nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2023‒09‒04
67 papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Regional vulnerability to the green transition By Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés; Bartalucci, Federico
  2. Is water a blessing or a curse? How to address water conflicts in West Africa By Kohnert, Dirk
  3. "Balancing Growth and Green: Strategies for Sustainable Development in Developing Economies" By Yeboah, Samuel
  4. Iceland: Financial Sector Assessment Program-Technical Note on Management and Supervision of Climate-Related Financial Risks in the Banking Sector By International Monetary Fund
  5. MODELLING SCENARIOS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LIVESTOCK SECTOR By Strokov, Anton (Строков, Антон); Potashnikov, Vladimir (Поташников, Владимир)
  6. Environmental aims in the development of UK agricultural policy By Hilton, Brian
  7. Measuring environmental impacts By Whitby, Martin; Adger, Neil
  8. The fiscal implications of stringent climate policy By Richard S. J. Tol
  9. Corporate carbon reporting: Improving transparency and accountability By Comello, Stephen; Reichelstein, Julia; Reichelstein, Stefan
  10. Determinants of climate change perception and behaviour of European households By Horbach, Jens
  11. Estándares y certificaciones internacionales voluntarias en materia de minería sostenible en los países andinos By Dufey, Annie; Zamorano, Pinhas
  12. An environmentalist's view of policy needs By Green, Bryn
  13. A summary of the discussion By Rew, L.J.
  14. Impact of climate change on household agricultural incomes in niger: spatial econometric analysis By Senzele, Joseph; AMAYENE, Chimène
  15. Ecolabel certification in multi-zone marine protected areas can incentivize sustainable fishing practices and offset the costs of fishing effort displacement By Loana Garraud; Jennifer Beckensteiner; Olivier Thébaud; Joachim Claudet
  17. Environment and agriculture: an OECD perspective By Rae, Jeffrey
  18. Unpacking the green box: Determinants of Environmental Policy Stringency in European countries By Donatella Gatti; Gaye-Del Lo; Francisco Serranito
  19. The effect of cap and trade policy on the economy, welfare and renewable energy for the Moroccan case: a partial equilibrium approach By Mohamed Adib Ed-daoudi; Kenza Oubejja
  20. ESG criteria and the credit risk of corporate bond portfolios By Höck, André; Bauckloh, Michael Tobias; Dumrose, Maurice; Klein, Christian
  21. When Climate Meets Real Estate: A Survey of the Literature By Justin Contat; Caroline Hopkins; Luis Mejia; Matthew Suandi
  22. From Potential to Practice: Unveiling Sustainable Manufacturing in Low-Income Countries By Asuamah Yeboah, Samuel
  23. Climate Migration Amplifies Demographic Change and Population Aging By Hauer, Mathew
  24. The Coming Malthusian Catastrophe: The Climate and Biodiversity Crises as Global Food Crisis. By Blaber, Richard Michael
  25. Time-Varying Effects of Extreme Weather Shocks on Output Growth of the United States By Xin Sheng; Rangan Gupta; Oguzhan Cepni
  26. Driving Resource Efficiency and Sustainable Consumption: Technological Innovations in Circular Economy Strategies and Industrial Symbiosis By Asuamah Yeboah, Samuel
  27. "Sustaining Change: Unravelling the Socio-cultural Threads of Sustainable Consumption" By Asuamah Yeboah, Samuel
  28. Digital Government a Pathway to Sustainable Development By Ellalee, Haider; Al-Qaysi, Israa I.
  29. The dynamics of deforestation and reforestation in a developing economy By Julien Wolfersberger; Gregory Amacher; Philippe Delacote; Arnaud Dragicevic
  30. Nudger les agriculteurs innovants : une application à l’adoption du label bas-carbone By Douadia Bougherara; Léa Petit; Raphaële Préget; Sophie S. Thoyer
  31. Diverse experiences by active travel: Longitudinal study reveals a persistent discrepancy across residential contexts By Samuelsson, Karl; Brandt, S Anders; Barthel, Stephan; Linder, Noah; Lim, Nancy Joy; Giusti, Matteo
  32. The political economics of green transitions By Besley, Timothy; Persson, Torsten
  33. An introduction to financial opportunities, ecological concepts, and risks underpinning aspirations for a nature-positive economy By Luxton, Sarah; Smith, Greg; Williams, Kristen; Ferrier, Simon; Bond, Anthelia; Prober, Suzanne
  34. Sustainable Waste: Biomimetic Solutions For Medical and Food Waste Management Systems in the United States By See, Priti
  35. Sinergias para un comercio inclusivo y sostenible: el caso de la Alianza del Pacífico By Frohmann, Alicia; Olmos, Ximena
  36. Coastal Zone Management in Zamboanga City, Philippines: Experiences and Lessons Learned By Zabala, Cedrick
  37. Emission regulation. Prices, quantities and hybrids with endogenous technology choice By Halvor Briseid Storrøsten
  38. Justice and Moral Economies in Modular, Adaptive, and Decentralized (MAD) Water Systems By Beresford, Melissa; Brewis, Alexandra; Choudhary, Neetu; Drew, Georgina; Garcia, Nataly Escobedo; Garrick, Dustin; Hossain, Mohammed Jobayer; Lopez, Ernesto; Nébié, Elisabeth Ilboudo; Pacheco-Vega, Raul
  39. Welfare Losses from Wildfire Smoke: Evidence from Daily Outdoor Recreation Data By Gellman, Jacob; Walls, Margaret A.; Wibbenmeyer, Matthew
  40. Dynamics of socio-ecological transformation of territories: what contribution from social ecological economics? By Olivier Petit; Philippe Méral; Iratxe Calvo-Mendieta; Hélène Melin
  41. "In partnership for the goals"? The (dis)agreement of SDG ratings By Bauckloh, Michael Tobias; Dobrick, Juris; Höck, André; Utz, Sebastian; Wagner, Marcus
  42. Understanding Urban Traffic Flows in Response to COVID-19 Pandemic with Emerging Urban Big Data in Glasgow By Li, Yue; Wang, Mingshu; Zhao, Qunshan
  43. Rwanda: Technical Assistance Report-Public Investment Management Assessment–PIMA and Climate PIMA By International Monetary Fund
  44. Death, retirement or redeployment for unproductive farm animals? Dispositional tensions in organizational routines By Charrier François; Juliette Cognie; Aubin-Houzelstein Geneviève; Morgane Costes-Thiré; Vanina Deneux-Le Barh; Valérie Fillon; Victoria Fluckiger-Serra; Félix Jourdan; Aurore Kubica; Léa Lansade; Sébastien Mouret; Charline Nivelle; Alice Raspail; Suzanne Tapie; Jocelyne Porcher
  45. Disaster risk management: Vulnerability and resilience in the coastal barangays of Zamboanga City, Philippines By Atilano-Tang, Lesley Ann
  46. Turnover Intention Dilihat Dari Stres Kerja dan Iklim Organisasi Kepuasan Keja Sebagai Variabel Intervening By Indrageni, Putri
  47. Synthesizing resilience: Key insights from a technical working group meeting By Kayamba-Phiri, Fundi
  48. The analysis of small and medium enterprises’ (SMEs’) support, aimed at achieving sustainable development goals in the EU Countries, policy recommendations for Russia By Barinova, Vera (Баринова, Вера); Demidova, Ksenia (Демидова, Ксения); Loginova, Arina (Логинова, Арина)
  49. Anticipatory Effects of Regulation in Open Access By Bruno, Ellen Marie; Hagerty, Nick
  50. Strategic Ignorance and Perceived Control By Balietti, Anca; Budjan, Angelika; Eymess, Tillmann; Soldà, Alice
  51. Deep Reinforcement Learning for ESG financial portfolio management By Eduardo C. Garrido-Merch\'an; Sol Mora-Figueroa-Cruz-Guzm\'an; Mar\'ia Coronado-Vaca
  52. An investigation of auctions in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative By Khezr, Peyman; Pourkhanali, Armin
  53. Property Rights to the World’s (Linear) Ocean Fisheries in Customary International Law By Scott Barrett
  54. Lessons from developing district-level M&E plans to implement the National Resilience Strategy By Kayamba-Phiri, Fundi
  55. Desenvolvimento de uma Matriz de Contabilidade Social para a análise do efeito das alterações climáticas no turismo By Cristiana Gião; Rita Sousa
  56. Plastic to Oil: Saudi Arabia and Global Perspectives By Julio Arboleda; Evar Umeozor
  57. A Topic Model for 10-K Management Disclosures By Fengler, Matthias; Phan, Minh Tri
  58. The economic and social context of farming and the countryside environment By Newby, Howard
  59. Female Leadership and Workplace Climate By Sule Alan; Corekcioglu; Mustafa Kaba; Matthias Sutter
  60. Conflicts and political intervention: Evidence from the anti-open grazing laws in Nigeria By Hufschmidt, Patrick; Ume, Chukwuma Otum
  61. Implementing ISO 9001:2015 in Local Government Units: Controversies and options in Zamboanga Peninsula (Region IX), Philippines By Tendero, Emerissa Jane
  62. Les valeurs de l'organisation, moteur de créativité By Sophie Bollinger; Marion Neukam
  63. Drought and Cattle: Implications for Ranchers By Cortney Cowley; Jacob Dice; David Rodziewicz
  64. Brazil: 2023 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; Staff Supplement; and Statement by the Executive Director for Brazil By International Monetary Fund
  65. Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Nuklir di Indonesia (Upaya Berkelanjutan Menuju Net Zero Emission) By Widiawaty, Millary Agung; Dede, Moh.
  66. Increasing Supply Chain Resiliency Through Equilibrium Pricing and Stipulating Transportation Quota Regulation By Mostafa Pazoki; Hamed Samarghandi; Mehdi Behroozi
  67. The effects of institutional quality and biocapacity on inclusive human development in Sub-Saharan Africa By Dobdinga C. Fonchamnyo; Boniface N. Epo; Giyoh G. Nginyu; Simplice A. Asongu

  1. By: Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés (Cañada Blanch Centre and Department of Geography and Environment, London School of Economics); Bartalucci, Federico (Cañada Blanch Centre and Department of Geography and Environment, London School of Economics)
    Abstract: The impacts of climate change are unevenly distributed across territories. Less is known about the potential effects of climate policies aimed at mitigating the negative consequences of climate change, while transitioning economies towards low-carbon standards. This paper presents an analytical framework for identifying and assessing the regional impacts of the green transition. We develop a Regional Green Transition Vulnerability Index, a composite measure of the regional vulnerability of European regions to the socio- economic reconfigurations prompted by the green transition. The index brings to light strong regional variations in vulnerability, with less developed, peri-urban, and rural regions in Southern and Eastern Europe more exposed to the foreseeable changes brought about by the green transition. We also draw attention to the potential rise of pockets of growing ‘green’ discontent, especially if the green transition contributes, as is likely to be the case, to leaving already left-behind regions further behind.
    Keywords: Green transition, environment, left-behind regions, development trap, European Union
    JEL: O44 Q56 R11
    Date: 2023–07
  2. By: Kohnert, Dirk
    Abstract: For many Africans, water is not only the source of life, but also a means of purification and a centre of regeneration. Water rituals and cults, such as 'Mami Wata', lead their followers to liberation of body and spirit. But customary rites can also cause harm. For example, the ancestral use of irrigation reduces contemporary female labour participation and female property rights. It is crucial to consider gender in resource management in the context of climate change, environmental degradation and population growth, which will exacerbate conflicts over scarce resources such as arable land, water, fishing and hunting. Poor governance leads to the alienation and exploitation of the majority and growing inequality, especially when water is scarce and people's livelihoods are threatened. Sub-Saharan Africa is the continent most affected by climate change, population growth and food insecurity. Yet African states, where water ecosystems are strategic resources, are more inclined to regional conflict than cooperation. In the past, climaterelated shocks have fuelled violent conflict in West Africa. Land pressure and water scarcity are causing increasingly acute crises. Traditional institutions of water and land management are often destabilised by modern irrigation techniques and massive inflows of foreign capital. Modernisation is driven by a Western-centred utilitarianism that cannot be universalised. The intensification of conflicts over water has revealed a general crisis that is likely to worsen, given the dynamics at work. Environmental degradation is one of the undesirable by-products of agricultural productivity growth, but customary institutions cannot provide adequate regulation to mitigate its effects. But even in West African regions where water is plentiful, the resource curse links the abundance of natural resources to higher levels of conflict. The commercialisation of water, including land and water grabbing, can even lead to interstate conflict through the effects of greed or grievances. Ultimately, however, conflicts are often not so much about access to scarce resources such as water, food or land, but rather about changing the political institutions through which resources are distributed. Water scarcity puts pressure on people, resulting in migration, displacement, food insecurity and impoverishment, which can lead to further conflict.
    Keywords: water scarcity, water rites; customary institutions; climate change; modernization; resource curse; gender inequality; land grabbing; water grabbing; governance; migration; sustainable development; post-colonialism; informal sector; international trade; ODA; Sub-Saharan Africa; West Africa; Mali; Nigeria; Senegal; African Studies;
    JEL: D02 D18 D23 D31 D43 D47 E26 F13 F21 F22 F35 F51 F52 F54 F64 I31 J16 N17 N37 N47 N57 N97 O13 Q15 Q25 Q54 Q55 Q56 Z13
    Date: 2023–07–30
  3. By: Yeboah, Samuel
    Abstract: In this systematic review, the intricate relationship between growth and sustainability in developing economies is explored, focusing on Sustainable Development Goal 8 (Decent Work and Economic Growth). The research aims to identify strategies that foster economic growth while promoting responsible consumption and production practices, contributing to a more sustainable future for these nations. By conducting a comprehensive literature search using various databases and keywords, relevant studies meeting the inclusion criteria were selected. Through meticulous data extraction, key insights were gathered to analyse the challenges and opportunities faced by developing economies in achieving a balance between economic prosperity and environmental preservation. The findings shed light on a range of sustainable growth strategies, including those promoting decent work opportunities and social welfare while ensuring environmental sustainability. Successful cases of responsible consumption and production practices are also examined, demonstrating the potential for sustainable development. The implications of this systematic review are vital for policymakers, researchers, and stakeholders. Understanding the interconnectedness of growth and sustainability enables decision-makers to devise informed policies and initiatives, guiding developing economies towards green and inclusive pathways of development. This review emphasizes the urgency of achieving SDG 8 and underscores the critical role of developing economies in global sustainability efforts.
    Keywords: Sustainable development, economic growth, sustainability, developing economies, responsible consumption, production practices, SDG 8, green pathways, environmental preservation, social welfare.
    JEL: O10 O20 O44 Q56
    Date: 2023–04–18
  4. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: The Icelandic authorities are committed to addressing climate change issues and reaching ambitious objectives to reduce GHG emissions. Iceland is naturally exposed to significant natural hazards, such as volcanic eruptions and extreme weather conditions. The country is also exposed to physical risks resulting from climate change, such as sea acidification and melting glaciers (a long-term risk), as well as climate change transition risks, for instance, concerning the fisheries and transportation sectors. Still, Iceland can leverage its unique assets to overcome challenges of adapting to climate change. One asset is Iceland’s abundant domestically produced renewable energies that cover nearly all the country’s heat and electricity production needs. The 2020 Climate Action Plan and the 2021 Iceland’s Strategy on Adaptation to Climate Change include ambitious objectives toward GHG emissions’ neutrality.
    Date: 2023–07–28
  5. By: Strokov, Anton (Строков, Антон) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Potashnikov, Vladimir (Поташников, Владимир) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The relevance of the study is determined by the need to analyze the consequences of the concentration of livestock farms, not only from an economic point of view, but also from an environmental one. The objective of the research is to develop ways for sustainable development of animal husbandry in Russia, taking into account the possibilities of continuous growth in production and export of meat and milk, balanced by current environmental problems (growth of farm waste) and the possibilities of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The subject of the research is the environmental indicators characterizing the externalities arising from the production of livestock products (meat, milk, eggs). The work uses traditional scientific methods - descriptive, analytical, statistical and methods of economic and mathematical modeling. The sources of information were Russian and foreign scientific publications, official publications of regulatory documents and statistical data of the Russian state authorities, as well as foreign databases on agricultural statistics. The reported results conclude that the concentration of livestock production facilities leads to different environmental consequences. Among the leading regions specializing in livestock products, the highest concentration is in the Central Black Earth Region: the Belgorod and Kursk regions account for almost 30% of all agricultural waste in Russia. The greenhouse gas emissions were estimated using the GLOBIOM partial equilibrium model. The calculation results showed that Belgorod region has one of the lowest carbon footprint indicators in livestock production: 8 tons of СО2 equiv. per ton of protein, which is associated with the low-carbon development of poultry farming. In other regions, which specialize in dairy and beef cattle breeding, the carbon footprint is at least twice as high, for example, in Krasnodar krai; however, the indicators of waste output per unit of production, on the contrary, are lower there. Thus, the scientific novelty of the research lies in the development of scientific and analytical tools for the correct identification of local, regional and global environmental risks when assessing the efficiency of meat, milk and eggs production. So, in our study, local risks were assessed through the concentration of manure (nitrogen) elements per unit of agricultural land and cultivated area at the level of municipalities. Regional risks were assessed through the indicator of waste from agricultural products. And finally, global risks were assessed through the indicator of greenhouse gas emissions, which also allowed us to estimate the so-called cumulative carbon footprint of each region per unit of animal protein produced. Based on the results of the study, recommendations were developed to improve statistical reporting on production waste in the agricultural sector; to differentially collect and publish data on various types of feeding of farm animals in different categories of farms, which will subsequently help to better calculate animal diets and their potential waste and greenhouse gas emissions, in order to identify the most “wasteful” and “sustainable” animal husbandry practices.
    Keywords: externalities, livestock production, production concentration, greenhouse gas emissions, carbon footprint, agricultural policy, environmental policy
    JEL: Q15 Q53 C39
    Date: 2022–08
  6. By: Hilton, Brian
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
  7. By: Whitby, Martin; Adger, Neil
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
  8. By: Richard S. J. Tol
    Abstract: Stringent climate policy compatible with the targets of the 2015 Paris Agreement would pose a substantial fiscal challenge. Reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 95% or more by 2050 would raise 7% (1-17%) of GDP in carbon tax revenue, half of current, global tax revenue. Revenues are relatively larger in poorer regions. Subsidies for carbon dioxide sequestration would amount to 6.6% (0.3-7.1%) of GDP. These numbers are conservative as they were estimated using models that assume first-best climate policy implementation and ignore the costs of raising revenue. The fiscal challenge rapidly shrinks if emission targets are relaxed.
    Date: 2023–07
  9. By: Comello, Stephen; Reichelstein, Julia; Reichelstein, Stefan
    Abstract: Numerous multinational firms have recently pledged to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to a net-zero position by the year 2050. These pledges currently lack a unified measurement and reporting structure, leaving the public unsure about the extent of the corporate commitments. Here, we propose a Time-Consistent Corporate Carbon Reporting (TCCR) standard that entails an initial forecast of a firm's future carbon emissions trajectory, periodic revisions of the earlier forecasts, and updates on emissions reductions actually achieved at different points in time. The TCCR standard is applicable to alternative carbon footprint metrics, including a company's direct emissions, carbon emissions in goods sold, or the carbon footprint assessed for individual sales products. Companies adopting the TCCR standard will provide added transparency and accountability for their carbon disclosures.
    Keywords: Carbon emissions, Net-zero pledges, Accountability
    JEL: M41 Q53 Q54
    Date: 2023
  10. By: Horbach, Jens
    Abstract: The success of climate change measures is highly dependent on household behaviour as one of the most important emission sources of carbon dioxide. Private heating, electricity consumption or private transport are important key levers to reduce households' impacts on climate change. The paper analyses the determinants of climate change related attitudes and activities based on econometric estimations of European survey data. The results show that personal factors such as female gender, qualification and a high income are positively correlated to green behaviour. Persons having difficulties to pay their bills show a lower probability of buying local, climatefriendly products, but a bad economic situation is not a barrier for green attitudes. The results for the political orientation show that politically left and middle oriented persons are more likely for supporting climate change related actions.
    Keywords: Climate change, green household behaviour, European data, multivariate probit model
    JEL: C25 D12 D91 Q01
    Date: 2023
  11. By: Dufey, Annie; Zamorano, Pinhas
    Abstract: La transición ecológica a favor del cumplimiento de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible y el Acuerdo de París sobre el cambio climático pone en relieve la importancia del desempeño social y ambiental de las actividades mineras al suponer un consumo de altas cantidades de materias. Ante el desafío de mejorar las prácticas del sector tradicionalmente asociado con efectos ambientales negativos e indiferencia hacia las comunidades locales, las principales empresas mineras han ido adoptando iniciativas encaminadas hacia la sostenibilidad. Este informe se centra en cinco países andinos, a saber, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador y Perú así como en cinco esquemas voluntarios considerados más relevantes en su contexto: Mecanismo de Aseguramiento y Validación de las Expectativas de Desempeño del Consejo Internacional de Minería y Metales (ICMM, por sus siglas en inglés), The Copper Mark (TCM), el Estándar para la Minería Responsable de la Iniciativa para Garantizar la Minería Responsable (IRMA, por sus siglas en inglés), Towards Sustainable Mining (TSM) de la Asociación Minera de Canadá y LMEpassport de la Bolsa de Metales de Londres. A estas iniciativas se suma una evaluación preliminar de la propuesta de Directiva sobre sobre la diligencia debida de las empresas en materia de sostenibilidad de la Unión Europea (UE).
    Date: 2023–08–10
  12. By: Green, Bryn
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
  13. By: Rew, L.J.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
  14. By: Senzele, Joseph; AMAYENE, Chimène
    Abstract: This study aims at analyzing the impact of Climate Change on the incomes of agricultural households in Niger through the spatial econometric modeling. It is based on the "household life survey" carried out in 2018 on 3901 farm households. So, the study showed that estimating the impact of climate on the whole of Niger (global basis) without taking into account the variabilities of climatic zones hides the particular sensitivities of each zones. This is the case of the Saharan zone, which is more sensitive to temperature than the other zones, which are more sensitive to rainfall. Also, the results reveals that the reduction in precipitation appears to be more harmful to farmers’ agricultural income than the increase in temperature. These results imply that the design of effective rural development programs and economic policies related to the fight against climate change, aimed at increasing household resilience, both in terms of adaptation and mitigation, must be done especially by taking into account the spatial variability of the impacts of climate change.
    Keywords: Climate change, spatial econometric modeling, agriculture, climatic zones, Niger
    JEL: Q11 Q51 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2022–08–13
  15. By: Loana Garraud (CRIOBE - Centre de recherches insulaires et observatoire de l'environnement - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - EPHE - École Pratique des Hautes Études - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Jennifer Beckensteiner (IUEM - Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - UBO - Université de Brest - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Olivier Thébaud (AMURE - Aménagement des Usages des Ressources et des Espaces marins et littoraux - Centre de droit et d'économie de la mer - IFREMER - Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer - UBO - Université de Brest - IUEM - Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - UBO - Université de Brest - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Joachim Claudet (CRIOBE - Centre de recherches insulaires et observatoire de l'environnement - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - EPHE - École Pratique des Hautes Études - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: As area-based marine conservation coverage expands to meet global targets, tension with fishing activities increases. While fully protected areas (FPAs) provide the largest range of long-term social-ecological benefits, their establishment has been constrained by difficulties arising from the short-term costs of protection, and associated limitations in economic incentives and in the resources required for effective implementation. Building on an existing bio-economic model for self-financed FPAs, we examine the economic and operational feasibility of establishing an ecolabel approach to balance the costs endured by fishers when implementing an FPA. Optimal increased profits can be achieved by designating the ecolabelled self-funded managed-fishing area for 20-25% of FPA. Multi-zone MPAs with a price premium derived from catch ecolabel certification inside partially protected areas surrounding FPAs provide incentives to help fishers engage into adopting sustainable fishing practices. Here we pave the way for more innovative approaches towards transformative changes for fisheries sustainability.
    Keywords: Multi-use marine protected areas, Ocean governance, Fisheries management, Co-management, Protection levels, Transformative change, Marine spatial planning
    Date: 2023–08
  16. By: Nabil EL MAJDOUB (FSJES - Faculté des Sciences Juridiques, Economique et Sociales de Mohammedia - UH2MC - Université Hassan II [Casablanca])
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has fostered a collective awareness of the environmental issue and accelerated a sustainable investment trend that has been established for several years. Considered as one of the financial instruments that can play an important role in financing the transition to a sustainable and climate-friendly economy, the Green Bond market has shown strong resilience to the COVID-19 crisis reaching record levels of issuances. This article discusses the evolution of the Green Bond market with a focus on the case of Morocco, a country heavily involved in a development process that promotes a balance between environmental, economic and social aspects.
    Abstract: La pandémie de la COVID-19, qui a terrassé l'économie mondiale, a favorisé une prise de conscience collective de la question environnementale et accéléré une tendance à l'investissement durable déjà bien ancrée depuis plusieurs années. Le marché des Green Bonds, considérés comme l'un des instruments financiers pouvant jouer un rôle important dans le financement de la transition vers une économie durable et respectueuse du climat, a démontré une forte résilience face à la crise de la COVID-19 atteignant des niveaux records d'émissions. Le présent article traite l'évolution du marché des Green Bonds avec un focus sur le cas du Maroc, pays fortement impliqué dans un processus de développement qui favorise un équilibre entre les aspects environnementaux, économiques et sociaux.
    Keywords: Green Bond, COVID-19, Morocco, Maroc
    Date: 2023–07–29
  17. By: Rae, Jeffrey
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Environmental Economics and Policy
  18. By: Donatella Gatti (University Sorbonne Paris Nord, CEPN UMR-CNRS 7234); Gaye-Del Lo (University Sorbonne Paris Nord, CEPN UMR-CNRS 7234); Francisco Serranito (University Paris Nanterre, EconomiX UMR-CNRS 7235)
    Abstract: This paper identifies the determinants of OECD Environmental Policy Stringency (EPS) index using a panel of 21 European countries for the period 2009-2019. If there is a large literature on the macroeconomic, political, and social determinants of EPS, the people’s attitudes or preferences toward environmental policies is still burgeoning. Thus, the main goal of this paper is to estimate the effects of people’s awareness regarding environmental issues on the EPS indicator. Due to the endogeneity of preferences, we have applied an instrumental variable framework to estimate our empirical model. Our most important result is to show that individual environmental preferences have a positive and significant effect on the level of EPS indicator : on average, a rise in individual preferences of 10% in a country will increase its EPS indicator by 2.30%. Our results have important policy implications.
    Keywords: Environmental policy stringency, Environmental attitudes/concerns, Inequality, Environmental Kuznets curve, EU
    JEL: Q0 Q1 Q3 Q50 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2023–08
  19. By: Mohamed Adib Ed-daoudi (University Mohamed 5 of Rabat); Kenza Oubejja (University Mohamed 5 of Rabat)
    Abstract: In this paper, we are interested in cap-and-trade policy, or the implementation of pollution permits, as a mean to decrease CO2 emissions, which is the main cause of global warming, for the case of Morocco. To do so, we used a partial equilibrium model for the cereals market and the energy sector by simulating three scenarios of total emissions caps, namely a 1% decrease in emissions, a 5% decrease and a 7.5% decrease. We used this approach because we are concerned with one market, namely the cereals market and after designing the model wich is a system of equations capturing the interactions between fossil energy, renewable energy and cereals market, we log-linearized the model that we solved using matrix algebra with Octave. The results show that these forced emissions decreases have a very small effect on the decrease in income representing households welfare, remaining the same even in the 7.5% decrease scenario, as well as an increase in solar energy production and consumption. Therefore, a cap and trade system with a reasonnable cap will reduce emissions without affecting that much households welfare, while encouraging renewable energy production at the same time.
    Keywords: Emissions Partial equilibrium model Cereals market Energy Cap and trade Renewable energies, Emissions, Partial equilibrium model, Cereals market, Energy, Cap and trade, Renewable energies
    Date: 2023–08
  20. By: Höck, André; Bauckloh, Michael Tobias; Dumrose, Maurice; Klein, Christian
    Abstract: Demand for sustainable fixed-income investment solutions is surging but there is hardly research on the impact of sustainability on the risk characteristics of fixed-income portfolios. This study examines the impact of sustainability on the credit risk exposure of U.S. corporate bond portfolios between 2013 and 2020 by analyzing the returns of sustainable and non-sustainable portfolios using two different asset pricing models and environmental, social, and governance (ESG) ratings from different providers. Controlling for a set of portfolio characteristics, our results show that sustainable portfolios are significantly less exposed to credit risk than their non-sustainable peer portfolios. This finding implies that considering ESG criteria in portfolio management is a suitable means to systematically manage credit risk. Being the first study to investigate the relationship between sustainability and credit risk on portfolio level, this study contributes to the understanding of the effects of ESG criteria in portfolio management and provides academics and investment professionals with valuable insights.
    Keywords: Sustainability, Credit risk management, Corporate bonds
    JEL: G12 G32 Q56
    Date: 2023
  21. By: Justin Contat (Federal Housing Finance Agency); Caroline Hopkins (Federal Housing Finance Agency); Luis Mejia (Federal Housing Finance Agency); Matthew Suandi (Federal Housing Finance Agency)
    Abstract: In this paper, we survey a growing body of academic research at the intersection of climate risks, housing, and mortgage markets, with a focus on the United States. With near unanimity, climate scientists project disasters to increase in frequency, severity, and geographic scope over the next century. While natural hazards, such as hurricanes, riverine flooding, and wildfires have historically posed risks to regional housing markets, the systemic risk that climate change may pose to housing and mortgage markets is of increasing concern. To understand the components of systemic climate risk, we survey existing work relating physical and transition risks to mortgage and housing markets, including both single-family and multifamily segments. Our review of physical risks addresses price, loan performance, and migratory effects stemming from flooding, wildfires, and sea level rise. In surveying transition risks, we discuss papers on energy use and decarbonization as they relate to real estate. Where possible, we explain how these topics may intersect with housing affordability and sustainability, especially for historically disadvantaged communities. We conclude by drawing attention to critical areas for research into flood and other climate-related perils likely to pose significant challenges for real estate in the coming century.
    Keywords: climate change, hazard risk, sustainability, affordability
    JEL: C5 E3 R1 R3
  22. By: Asuamah Yeboah, Samuel
    Abstract: The adoption of sustainable manufacturing practices is crucial for achieving a balance between economic growth and environmental sustainability. While sustainable manufacturing practices have gained significant attention and implementation in developed countries, their adoption and implementation in low-income countries face unique challenges. This extensive. review aims to provide a detailed analysis of the existing literature on sustainable manufacturing practices in low-income countries. It explores the challenges, drivers, barriers, and policy implications associated with the adoption of sustainable manufacturing practices. Through an examination of the current state of sustainable manufacturing practices in low-income countries, this review seeks to identify best practices, strategies, and future research directions to promote sustainable manufacturing in these contexts.
    Keywords: sustainable manufacturing practices, low-income countries, sustainability, economic development, environmental impact.
    JEL: L52 L61 O14 O33 O38 Q55 Q56
    Date: 2023–06–17
  23. By: Hauer, Mathew
    Abstract: The warnings of potential climate migration first appeared in the scientific literature in the late 1970s when increased recognition that disintegrating ice sheets could drive people to migrate from coastal cities. Since that time, scientists have modelled potential climate migration without integrating other population processes, potentially obscuring the demographic amplification of this migration. Climate migration could amplify demographic change – enhancing migration to destinations and suppressing migration to origins. Additionally, older populations are the least likely to migrate and climate migration could accelerate population aging in origin areas. Here, we investigate climate migration under sea-level rise (SLR), a single climatic hazard, and examine both the potential demographic amplification effect and population aging by combining matrix population models, flood hazard models, and a migration model built on 40 years of environmental migration in the US to project the US population distribution of US counties. We find that the demographic amplification of SLR for all feasible RCP-SSP scenarios in 2100 ranges between 8.6M - 28M [5.7M - 53M] – 5.3 to 18 times the number of migrants (0.4M - 10M). We also project a significant aging of coastal areas as youthful populations migrate but older populations remain, accelerating population aging in origin areas. As the percentage of the population lost due to climate migration increases, the median age also increases – up to 10+ years older in some highly impacted coastal counties. Additionally, our population projection approach can be easily adapted to investigate additional or multiple climate hazards.
    Date: 2023–07–25
  24. By: Blaber, Richard Michael
    Abstract: Thomas Malthus predicted that human population would always grow faster than food production, but the ‘Green Revolution’ of the 1960s appeared to disprove his thesis. Now anthropogenic climate change, with its adverse impacts on crop yields, the supply of water for irrigation, and the health and increased mortality of farm animals, is once again threatening to vindicate him, as human population grows from 8 billion now to an estimated 9.74 billion by 2050. Human-induced biodiversity loss is compounding this problem.
    Date: 2023–08–04
  25. By: Xin Sheng (Lord Ashcroft International Business School, Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, United Kingdom); Rangan Gupta (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028, South Africa); Oguzhan Cepni (Copenhagen Business School, Department of Economics, Porcelaenshaven 16A, Frederiksberg DK-2000, Denmark)
    Abstract: This study investigates the impact of a structural shock to a metric of extreme weather, identified using sign restrictions, on output growth (and inflation) in the United States (US) from 1961 to 2022, using a time-varying parameter vector autoregressive (TVP-VAR) model. Our results show that severe weather shocks adversely affect output growth (and inflation) over the forecast horizon of one- to twelve-quarter-ahead. More importantly, we find that the effect of extreme weather on the US macroeconomic variables is indeed time-varying, with the impacts becoming smaller in recent times, possibly due to improved adaptation to climate change.
    Keywords: Severe weather, Endogenous TVP-VAR, Growth, Inflation
    JEL: C32 E31 E32 Q54
    Date: 2023–08
  26. By: Asuamah Yeboah, Samuel
    Abstract: This paper explores the role of technological innovations in advancing resource efficiency through circular economy strategies and industrial symbiosis. It highlights key innovations such as advanced recycling techniques, digital platforms for resource exchange, and product lifecycle management systems that enable resource conservation, waste reduction, and efficient material use. Industrial symbiosis networks leverage technology and innovation to facilitate resource sharing among companies, transforming waste from one industry into valuable inputs for another. This paper discusses the policy implications, identifies directions for future research, and emphasizes the need for collaboration, regulatory frameworks, and education to promote sustainable technology adoption. By embracing these innovations, societies can transition towards a circular economy, minimizing environmental impacts and enhancing resource efficiency.
    Keywords: Technological innovations, Circular economy, Resource efficiency, Advanced recycling techniques, Digital platforms, Product lifecycle management, Industrial symbiosis, Policy implications
    JEL: O32 Q53
    Date: 2023–06–05
  27. By: Asuamah Yeboah, Samuel
    Abstract: This paper explores the relationship between socio-cultural factors and sustainable consumption, aiming to uncover the elements that contribute to long-term change in consumer behaviour. Sustainable consumption is recognized as a crucial aspect of achieving global sustainability goals, encompassing social, economic, and environmental dimensions. The study focuses on three key socio-cultural factors: social norms, cultural values, and social influence processes. Social norms strongly influence behaviour, as individuals conform to gain social acceptance and avoid sanctions. Aligning consumption choices with perceived norms helps individuals maintain social approval and avoid being seen as deviant. Understanding how social norms are established, transmitted, and reinforced is vital for effective promotion of sustainable consumption. Cultural values provide shared meanings that guide behaviour. Certain values, such as those emphasizing environmental protection and social responsibility, foster pro-sustainability attitudes and behaviours. Conversely, values emphasizing materialism and short-term gains hinder sustainable consumption. Exploring cultural diversity and context-specific influences sheds light on consumption patterns across societies. Social influence processes, including peer pressure and the desire for social belonging, play a significant role in driving sustainable consumption. Individuals are influenced by their social networks, such as family, friends, and opinion leaders, aligning their choices with those around them. Understanding the dynamics of social influence, including communication and social media impact, informs strategies to promote sustainable behaviours. Examining the durability of socio-cultural influences is crucial for long-term change. Research should focus on information dissemination, social learning, role modelling, and innovation diffusion mechanisms. By understanding these socio-cultural threads, interventions and strategies can be developed to encourage sustainable lifestyles and foster lasting change at individual, social, and cultural levels.
    Keywords: Sustainable consumption; Socio-cultural influences; Behaviour change; Environmental consciousness; Consumer attitudes; Social norms; Cultural values; Sustainable lifestyles
    JEL: D12 D91 Q01 Q56 Z13
    Date: 2023–04–16
  28. By: Ellalee, Haider; Al-Qaysi, Israa I.
    Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the impact of e-governments on promoting sustainable development and a more inclusive society. Enhancing transparency, accountability, and effective performance, including public services and integrated policies, that promote sustainable development and growth for governments and how to manage everything related to them, especially managing resources efficiently to achieve the future and current well-being of generations, is one of the main drivers for advancing the performance of governments. We applied two methods in our research: i) Bibliographic, descriptive and analytical study through specialised software tools, we have highlighted the relationships and correlations between different concepts. ii) Analysis of the e-government effect on sustainable development by Introducing a novel logistical model to study research 103 nations as a sample from 2003 to 2018. Positive results from the first technique have suggested prospective action directions, including theoretical approaches and the sharing of best practices. The second method shows how e-government, especially in emerging and transitioning countries, boosts the likelihood of achieving sustainable development. The results also show that economic growth with per capita GDP both significantly and positively influences sustainability in general and that sustainable development is more likely to occur in countries with lower rates of age interdependence with natural resource rents.
    Keywords: Sustainable Development, Digital Government, Bibliographic Study, Natural Resource, E-Government
    JEL: C32 D73 L70
    Date: 2023–07–03
  29. By: Julien Wolfersberger (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Gregory Amacher; Philippe Delacote; Arnaud Dragicevic
    Abstract: We develop a model of optimal land allocation in a developing economy that features three possible land uses: agriculture, primary and secondary forests. The distinction between those forest types reflects their different contribution in terms of public good. In our model, reforestation is costly because it undermines land title security. Using the forest transition concept, we study long-term land-use change and explain important features of cumulative deforestation across countries. Our results shed light on the speed at which net deforestation ends, on the effect of tenure costs in this process, and on composition in steady state. We also present a policy analysis that emphasizes the critical role of institutional reforms addressing the costs of both deforestation and tenure in order to promote a transition. We find that focusing only on net forest losses can be misleading since late transitions may yield, upon given conditions, a higher level of environmental benefits.
    Keywords: Deforestation, Economic Development, Forest transition, Tenure costs
    Date: 2022–06
  30. By: Douadia Bougherara (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier); Léa Petit (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Raphaële Préget (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier); Sophie S. Thoyer (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier)
    Keywords: Nudge, Comportement des agriculteurs
    Date: 2022–12–15
  31. By: Samuelsson, Karl; Brandt, S Anders; Barthel, Stephan; Linder, Noah; Lim, Nancy Joy; Giusti, Matteo
    Abstract: To inform spatial planning promoting low-carbon travel and well-being, we investigate the potential for experiential diversity by active travel across different residential contexts. We use spatiotemporal tracking and experience data from the Gävle city-region, Sweden, generated by 165 participants over the course of 15 months. Findings reveal a discrepancy between typical travel distances to locations of positive experiences (1.5–5 km) and the distances at which active travel dominates (up to 1.5 km). This discrepancy largely persists across urban, suburban, and peripheral contexts, with urban dwellers travelling further for nature experiences, whereas peripheral dwellers travel further for urbanicity experiences. These results illustrate the importance of spatial scale for promoting diverse positive experiences by active travel, regardless of residential context. Planning strategies include enhancing environmental diversity close to people’s homes and providing infrastructure that promotes switching from motorised to active travel for trips of a few kilometres.
    Date: 2023–07–27
  32. By: Besley, Timothy; Persson, Torsten
    Abstract: Reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases may be almost impossible without a green transition—a substantial transformation of consumption and production patterns. To study such transitions, we propose a dynamic model, which differs in two ways from the common approach in economics. First, consumption patterns reflect not just changing prices and taxes, but changing values. Transitions of values and technologies create a dynamic complementarity that can help or hinder a green transition. Second, and unlike fictitious social planners, policymakers in democratic societies cannot commit to future policy paths, as they are subject to regular elections. We show that market failures and government failures can interact so as to prevent a welfare-increasing green transition from materializing, or make an ongoing green transition too slow.
    Keywords: 693402; 2015-00253
    JEL: D71 D72 D91 Q58
    Date: 2023–08–01
  33. By: Luxton, Sarah; Smith, Greg; Williams, Kristen; Ferrier, Simon; Bond, Anthelia; Prober, Suzanne
    Abstract: Global biodiversity is in decline and businesses are being asked to urgently create new operating models to ameliorate the crisis. Amongst the strategies proposed to do this, the development of an economy that is ‘nature-positive’ has captured worldwide attention. Publicised as biodiversity’s catch-all equivalent for a carbon net-zero future, organisations from the Taskforce on Nature-related Financial Disclosures to the World Economic Forum are calling for a transition to nature-positive, but little guidance exists as to what this means and how to do it. In this article, we outline financial opportunities, ecological concepts, and risks underpinning aspirations for a nature-positive economy, including seven financial instruments, and four ecological concepts that form the foundation of nature-positive (health, abundance, diversity, and resilience). We then outline six classes and 30 drivers of risk that could arise through poor design or implementation of the nature-positive economy, and touch on mitigation measures to prevent these.
    Date: 2023–07–26
  34. By: See, Priti
    Abstract: This paper explores the potential of biomimetics to revolutionize medical and food waste management systems in the United States. By forging circular economies in these fields, biomimetics can provide robust financial benefits. Furthermore, biomimetics can mitigate waste accumulation and related health hazards from such systems. In light of this paper’s findings, ongoing and long-term financial investments in biomimetic technology are recommended to create sustainable medical and food waste systems on a nationwide scale.
    Date: 2023–08–08
  35. By: Frohmann, Alicia; Olmos, Ximena
    Abstract: En este documento se visibilizan los vínculos entre el comercio internacional y distintos aspectos de la sostenibilidad a partir de la experiencia de la Alianza del Pacífico en tres áreas específicas: i) empoderamiento económico de las mujeres e igualdad de género; ii) economía circular y bioeconomía, y iii) internacionalización de las microempresas y pequeñas y medianas empresas (mipymes). Estas tres áreas son prioritarias para las políticas que se orientan al desarrollo sostenible e inclusivo, tanto en cada uno de los países como en la misma Alianza del Pacífico. Para lograr una mayor articulación entre lo que ocurre en cada país y las iniciativas regionales es preciso contar con un mandato al máximo nivel político, teniendo en cuenta el potencial de sinergias y complementariedad entre las tres áreas mencionadas, en la búsqueda de un comercio internacional sostenible e inclusivo. Las disposiciones de desarrollo sostenible incluidas en los acuerdos comerciales y la promoción de las exportaciones pueden ser un aporte en esa dirección.
    Date: 2023–08–09
  36. By: Zabala, Cedrick
    Abstract: This academic research explores the experiences and lessons learned from coastal zone management in Zamboanga City, Philippines. The study examines the effectiveness of various strategies and initiatives implemented by local government and stakeholders to address the complex challenges associated with coastal zone management. The research is based on an extensive analysis of primary data collected through interviews, surveys, and field observations, as well as secondary data from government reports and academic publications. The findings reveal that Zamboanga City has faced significant environmental, socio-economic, and governance challenges in managing its coastal zones. The study highlights the importance of integrated coastal zone management approaches that incorporate ecological, economic, and social dimensions. It identifies successful initiatives such as community-based resource management, zoning regulations, and public-private partnerships that have contributed to sustainable coastal development and resilience. However, the research also identifies several key challenges hindering effective coastal zone management in Zamboanga City, including inadequate resources, limited capacity, competing interests, and weak enforcement mechanisms. The study recommends policy interventions such as improved coordination among government agencies, enhanced stakeholder engagement, and the establishment of a dedicated coastal management authority. This research contributes to the existing body of knowledge on coastal zone management by providing insights into the specific experiences and lessons learned in Zamboanga City, Philippines. The findings can inform policy decisions and guide the development of more effective strategies for coastal zone management in similar contexts globally.
    Keywords: coastal zone management, Zamboanga City, Philippines, local government, stakeholders, strategies, initiatives, challenges, effectiveness, primary data, secondary data.
    JEL: I0 I3 I30 I38 I39 O1 O10 O2 O20 O29 Y8 Y9 Y90 Z0 Z00 Z1 Z10 Z13 Z18 Z19
    Date: 2023–07–01
  37. By: Halvor Briseid Storrøsten (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: This paper examines the investment incentives of market-based regulation, with focus on the technology characteristics the different regulatory schemes tend to incentivize. The firms' technology choice is socially optimal if and only if the aggregate emission allowance supply is completely inelastic. Further, in the presence of uncertainty, elastic emission allowance supply and strictly convex environmental damage, it is optimal to tax investment in technologies that induce large variance in emissions. Last, price elastic supply of emission allowances may increase the volatility in the product market, depending on the risk environment the firms face. The results indicate that introduction of permit price stabilizing measures in an emission trading system will come at the cost of suboptimal technology investments. It may also cause increased fluctuations in product prices.
    Keywords: Regulation; technology choice; uncertainty; investment; welfare
    JEL: Q52 Q58 D81 H41
    Date: 2023–06
  38. By: Beresford, Melissa; Brewis, Alexandra; Choudhary, Neetu; Drew, Georgina; Garcia, Nataly Escobedo; Garrick, Dustin; Hossain, Mohammed Jobayer; Lopez, Ernesto; Nébié, Elisabeth Ilboudo; Pacheco-Vega, Raul
    Abstract: Scholars and practitioners now acknowledge that “MAD Water” systems (modular, adaptive, decentralized engineered infrastructures) will expand to meet human water needs under future climate change, migration, and urbanization scenarios. Yet social science research on existing MAD water infrastructures documents how the use and deployment of such systems often undermines water justice. Here we posit that identifying and analyzing moral economies for water provides one approach for scholars to understand—and possibly predict—when and why justice norms in MAD water systems break down or become unstable. Moral economies are institutional arrangements in which people’s shared ideas of justice normatively shape how they distribute and exchange basic resources. We review the concept of moral economies, explain an operational framework for researching moral economies, and illustrate how moral economies function within three already-operating MAD water systems today: water sharing arrangements, informal water vending markets, and small-scale water commons. We argue that when moral economies are embedded and operating successfully within MAD water systems, they can create check-and-balance mechanisms against injustice. But when moral economies are absent or failing in MAD water systems, water injustices often prevail. As such, the moral economies framework provides not only a tool for analysis, but also a possible language and pathway forward toward organizing for justice in MAD water systems.
    Date: 2023–07–24
  39. By: Gellman, Jacob; Walls, Margaret A. (Resources for the Future); Wibbenmeyer, Matthew (Resources for the Future)
    Abstract: Wildfire smoke pollution is growing in the western United States. Estimates of its health impacts are numerous, but few revealed preference estimates of its damages exist. We study a setting where individuals are directly exposed to smoke, and avoidance behavior is measured with high frequency: outdoor recreation. We combine millions of administrative campground reservation records with satellite data on wildfire, smoke, and air pollution. These data are rich among most studies of recreation, with nearly 1, 000 campgrounds and detailed individual-level observations. The data allow us to model sequential recreation decisions under evolving information using a novel control function approach. We estimate that wildfire smoke reduces welfare by $107 per person per trip. Damages are larger when campgrounds are affected by consecutive days of smoke and attenuated when smoke events are sufficiently far from active fires. In total, 21.5 million outdoor recreation visits in the western United States are affected by wildfire smoke every year, with annual welfare losses of approximately $2.3 billion. These findings contribute to a growing body of evidence on the costs of wildfire smoke.
    Date: 2023–08–14
  40. By: Olivier Petit (UA - Université d'Artois, CLERSÉ - Centre Lillois d’Études et de Recherches Sociologiques et Économiques - UMR 8019 - Université de Lille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Philippe Méral (IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement); Iratxe Calvo-Mendieta (ULCO - Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, TVES - Territoires, Villes, Environnement & Société - ULR 4477 - ULCO - Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale - Université de Lille); Hélène Melin (Université de Lille, CLERSÉ - Centre Lillois d’Études et de Recherches Sociologiques et Économiques - UMR 8019 - Université de Lille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Date: 2023–06
  41. By: Bauckloh, Michael Tobias; Dobrick, Juris; Höck, André; Utz, Sebastian; Wagner, Marcus
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the (dis)agreement of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) ratings across different rating providers and implications for portfolio management. It documents a considerable level of disagreement that is particularly high for large companies and for companies from the Healthcare and the Basic Materials sector. In general, the sector in which the companies are mainly active explains a large part of the variation in disagreement measures of the SDG ratings. Moreover, we document different return characteristics and risk factor exposures of portfolios sorted according to SDG ratings of different rating providers. Overall, our analyses show that the selection of a specific SDG rating for portfolio allocation can have a crucial impact on financial and non-financial outcomes of portfolios, which bears significant implications for sustainability transitions and their financing.
    Date: 2023
  42. By: Li, Yue; Wang, Mingshu; Zhao, Qunshan
    Abstract: With the global pandemic significantly changing people’s travel behaviours, urban traffic analysis has played an even more important role in urban (re)development, providing insights for urban planning, traffic management, and resource allocation. This research uses the spatial Durbin model to understand the relationship between traffic flows, urban infrastructure, and socio-demographic indicators before, during, and after pandemic periods. We analyze factors including road characteristics, socio-demographics, surrounding built environments, and Google Street View images to understand their influences on traffic flows. In Glasgow, we have found that areas with more young and white dwellers are associated with higher traffic flows, while green spaces are associated with fewer traffic flows. The application of Google Street View images has revealed the heterogeneous effects of the built environment on urban traffic flows, as the magnitudes of their effects vary by distance. With the influence of COVID-19, residents prefer to spend their daily life in their local areas rather than having long-distance travel in the pre-pandemic time. With this noticeable travel behaviour change, the promotion and development of the 15 or 20-minute neighbourhood concept can play an important role in encouraging active travel and achieving a net-zero carbon target in the near future.
    Date: 2023–07–27
  43. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: This Technical Report discusses the results of the Public Investment Management Assessment (PIMA), including the Climate module, for Rwanda, undertaken in 2022. The Rwandan government has placed significant emphasis on public investment to support the country’s economic transformation, and investment has accelerated in recent years. The country performs well in the design and effectiveness of its public investment management institutions, in planning and coordination, but has mixed results in allocation and implementation, as evidenced by the stalling and abandonment of some projects. Infrastructure development is also a crucial component of the country's climate change adaptation strategy. Rwanda's Nationally Determined Contribution outlines measures to address climate change, with an estimated cost of over USD 5.3 billion (55 percent of GDP) by 2030. Rwanda already performs strongly in climate change-aware planning, with a well-designed and effective system for integrating climate change considerations in national and sectoral planning processes. However, there is room to enhance project appraisal and selection processes by incorporating climate change mitigation and adaptation criteria. Many important documents and data remain unpublished, such as the Fiscal Risk Review, project costs, and selection criteria, reducing accountability and scrutiny.
    Date: 2023–08–01
  44. By: Charrier François (LISIS - Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Sciences, Innovations, Sociétés - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Université Gustave Eiffel); Juliette Cognie (PRC - Physiologie de la reproduction et des comportements [Nouzilly] - IFCE - Institut Français du Cheval et de l'Equitation [Saumur] - UT - Université de Tours - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Aubin-Houzelstein Geneviève (CODIR - Collège de Direction - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Morgane Costes-Thiré (GenPhySE - Génétique Physiologie et Systèmes d'Elevage - ENVT - Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - UT - Université de Toulouse - ENSAT - École nationale supérieure agronomique de Toulouse - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - UT - Université de Toulouse - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Vanina Deneux-Le Barh (UMR Innovation - Innovation et Développement dans l'Agriculture et l'Alimentation - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement, IFCE - Institut Français du Cheval et de l'Equitation [Saumur]); Valérie Fillon (GenPhySE - Génétique Physiologie et Systèmes d'Elevage - ENVT - Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - UT - Université de Toulouse - ENSAT - École nationale supérieure agronomique de Toulouse - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - UT - Université de Toulouse - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Victoria Fluckiger-Serra (UMR Innovation - Innovation et Développement dans l'Agriculture et l'Alimentation - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Félix Jourdan (UMR Innovation - Innovation et Développement dans l'Agriculture et l'Alimentation - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Aurore Kubica (IFCE - Institut Français du Cheval et de l'Equitation [Saumur]); Léa Lansade (PRC - Physiologie de la reproduction et des comportements [Nouzilly] - IFCE - Institut Français du Cheval et de l'Equitation [Saumur] - UT - Université de Tours - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, IFCE - Institut Français du Cheval et de l'Equitation [Saumur]); Sébastien Mouret (UMR Innovation - Innovation et Développement dans l'Agriculture et l'Alimentation - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Charline Nivelle (IFCE - Institut Français du Cheval et de l'Equitation [Saumur]); Alice Raspail (SELMET-LRDE - Systèmes d'Elevage Méditerranéens et Tropicaux - Laboratoire de Recherche sur le Développement de l'Elevage - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Suzanne Tapie (UMR Innovation - Innovation et Développement dans l'Agriculture et l'Alimentation - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Jocelyne Porcher (UMR Innovation - Innovation et Développement dans l'Agriculture et l'Alimentation - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement, PRC - Physiologie de la reproduction et des comportements [Nouzilly] - IFCE - Institut Français du Cheval et de l'Equitation [Saumur] - UT - Université de Tours - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Keywords: Retirement, Farm animals, Redeployment
    Date: 2023–07–06
  45. By: Atilano-Tang, Lesley Ann
    Abstract: This study examines the vulnerability and resilience of coastal barangays in Zamboanga City, Philippines, in the context of disaster risk management. Utilizing a comprehensive data collection approach, including interviews, surveys, and field observations, this research aims to identify key factors that contribute to the vulnerability of these communities, as well as the strategies employed to enhance their resilience. The analysis of primary data collected from 30 households across five coastal barangays reveals that these communities face significant vulnerabilities to various hazards, including typhoons, storm surges, and sea-level rise. Findings indicate that factors such as inadequate infrastructure, limited access to basic services, and high poverty levels intensify their exposure to disasters. In response to these challenges, the study documents several resilience-building initiatives undertaken by the local government and community organizations. These efforts include the establishment of early warning systems, the implementation of hazard-resistant infrastructure, and the promotion of community-based disaster risk reduction and management practices.
    Keywords: disaster risk management, vulnerability, resilience, coastal barangays, Zamboanga City, Philippines, hazards, infrastructure, poverty, community-based initiatives.
    JEL: I30 I38 Y80 Y90 Z00
    Date: 2023–07–01
  46. By: Indrageni, Putri
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine of job stress effect, job satisfaction and organizational climateto turnover intention on the PT. Kencana Sawit Indonesia. The respondentamounted to52 staff, determining respondents using random sampling from the number of respondent 108. Data was collected byquestionnaires. The study uses the job stress and organizational climate of independent variables and turnover intention of dependent variables along job satifaction mediation variables.This shows that the higher the perceived stress, the greater the employee turnover intention, and the better the organizational climate satifaction and turnover intention would be lower.
    Date: 2023–07–25
  47. By: Kayamba-Phiri, Fundi
    Abstract: Titukulane was designed to reduce the number of chronically food insecure households by enhancing the capacities of local and national governance structures to implement resilience-focused policies. To achieve this Titukulane is implementing interventions that buildresilience and improve food security and nutrition outcomes for communities. Specifically, under Purpose area 3, these interventions are aimed at building institutional and local capacities to reduce risk and increase resilience among ultra-poor and chronically vulnerable households.Specific interventions implemented under Purpose 3 are disaster risk management, natural resource management and overall coordination of the National Resilience Strategy especially at district level.
    Keywords: MALAWI; SOUTHERN AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; food insecurity; capacity development; resilience; nutrition; poverty; natural resources management; disaster risk management
    Date: 2023
  48. By: Barinova, Vera (Баринова, Вера) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Demidova, Ksenia (Демидова, Ксения) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Loginova, Arina (Логинова, Арина) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The Sustainable Development Goals remain relevant in times of crisis, especially such goals as eradicating poverty, inequality, ensuring economic growth, developing innovation and infrastructure. Achieving these goals is where small and medium-sized enterprises can play a key role. An analysis of the EU countries’ experience in the application of entrepreneurship support measures is of particular interest for the prompt adjustment of the Russian SME support policy, since they take into account not only short-term political and economic needs, but are aimed at achieving a long-term result - sustainable development. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the analysis of the best foreign SME support practices in terms of achieving certain indicators of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The purpose of the work is to generalize the experience of SME support in the EU in connection with the implementation of sustainable development goals. For this, the following tasks have been set: establishing links between the SME activities and the implementation of the SDGs; analysis of support for various target groups of entrepreneurs in the context of achieving SDGs 8, 9 in the EU; analysis of anti-crisis support measures in the context of achieving SDGs 8, 9 in the EU. General scientific methods are applied - generalizations, comparisons, synthesis, inductive approach. The following conclusions and results were obtained in the study: SMEs contribute greatly to value creation, development and use of innovations, promoting employment, and they are most consistent with SDGs 8, 9; the main support measures include traditional loans and guarantees, subsidies, public procurement, tax incentives, as well as digital platforms, improving the digital skills of the population, financing scientific research; support for vulnerable groups of entrepreneurs is carried out through the promotion of entrepreneurship, the development of entrepreneurial skills and culture, information and advisory support, access to financing, development of entrepreneur networks and improvement of labor legislation; development of assistive technology to access support measures; provision of premises for doing business, coaching, mentoring. Among the recommendations for the Russian practice, it is necessary to note facilitating the SME access to financial resources, promoting entrepreneurship, creating networks of entrepreneurs in areas with different specifics, training entrepreneurs and the public in digital technologies, and providing special benefits for doing business to vulnerable groups of the population. Research prospects: analysis of the Russian experience of SME support in conjunction with the SDGs and generalization of the most effective practices in order to form an effective policy.
    Keywords: small and medium entrepreneurship, sustainable development goals, foreign experience, government support, youth entrepreneurship, women's entrepreneurship, digitalization, anti-crisis policy
    JEL: J78 O38 O57 Q01
    Date: 2022–07
  49. By: Bruno, Ellen Marie; Hagerty, Nick
    Abstract: We study the regulation of open-access resources under long implementation horizons. Our theoretical model clarifies when and how future regulation creates either an anticipatory decline or perverse incentives to accelerate extraction (a "Green Paradox'"). Then, we evaluate the early effects of a major groundwater regulation in California that does not yet bind. We assemble new data and compare within pairs of neighboring agencies that face varying restrictions on extraction. Differences in future regulation do not affect measures of water-intensive investments or groundwater extraction today. The absence of anticipatory response in either direction can be explained by high private discount rates.
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences
    Date: 2023–08–18
  50. By: Balietti, Anca; Budjan, Angelika; Eymess, Tillmann; Soldà, Alice
    Abstract: Information can trigger unpleasant emotions. As a result, individuals might be tempted to willfully ignore it. We experimentally investigate whether increasing perceived control can mitigate strategic ignorance. Participants from India were presented with a choice to receive information about the health risk associated with air pollution and later asked to recall it. We find that perceived control leads to a substantial improvement in information retention. Moreover, perceived control mostly benefits optimists, who show both a reduction in information avoidance and an increase in information retention. This latter result is confirmed with a US sample. A theoretical framework rationalizes these findings.
    Keywords: air pollution; information avoidance; information retention; perceived control; motivated cognition; Luftverschmutzung
    Date: 2023–08–18
  51. By: Eduardo C. Garrido-Merch\'an; Sol Mora-Figueroa-Cruz-Guzm\'an; Mar\'ia Coronado-Vaca
    Abstract: This paper investigates the application of Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) for Environment, Social, and Governance (ESG) financial portfolio management, with a specific focus on the potential benefits of ESG score-based market regulation. We leveraged an Advantage Actor-Critic (A2C) agent and conducted our experiments using environments encoded within the OpenAI Gym, adapted from the FinRL platform. The study includes a comparative analysis of DRL agent performance under standard Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) market conditions and a scenario where returns are regulated in line with company ESG scores. In the ESG-regulated market, grants were proportionally allotted to portfolios based on their returns and ESG scores, while taxes were assigned to portfolios below the mean ESG score of the index. The results intriguingly reveal that the DRL agent within the ESG-regulated market outperforms the standard DJIA market setup. Furthermore, we considered the inclusion of ESG variables in the agent state space, and compared this with scenarios where such data were excluded. This comparison adds to the understanding of the role of ESG factors in portfolio management decision-making. We also analyze the behaviour of the DRL agent in IBEX 35 and NASDAQ-100 indexes. Both the A2C and Proximal Policy Optimization (PPO) algorithms were applied to these additional markets, providing a broader perspective on the generalization of our findings. This work contributes to the evolving field of ESG investing, suggesting that market regulation based on ESG scoring can potentially improve DRL-based portfolio management, with significant implications for sustainable investing strategies.
    Date: 2023–06
  52. By: Khezr, Peyman; Pourkhanali, Armin
    Abstract: The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), as the largest cap-and-trade system in the United States, employs quarterly auctions to distribute emissions permits to firms. This study examines firm behavior and auction performance from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. We utilize auction theory to offer theoretical insights regarding the optimal bidding behavior of firms participating in these auctions. Subsequently, we analyze data from the past 58 RGGI auctions to assess the relevant parameters, employing panel random effects and machine learning models. Our findings indicate that most significant policy changes within RGGI, such as the Cost Containment Reserve, positively impacted the auction clearing price. Furthermore, we identify critical parameters, including the number of bidders and the extent of their demand in the auction, demonstrating their influence on the auction clearing price. This paper presents valuable policy insights for all cap-and-trade systems that allocate permits through auctions, as we employ data from an established market to substantiate the efficacy of policies and the importance of specific parameters.
    Keywords: Emissions permit, auctions, uniform-price, RGGI
    JEL: C5 D21 Q5
    Date: 2023–04–24
  53. By: Scott Barrett
    Abstract: I model the ocean as an array of lines set within a two-dimensional frame, and show how the Exclusive Economic Zone emerged as an equilibrium in customary international law. I find that custom codifies the efficient Nash equilibrium of enclosure for nearshore fisheries. For highly migratory and offshore fisheries, enclosure is inefficient, and customary law supports a more efficient “free sea” regime. The model also identifies the trigger for changes in property rights and the reason choice of a particular limit, like the current 200-mile zone, is arbitrary. In an asymmetric, regional sea, I find that the scope of the EEZ is determined by the relative power of coastal and distant water states, and need not be efficient. Finally, I find that proposals to nationalize the seas or ban fishing on the high seas are neither efficient nor supportable as equilibria in customary law.
    Keywords: customary international law, exclusive economic zone, ocean fisheries, closure of high seas
    JEL: K33 F55 Q22
    Date: 2023
  54. By: Kayamba-Phiri, Fundi
    Abstract: The National Resilience Strategy (NRS) aims to build resilience against economic and environmental shocks, promoting inclusive growth, food security, and well-being for all Malawians. The NRS consists of four pillars: (1) Resilient Agricultural Growth; (2) Risk Reduction, Flood Control and Early Warning and Response Systems; (3) Human Capacity, Livelihoods, and Social Protection; and (4) Catchment Protection and Management. Titukulane RFSA is piloting the NRS in Zomba and Mangochi districts, working with District Councils to coordinate implementation with various stakeholders. This learning brief highlights the lessons learned from developing the Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) plans in Zomba and Mangochi districts and offers recommendations for other districts planning to implement the National Resilience Strategy (NRS). The brief also discusses the Opportunities for Collaboration between National and District Pillar Leads and Aligning the NRS with Key Government Strategies, particularly the Malawi 2063 (MW 2063), to foster synergy and impact.
    Keywords: MALAWI; SOUTHERN AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; resilience; shocks; food security; agriculture; early warning systems; flood control; capacity development; watersheds; catchment
    Date: 2023
  55. By: Cristiana Gião (NIPE/Center for Research in Economics and Management, University of Minho, Portugal); Rita Sousa (NIPE/Center for Research in Economics and Management, University of Minho, Portugal)
    Abstract: Uma Matriz de Contabilidade Social (Social Accounting Matrix, SAM) pode ser utilizada para medir os impactos das mudanças climáticas no turismo e consequentemente na restante economia, através da análise das relações entre os diversos setores económicos e setores específicos. A SAM ajuda assim a identificar os setores e agentes mais afetados pelas mudanças e a magnitude dos seus impactos. No presente estudo optou-se por acrescentar à SAM não só uma dimensão micro do turismo, através da identificação das atividades e produtos caraterísticos do set, como também uma perspetiva geográfica macro, de forma a evidenciar padrões do turismo internacional relacionados com a economia portuguesa. Assim, com este estudo será possível desenvolver modelos de equilíbrio geral que permitirão aos formuladores de políticas económicas desenvolver estratégias eficazes de adaptação e mitigação para o setor do turismo.
    Date: 2023
  56. By: Julio Arboleda; Evar Umeozor (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: Today, it is impossible to imagine life without plastics due to their flexible characteristics. However, the attractive characteristics of plastic in several industries are generating another global problem: waste plastic disposal. According to the “OECD Global Plastic Outlook” published in 2022, global plastic waste production increased by more than 2.25 times between 2000 and 2019 to 353.3 million tons (MMT). However, only 9% of that plastic waste is recycled.
    Keywords: Agent based modeling, Analytics, Applied resesarch, Autometrics
    Date: 2023–06–22
  57. By: Fengler, Matthias; Phan, Minh Tri
    Abstract: We investigate the topics discussed in the Management's Discussion and Analysis (MD&A) section of 10-K filings from January 1994 to December 2018. In our modeling approach, we elicit the MD&A topics by clustering words around a set of anchor words that broadly define a potential topic. From the topics, we extract two hidden loading series from the MD&As - a measure of topic prevalence and a measure of topic sentiment. The results are three-fold. First, the topics we find are intelligible and distinctive but are potentially multi-modal, which may explain why classical topic models applied to 10-K filings often lack interpretability. Second, topic prevalence and sentiment tend to follow trends which, by and large, can be rationalized historically. Third, sentiment affects topics heterogeneously, i.e., in topic-specific ways. Adding to the extant document-level techniques, our study demonstrates the potential benefits of using a nuanced topic-level approach to analyze the MD&A.
    Keywords: 10-K files, MD&A, natural language processing, topic modeling
    JEL: C55 G30 M41
    Date: 2023–08
  58. By: Newby, Howard
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
  59. By: Sule Alan (European University Institute); Corekcioglu (Kadir Has University); Mustafa Kaba (Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods, Bonn); Matthias Sutter (Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods, Bonn)
    Abstract: Using data from over 2, 000 professionals in 24 large corporations, we show that female leaders shape the relational culture in the workplace differently than male leaders. Males form homophilic professional ties under male leadership, but female leadership disrupts this pattern, creating a less segregated workplace. Female leaders are more likely to establish professional support links with their subordinates. Under female leadership, female employees are less likely to quit their jobs but no more likely to get promoted. Our results suggest that increasing female presence in leadership positions may be an effective way to mitigate toxic relational culture in the workplace.
    Keywords: female leadership; workplace climate; social networks
    JEL: C93 J16 M14
    Date: 2023–08
  60. By: Hufschmidt, Patrick; Ume, Chukwuma Otum
    Abstract: This paper empirically investigates the effects of Anti-Open Grazing Laws (AOGLs) on herder-farmer conflicts in Nigeria. The laws, enacted as a response to escalating violent conflicts over fertile land resources between herders and farmers, aimed to reduce clashes by prohibiting livestock grazing in specific areas and periods. Our study employs a geographic difference-in-discontinuities design, leveraging the sharp change in legal conditions at state borders and the panel structure of our data. We integrate conflict data from the Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project (ACLED) with spatially disaggregated microdata to analyze how AOGLs influence conflict incidence across regions of Nigeria. Our findings indicate limited effectiveness of AOGLs in curbing herder-farmer conflicts, suggesting instead a displacement of conflicts. It also appears that the laws have led to a slight increase in overall conflict within the states implementing them, arguably due to increased engagements between herder or farmer groups and security forces. These results underscore the need for more comprehensive, context-specific interventions to address the root causes of herder-farmer conflicts.
    Keywords: Conflict, civil war, climate change, ethnicity, resource competition, herder-farmer conflicts
    JEL: D74 N47 Q13 Q34
    Date: 2023
  61. By: Tendero, Emerissa Jane
    Abstract: This study explores the controversies and available options surrounding the implementation of the ISO 9001:2015 quality management system in local government units (LGUs) within Zamboanga Peninsula (Region IX), Philippines. By employing a comprehensive mixed-methods approach, the study investigates the challenges, benefits, and potential solutions associated with ISO 9001:2015 adoption in the context of LGUs. Drawing from the LGUs in Zamboanga Peninsula, data were collected through surveys, interviews, and document analysis. The findings indicate that the implementation of ISO 9001:2015 in LGUs encounters notable controversies and presents a range of options for local administrators. The study reveals that the primary challenges include limited resources, inadequate understanding of ISO standards, resistance to change, and the absence of a supportive organizational culture. Furthermore, the research identifies several options to address these challenges effectively. These options encompass capacity-building initiatives, stakeholder engagement, internal process improvements, and the establishment of a conducive organizational environment. Notably, the study emphasizes the need for tailored strategies that account for the unique characteristics and circumstances of each LGU. This research contributes to the existing literature by shedding light on the controversies and options surrounding the implementation of ISO 9001:2015 in LGUs. The findings serve as a valuable resource for policymakers, local administrators, and stakeholders involved in enhancing the quality of public service delivery. By adopting effective strategies, LGUs in Zamboanga Peninsula can overcome challenges and leverage the benefits of ISO 9001:2015 to improve their overall performance and governance.
    Keywords: ISO 9001:2015, local government units, controversies, options, Zamboanga Peninsula, Philippines.
    JEL: A10 A19 Y80 Y90 Z00 Z1
    Date: 2023–07–08
  62. By: Sophie Bollinger (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) Mulhouse - Colmar - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Marion Neukam (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) Mulhouse - Colmar - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Il n'est plus à prouver que l'innovation a une importance significative dans la stratégie des organisations. L'avantage concurrentiel d'une organisation dépend alors largement de la motivation intrinsèque de ses collaborateurs à être créatifs et donc à innover. Dans ce chapitre, notre objectif est de proposer des éléments de réponse à l'amélioration de l'engagement et de l'attachement d'un individu à l'organisation afin d'accroître sa motivation intrinsèque à réaliser des tâches créatives. Nos réflexions sont fondées sur une étude de cas comparative entre un acteur de l'économie sociale et solidaire (ESS) et une entreprise industrielle. Nous suggérons que la seule présence d'une mission sociale de l'entreprise n'est pas suffisante pour stimuler la motivation intrinsèque des collaborateurs. Le cadre organisationnel et une stratégie de communication claire des valeurs de l'entreprise sont au moins aussi cruciaux pour maintenir la motivation intrinsèque d'un individu dans le temps.
    Keywords: Valeurs, Créativité, Innovation, Engagement
    Date: 2023
  63. By: Cortney Cowley; Jacob Dice; David Rodziewicz
    Abstract: Drought has occurred with greater intensity and frequency in many areas of the United States in recent years. Despite the growing concern surrounding the impacts of drought on the agricultural sector, few studies have quantified the impact of drought on the cattle industry. In this paper, we estimate the impacts of drought on cattle herd management, hay production, hay prices, and farm income in the United States from 2000 to 2022. Our results indicate that drought negatively impacts hay production and results in higher hay prices. Drought also contributes to herd liquidation and is correlated with lower farm incomes. As drought intensity increases, we find some evidence of reduced average herd sizes (liquidation). As herd size declines, revenues temporarily increase, which could be due to selling larger quantities of market and breeding stock. Overall, drought has a temporary positive effect on rancher revenues, but a negative effect on earnings.
    Keywords: drought; agriculture; cattle prices
    JEL: Q10 Q13 Q15
    Date: 2023–06–02
  64. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: After a rapid recovery from the pandemic, economic activity is converging towards potential levels. Headline inflation has rapidly declined from last year’s peak, but core inflation remains elevated, and inflation expectations are above target. To address cost-of-living concerns, the new government expanded the 2023 budget envelope, while identifying measures to recover tax revenues. The authorities are also embarking on an ambitious agenda to steer a sustainable, inclusive, and green economy.
    Date: 2023–07–31
  65. By: Widiawaty, Millary Agung; Dede, Moh. (Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia)
    Abstract: Buku ini memberikan pemahaman tentang potensi energi nuklir sebagai solusi dalam mencapai tujuan pembangunan berkelanjutan dan pengurangan emisi karbon. Dari dasar-dasar reaksi nuklir hingga pengaplikasiannya dalam berbagai bidang, termasuk energi, pembaca akan dipandu untuk menyongsong kesiapan infrastruktur untuk pembangunan PLTN di Indonesia. Dengan pengalaman dari negara-negara lain dan konsep FOLU Net Sink, buku ini menggambarkan bagaimana penggunaan energi nuklir dapat menjadi jawaban atas tantangan perubahan iklim. Namun, tantangan yang muncul, seperti ketergantungan pada teknologi dan bahan bakar dari negara lain, masalah keamanan dan risiko lingkungan, dan masalah sosial dan politik, juga disajikan dengan jelas. Meskipun demikian, buku ini menunjukkan bahwa dengan pengelolaan risiko yang efektif dan penerapan standar keselamatan yang tinggi, energi nuklir dapat menjadi solusi untuk memenuhi kebutuhan energi dunia yang semakin meningkat dan untuk mengurangi emisi karbon. Buku ini akan memberikan wawasan berharga bagi siapa saja yang tertarik dalam pengembangan energi nuklir dan tujuan pembangunan berkelanjutan secara global.
    Date: 2023–04–16
  66. By: Mostafa Pazoki; Hamed Samarghandi; Mehdi Behroozi
    Abstract: Supply chain disruption can occur for a variety of reasons, including natural disasters or market dynamics. If the disruption is profound and with dire consequences for the economy, the regulators may decide to intervene to minimize the impact for the betterment of the society. This paper investigates the minimum quota regulation on transportation amounts, stipulated by the government in a market where transportation capacity is below total production and profitability levels differ significantly among different products. In North America, an interesting example can happen in rail transportation market, where the rail capacity is used for a variety of products and commodities such as oil and grains. This research assumes that there is a shipping company with limited capacity which will ship a group of products with heterogeneous transportation and production costs and prices. Mathematical problems for the market players as well as the government are presented, solutions are proposed, and implemented in a framed Canadian case study. Subsequently, the conditions that justify government intervention are identified, and an algorithm to obtain the optimum minimum quota is presented.
    Date: 2023–08
  67. By: Dobdinga C. Fonchamnyo (The University of Bamenda, Cameroon); Boniface N. Epo (The University of Yaoundé 2, Cameroon); Giyoh G. Nginyu (The University of Bamenda, Cameroon); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of biocapacity and institutional quality on inclusive human development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using system-GMM on a sample of 39 countries, it is found that institutional quality increases inclusive human development and all its components. It is also established that biocapacity positively affects inclusive human development and the underlying positive effect is driven by the inclusive health component of inclusive human development and not by the inclusive education and inclusive income components of inclusive human development. A keen follow-up of environmental laws is a safe path for inclusive human development in Sub-Saharan Africa.
    Keywords: biocapacity, institutional quality, inclusive human development
    JEL: G20 I10 I32 O40 P37

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