temporary and permanent contracts are available to firms. We use it to describe the demand for temporary contracts and the potential consequences of removing them and reach the following conclusions. First, employment protection has a moderate negative impact on employment, which can be mitigated when temporary contracts are available. Second, the elimination of temporary contracts decreases total employment (by 7 percentage points according to our calculations). Offsetting this effect would require an ambitious reform of employment protection laws of permanent contracts (in this specific setup, amounting to a cut in layoff costs by two thirds). Finally, the coexistence of temporary and permanent contracts may also have negative effects on social norms within the firm and workers' motivation and eliminating temporary contracts could therefore enhance productivity in this context.<P> We conclude that while there are costs to dualism, these are not as obvious and well established as the ones triggered by employment protection itself. Further, the single employment contract may partly be a qui pro quo (misunderstanding) Instead, more clarity on the objectives of a labour reform is needed.<P>Vers un contrat unique, vraiment ? : Les avantages et les inconvénients<BR>Ce texte discute des avantages et des inconvénients du contrat de travail unique. Après une discussion du dualisme et des réformes récentes du marché du travail en Europe, nous décrivons les différentes propositions visant à éliminer le dualisme. Nous soulignons ensuite les coûts du dualisme et tentons de comprendre si la création d'un contrat unique les supprimerait. Nous introduisons notamment une distinction entre les réformes basées sur un contrat unique à droits progressifs (CUDP, ou CPSR pour l'acronyme anglais), ou sur un contrat avec une période d'essai allongée (CPEA ou CLPP pour l'acronyme en anglais). Les gains et les coûts sont très différents selon l'hypothèse retenue, en particulier par rapport aux effets de stigmatisation des travailleurs et par rapport à la persistence du dualisme. Nous envisageons aussi d'autres réformes: outre celle de l'introduction d'un contrat unique, nous discutons de différentes réformes indépendantes du contrat de travail mais modifiant les conséquences du dualisme du marché du travail (accès à la formation, au marché du crédit, au logement) et en comparons les coûts et avantages.<P> Nous élaborons ensuite un simple modèle où les contrats permanents et temporaires sont tous deux à disposition des entreprises et coexistent en leur sein. Nous utilisons cette structure théorique pour décrire la demande de contrats temporaires et les conséquences potentielles d'en supprimer l'usage. Nous en concluons: premièrement, que la protection de l'emploi a un impact négatif mais modéré sur l'emploi total, qui est précisément atténué par l'existence de contrats temporaires; deuxièmement, que l'élimination des contrats temporaires diminue l'emploi total (de 7 points de pourcentage selon notre modèle); pour anihiler cet eet négatif, il faudrait une réforme radicale des contrats permanents (qui dans le cas d'espèce diminuerait des deux tiers les coûts des licenciements associés aux contrats permanents); enn, la coexistence de contrats temporaires et permanents peut aussi avoir des conséquences négatives au niveau des normes sociales au sein de l'entreprise et sur la motivation des salariés; éliminer les contrats temporaires serait alors une amélioration de la productivité des entreprises.<P> Nous concluons sur le fait que si les coûts du dualisme sont réels, ils sont moins évidents et moins bien démontrés que ceux engendrés par la protection de l'emploi elle-même. De plus, le contrat unique pourrait être en partie un qui pro quo. Il serait au contraire utile de clarifier les objectifs fondamentaux des réformes du marché du travail.
    Keywords: unemployment, dualism, labour market reform, employment contracts, single labour contract, chômage, dualisme, réforme du marché du travail, contrats de travail, contrat unique
    JEL: J41 J42 J80
    Date: 2013–02–21
  15. By: Kaitila, Ville
    Abstract: We analyse the degree of EU countries’ specialisation in their exports and manufacturing value added using the Herfindahl-Hirschmann index and the degree of structural similarity using the similarity index developed by Finger and Kreinin (1979). We also analyse the convergence of GDP growth rates over time and compare it with export similarity. At the industry level (HS2), EU15 countries’ exports became more specialised before the introduction of the euro and less specialised thereafter. However, exports have become more specialised at the product level (HS6) during the euro years. Manufacturing value added (21 sectors) has become more specialised both before and after 1999. The results for the ten ex-transition countries’ exports are different reflecting their economic transformation. Also the post-2008 period with economic distress creates special cases. Export structures became more similar before 2008. However, manufacturing value added similarity decreased. GDP growth rates have been more uniform after the introduction of the euro than in 1992–1999. We find that similarity in export structures is positively associated with the degree of GDP growth rate correlation vis-à-vis the Euro Area average. There are a half a dozen outliers that differ in their GDP growth developments, among them the Euro Area members Greece, Malta and Slovakia
    Keywords: Exports, manufacturing, specialisation, similarity, GDP growth
    JEL: F14 F15 F44
    Date: 2013–06–13
  16. By: Giacomo De Giorgi (Stanford University, BREAD, CEPR and NBER); Marco Paccagnella (Bank of Italy and fRDB); Michele Pellizzari (OECD, University of Geneva and IZA)
    Abstract: In this paper we estimate the short-run elasticity of substitution between male and female workers, using data on employment and wages from Italian provinces from 1993-2006. We adopt a production function approach similar to that of Card and Lemieux (2001a) and Acemoglu, Autor and Lyle (2004). Our identification strategy relies on a natural experiment. In 2000 the Italian parliament passed a law to abolish compulsory military service; the reform was implemented through a gradual reduction in the number of draftees, and compulsory drafting was definitively terminated in 2004. We use data on the (planned) maximum number of draftees at the national level (as stated in the annual budgetary law), interacted with sex-ratios at birth at the provincial level, as instruments for (relative) female labor supply. Our results suggest that young males and females are imperfect substitutes, with an elasticity of substitution ranging between 1.1 and 1.6. Our results have implications for the evaluation of policies aimed at increasing female labor market participation, suggesting that they do not necessarily displace male employment.
    Keywords: gender complementarities, elasticity of substitution, employment, wages
    JEL: J21 J31 J16
    Date: 2013–06
  17. By: Wagner, Christina; Huettel, Silke; Odening, Martin; Narayana, Rashmi
    Abstract: The existing literature on dynamic efficiency is deterministic and ignores uncertainty when deriving dynamic efficiency measures, even though it is known that uncertainty affects the optimal adjustment path and the optimal use of quasi-fixed factors. Here, we contribute to closing this gap by developing a model that takes the dynamic efficiency measurement and the optimal investment under uncertainty jointly into consideration. We apply this model to German farm-level panel data to investigate whether West German dairy farms use their variable and quasi-fixed factors in a technically and allocative efficient way in the long run, and to explore the role of uncertainty within the optimal factor allocation process. We find empirical evidence for the importance of considering uncertainty when deriving (dynamic) efficiency measures: neglecting uncertainty within the estimation procedure will overestimate the average inefficiency score. This is not only interesting from an academic point of view; it has further implications for the analysis of the relative performance of specific farm types like cash crop or other livestock farms.
    Keywords: Efficiency, shadow cost approach, uncertainty, dairy sector, Farm Management, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis, Risk and Uncertainty, D61, D81, Q12,
    Date: 2013
  18. By: Storm, Hugo; Mittenzwei, Klaus; Heckelei, Thomas
    Abstract: We argue that interdependencies between farms are crucial for assessing effects of direct payments on farmers exit decisions. Using spatially explicit farm level data for nearly all Norwegian farms, a binary choice model with spatially lagged explanatory variables is estimated in order to explain farm survival from 1999 to 2009. We show that ignoring spatial interactions between farm leads to a substantial overestimation of the effects of direct payments on farm survival. To our knowledge, this paper is the first attempt to empirically analyze the role of neighbor interactions for farm structural change in general and for an assessment of the effects of direct payments on farm survival in particular.
    Keywords: spatial competition, land market, farm structural change, direct payments, policy assessment, Agricultural and Food Policy, C21, C25, Q12, Q13,
    Date: 2013
  19. By: Gemechu, Eskinder D.; Butnar, Isabela; Llop Llop, Maria; Sangwong, S.; Castells i Piqué, Francesc
    Abstract: As a result of globalization and free trade agreements, international trade is enormously growing and inevitably putting more pressure on the environment over the last few decades. This has drawn the attention of both environmentalist and economist in response to the ever growing concerns of climate change and urgent need of international action for its mitigation. In this work we aim at analyzing the implication of international trade in terms of CO2 between Spain and its important partners using a multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model. A fully integrated 13 regions MRIO model is constructed to examine the pollution responsibility of Spain both from production and consumption perspectives. The empirical results show that Spain is a net importer of CO2 emissions which is equivalent to 29% of its emission due to production. Even though the leading partner with regard to import values are countries such as Germany, France, Italy and Great Britain, the CO2 embodied due to trade with China takes the largest share. This is mainly due to the importation of energy intensive products from China coupled with Chinese poor energy mix which is dominated by coal-power plant. The largest portion (67%) of the global imported CO2 emissions is due to intermediate demand requirements by production sectors. Products such as Motor vehicles, chemicals, a variety of machineries and equipments, textile and leather products, construction materials are the key imports that drive the emissions due to their production in the respective exporting countries. Being at its peak in 2005, the Construction sector is the most responsible activity behind both domestic and imported emissions.
    Keywords: Comerç internacional, Medi ambient -- Anàlisi d'impacte, Emissions atmosfèriques -- Espanya, Anhídrid carbònic, 339 - Comerç. Relacions econòmiques internacionals. Economia mundial. Màrqueting,
    Date: 2013
  20. By: Silva, Andres; Etile, Fabrice; Jamet, Gaelle
    Abstract: Households tend to make suboptimal choices as a result of having only incomplete or misleading information available to them. Informational campaigns provide them with this information through easy-to-understand messages. Such is the case with the five-a-day campaign, which promotes the consumption of at least five portions of fruits and vegetables (F&V) per day per person as part of a healthy diet. The objective of this study is to show expected and unexpected consequences of the five-a-day campaign in France. In order to achieve this objective, we build upon the work done by Capacci and Mazzochi (2011). Unlike previous researchers in informational campaign evaluation, we use a dynamic tobit panel data model. We found that people are relatively close to eating five portions of F&V per day, which represents an appropriate point in time to evaluate the five-a-day campaign and identify some aspects to inform future endeavors. The five-a-day campaign has helped to increase F&V consumption. Nevertheless, the swapping between F&V groups and the ways to go beyond five-a-day are relevant challenges.
    Keywords: informational campaign, fruit and vegetables, dynamic tobit, International Relations/Trade, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, D10, D12, Q18,
    Date: 2013

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