nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2023‒04‒03
eighty-six papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Air Pollution and Economic Sanctions in Iran By Hamid Balali; Mohammad Reza Farzanegan; Omid Zamani; Mostafa Baniasadi
  2. Impact of Climate Change on Water in Pakistan By Nazam Maqbool
  3. The impact of climate legislation on trade-related carbon emissions 1996–2018 By Eskander, Shaikh M.S.U.; Fankhauser, Sam
  4. Financial inclusion and environmental sustainability By Ozili, Peterson K
  5. The Relevance of Life-Cycle CO2 Emissions for Vehicle Purchase Decisions: A Stated Choice Experiment for Germany By Michaela V. Gerhardt; Elke D. Kanberger; Andreas Ziegler
  6. How Firm Capacity and Forced Outage Rate Assumptions of Renewables Impact Capacity Expansion Model Results By Amro Elshurafa; Marie Petitet; Frank Felder
  7. Monthly Report No. 09/2022 By Grzegorz W. Kolodko; Ambre Maucorps; Olga Pindyuk; Roman Römisch
  8. Carbon Tax in the Shipping Sector: Assessing Economic and Environmental Impacts By Paula Pereda; Andrea Lucchesi, Thais Diniz, Rayan Wolf
  9. The crucial role of domestic and international market-mediated adaptation to climate change By Christophe C. Gouel; David Laborde
  10. The economic consequences of air pollution policies in Arctic Council countries: A sectoral analysis By Daniel Ostalé Valriberas; Elisa Lanzi; Zbigniew Klimont; Rita Van Dingenen
  11. Water challenges in socio-ecological systems: is human decision-making accounted for in the analysis of climate change adaptation options? By Zanini, Sara
  12. Emissions and Global Development: Evidence from the Environmental Kuznets Curve By Walter Cont; Fernando Antonio Ignacio González; Eliana Mariel Uesu
  13. Human Capital and Climate Change By Angrist, Noam; Winseck, Kevin; Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Zivin, Joshua Graff
  14. Home, green home: Policies to decarbonise housing By Peter Hoeller; Volker Ziemann; Boris Cournède; Manuel Bétin
  15. Greenhouse gas emission budgets and policies for zero-carbon road transport in Europe By Plötz, Patrick; Wachsmuth, Jakob; Sprei, Frances; Gnann, Till; Speth, Daniel; Neuner, Felix; Link, Steffen
  16. Climate change and growth By Stern, Nicholas; Stiglitz, Joseph E.
  17. Willingness to Pay for Carbon Mitigation: Field Evidence from the Market for Carbon Offsets By Rodemeier, Matthias
  18. The Evolving Academic Field of Climate Finance By Matteo Gasparini; Peter Tufano
  19. Reflections on the Role of Natural Capital for Economic Activity By Björn Döhring; Atanas Hristov; Anna Thum-Thysen; Cristiano Carvell
  20. The macroeconomic effects of temperature surprise shocks By Filippo Natoli
  21. We Didn’t Start the Fire: Effects of a Natural Disaster on Consumers’ Financial Distress By Anson T. Y. Ho; Kim Huynh; David T. Jacho-Chávez; Geneviève Vallée
  22. Towards a Modelling Process for Simulating Socio-ecosystems with a Focus on Climate Change Adaptation By Cornacchia, Federico; Martínez-Hernández, Alberto Gabino; Bidoia, Marco; Giupponi, Carlo
  23. Technology will save the climate! Attitudes towards Norway's climate policy in four social groups By Nordø, Åsta Dyrnes; Andersen, Gisle; Merk, Christine
  24. Greenhouse gas emissions and bank lending By Koji Takahashi; Junnosuke Shino
  25. Shareholders and the environment: a review of four decades of academic research By Gunther Capelle-Blancard; Adrien Desroziers; Bert Scholtens
  26. Private disaster expenditures by rural Bangladeshi households: evidence from survey data By Eskander, Shaikh M.S.U.; Steele, Paul
  27. Factor Exposure Heterogeneity in Green and Brown Stocks By David Ardia; Keven Bluteau; Gabriel Lortie-Cloutier; Thien-Duy Tran
  28. Walk the green talk? A textual analysis of pension funds’ disclosures of sustainable investing By Rob Bauer; Dirk Broeders; Annick van Ool
  29. The Role of Public Development Banks & Institutions in the Implementation of the United Nations’ Agenda 2030: A Survey in Europe By Martina Colombo; Matteo Cuda
  30. From competition to a sustainable raw materials diplomacy: Pointers for European policymakers By Müller, Melanie; Saulich, Christina; Schöneich, Svenja; Schulze, Meike
  31. Impact of household waste on the environment and health in the periphery of kinshasa, DRC By Guylain NKULA NSINDU; Benjamin KONGOLO TSHISUAKA; Aimé KUDIAKUBANZA KATEMBO
  32. Determinants of the social acceptability of Low Emission Zones (LEZ) in France: the case of the future LEZ in Grenoble By Rim Rejeb; Hélène Bouscasse; Sandrine Mathy; Carole Treibich
  33. Regulatory barriers to climate action: evidence from conservation areas in England By Fetzer, Thiemo
  34. More than a feeling By Dietrich, Stephan; Nichols, Stafford
  35. Debt-for-climate swaps as a tool to support the implementation of the Paris Agreement By Erik Grigoryan; Zenathan Adnin Hasannudin; Alberto Isgut; Patrick Martin; Deanna Morris
  36. Making the carbon basket count: Goal setting promotes sustainable consumption in a simulated online supermarket By Ayşegül Kanay; Denis Hilton; Laetitia Charalambides; Jean-Baptiste Corrégé; Eva Inaudi; Laurent Waroquier; Stéphane Cézéra
  37. Cost Pass-Through with Capacity Constraints and International Linkages By Reinhard Ellwanger; Hinnerk Gnutzmann; Piotr Śpiewanowski
  38. Going Green: Estimating the Potential of Green Jobs in Argentina By Manuela María Cerimelo; Pablo De la Vega; Natalia Porto
  39. The antecedents of SSCI: Evidence from the textile and fashion industry in Jordan By Mohammad J. Aladaileh; Eva Lahuerta Otero
  40. Valuing mortality attributable to present and future extreme temperatures in Argentina By Mariano Javier Rabassa; Christian Garcia-Witulski; Grand Mariana Conte; Julie Rozenberg
  41. Debt for Climate Swaps in the Pacific SIDS By Erik Grigoryan; Alberto Isgut; Patrick Martin
  42. The criticality of lithium and the sustainability-finance nexus: Supply-demand perceptions, state policies, production networks, and financial actors By Wojewska, Aleksandra; Staritz, Cornelia; Tröster, Bernhard; Leisenheimer, Luisa
  43. Regional Fuel Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Saudi Arabia: Impacts of Electricity Price Reforms By Abdulelah Darandary; Jeyhun Mikayilov; Salaheddine Soummane
  44. Maßnahmen zur Reduzierung des Pflanzenschutzmitteleinsatzes – Anpassungsoptionen, Kosten und Möglichkeiten zur umweltpolitischen Steuerung By Dehler, Marcel
  45. Adapting to Climate Risk? Local Population Dynamics in the United States By Agustín Indaco; Francesc Ortega
  46. From organizations as systems of ocean destruction to organizations as systems of ocean thriving By Héloïse Berkowitz
  47. Consumer preferences for new fermented food products that mix animal and plant protein sources By Anne Saint-Eve; Françoise Irlinger; Caroline Pénicaud; Isabelle Souchon; Stéphan Marette
  48. Child Fostering in a Changing Climate: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa By Ronnkvist, Sara; Thiede, Brian C.; Barber, Emma
  49. Mega Solar Project & Amendment In NEPRA Distributed Generation & Net-Metering Regulation, 2015 By Maria Ali
  50. Los desafíos de la planificación para el desarrollo en América Latina y el Caribe: algoritmos, metodologías y experiencias By -
  51. Life history and mutation rate joint evolution By Avila, Piret; Lehmann, Laurent
  52. The Role of Climate in Deposit Insurers' Fund Management: More Than a Financial Risk Management Factor? By Bert Van Roosebeke; Ryan Defina
  53. Food Subsidies Programs In Pakistan: A Review By Nasir Iqbal
  54. Public safety under imperfect taxation By Nicolas Treich; Yuting Yang
  55. Future of Aviation: Advancing Aerial Mobility through Technology, Sustainability, and On-Demand Flight By Cohen, Adam; Shaheen, Susan PhD
  56. Asymmetric effects of financial volatility and volatility-of-volatility shocks on the energy mix By Pérez, Rafaela; Ruiz, Jesús; Guinea, Laurentiu
  57. Kingdom of the Netherlands–the Netherlands: Selected Issues By International Monetary Fund
  58. Implications of Food Systems for Food Security: The case of the Republic of Mozambique By Isabelle Tsakok
  59. Integrating Micromobility with Public Transit: A Case Study of the California Bay Area By Ferguson, Beth; Sanguinetti, Angela
  60. Flood Disaster Management By Abdul Manna
  61. Intrinsic motivation to promote the development of renewable energy: a field experiment from household demand By Adélaïde Fadhuile; Daniel Llerena; Béatrice Roussillon
  62. Accelerate Thermal Modernization of Buildings with Minimum Standards for Buildings and Binding Retrofitting Targets By Sophie Behr; Merve Küçük; Karsten Neuhoff
  63. Efficient scale and scope of business models used in municipal solid waste management By Di Foggia, Giacomo; Beccarello, Massimo
  64. Eco-friendly Cooperative Traffic Optimization at Signalized Intersections By Hao, Peng; Oswald, David; Wu, Guoyuan; Barth, Matthew J
  65. Vehículos eléctricos en el sector transporte y su impacto económico en Argentina By Gustavo Ariel Ramirez
  66. The barriers to sustainable risk transfer in the cyber-insurance market By Henry Skeoch; Christos Ioannidis
  67. El efecto de los shocks de precios de alimentos y energía sobre la inflación. Un análisis a partir de estimadores GMM y PVAR By Nicolás Bertholet; Gabriel Montes Rojas; Fernando Toledo
  68. The Willingness to Pay for Cider Products: Results of a Survey on Habits and Consumption Behavior By Eric Le Fur; Jean-Francois Outreville
  69. Behavioral Spillovers By Bonev, Petyo
  70. Subsidizing agricultural inputs in Senegal: Comparative analysis of three modes of intervention using a farm household model By Aymeric Ricome; Kamel Louhichi; Sergio Gomez y Paloma
  71. Economía del Cuidado en Argentina: Evaluación de políticas bajo un enfoque de Insumo Producto By Maria Laura Ojeda; María Priscila Ramos; Carlos Adrián Romero
  72. Plans d'aménagement forestier et conditions de vie des populations des forêts d'Afrique centrale By Kenneth Houngbedji; Benoit Mertens
  73. Luna, P.F., Mignemi, N. (éd.), 2017, Prédateurs et résistants : appropriation et réappropriation de la terre et des ressources naturelles (16e-20e siècles), Paris, Éditions Syllepse. By Emma Tyrou
  74. Klimaverhandlungen im Zeichen multipler Krisen. Nach der COP 27: Vertrauen und Glaubwürdigkeit in der internationalen Klimapolitik By Feist, Marian; Geden, Oliver
  75. Determinants of sectoral effective carbon rates on energy use By Santos Espina Mairal; Hildegart Ahumada; Fernando Navajas; Alejandro Rasteletti
  76. Pipelines for a Hydrogen System in California By Cerniauskas, Simonas; Fulton, Lewis; Ogden, Joan
  77. Índice de Calidad Institucional y Desarrollo Económico: análisis de clústeres y el caso de Argentina By Mauro David Reyes Pontet
  78. Rethinking MSME Finance in Asia and the Pacific - A Policy Agenda: Post COVID-19 Crisis By Masato Abe; Nick Freeman; Mike Troilo
  79. Metodologia para obtenção de índices agronômicos e nota rodoviária para homogeneização em avaliações rurais By Ailton Moisés Xa Fiorentin; Carlos Augusto Arantes; Marcelo Rossi de C. Lima; Taís Diane Nico Fiorentin; Luciana Márcia Gonçalves
  80. La tragedia de los políticos y los votantes: Cuando el crecimiento económico se convierte en una utopía By Flavia Poinsot
  81. Preferences for meat substitute with plant-based proteins: an experiment with real products consumption By Leplat Mélody; Loheac Youenn; Teillet Eric
  82. Spatial Modeling of Bargaining Among Stakeholders in Energy Policy: The Case of Japanese Nuclear Plants By Emre Hatipoglu; Brian Efird; Saleh Al Muhanna
  83. ¿Cuál es el Stock de Fosforo optimo en términos económicos en el suelo y que factores lo afectan? By Ignacio Benito Amaro
  84. V3E - La voiture Electrique, Energie et Environnement By André Fontana
  85. Cost, Footprint, and Reliability Implications of Deploying Hydrogen in Off-grid Electric Vehicle Charging Stations: A GIS-assisted Study for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia By Amro Elshurafa; Abdelrahman Muhsen; Frank Felder
  86. Innovations vertes et modes de consommation, By Nathalie Lazaric

  1. By: Hamid Balali (Ali Sina University); Mohammad Reza Farzanegan (University of Marburg); Omid Zamani (Thuenen Institute of Market Analysis); Mostafa Baniasadi (Ali Sina University)
    Abstract: This study aims to simulate the future trends of carbon emissions under different international sanction scenarios in Iran. A System Dynamics (SD) model is developed and several variables that capture multiple levels of economic, social, and environmental concepts are taken into account. Our findings indicate that, despite Iran's sluggish economic growth, fossil fuel use and CO2 emissions will rise in the scenarios with international sanctions. Imposed sanctions on Iran exacerbate the environmental negative externalities through increasing energy intensity of economic sectors and consequently cause more CO2 emissions. Thus, based on our findings, prolonging international sanctions could be a major barrier to improving energy intensity and lowering CO2 emissions. Given the potential unintended environmental consequences of international sanctions, this study suggests that international communities, particularly sanctioning countries, should consider the environmental impacts of sanctions in their policy-making decisions in order to reduce emissions and related environmental damages.
    Keywords: Sanctions; System Dynamics; Environmental Impacts; Simulation; CO2 Emissions; Iran; JCPOA
    JEL: P18 F51 Q2
    Date: 2023
  2. By: Nazam Maqbool (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics)
    Abstract: Water is the prime channel through which the impacts of climate change on the world’s ecosystems and livelihoods will be felt. Pakistan is already a water-stressed country, ranking 14 among the 17 ‘extremely high water risk’ countries.[1] Climate change in the form of rising temperatures and extreme and less predictable weather patterns are projected to affect patterns of rainfall, snowmelt, river flows, groundwater and water quality in Pakistan. This can lead to an increase in both inter- and intra-country disputes over water sharing arrangements.
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Eskander, Shaikh M.S.U.; Fankhauser, Sam
    Abstract: We analyse the international impact on carbon emissions from national climate legislation in 111 countries over 1996–2018. We estimate trade-related carbon leakage, or net carbon imports, as the difference between consumption and production emissions. Legislation has had a significant negative and roughly similar impact on both consumption and production emissions. The net impact on trade-related emissions is therefore not statistically significant, neither in the short term (laws passed in the last 3 years) nor the long term (laws older than 3 years). We find a significant negative long-term impact on domestic emissions from laws passed by trade partners. This latter specification corresponds to the traditional definition of carbon leakage. Overall, we conclude that there has been no detrimental effect of climate legislation on international emissions.
    Keywords: carbon leakage; climate change legislation; climate policy; consumption emissions; production emissions; technology spillovers
    JEL: F18 K32 Q54 Q56 Q58
    Date: 2023–02–22
  4. By: Ozili, Peterson K
    Abstract: This paper analyses the association between financial inclusion and environmental sustainability. The study uses Pearson correlation analysis to analyse the association between financial inclusion and environmental sustainability. The level of financial inclusion was measured using two supply-side financial inclusion indicators: the number of ATMs per 100, 000 adults and the number of commercial bank branches per 100, 000 adults. Environmental sustainability was measured using two indicators: the environmental policy stringency index and the environmentally adjusted multifactor productivity growth index. The study finds that financial inclusion is positively correlated with environmental sustainability particularly in non-EU countries. The result implies that financial inclusion programs and efforts in non-EU countries complement environmental sustainability efforts toward achieving the United Nations sustainable development goals (SDGs). The findings also reveal a significant and negative association between environmental policy stringency and environmentally adjusted multifactor productivity growth particularly in EU member-countries and European countries, implying that strict environmental protection policies may harm green growth in EU and European countries.
    Keywords: Environment, sustainability, sustainable development, financial inclusion, access to finance, supply-side financial inclusion
    JEL: G21 Q01 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2023
  5. By: Michaela V. Gerhardt (University of Kassel); Elke D. Kanberger (University of Kassel); Andreas Ziegler (University of Kassel)
    Abstract: This paper examines the individual preferences for a reduction of life-cycle CO2 emissions in vehicle purchase decisions. The empirical analysis is based on data from a stated choice experiment with more than 1, 100 citizens in Germany that refers to decisions between three types of electric vehicles and a conventional (i.e. gasoline or diesel) vehicle that are characterized by several attributes like purchase price or fuel costs. With respect to CO2 emissions, we specifically examine emissions in vehicle production besides the commonly considered emissions in vehicle use. Our econometric analysis with flexible mixed logit models reveals a strong stated preference for the reduction of CO2 emissions in both vehicle use and production, whereby the estimated willingness to pay for CO2 emission reductions is higher for vehicle production. Furthermore, we find that conventional vehicles are significantly preferred over plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and particularly strongly significantly preferred over extended-range and pure electric vehicles. Surprisingly, environmental attitudes, i.e. environmental awareness and ecological policy identification, have no significant effects on the reduction of CO2 emissions in both vehicle use and production. These results suggest that citizens in Germany with strong environmental identity do not consider reductions of CO2 emissions in vehicle purchase decisions as an important direction for climate protection. Instead, this group rather tends to avoid the purchase of conventional vehicles since environmental attitudes have a significantly positive effect on the stated choice of electric vehicles, whereby this estimated effect is dominated by an ecological policy orientation instead of general environmental awareness. The latter result suggests the strong relevance of the controversial political discussion about the transition to electromobility in Germany. By considering economic preferences, the econometric analysis additionally reveals that individual trust is relevant for the purchase of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.
    Keywords: Vehicle purchase decisions, CO2 emissions in vehicle use and production, climate protection, electric vehicles, stated choice experiment, mixed logit models
    Date: 2023
  6. By: Amro Elshurafa; Marie Petitet; Frank Felder (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: The power generation sectors of many countries are undergoing a transformation through the deployment of renewable energy (RE) to address climate change issues. Saudi Arabia, for example, intends to retire liquid fuels in its power mix and develop its renewable capacity to meet its 50% renewable target by 2030 (Vision 2030 2022; Saudi & Middle East Green Initiatives 2023).
    Keywords: Battery storage, Electricity trade, Business models, Climate change
    Date: 2023–03–05
  7. By: Grzegorz W. Kolodko; Ambre Maucorps (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Olga Pindyuk (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Roman Römisch (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: Chart of the Month Taking stock of the COVID-19 pandemic by Olga Pindyuk Opinion Corner A third of a century of economic transformation by Grzegorz W. Kolodko Although a third of a century has passed since the Polish Round Table and the fall of the Berlin Wall, we do not know when the post-socialist political and economic transformation really began – or whether it is already over. All things considered, it has proved a great and historic success, even if the scale of it has varied across different countries. Alternative measures of living standards that go beyond GDP suggest that the gap between post-socialist countries and the West may now be smaller than is customarily believed. Economic and environmental convergence in the EU by Roman Römisch Economic convergence is a topic widely discussed in the EU cohesion policy debate, while environmental convergence is a new term, born out of the substantial variations in greenhouse gas emissions across regions and the EU’s aim of becoming climate neutral by 2050. In this article, we ask whether economic convergence is compatible with environmental convergence. Our answer is not necessarily optimistic. Phasing out coal? A challenge to European territorial cohesion in times of energy crisis by Ambre Maucorps A shift away from coal in favour of sustainable energy sources has been promoted by the European Commission as an essential step towards achieving climate neutrality by 2050. But the energy crisis now unfolding in the wake of Russia’s war in Ukraine and the use of locally extracted solid fossil fuels as an alternative to natural gas could render the EU’s low-carbon transition ambitions unrealistic – unless EU countries maintain their phase-out plans and show greater solidarity with the regions and communities likely to be most affected. Monthly and quarterly statistics for Central, East and Southeast Europe
    Keywords: new COVID-19 cases, COVID-19 related deaths, excess mortality, transition outcomes, catching up, inequality-adjusted human development index, economic convergence, environmental convergence, carbon intensity of output, energy crisis, European Green Deal, coal phaseout
    Date: 2022–09
  8. By: Paula Pereda; Andrea Lucchesi, Thais Diniz, Rayan Wolf
    Abstract: We discuss the impact of a carbon tax on the maritime transport sector, which is responsible for approximately 3% of global emissions. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has set long-term targets to reduce carbon intensity and achieve carbon neutrality, but the impact of the policies to achieve those targets on the global and local economies must be assessed. We use a global and multi-region Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model - Global Trade Analysis Project Energy-Environmental augmented version (GTAP-E) – to evaluate the environmental and economic effectiveness of a carbon tax of $50/tCO2e on international shipping. GTAP-E does not provide emissions data by transport mode and accurately estimating emissions is crucial to proposing a carbon pricing measure. Therefore, we have applied machine-learning techniques to predict the share of international trade transported by sea by sector, origin and destination countries and calculate ship emissions for each bilateral flow by sector. The findings indicate that while the tax considerably reduced emissions from ships, it also had a negative impact on exports and resulted in mixed impacts on GDP, exacerbating existing inequalities across regions. Our analysis highlights the importance of considering various economic and social variables in impact assessments to identify potential trade-offs and synergies between policy objectives.
    Keywords: Carbon Pricing; Carbon Tax; Shipping; Computable General Equilibrium
    JEL: Q52 R48 F17 Q56
    Date: 2023–03–16
  9. By: Christophe C. Gouel (CEPII - Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales - Centre d'analyse stratégique, ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, CREST - Centre de Recherche en Économie et Statistique - ENSAI - Ecole Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Analyse de l'Information [Bruz] - X - École polytechnique - ENSAE Paris - École Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Administration Économique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); David Laborde (IFPRI - International Food Policy Research Institute [Washington] - CGIAR - Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research [CGIAR])
    Abstract: Climate change effects on agricultural yields will be uneven over the world. A few countries, mostly in high latitudes, may experience gains, while most will see average yield decrease. This paper aims to quantify the role of market-mediated adjustments in attenuating the effects of climate change by allowing the expression of the new climate-induced pattern of comparative advantages within and between countries. To do this, we develop a quantitative general equilibrium trade model where the representation of land use choice is inspired from modern Ricardian trade models. We use spatially explicit information from the agronomic literature about potential yields before and after climate change for calibration and counterfactual simulations. The results show that the climate-induced yield changes generate large price movements that incentivize adjustments in production and trade. Both production and trade adjustments contribute to reducing welfare losses globally, with production adjustments making the larger contribution.
    Abstract: Les effets du changement climatique sur les rendements agricoles seront hétérogènes dans le monde. Quelques pays, principalement dans les latitudes élevées, pourraient bénéficier de gains, alors que la plupart devraient avoir des pertes de rendement. Cet article a pour but de quantifier le role des ajustements médiés par le marché dans l'atténuation des effets du changement climatique en permettant l'expression des nouveaux avantages comparatifs induits par le climat. Pour faire cela, nous développons un modèle quantitif d'équilibre général dans lequel la représentation des choix d'usage des sols est inspirée des modèles de commerce ricardien modernes. Nous utilisons des informations spatialement explicites provenant de la littérature agronomique sur les rendements potentiels avant et après changement climatique pour le calibrage et pour les simulations contrefactuelles. Les résultats montrent que les changements de rendement induits par le climate génèrent d'importants changements de prix qui créent des incitations à ajuster la production et le commerce. Les ajustements de production et de commerce contribuent tous les deux à réduire les pertes de bien-être au niveau mondial, les justements de production contribuant le plus.
    Keywords: Adaptation, Agriculture, Climate change, International trade, Land use, Commerce international, Usage des sols, Changement climatique
    Date: 2021–03
  10. By: Daniel Ostalé Valriberas; Elisa Lanzi; Zbigniew Klimont; Rita Van Dingenen
    Abstract: This report quantifies the environmental, health and economic consequences of policy action on air pollution in Arctic Council countries, with a focus on sectoral differences. The report takes a modelling approach and compares a baseline scenario that reflects current legislation, with a policy scenario in which the best available techniques to reduce emissions are deployed in all emitting sectors. The report highlights that benefits from air quality improvements can be obtained when considering emission reductions throughout the economy, and not just in the sectors that are targeted more often, such as industry and transport. The results presented in the report also highlight the need for country-specific policy strategies that take into account the current levels of policy stringency, the sectoral contributions to air pollution, and the need for sectoral investment in new technologies, which also vary by country.
    Keywords: air pollution, air quality, best available techniques, computable general equilibrium models
    JEL: C68 Q53 Q52
    Date: 2023–03–20
  11. By: Zanini, Sara
    Abstract: This mixed-method systematic review is motivated by the willingness to identify the efforts of the most recent developments of the literature on the understanding of water challenges in socioecological systems, particularly coastal ones. The attention, in the exercise, is directed at the analysis of individual and collective decision-making processes concerning the use of the environmental good. This is because ultimately, if it is true that water resources are affected by external trends and shocks, it is also relevant how distinct paths of local and regional level responses impact on resource status. The inquiry, departs from a conceptual point of view mainly pinpointing scholars’ already proposed method- ological solutions for the concern, being them mostly participatory modelling excercises, bayesian net- work analyses, multi-agent games and experiments and finally integrated assessment models. Even if methodological tools with a potential to explicitly represent human decision-making coupled with its connection with the natural environment do exist, these methods are found to be relatively superficially articulated in interdisciplinary water management analyses. Particularly, the study explores to what extent is the human behaviour, in relation to water resources, included into the extant analyses.
    Keywords: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2023–03–10
  12. By: Walter Cont; Fernando Antonio Ignacio González; Eliana Mariel Uesu
    Abstract: The global sustainable development agenda indicates that countries must achieve a rapid reduction in greenhouse gases emissions (decarbonization) while sustaining economic growth to continue improving living standards -especially in developing countries-. The relationship between emissions and economic growth is complex. One of the most widely used tools to model this relationship is the so-called Environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). The EKC suggests the existence of an inverted-U relationship between greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and economic growth. In this work, we estimate the EKC for a broad panel of countries spanning the last three decades (1990-2019), using a panel regression with fixed effects. We find a positive relationship between GHG emissions and growth. Emissions eventually turn with income when we narrow down the analysis to carbon dioxide excluding land use, land use change and forestry, supporting the EKC hypothesis. These results are robust when decomposing by emitting activities (energy and industrial processes) and sub-activities (electricity, transportation and buildings), but they are not robust to decomposition by regions. In the 1990-2019 sample, we find no relationship between emissions and growth in the Latin American and the Caribbean, as well as some other regions. We use the results to assess the level of income at which emissions eventually decouple from growth. Even though we show some disperse results, which are common in the literature, we recommend cautiousness and deeper research in fostering growth hoping emissions will eventually turn. Therefore, decarbonization efforts should not be diminished.
    JEL: Q56 O13
    Date: 2022–11
  13. By: Angrist, Noam; Winseck, Kevin; Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Zivin, Joshua Graff
    Abstract: Addressing climate change requires individual behavior change and voter support for proclimate policies, yet surprisingly little is known about how to achieve these outcomes. This paper estimates causal effects of additional education on pro-climate outcomes using new compulsory schooling law data across 16 European countries. It analyzes effects on pro-climate beliefs, behaviors, policy preferences, and novel data on voting for green parties - a particularly consequential outcome to combat climate change. Results show a year of education increases pro-climate beliefs, behaviors, most policy preferences, and green voting, with voting gains equivalent to a substantial 35% increase.
    Keywords: Human Capital, Education, Climate Change, Compulsory Schooling Laws, Voting
    JEL: D72 H41 I20 I28 P16 Q01 Q5
    Date: 2023
  14. By: Peter Hoeller; Volker Ziemann; Boris Cournède; Manuel Bétin
    Abstract: The housing sector is one of the main sources of CO2 emissions in OECD countries, accounting for over a quarter of the total. Robust and rapid action is required to reach the net zero emission target by 2050. Decarbonising housing involves halting the use of fossil fuels in homes, ensuring that electricity is generated from carbon-free sources, using high-energy-efficiency appliances and heating systems, ensuring effective insulation and encouraging behavioural changes. This paper discusses which policy instruments can prompt this transformation of the housing sector, ranging from carbon pricing through energy labelling requirements to green housing finance.
    Keywords: decarbonisation, energy efficiency, Housing, insulation
    JEL: F64 H23
    Date: 2023–03–20
  15. By: Plötz, Patrick; Wachsmuth, Jakob; Sprei, Frances; Gnann, Till; Speth, Daniel; Neuner, Felix; Link, Steffen
    Abstract: Following the Paris Agreement, virtually all countries worldwide have committed themselves to undertaking efforts to limit global warming to 1.5°C. Within the European Union (EU), the recent "Fit for 55" policy package proposes ambitious greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies for all sectors as part of the EU's contribution to limiting global warming. Yet, it is unclear whether the proposed policies are sufficient for the EU to limit global warming to 1.5°C and it remains an open policy problem how to translate global temperature targets into sector-specific emission budgets and further into sector-specific policies. Here, we derive GHG budgets for transport in EU27 and obtain GHG mitigation pathways for Europe consistent with 1.5°C global warming. We do not provide a comprehensive assessment of the "Fit for 55" transport package but we discuss the main policies for road transport in light of the GHG emission budgets, their level of ambition, and suggest amendments to these policies as well as improvements to the "Fit for 55" package. Our results suggest that parts of the "Fit for 55" for transport are still not ambitious enough to align with a 1.5°C scenario.
    Keywords: Climate policy, transport emissions, battery electric vehicles
    Date: 2023
  16. By: Stern, Nicholas; Stiglitz, Joseph E.
    Abstract: Contrary to much of the conventional wisdom, taking stronger actions on climate change may enhance economic growth, even as conventionally measured, but even more so, in terms of societal well-being. We identify the flaws in the models and analyses which contend that there must be a trade-off and explain the mechanisms and dynamic forces which have the potential to enhance growth. Critically, there are numerous market failures that result in suboptimal economic performance. We explain how addressing climate change reduces the bite of these failures and enhances the incentives and political will to address them. We identify packages of policies that alleviate market failures, enhance growth, and reduce carbon emissions. Finally, we argue that the green transition is coming at a time when, both because of persistent deficiencies of aggregate demand and advances in technology, including artificial intelligence and robotization, the macroeconomic opportunity costs of strong climate actions may be especially low and the benefits particularly high.
    JEL: O40 O49 Q58
    Date: 2023–02–17
  17. By: Rodemeier, Matthias (Bocconi University)
    Abstract: What do markets for voluntary climate protection imply about people's valuations of en- vironmental protection? I study this question in a large-scale field experiment (N=255, 000) with a delivery service, where customers are offered carbon offsets that compensate for emissions. To estimate demand for carbon mitigation, I randomize whether the delivery service subsidizes the price of the offset or matches the offset's impact on carbon mitigation. I find that consumers are price-elastic but fully impact-inelastic. This would imply that consumers buy offsets but their willingness to pay (WTP) for the carbon it mitigates is zero. However, I show that consumers can be made sensitive to impact through a simple information treatment that increases the salience of subsidies and matches. Salient information increases average WTP for carbon mitigation from zero to 16 EUR/tCO2. Two complementary surveys reveal that consumers have a limited comprehension of the carbon-mitigating attribute of offsets and, as a result, appear indifferent to impact variations in the absence of information. Finally, I show that the widely-used contingent valuation approach poorly captures revealed preferences: Average hypothetical WTP in a survey is 200 EUR/tCO2, i.e., 1, 150% above the revealed preference estimate.
    Keywords: climate change, carbon mitigation, willingness to pay, carbon offsets, contingent valuation, nudging
    JEL: D61 D82 H21 Q51 Q58
    Date: 2023–02
  18. By: Matteo Gasparini (University of Oxford); Peter Tufano (Harvard Business School, General Management Unit)
    Abstract: The urgency and the magnitude of climate change will affect every aspect of our economies, societies, and planet. The academic finance research has begun to study the financial implications of global warming, although this body of literature is small. The field has distinct geographic tilts, draws young researchers, and much remains outside of the traditional finance domain. We explore, quantitatively and qualitatively, the emerging field of climate finance. We discuss its relevance for finance research and teaching and provide implications for financial economist and practitioners—in particular the need to incorporate this massive externality in valuation and risk analyses.
    Keywords: Climate Finance; Climate Change; Finance; Finance Academia; Greenhouse Gas; Sustainable Finance; Financial Decisions; Educational Finance
    Date: 2023–01
  19. By: Björn Döhring; Atanas Hristov; Anna Thum-Thysen; Cristiano Carvell
    Abstract: The discussion of the role of natural capital in economic activity is not new; increasing evidence of environmental pressures, climate deregulation and biodiversity loss have however increased the interest in the role of natural capital in the production process. This paper reviews approaches to conceptualising the contribution of natural capital to economic processes. It covers the neoclassical tradition of production functions with natural resources as well as damage functions, but also considers a more heterodox approach to reflecting the vulnerability of natural assets. Different ways of modelling natural capital lead to divergent conclusions about the sustainability of economic growth on a finite planet. By focusing on efforts to integrate nature’s contribution to economic production in economic modelling and standard economic metrics, this paper differs from ‘beyond GDP’ scoreboards that complement GDP with additional statistics. The applied part of the paper discusses selected approaches for quantifying the contribution of natural capital including production functions at different levels of aggregation, environmental-economic accounting and damage functions and highlights insights to be gained as well as difficulties. On this basis, we outline next steps for modelling natural capital in the production process.
    JEL: Q57 E01 E23
    Date: 2023–02
  20. By: Filippo Natoli (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: The question of how climate change and weather fluctuations affect the economy is high on the economic research agenda, but the quantification of the effects of temperatures at infra-annual frequencies still remains an open issue. Using daily county-level data since 1970, I construct quarterly temperature shocks for the United States that capture the average surprise effect of very high and low temperatures in each county and quarter, isolating their unanticipated component. Unfavorable temperature shocks are found to reduce GDP, consumer prices and interest rates, pointing to a slowdown in aggregate demand.
    Keywords: temperature shocks, business cycle, climate change, monetary policy
    JEL: C32 E32 E52 Q54
    Date: 2023–03
  21. By: Anson T. Y. Ho; Kim Huynh; David T. Jacho-Chávez; Geneviève Vallée
    Abstract: Global climate change is increasing the frequency and severity of natural disasters. We use detailed consumer credit data to investigate the impact of the 2016 Fort McMurray wildfire, the costliest wildfire disaster in Canadian history, on consumers’ financial stress. We focus on the arrears of insured mortgages because of their important implications for financial institutions and insurers’ business risk and relevant management practices. Our findings suggest that wildfires have caused more mortgage arrears in severely damaged areas, with both economic and statistical significance. For other areas with relatively minor damage, the increase in arrears is small and statistically insignificant.
    Keywords: Climate change; Credit and credit aggregates; Econometric and statistical methods; Financial stability
    JEL: C21 D12 G21 Q54
    Date: 2023–02
  22. By: Cornacchia, Federico; Martínez-Hernández, Alberto Gabino; Bidoia, Marco; Giupponi, Carlo
    Abstract: As the impacts of climate change are expected to be increasingly disruptive, a growing share of the economic literature moved to modelling approaches to address the interconnectedness of social, economic, and environmental issues. Among them, System Dynamics (SD) stands out as a well-established modelling approach to analyse complex social-ecological systems. In order to benefit from such modelling exercises it is necessary to follow a structured process, bearing in mind that models should have as their ultimate ambition that of supporting decision-making processes. Yet, the connection with decision-making is addressed only in the last phases of the modelling process, with emphasis placed only on few particular sectors. Hence, a lack of a general framework that can be used as a reference to address climate change adaptation and which could provide insights to economic valuations to support decision-making processes for a different range of sectors emerges. Consistently, the present study aims to bridge the observed gap by employing a combined SES-DAPSIR framework to build a conceptual modelling process for simulating the behaviour of a generic socio-ecosystem, with a particular focus on climate change adaptation. It also illustrates how the proposed conceptual modelling process is concretely put into practice with an application for a coastal socio-ecosystem. This allows demonstrating how the proposed methodology constitute a potential common starting point for different targeted modelling exercises, resulting particularly useful when moving from analytical modelling to decision support.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2023–03–09
  23. By: Nordø, Åsta Dyrnes; Andersen, Gisle; Merk, Christine
    Abstract: The risk of opposition from the population increasingly plays a role in choosing the climate policy measures to achieve the objective to substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In Norway, there is a long-standing cross-party consensus that the development of new technologies will be crucial for solving climate challenges. Comparing public opinion surveys, Norwegians are significantly more convinced that new technology will solve problems induced by climate change, compared people in other European countries. A concrete example of such a technology is carbon capture and storage (CCS). Despite discussions about the costs of establishing the technology, there is a cross-party consensus in Norway that CCS is a good and suitable measure for reaching climate policy goals. In this article, we review the historical background that has led to this broad support in Nor-way. Furthermore, we look at how this has been expressed in the political parties' attitudes towards CCS. There has been a long standing consensus among all major parties that CCS should be developed and deployed. We argue that this lay the foundation for the societal support for CCS. We analyze data from the Norwegian Coordinated Online panels for research on DEMocracy and governance (KODEM) to examine the attitudes toward CCS among citizens and three functional elites, namely elected representatives, bureaucrats, and journalists. We find that CCS receives strong support in all four groups, but that citizens and elected representative are more skeptical compared to bureaucrats and journalists. However, when looking at the factors that influence the perception of CCS, the pattern is the same for all four groups. The more technology optimistic a person is, the more positively they tend to perceive CCS as a method to fight climate change. We also find that those who think the political efforts to reduce greenhouse gases are too great are less positive about CCS com-pared to those who think the efforts are appropriate or too small. Overall, the analysis indicates that all four societal groups are technology optimistic and characterized by the same attitudes toward climate change. We discuss the role of technology optimism in Norway's climate policy and the reasons for the high degree of political consensus across groups with different societal functions.
    Keywords: Climate policy, carbon capture, CCS, technology optimism, citizen-elite congruence
    JEL: Q54 Q55 Q58
    Date: 2023
  24. By: Koji Takahashi; Junnosuke Shino
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of firms on bank loans using bank–firm matched data of Japanese listed firms from 2006 to 2018. Previous findings suggest that climate risks priced in corporate bonds or syndicated loans are statistically significant but economically minor. This paper investigates bank lending behavior in terms of the loan amount, which we consider to have a more direct effect on firm investment decisions. This paper finds that banks significantly decrease loans to firms with higher GHG emissions. Moreover, this GHG emissions effect appears to have prevailed even before the signing of the Paris Agreement, which the existing literature considers as the starting point where GHG emissions are incorporated in the pricing of debt instruments as credit risk. Finally, banks with greater leverage and a lower return on assets are more likely to decrease loans to firms with high GHG emissions.
    Keywords: greenhouse gas, bank lending, leverage, loan-level data
    JEL: E51 G21 Q54
    Date: 2023–03
  25. By: Gunther Capelle-Blancard (UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSB - Paris School of Business - HESAM - HESAM Université - Communauté d'universités et d'établissements Hautes écoles Sorbonne Arts et métiers université); Adrien Desroziers (UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Bert Scholtens (University of Groningen [Groningen], University of Saint Andrews)
    Abstract: Abstract We provide a synthesis of four decades of empirical research regarding the reaction of shareholders to environmental events. This literature is at the crossroads of finance, environmental economics, management and corporate social responsibility (CSR). To set the stage, we first provide an account of the Brumadinho ecological disaster that occurred in Brazil on January 25th, 2019. Second, we provide a critical review of more than 100 event studies. These papers cover a diverse set of events, such as industrial accidents, public disclosure programs, legal actions following environmental violations, changes in environmental regulation, environmental news, and corporate initiatives. This review makes four contributions. First is the synthesis of a large strand of literature in a structured setting, so as to be readily handled by both experts and non-experts. Second is the observation that stock market penalties in the event of environmental concerns are likely to be quite low: on average there is a (temporary) drop in the excess stock market return to events that are harmful to the environment of about 2% and the median is −0.6%. Third is to highlight the limits of CSR as a business strategy towards a sustainable society. Fourth is to provide an open access bibliographic database.
    Keywords: CSR, industrial accidents, public disclosure, lawsuits, ESG news, policy, event study
    Date: 2021–12–14
  26. By: Eskander, Shaikh M.S.U.; Steele, Paul
    Abstract: This paper investigates household’s private expenditures to cope with the harmful losses of climate change and disasters. Using household-level survey data from Bangladesh, this paper finds that disaster-affected rural Bangladeshi households allocate between $499 and $1076 in disaster-related expenditures. Such expenditures are always greater than their relevant precautionary savings, implying that those households may debt-finance their defensive measures. Households with greater precautionary savings spend more: a 100% increase in precautionary savings can increase disaster expenditures by 5%. Moreover, there are considerable regional heterogeneities in household’s disaster expenditures. Increased public sector allocations in addition to carefully designed affordable market-based financing instruments can potentially ease the pressure on disaster-affected households in their fight against the harms of climate change and disaster.
    Keywords: Bangladesh; climate change; climate finance; disaster; disaster expenditures; disaster risk; expenditures; precautionary savings
    JEL: Q01 Q51
    Date: 2023–02–19
  27. By: David Ardia; Keven Bluteau; Gabriel Lortie-Cloutier; Thien-Duy Tran
    Abstract: We explore the factor exposure heterogeneity in green and brown stocks using the peer-exposure ratio. By creating peer groups of S&P 500 index firms over 2014-2020 based on their greenhouse gas emission levels, we find that, on average, the largest factor exposure heterogeneities are observed for the value factor in green stocks and the momentum factor in brown stocks. Moreover, investing in brown stocks allows managers to distinguish themselves more in terms of factor exposure than green stocks, except in the value factor. Compared to earlier periods, investment managers now have more opportunities to differentiate themselves in their factor exposures.
    Date: 2023–02
  28. By: Rob Bauer; Dirk Broeders; Annick van Ool
    Abstract: In this paper, we analyze the disclosures of sustainable investing by Dutch pension funds in their annual reports from 2016 to 2021. We introduce a novel textual analysis approach using state-of-the-art natural language processing (NLP) techniques to measure the awareness and implementation of sustainable investing, where we define awareness as the amount of attention paid to sustainable investing in the annual report. We exploit a proprietary dataset to analyze the relation between pension fund characteristics and sustainable investing. We find that a pension fund’s size increases both the awareness and the implementation of sustainable investing. Moreover, we analyze the role of signing the International Responsible Business Conduct (IRBC) initiative. Large pension funds, pension funds with more female trustees, or pension funds with a positive belief about the risk-return relation of sustainable investing are more likely to sign the IRBC initiative. Although signing this initiative increases the specificity of pension fund statements about sustainable investing, we do not find an effect on the implementation of sustainable investing.
    Keywords: ESG; sustainability; SI initiatives; pension funds; textual analysis; natural language processing.
    JEL: C8 G11 J32 M14 Q54
    Date: 2023–03
  29. By: Martina Colombo; Matteo Cuda
    Abstract: The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs or Goals) were introduced by the United Nations as a blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all. Financial systems play a key role in this transition by providing funding for economic activities and reorienting capital flows towards a more sustainable economy and many private sector players have been adopting the SDGs as a guide for their sustainability programmes. In this context, Public Development Banks and Institutions (PDBIs) - entities initiated by governments at regional, national and multinational level to proactively pursue public policy objectives – may have specific mandates to provide and/or help mobilise financial support for additional investments with social and environmental objectives that the market fails to finance. Therefore, these players are by their nature called to action and to contribute to the SDGs. This paper offers a first attempt to track the sustainability performance of PDBIs in Europe where, for several reasons, we are witnessing an enhanced public intervention in the economy, and PDBIs’ contribution to the alignment of EU Member States to the SDGs. By making use of the Institutional Theory, the results of this analysis show an overview of the state of play on SDGs’ implementation among PDBIs in Europe; findings have theoretical and practical implications both for PDBIs in defining their strategy to carry out these goals, and for European policymakers that assess the process and aim to promote achievement of the SDGs across Europe. Findings of this study show that PDBIs in Europe are well aligned with the European policymakers’ goals and aim to contribute to the EU climate objectives.
    JEL: G23 M14 O19 Q58
    Date: 2023–02
  30. By: Müller, Melanie; Saulich, Christina; Schöneich, Svenja; Schulze, Meike
    Abstract: German and European businesses are highly dependent on metals. Demand for these raw materials is expected to grow even further as they will be needed for the green energy and electric mobility transition, digitalisation and other emerging technologies. Geopolitical developments influence security of supply. China's central role in mineral supply chains is a major factor of uncertainty in this con­text. The European Union has set ambitious sustainability targets. Implementing these in complex multi-tier metal supply chains is no easy matter, given the magnitude of environmental and human rights risks. Nevertheless, sustainability should not be sacrificed for security of supply. Instead, the European Union should pursue a strategic raw materials policy that reconciles the demands of both. The two biggest challenges in sustainability governance are: firstly, the diversity of standards and their inconsistent implementation and enforce­ment; and secondly, power asymmetries and lack of transparency along metal supply chains. A sustainable raw materials policy must seek to reduce dependency through strategic diversification and partnerships with countries that share European values. Transparency-enhancing measures and a regulatory "smart mix"will be decisive elements.
    Date: 2023
  31. By: Guylain NKULA NSINDU (UNIKIN - University of Kinshasa); Benjamin KONGOLO TSHISUAKA (Université Pédagogique Nationale); Aimé KUDIAKUBANZA KATEMBO (CERDAS/UNIKIN)
    Abstract: This paper highlights the findings of the investigation related to 120 plots sampling with a survey step calculated at 7, through interviews and field work. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, in the city of Kinshasa in general, and mainly the municipality of Selembao let alone the Madiata neighbourhood are areas where poor management of household waste is one of the main causes of pollution and pathologies due to lack of regulations and appropriate facilities, particularly for toxic and dangerous waste. The inhabitants in this neighbourhood do not figure out what to do with the thousands of tons of rubbish piling up all over the place. Inadequation management policy is the source of serious problems affecting health and environment, fastering increased risk of diseases, erosions, environmental degradation. This situation is essentially paired with non-compliance with local sanitation. The ignorance of the inhabitants of the Madiata neighborhood with regard to hygiene and sanitation practices leads to littering as a result of poor management of household waste. All in all, it is recommended to set up a strategic municipal-sectoral plan for the disposal of trash; the recovery of the household waste produced (source of income at the same time), the sensitization of the population by the public authorities and the activation of the environmental police. As a conclusion, the involvement of the State is essential. Keywords: Impact on the environment, Household waste, Pollution, Impact on health.
    Abstract: Cet article est le fruit d'un travail d'enquêtes auprès de 120 parcelles avec un pas de sondage calculé à 7, interviews et observations sur terrain. En République Démocratique du Congo, dans la ville de Kinshasa en général, et en particulier dans la commune de Selembao voire quartier Madiata, la mauvaise gestion des déchets ménagers est l'une des principales causes des maladies et de pollution. On note le manque de réglementation et d'installations appropriées pour les déchets, surtout pour ceux qui sont dangereux, qu'ils soient infectieux ou toxiques. La population de ce quartier ne sait que faire des milliers de tonnes des déchets qui s'entassent partout. L'absence d'une bonne politique de gestion de ces déchets pose des graves problèmes touchant à la santé de cette population et à l'espace qu'elle occupe, donc l'environnement. D'où, risque accru des maladies, présence des plusieurs érosions, pollution, dégradation de l'environnement. Cet état de choses est lié essentiellement au non-respect d'assainissement local. L'ignorance des habitants du quartier Madiata par rapport aux pratiques d'hygiène et d'assainissement conduit à la poubellisation du fait de la mauvaise gestion des déchets ménagers. Face à cette situation, il est proposé la mise en place d'un plan communal-sectoriel stratégique pour l'élimination des déchets ménagers ; la valorisation des déchets ménagers produits (source des revenus en même temps), la sensibilisation de la population par le pouvoir public et l'activation de la police de l'environnement. Bref, l'implication de l'Etat est indispensable. Mots clés : Impact sur l'environnement, Déchet ménager, Pollution, Impact sur la santé.
    Keywords: Impact on the environment, Household waste, Pollution, Impact on health., Impact sur l’environnement, Déchet ménager, Impact sur la santé.
    Date: 2023–02
  32. By: Rim Rejeb; Hélène Bouscasse; Sandrine Mathy; Carole Treibich
    Abstract: Although France is exposed to significant levels of air pollution, it is lagging behind its European neighbors in the implementation of low-emission zones (LEZs). Acceptability issues seem to be central to this delay. The Climate and Resilience Law passed in 2021 introduces the obligation for cities with more than 150, 000 inhabitants to implement a LEZ by the end of 2024. Thirty-three new urban areas in France are thus concerned, including the Grenoble metropolitan area. Using original survey data, this article proposes an ex-ante evaluation of the acceptability of this future LEZ and its determinants. The analysis is based on original data collected through a telephone survey. Using bivariate analysis and binary logit regression, we found a good level of acceptability of the LEZ on average, but with lower levels for individuals directly affected by the traffic restrictions. The results show that acceptability is mainly determined by positive attitudes and individual perceptions of the LEZ and less influenced by socio-demographic characteristics.
    Keywords: Low Emission Zones, Social Acceptability, Econometric Analysis, France
    JEL: Q48 Q52 Q53 R58
    Date: 2023–02
  33. By: Fetzer, Thiemo (University of Warwick CAGE)
    Abstract: Preserving heritage is an important part of maintaining collective identity for future generations. Yet, in the context of the climate crisis, it is imperative to understand to what extent there is a tangible trade-off between conserving “character†vis-a-vis averting the worst of climate change – a much more existential threat to those future generations. Studying data for more than half of the English housing stock, I show that conservation area status – a special area-based designation to preserve the unique character of a neighborhood – not to be confused with preservation of historic buildings – in England may be responsible for up to 3.2 million tons of avoidable CO2 emissions annually. Using a suite of micro-econometric methods and alternative identification strategies ranging from saturated specifications, border discontinuity, matching estimation and an instrumental variables approach leveraging World War II wartime destruction in London – I show that properties in conservation areas have a notable worse energy efficiency; experience lower investment in retrofitting and consume notably higher levels of energy owing to poor energy efficiency. Effect sizes are very consistent comparing engineering based energy consumption estimates with actual consumption data. Effects can be directly attributed to planning requirements for otherwise permitted development that only apply to properties by virtue of them being located inside a conservation area.
    Keywords: energy efficiency, climate crisis, zoning, climate adaptation JEL Classification: Q54, Q55, R14, R48, N74
    Date: 2023
  34. By: Dietrich, Stephan (RS: GSBE MGSoG, Maastricht Graduate School of Governance, RS: UNU-MERIT Theme 2); Nichols, Stafford
    Abstract: Climate impact models are forced to make sweeping assumptions when estimating social and economic welfare damages to countries around the world, because of a lack of data and understanding of local causal mechanisms. In this paper, we estimate the effects of rising temperatures on countries around the world using an experienced utility approach, based on subjective well-being survey data collected in 160 countries for 13 years. We take advantage of 40 years of variation in daily land surface temperature data, to find that one exceptionally hot day significantly lowers well-being. Furthermore, the effect size varies substantially between and within countries. Identifying this high degree of heterogeneity is important because it illustrates the shortcomings of many current models which are geographically coarse. Moreover, we compare the marginal utility of income and non-income effects and find that income accounts for only a small proportion of the damages caused by extreme temperature s. This demonstrates the adverse effect on non-market goods is dramatically higher than previously assumed, which indicates current models are missing a fundamental source of climate-related damages.
    JEL: I31 Q51 Q54 O15
    Date: 2023–02–24
  35. By: Erik Grigoryan (Consultant, Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific); Zenathan Adnin Hasannudin (Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific); Alberto Isgut (Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific); Patrick Martin (Consultant, Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific); Deanna Morris (Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific)
    Abstract: Under the Paris Agreement, developed and developing countries have committed to do their part to ensure that the warming of the planet is capped at well below 2 °C above pre- industrial levels and are pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre- industrial levels. These commitments are reflected in their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), which countries are required to submit every five years. However, with COVID-19 recovery efforts demanding a massive increase in government expenditure amid slowing economic activity, sovereign debt levels have risen sharply in 2020 and are likely to remain high in the near future. Currently, 11 Asia-Pacific countries are at high risk of debt distress, seven of which are Pacific Small Island Developing States: Afghanistan, Kiribati, Lao PDR, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Micronesia (Federated States of), Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Tajikistan, Tonga and Tuvalu. Furthermore, as countries prioritize addressing health concerns and a speedy economic recovery, relatively less attention is being paid to tackling climate change. Given this situation, there has been increasing support for debt-for-climate swaps as a solution to simultaneously reduce sovereign debt burdens and increase financing to scale up investments in climate mitigation and adaptation projects. Earlier this year, the Managing Director of the IMF announced that the IMF and the World Bank are working together to develop an “organizing framework†for connecting debt relief to countries’ plans for investing in green, resilient and inclusive development. Their joint proposal for green debt swaps will be announced during COP 26.
    Date: 2021–10
  36. By: Ayşegül Kanay (CLLE-LTC - Cognition, Langues, Langage, Ergonomie - EPHE - École pratique des hautes études - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UT2J - Université Toulouse - Jean Jaurès - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Denis Hilton (CLLE-LTC - Cognition, Langues, Langage, Ergonomie - EPHE - École pratique des hautes études - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UT2J - Université Toulouse - Jean Jaurès - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Laetitia Charalambides (UNIL - Université de Lausanne = University of Lausanne, CLLE-LTC - Cognition, Langues, Langage, Ergonomie - EPHE - École pratique des hautes études - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UT2J - Université Toulouse - Jean Jaurès - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Jean-Baptiste Corrégé (LIMSI - Laboratoire d'Informatique pour la Mécanique et les Sciences de l'Ingénieur - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CLLE-LTC - Cognition, Langues, Langage, Ergonomie - EPHE - École pratique des hautes études - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UT2J - Université Toulouse - Jean Jaurès - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Eva Inaudi (UT2J - Université Toulouse - Jean Jaurès); Laurent Waroquier (LAPSCO - Laboratoire de Psychologie Sociale et Cognitive - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Stéphane Cézéra (TSE-R - Toulouse School of Economics - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: We compared the effectiveness of basket goal-setting to product information strategies on sustainable consumption in a simulated online supermarket. Experiment 1 found a significant effect of basket goal setting techniques with carbon basket feedback in either numerical or graphical form on the carbon content of baskets purchased but no effect of numerical product information alone or in combination with basket CO2 information. Experiment 2 also found that basket goal setting was effective, but found no additional effect of introducing five-colour coding of the carbon footprints of either products or baskets. Experiment 3 found that repeated visits to the online supermarket led to improved learning about product carbon footprint in the basket goal setting condition, which mediated the effect of goal setting on basket carbon footprint. Our results suggest that goal setting techniques with feedback can reduce the carbon footprint of online shopping baskets and facilitate learning about product carbon footprint.
    Keywords: Sustainable consumption, Goal-setting, Decision-aiding, Carbon labels, Groceries
    Date: 2021–03
  37. By: Reinhard Ellwanger; Hinnerk Gnutzmann; Piotr Śpiewanowski
    Abstract: Commodity markets are linked through international trade but are separated by heterogeneous regulations and input markets. We investigate theoretically and empirically how regional, as opposed to global, cost shocks pass through into global prices. Capacity constraints mitigate the output response to regional cost shocks in the short run. Once constraints bind, the pass-through of a cost increase is enhanced while for cost decreases it drops to zero. We study the market for ammonia, a commodity produced largely from natural gas, to highlight the nonlinearity of the cost pass-through and its implications for unilateral climate policies.
    Keywords: Climate change; Econometric and statistical methods; Inflation and prices; International topics
    JEL: L13 L65 Q54 Q40
    Date: 2023–03
  38. By: Manuela María Cerimelo; Pablo De la Vega; Natalia Porto
    Abstract: This paper aims to identify and characterize the potential of green jobs in Argentina, i.e., those that would benefit from a transition to a green economy, using occupational green potential scores calculated in US O*NET data. We apply the greenness scores to Argentine household survey data and estimate that 25% of workers are in green jobs, i.e., have a high green potential. However, when taking into account the informality dimension, we find that 15% of workers and 12% of wage earners are in formal green jobs. We then analyze the relationship between the greenness scores (with emphasis on the nexus with decent work) and various labor and demographic variables at the individual level. We find that for the full sample of workers the green potential is relatively greater for men, the elderly, those with very high qualifications, those in formal positions, and those in specific sectors such as construction, transportation, mining, and industry. These are the groups that are likely to be the most benefited by the greening of the Argentine economy. When we restrict the sample to wage earners, the green potential score is positively associated with informality.
    JEL: E20 Q50 J80
    Date: 2022–11
  39. By: Mohammad J. Aladaileh; Eva Lahuerta Otero
    Keywords: Sustainable supply chain innovation, sustainable development, supply chain management, organizational capability, market influence
    JEL: M14 Q01 Q55 L67
    Date: 2023–03
  40. By: Mariano Javier Rabassa; Christian Garcia-Witulski; Grand Mariana Conte; Julie Rozenberg
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effect temperature on human mortality rates in Argentina. The study rests on semiparametric techniques applied to data with a panel structure to estimate the causal effect of temperature extremes on mortality. Monthly mortality rates for municipalities, constructed from the universe of deaths between 2010 and 2019 were regressed on monthly temperatures distributions, precipitation, and municipality-by-month and month fixed effects. Separate regressions were carried out to examine the heterogeneous impacts by age and gender. We also explore alternative specifications as well as differences by death causes. Results show that extreme temperatures increase mortality rates relative to mean temperatures, and the impact of colder-than-average temperatures in slightly greater in magnitude than that of hotter ones. There exists substantial heterogeneity between age groups, with older people facing greater risks while results for gender and proxied income level is inconclusive. All days of extreme cold cause associated death damages equivalent to 0.6% of GDP, while heat damages correspond to 0.1% of 2019 GDP. On the other side, when climate change impacts are valued, damages total 0.7% of GDP in scenario 8.5 since savings due to less mortality occurring in cold day compensate only partially the increase in the number of hot days. If temperature changes are mild (RCP 4.5), mortality would decrease at the national level, but some regions would still be affected.
    JEL: I1 Q0
    Date: 2022–11
  41. By: Erik Grigoryan (Consultant, Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific); Alberto Isgut (Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific); Patrick Martin (Consultant, Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific)
    Abstract: The Pacific Small Island Developing States (PSIDS) are among the most vulnerable countries in the world to the effects of climate change and related disasters, but they can afford the least to invest in climate action. In addition to the adverse fiscal impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, these countries have a high degree of economic vulnerability due to their small size and dependence on a few key export industries such as tourism or fisheries. As such, debt sustainability analyses conducted by the IMF and the World Bank regularly assess most PSIDS to be at high risk of debt distress. This report discusses the potential of debt for climate swaps to leverage additional finance for climate actions in the PSIDS while also reducing their debt burdens. The report examines the concept of debt for climate swaps, outlines the potential of debt for climate swaps in the PSIDS, and provides recommendations for the scheme design based on best practices.
    Date: 2022–09
  42. By: Wojewska, Aleksandra; Staritz, Cornelia; Tröster, Bernhard; Leisenheimer, Luisa
    Abstract: The eco-technological fix to the climate crisis renders certain resources, such as lithium, as "critical". We argue that criticality is actively produced in socio-technological processes, involving three interrelated levels - demand, supply and price perceptions, policies linked to green extractivism, and underlying narratives around the role of commodities in development. Criticality is interrelated with firm strategies in global production networks (GPNs) as well as financial actors' strategies, legitimizing extractivism for sustainability transformations. We highlight the role of financial actors and interests in enabling lithium expansion and assess two channels through which financial actors shape producer strategies and GPNs - financing and price-determination. Driven by criticality, financial actors mobilize "green" investment stories along the sustainability-finance nexus. This enables the shifting of extractive frontiers through funding new projects and creates variable price-setting regimes linked to derivative markets. Financial interests introduce an additional speculative momentum to lithium extraction, contributing to accelerating boom-bust patterns and short-termism. Methodologically, the paper draws on sector data, industry and company reports, as well as semi-structured interviews with lithium sector and financial actors in London, Switzerland, Chile and Zimbabwe.
    Keywords: green extractivism, lithium, criticality of resources, sustainability-finance nexus, global production networks
    Date: 2023
  43. By: Abdulelah Darandary; Jeyhun Mikayilov; Salaheddine Soummane (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: Evaluating the potential outcomes of energy price reforms is essential for policymakers to assess their effectiveness. In 2016 and 2018, the Saudi government enacted two waves of energy price reforms to curb historically fast-growing electricity demand. We quantify the effects of these measures on regional fuel consumption and carbon emissions.
    Keywords: Agent based modeling, Analytics, Appllied research, Autometrics
    Date: 2023–03–05
  44. By: Dehler, Marcel
    Abstract: Plant protection products are a significant component of conventional arable farming in Germany. They have helped increase land productivity and reduce yield losses, thereby providing a significant contribution to food security. However, plant protection products have negative impacts on biodi-versity. Moreover, their degradation products can be found in ground and surface waters, and they are associated with negative effects on human health. Against this background, the aim of policy is to reduce the use of plant protection products and the associated risks. By contrast, the questions of whether and how farms can adapt their production systems and the resulting costs remain largely unanswered. Similarly, although the advantages and disadvantages of different policy implementation strategies for reducing plant protection products are discussed at both the European and national levels, the scientific publications are aimed primarily at intro-ducing a tax model. A concrete comparison of different policy measures and an assessment of the adaptation reactions as well as the associated consequences, taking agricultural expertise into ac-count, usually is not carried out. Against this background, based on a typical farm in the soil-climate region “Südhannover” and us-ing a focus group approach with farmers and advisors, the present dissertation investigated which farm adaptation measures can reduce the risks to humans and the environment associated with the use of plant protection products by 25 % or 50 % and what adaptation costs result from such measures. The risks posed by pesticides were determined with the help of the Pesticide Load Indi-cator (PLI). In order to be able to quantify the yield effects as a result of reduced pesticide use, regional and national trial evaluations were consulted. In addition, the expected yield effects were differentiated between a best and worst case and a “normal year”. In order to reduce the PLI by 25 %, farmers first will substitute less toxic active substances for those with a higher PLI. Similarly, weeds are increasingly regulated mechanically and non-selective herb-icides are replaced by mechanical tillage before summer crops. If no crop-specific PLI reduction is required and alternative crops are available, farmers will substitute crops with a low net margin per PLI unit used (e.g. rape with grain maize). If the PLI is halved, reduced fungicide and insecticide use across crops or later sowing dates in cereals also are suitable for reducing the risks from plant protection products. With a crop-specific PLI reduction of 25 %, changes in the net margin range from + 25 €/ha for sugar beet to – 60 €/ha for stubble wheat can be expected. If the PLI has to be reduced by 50 % for each individual crop, the range of adjustment costs among the crops increases further. While the PLI can be halved for oilseed rape with costs of about 50 €/ha, the net margin for stubble wheat or winter wheat after silage maize decreases by about 150 €/ha. At farm level, the results show that the more adaptation flexibility farmers are granted, the lower the adaptation costs. With a 25 % reduction of the PLI and taking into account the active ingredient substitution, manageable adaptation costs of between about 10 €/ha and 20 €/ha can be expected, depending on the adaptation flexibility granted. The change in grain units (GU) produced varies between + 4 % and – 5 %. On the other hand, the adjustment costs increase disproportionately strongly with a PLI reduction of 50 %, so that an operational net margin reduction of between about 80 €/ha and a maximum of 125 €/ha can be expected. With a PLI reduction of 50 %, the change in GU produced is between 0 and a maximum of -7 %. As farmers are in competition with their colleagues on the land and tenancy markets, they usually cannot afford to voluntarily switch to production systems that cause lower yields or cost increases and thus put them at a competitive disadvantage vis-à-vis neighbouring farms. Policymakers there-fore must change the framework conditions for all farms in such a way that the adaptation of pro-duction systems is either mandatory or economically viable. A wide range of policy measures are available for this purpose. Following on from the results of the adaptation costs, it therefore was examined how policymakers can use the "PLI" starting point to achieve their reduction target. In order to expose the selected policy measures and impact assessments to the critical judgement of the focus group, four concrete policy measures were developed that can achieve PLI reduction while addressing different secondary objectives. The measures examined include an individual farm PLI ceiling, a licensing system with tradable use rights, a state subsidy for low PLI hectare values and an increase in crop protection product prices depending on PLI. It was assumed that the policy measures would be introduced throughout the European Union. The effects that can be ex-pected on production, farm incomes and the administrative and control costs for farmers and the state were worked out in an impact assessment. The following results emerged: In the case of a PLI ceiling for individual farms and at the same time for individual crops, every farm must, in principle, reduce its PLI use if it does not yet meet the targets in the initial situation. This leads to an area-wide risk reduction without shifting the production of individual crops to third countries. However, the adjustment flexibility for farmers is comparatively low compared with other policy options. The control is carried out with the help of an online database. In contrast, an increase in plant protection prices depending on the PLI has the advantage of not having to control all farms, but only "bottlenecks" such as traders and manufacturers of plant pro-tection products. A disadvantage is the high negative income effect for the farms (> 220 €/ha) if the PLI is halved. In addition, readjustments of the levy level are to be expected in order to ap-proach the reduction target. If the PLI use rights are distributed in a licensing system depending on acreage, it can be expected that crops with a high net margin per PLI unit used will be cultivated preferentially. On the other hand, crops with a low net margin per PLI unit used will increasingly be pushed out of cultivation. Farm managers can decide on the basis of the market price for the tradable PLI use rights whether to use them themselves on the farm or sell them on the market. As a result, it is to be expected that PLI units will be saved, especially on marginal arable sites where this saving causes only low costs. The PLI units freed up there move primarily to regions where an above-average net margin per PLI unit can be produced. These are classically favourable locations for arable farming. The comparatively high administrative costs required for tradability must be viewed critically. For the state, this additional effort goes hand in hand with the advantage that the reduction target can be targeted precisely. If the state decides to promote low PLI hectare values with a premium, a negative income effect at farm level can be prevented, as the farm only participates if its costs are lower than the premium payment. The acceptance of the policy measure by farmers is high. A major challenge, however, is the controllability, as there are high incentives to undermine the system.
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management, Financial Economics, Political Economy
    Date: 2023–03–17
  45. By: Agustín Indaco (Carnegie Mellon University in Qatar); Francesc Ortega (CUNY, Queens College)
    Abstract: Using a new composite climate-risk index, we show that population in high-risk counties has grown disproportionately over the last few decades, even relative to the corresponding commuting zone. We also find that the agglomeration is largely driven by increases in the (white) working-age population. In addition, we show that high-risk tracts have typically grown more than low-risk tracts within the same county, suggesting the presence of highly localized amenities in high-risk areas. We also document heterogeneous population dynamics along a number of dimensions. Specifically, population has been retreating from high-risk, lowurbanization locations, but continues to grow in high-risk areas with high residential capital. The findings above hold for most climate hazards. However, we document that tracts with high risk of coastal flooding have grown significantly less than other tracts in the same county
    Keywords: Climate risk; Agglomeration; Migration
    JEL: J3 J7
    Date: 2023–03
  46. By: Héloïse Berkowitz (LEST - Laboratoire d'Economie et de Sociologie du Travail - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, AMU - Aix Marseille Université)
    Abstract: Despite growing awareness around human impacts on marine ecosystems, little action is taken to reduce the negative effects of organizations on the ocean, thus increasing risks of global collapse. In this paper, I argue that organizations act as systems of ocean destruction, and I explore how to operate a shift to organizations as systems of ocean conservation and thriving, enabling human-ocean socio-ecological coviability. To do so, I analyze the organizational affordances of the ocean: incommensurability, open access and complex property regimes, structural domination by humans and land, perceived inexhaustibility and cognitive distance. Then, based on the transdisciplinary analysis of mechanisms of ocean destruction, I discuss the constitution of ocean negative commons and the zombification process of the ocean. Lastly, I suggest alternative organizing principles that would allow to manage these commons and transform organizations to reconnect them with the ocean: degrowth, total responsibility, full cost allocation, ocean equity, and adaptive, place-based comanagement.
    Keywords: sustainable ocean, eco-centric approach, ocean negative commons, ocean equity, Ocean governance
    Date: 2023–02–23
  47. By: Anne Saint-Eve (SayFood - Paris-Saclay Food and Bioproduct Engineering - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Françoise Irlinger (SayFood - Paris-Saclay Food and Bioproduct Engineering - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Caroline Pénicaud (SayFood - Paris-Saclay Food and Bioproduct Engineering - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Isabelle Souchon (SayFood - Paris-Saclay Food and Bioproduct Engineering - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Stéphan Marette (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Consumers are being encouraged to increase the proportion of plant protein in their diets to enhance the sustainability of food systems. One approach is to develop plant-protein-rich foods that are acceptable to consumers. This study examined French people's reactions to cheese alternatives—new fermented products that mixed animal and plant protein sources. We conducted experimental sessions with 240 French participants to assess their responses to three fermented products containing different percentages of yellow pea and cow's milk. First, we asked the participants to blind-taste the three products and solicited hedonic scores of products. We then provided the participants with simple information about the products' composition and asked them to taste and score the liking of the products a second time. We also asked consumers to estimate their willingness to pay (WTP) for each product before and after revealing additional information about the nutritional or environmental benefits of consuming pea-based foods. The product with the lowest percentage of pea and the highest percentage of milk received the highest hedonic scores, and WTP was correlated with the hedonic scores. The additional information about the nutritional and environmental benefits of pea-based foods led to significant increases in WTP for two of the fermented products, but not for the least preferred product, namely the one with the highest percentage of pea. This finding suggests that participant reactions to information depended on hedonic preferences.
    Abstract: Les consommateurs sont encouragés à augmenter la proportion de protéines végétales dans leur alimentation afin d'améliorer la durabilité des systèmes alimentaires. Une approche consiste à développer des aliments riches en protéines végétales acceptables pour les consommateurs. Cette étude examine les réactions des Français face aux alternatives au fromage - de nouveaux produits fermentés mélangeant des sources de protéines animales et végétales. Nous avons mené des sessions expérimentales avec 240 participants français pour évaluer leurs réponses à trois produits fermentés contenant différents pourcentages de pois jaunes et de lait de vache. Tout d'abord, nous avons demandé aux participants de goûter à l'aveugle les trois produits, et nous avons sollicité leur jugement hédonique. Nous avons ensuite fourni aux participants des informations simples sur la composition des produits et leur avons demandé de goûter à nouveau, en notant le goût des produits une seconde fois. Nous avons également demandé aux consommateurs d'estimer leur consentement à payer (CAP) pour chaque produit avant, et après avoir révélé des informations supplémentaires sur les avantages nutritionnels ou environnementaux de la consommation d'aliments à base de pois. Le produit avec le pourcentage le plus bas de pois et le pourcentage le plus élevé de lait a reçu les scores hédoniques les plus élevés, et les CAP étaient corrélés aux scores hédoniques. Les informations supplémentaires sur les avantages nutritionnels et environnementaux des aliments à base de pois ont conduit à des augmentations significatives du CAP pour deux des produits fermentés, mais pas pour le produit le moins préféré, à savoir celui avec le pourcentage le plus élevé de pois. Cette découverte suggère que les réactions des participants à l'information dépendent des préférences hédoniques.
    Keywords: Plant-based product, Consumer behavior, Economic approach, Sensory analysis
    Date: 2021–06
  48. By: Ronnkvist, Sara; Thiede, Brian C. (The Pennsylvania State University); Barber, Emma
    Abstract: An extensive social science literature has examined the effects of climate change on human migration. Prior studies have focused largely on the out-migration of working-age adults or entire households, with less attention to migration among younger and older individuals. In this study, we focus on the implications of climate variability for the movement of children by examining the association between climate exposures and the in- and out-fostering of children in sub-Saharan Africa. We link high-resolution temperature and precipitation records to data from the Demographic and Health Surveys for 26 sub-Saharan African countries. We fit a series of regression models to measure the overall associations between climate exposures and each outcome, and then evaluate whether these associations are moderated by socioeconomic status, the number of children in the household, and the prevalence of fostering in each country. We find that precipitation is positively associated with in-fostering overall, and that effects are especially strong among households who already have at least one child and in countries where child fostering is common. We find no overall relationship between either temperature or precipitation exposures and out-fostering, but we do detect significant effects among households with many children and those with more-educated heads. Overall, this study demonstrates that new attention to the links between climate variability, child fostering, and other understudied forms of spatial mobility is needed to fully understand the effects of climate change on human populations.
    Date: 2023–02–22
  49. By: Maria Ali (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics)
    Abstract: The Quaid-e-Azam Solar Power Park was designed and built at the incorrect location. Bahawalpur’s climate is not suitable for the project. The temperature rises above 45 degrees Celsius, which does not produce the required amount of electricity. The project was designed to project 1000 MW of energy; however, up until this point, it has only generated 400 MW.
    Date: 2022
  50. By: -
    Abstract: Esta publicación recoge la selección de trabajos presentados con ocasión de las VII Jornadas de Planificación “70 años CEPAL: Planificación para el desarrollo con visión de futuro”, realizadas el 22 y 23 de octubre de 2018 en la sede de CEPAL en Santiago de Chile. Estas Jornadas se han consolidado como un espacio emblemático de encuentro entre especialistas de la región en los temas de la planificación y de la gestión pública en América Latina y el Caribe.
    Date: 2023–02–16
  51. By: Avila, Piret; Lehmann, Laurent
    Abstract: The cost of germline maintenance gives rise to a trade-off between lowering the deleterious muta-tion rate and investing in life history functions. Therefore, life history and the mutation rate evolve jointly, but this coevolution is not well understood. We develop a mathematical model to analyse the evolution of resource allocation traits affecting simultaneously life history and the deleterious mutation rate. First, we show that the invasion fitness of such resource allocation traits can be approximated by the basic reproductive number of the least-loaded class; the expected lifetime pro-duction of offspring without deleterious mutations born to individuals without deleterious mutations. Second, we apply the model to investigate (i) the joint evolution of reproductive effort and germline maintenance and (ii) the joint evolution of age-at-maturity and germline maintenance. This analysis provides two biological predictions. First, under higher exposure to environmental mutagens (e.g. oxygen), selection favours higher allocation to germline maintenance at the expense of life history. Second, when exposure to environmental mutagens is higher, life histories tend to be faster with individuals having shorter life spans and smaller body sizes at maturity. Our results suggest that mutation accumulation via the cost of germline maintenance is a major force shaping life-history traits.
    Keywords: life-history evolution; mutation accumulation; adaptive dynamics; cost of fidelity; mutation rate evolution
    Date: 2023–03–06
  52. By: Bert Van Roosebeke (International Association of Deposit Insurers); Ryan Defina (International Association of Deposit Insurers)
    Abstract: Drawing on a survey amongst IADI Members, this IADI Survey Brief takes stock of the incorporation of climate related issues in fund management by deposit insurers. It provides a snapshot of current deposit insurer practices, identifies deposit insurers’ expectations, and explores possibilities for future developments.
    Keywords: deposit insurance, bank resolution, ESG
    JEL: G21 G33
    Date: 2023–02
  53. By: Nasir Iqbal (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics)
    Abstract: Pakistan has been facing high inflation over the last few years. Rising food and fuel (2Fs) prices, in addition to disruption in the global supply chain, adverse impacts of climate change, and bad governance challenges, are major contributing factors to high inflation. The skyrocketing 2Fs prices have aggravated food insecurity and poverty in Pakistan. Targeted in-kind transfers are commonly used to dilute the adverse effects of food and fuel inflation globally (Banerjee, Hanna, Olken, Satriawan, & Sumarto, 2021; Nawaz & Iqbal, 2020).
    Keywords: Food Subsidies Programs,
    Date: 2022
  54. By: Nicolas Treich (TSE-R - Toulouse School of Economics - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Yuting Yang (TSE-R - Toulouse School of Economics - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Standard benefit-cost analysis often ignores distortions caused by taxation and the heterogeneity of taxpayers. In this paper, we theoretically and numerically explore the effect of imperfect taxation on the public provision of mortality risk reductions (or public safety). We show that this effect critically depends on the source of imperfection as well as on the individual utility and survival probability functions. Our simulations based on the calibration of distributional weights and applied to the COVID-19 example suggest that the value per statistical life, and in turn the optimal level of public safety, should be adjusted downwards because of imperfect taxation. However, we also identify circumstances under which this result is reversed, so that imperfect taxation cannot generically justify less public safety.
    Keywords: Public safetyE, Environmental health, Imperfect taxation, Value per statistical life, Distortionary taxation, Wealth inequality, Risk aversion
    Date: 2021–03
  55. By: Cohen, Adam; Shaheen, Susan PhD
    Abstract: Advanced air mobility (AAM) is a broad concept enabling consumers access to air mobility, cargo and package delivery, healthcare applications, and emergency services through an integrated and connected multimodal transportation network. AAM includes local use cases of about a 50-mile radius in rural or urban areas and intraregional use cases of up to approximately 500 miles that occur within or between urban and rural areas. The Future of Aviation Conference: Advancing Aerial Mobility through Technology, Sustainability, and On-Demand Flight was held in person at the San Francisco International Airport from August 2 to 5, 2022. The conference commenced with an AAM 101 workshop hosted by the Community Air Mobility Initiative (CAMI) on August 2nd. The full conference program began on August 3rd. This event advanced key research and policy discussions around environmental impacts, safety, security, equity, multimodal integration, and the role of government.
    Keywords: Engineering
    Date: 2023–03–01
  56. By: Pérez, Rafaela; Ruiz, Jesús; Guinea, Laurentiu
    Abstract: We examine the asymmetric effects of financial instability shocks and their volatility on the conventional and renewable energy mix. We utilize Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) Volatility Index (VIX) and the Volatility-of-Volatility index (vVIX) in a nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL) model to examine the short- and long-term asymmetry effects across energy mix in Europe, the US, and China. Furthermore, we examine the dynamic long-run asymmetry of financial instability shocks on the energy sector and how this relationship evolves over time. Our estimation indicate that the long-term effects over the energy mix are more significant than their short-term effects. The study found that the responses to the volatility of financial instability, vVIX, are different from the responses to financial instability itself, VIX. The impact is more noticeable on changes in the vVIX than on VIX. In the US, there is a higher inclination to adopt renewable energy during periods of lower volatility, whereas Europe tends to rely on natural gas when financial instability is high but decreases its use when volatility is low. China shows symmetrical responses for gas, oil, and coal but has asymmetrical responses for renewable energy, with a negative response to high financial stability and also negative response to high uncertainty volatility. Regarding dynamic asymmetry, we notice that for oil, the long-run asymmetry is similar in both Europe and the US, with the US showing a high level of stability. Similarly, coal demonstrates high stability in both Europe and the US, while China experienced a period of instability from 2017 to 2020. Moreover, in Europe, the stable periods for gas coincide with the unstable ones in the US. However, for renewable sources, the instability periods coincide for Europe and US, but China exhibits high stability in this regard.
    Keywords: Asymmetries; Financial Instability; Nardl; Renewable Energy; Vix; Volatility-Of-Volatility
    JEL: C12 C32 C58 G01 G13 G17 Q42
    Date: 2023–03–17
  57. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: Selected Issues
    Keywords: government housing policy; housing cost burden; housing affordability; core inflation composition; I. Phillips Curve specification; flagging housing SUPPLY; Housing; Inflation; Natural disasters; Climate change; Energy prices; Global; Northern Europe
    Date: 2023–03–09
  58. By: Isabelle Tsakok
    Abstract: Implications of Food Systems for Food Security: The case of the Republic of Mozambique Mozambique is resource-rich and strategically located on the east coast of Africa between Tanzania and South Africa. Its mineral wealth includes coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, gold, rubies, and natural gas. Valuable marine stocks include crustaceans, demersal and pelagic fish which populate its long coastline. Its agriculture is endowed with plentiful land, water, and a generally favorable climate for agricultural (crops and livestock) production. Yet, its agriculture cannot produce enough surplus, thus trapping the vast majority of rural people in grinding poverty. This Policy Brief focuses on how policy and institutional neglect of a country's food systems ensure millions suffer chronic malnutrition and poor health status, right from conception to infancy. The Frelimo government has not prioritized using Mozambique's mineral wealth to invest in agriculture, the primary sector the majority depends upon for their livelihood. Its growth model has been import-substituting, extractive industrialization first. Mozambique confirms the historical fact that neglecting agriculture in the early stages of development condemns a country to massive poverty and food insecurity.
    Date: 2022–07
  59. By: Ferguson, Beth; Sanguinetti, Angela
    Abstract: Micromobility is well-suited to address first- and last-mile connectivity with public transit by extending the catchment area around transit stations and bridging gaps in the existing transit network, ultimately facilitating access to jobs and services. However, the uptake of micromobility depends on a variety of factors including environmental design features at and around public transit stations that support or inhibit access. This research covered environmental audits at 18 BART stations to count arrivals, departures, and parked personal and shared micromobility vehicles, an online survey of BART and micromobility users, and interviews with government, industry, and community stakeholders. This research showed that in the California Bay Area, the prevalence of personal micromobility currently dwarfs rates of shared micromobility use, and that includes a burgeoning segment of transit users connecting with their own e-bikes and e-scooters. Successes and challenges were highlighted, and recommendations made for station design, including greater availability of shared micromobility vehicles, more affordable secure parking for personal micromobility vehicles, better signage and wayfinding. Beyond the station proper, there is a need for protected bike lanes and consistent design standards for bike facilities throughout the region. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Engineering, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Micromobility, public transportation, shared mobility, scooter, bike
    Date: 2023–02–01
  60. By: Abdul Manna (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics)
    Abstract: Pakistan was ravaged by unprecedented flooding during this monsoon season leaving behind at least 2000 dead, 33 million displaced, three million homes destroyed or damaged, and a third of the country underwater for weeks. An initial estimate shows damages to the north of US$ 32 billion. With better disaster management, i.e., mitigation, preparedness, and timely response, losses of lives and property could have been significantly lower as the warnings about heavy rainfalls were issued by the metrological department weeks in advance.
    Date: 2022
  61. By: Adélaïde Fadhuile; Daniel Llerena; Béatrice Roussillon
    Abstract: A demand response program is a promising tool to increase the share of intermittent renewable energy in the electricity production mix. It requires that households adapt their energy consumption to the level of energy production in order to balance the grid, i.e., decrease (increase) their consumption during peak load (peak energy production) event. However, energy conservation efforts suffer from many cognitive biases that impede the optimization of electricity consumption and thus demand flexibility. This article presents a randomized field experiment aimed at introducing demand response with nonmonetary incentives coupled by a set of nudges addressing these cognitive biases. Our results are very encouraging, as demand was successfully decreased by 21% during the peak load event and increased by 17% during the peak energy production event. Our tested nudges are cheap, easy to implement and provide interesting results in demand management programs.
    Keywords: Flexibility, Randomized Field Experiment, Energy Conservation, Nudges
    JEL: D9 C93 Q41
    Date: 2023–02
  62. By: Sophie Behr; Merve Küçük; Karsten Neuhoff
    Abstract: The energy and climate crisis enhance the need for energy savings. In the building sector, these savings can be achieved primarily through thermal retrofitting. So far, progress in this area has been slow. To date, less than one percent of the residential building stock in Germany is retrofitted each year. The existing support programs alone offer too little reliability for the necessary investments in additional production capacities for building materials and in the construction sector to take place. In order to accelerate the energetic modernization of buildings, minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for buildings and binding target for the annual rate of thermal building retrofitting is necessary. Low-income households in particular could be sustainably protected from future energy cost shocks and gas savings of up to 14 percent could be achieved by end of 2025.
    Date: 2023
  63. By: Di Foggia, Giacomo; Beccarello, Massimo
    Abstract: The paper compares the efficiency of alternative municipal solid waste management business models: a single provider against multiple providers. The drivers of municipal solid waste management costs are analysed to test the impact of the scale and scope of municipal solid waste management services on the average cost. While the business-as-usual scenario foresees a single provider, the alternative scenario foresees multiple providers. Based on the empirical data on municipal waste management costs, on average, the size and the average cost of the service are inversely related. This trend is supported using subsets defined by the quantity of waste managed. Multiple factors aid in explaining this result, and among others, due to scale and scope, factors such as transition costs increase with the number of players running different services. The provision of public services of economic interest should favour the participation of more companies wherever possible to the extent that social surplus is produced. However, pursuing this principle to the detriment of efficient service delivery is not ideal. This paper demonstrated that a single-provider waste management business model is efficient under specific conditions, as in this article. This paper presents an original research methodology for comparatively analysing waste management service efficiency in urban areas and provides adequate evidence using alternative measures of costs according to the phase of the waste management chain, the scale, and ultimately the scope of municipal solid waste management services.
    Date: 2023–02–27
  64. By: Hao, Peng; Oswald, David; Wu, Guoyuan; Barth, Matthew J
    Abstract: Surface transportation systems (e.g., arterial roadways with signalized intersections) are inherently inefficient, particularly at higher traffic volumes. In general, both the infrastructure (e.g., traffic signals) and the vehicles operate independently, with little coordination between them. Previous research has shown that implementing strategies that take advantage of infrastructure-tovehicle communication can improve overall mobility and reduce environmental impacts, e.g., the Eco-Approach and Departure (EAD) application that takes advantage of communicating signal phase and timing information to the vehicles. In this paper, the authors build upon this past research to develop a new cooperative traffic operation approach that takes advantage of not only infrastructure-to-vehicle communications, but also vehicle-to-infrastructure communications. This effort integrates a dynamic traffic signalization algorithm together with EAD algorithm to achieve even greater traffic efficiency. The research was carried out in a high-fidelity simulation environment and shows upwards of 15% fuel savings and 85% reductions in waiting time. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Cooperative traffic optimization, eco-approach and departure, SUMO, traffic simulation, vehicle-to-infrastructure communication
    Date: 2023–02–01
  65. By: Gustavo Ariel Ramirez
    Abstract: En este trabajo se cuantifica el impacto económico y ambiental de la inserción de los vehículos eléctricos (VE) mediante un modelo de insumo producto y sobre la base de diferentes proyecciones de ventas de VE para el 2030 elaborados por la Agencia Internacional de Energía. Producir VE y abastecerlos con generación térmica, hace crecer el PBI un 0.8%, las emisiones suben 21 MMtCO2e, se crean 65 mil empleos en el sector de producción de VE y la balanza comercial cae 6.5%. En cambio, abastecerlos con EERR hace crecer un 10.7% el PBI, se ahorran 51 MMtCO2e, se crean 65 mil empleos en el sector de producción de VE, 140 mil en el sector de generación de EERR y la balanza comercial cae 9%. Los resultados evidencian que el mayor uso de VE generaría beneficios en términos ambientales y económicos que pueden favorecer tanto el cumplimiento de los compromisos asumidos por Argentina para reducir el nivel de emisiones al 2030, como el crecimiento sostenido de la economía.
    JEL: Q4 O2
    Date: 2022–11
  66. By: Henry Skeoch; Christos Ioannidis
    Abstract: Smooth risk transfer is a key condition for the development of an insurance market that is well-functioning and sustainable. The constantly evolving nature of cyber-threats and lack of public data sharing means the economic conditions required for quoted cyber-insurance premiums to be considered efficient are highly unlikely to be met. This paper develops Monte Carlo simulations of an artificial cyber-insurance market and compares the efficient and inefficient outcomes based on the informational setup between the market participants. The existence of diverse loss distributions is justified by the dynamic nature of cyber-threats and the absence of any reliable and centralised incident reporting. We show that the limited involvement of reinsurers when loss expectations are not shared leads to increased premia and lower overall capacity. This suggests that the sustainability of the cyber-insurance market requires both better data sharing and external sources of risk tolerant capital.
    Date: 2023–03
  67. By: Nicolás Bertholet; Gabriel Montes Rojas; Fernando Toledo
    Abstract: Este trabajo intenta analizar el efecto de los shocks de precios de alimentos y energía sobre la inflación en un panel de 52 países para el periodo 1995 2020 mediante diferentes técnicas econométricas basadas en paneles dinámicos paneles autorregresivos. En primer, se utilizarán los estimadores de GMM en diferencias y sistema GMM. Posteriormente y dado el problema, señalado por Roodman (2009) de proliferación de instrumentos vamos a abordar diferentes formas de solucionarlo. Como chequeo de robustez, se estimará un modelo de datos de panel vectorial autorregresivo (modelo PVAR) para 40 países durante el período 1995-2020. El análisis de las funciones de impulso-respuesta muestra efectos similares de los shocks energéticos (petróleo crudo y gas natural) y alimentarios en la tasa de inflación de la muestra. Un aumento del 10 % en el precio del petróleo produce un aumento del 0, 1 % en la tasa de inflación en los dos primeros trimestres, desapareciendo gradualmente. El efecto acumulativo ronda el 0, 5 %. Por otro lado, un shock inflacionario de alimentos de 10 % implica un aumento de 0, 6 % en el primer trimestre, que se vuelve no significativo en períodos posteriores. En este caso, entonces, hay un traspaso inmediato a la tasa de inflación local sin efectos de retraso. También pretendemos diferenciar no solo el impacto heterogéneo del incremento en los diferentes precios de este tipo de bienes sino también si existen asimetrías entre exportadores e importadores netos de commodities. Cuando dividimos la muestra entre exportadores e importadores netos para ambos shocks energéticos, no hay un patrón claro para poder separar los efectos en los exportadores netos e importadores netos de alimentos. Sin embargo, encontramos que el efecto acumulativo sobre la inflación se aplica principalmente a los importadores netos, aunque para los exportadores netos también hay un efecto estadísticamente significativo. De manera similar, encontramos que ambos shocks para ambas submuestras tienen un efecto positivo sobre el producto para el primer trimestre, aunque se vuelven negativos para los siguientes. Además, el efecto de apreciación es mayor para los exportadores netos que para los importadores netos.
    JEL: C23 E31
    Date: 2022–11
  68. By: Eric Le Fur (Larefi - Laboratoire d'analyse et de recherche en économie et finance internationales - UB - Université de Bordeaux); Jean-Francois Outreville
    Abstract: Purpose : The objective of the paper is to investigate the impact of habits and consumption behavior on the willingness to pay (WTP) for cider by surveying young consumers. Method : The analysis is based on a questionnaire distributed to a group of 433 French business students from December 2017 to January 2018. Specifically, the questionnaire is designed to test whether young consumers would pay a premium price or not for quality ciders with respect to a traditional sweet cider with similar characteristics. We are modelling the premium that consumers are willing to pay for an organic cider, a farmer cider and rosé cider. To accommodate the feature of a significant proportion of zero or negative premiums in dependent variables, the Heckman two-stage estimation procedure is performed. Results : Results show that the young generation consider cider as a cheap, festive and non-organic beverage and is willing to pay a premium for quality ciders like specifically rosé and farmer ciders. Conclusion : The results from this research have useful implications not only for the cider market but also in the understanding of the characteristics of competitive beverages that young consumers may prefer and value.
    Date: 2022–02–13
  69. By: Bonev, Petyo
    Abstract: What is a behavioral spillover? How can a spillover be uncovered from the data? What is the precise link between the underlying psychological theory of a spillover and the econometric assumptions which are necessary to estimate it? This paper draws on recent advancements in causal inference, behavioral economics, psychology, and neuroscience to develop a framework for the causal evaluation and interpretation of behavioral spillovers. A novel research design is suggested. The paper challenges existing empirical strategies and reevaluates existing empirical results.
    Keywords: Behavioral spillovers, environmental policy evaluation, moral licensing, self-perception theory, cognitive dissonance theory, foot-in-the-door effect
    JEL: C21 C26 C9 D04 D9
    Date: 2023–03
  70. By: Aymeric Ricome (JRC); Kamel Louhichi (JRC); Sergio Gomez y Paloma (JRC)
    Abstract: This report presents the results of an ex-ante impact assessment of several scenarios related to the farmer targeting of the input subsidy programme currently implemented in Senegal. This study has been achieved with the agricultural household model FSSIM-Dev, calibrated on a sample of 2 278 farm households from the ESPS-2 survey. The impacts on crop mix, fertilizer application, farm income and on the government cost are presented and discussed.
    Date: 2023–02
  71. By: Maria Laura Ojeda; María Priscila Ramos; Carlos Adrián Romero
    Abstract: Argentina ha impulsado, en la última década, la agenda de promoción de servicios de cuidados en el marco de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) de la Agenda de las Naciones Unidas 2030. Actualmente, los principales déficits están relacionados con una cobertura insuficiente y bajos salarios en los sectores de enseñanza y salud. En este marco, cobran especial relevancia los estudios que aproximan dimensiones concretas de lo que implicaría expandir y fortalecer las políticas de cuidado de manera integral. Este estudio se basa en la ampliación de las metodologías propuestas por la Organización Internacional del Trabajo (OIT) y ONU Mujeres para evaluar los efectos sobre la economía argentina de medidas orientadas a solucionar los déficits existentes de cobertura y calidad en los sectores de enseñanza y salud. La combinación de Modelos Insumo-Producto en precios y cantidades, resulta lo suficientemente flexible como para evaluar los efectos de políticas correctivas, sus costos anuales para la economía y los potenciales mecanismos de financiamiento. Los resultados obtenidos dan cuenta de la relevante creación de empleo femenino formal tanto por efecto directo, como indirecto e inducido. En consecuencia, este tipo de políticas poseen la potencialidad de reducir tanto la brecha de género en la participación en el empleo, como la brecha de ingresos laborales.
    JEL: I0 H5
    Date: 2022–11
  72. By: Kenneth Houngbedji (DIAL - Développement, institutions et analyses de long terme, LEDa - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - Université Paris Dauphine-PSL - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Benoit Mertens (UMR 228 Espace-Dev, Espace pour le développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - AU - Avignon Université - UR - Université de La Réunion - UG - Université de Guyane - UA - Université des Antilles - UM - Université de Montpellier)
    Keywords: Ressources forestières, développement socio-économique, Afrique centrale
    Date: 2022–01
  73. By: Emma Tyrou (CEPN - Centre d'Economie de l'Université Paris Nord - LABEX ICCA - UP13 - Université Paris 13 - Université Sorbonne Nouvelle - Paris 3 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UPCité - Université Paris Cité - Université Sorbonne Paris Nord - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Université Sorbonne Paris Nord)
    Date: 2022–06–09
  74. By: Feist, Marian; Geden, Oliver
    Abstract: Die 27. Vertragsstaatenkonferenz (COP 27) der UN-Klimarahmenkonvention im ägyptischen Scharm El-Scheich stand im Zeichen multipler Krisen und angeschlagenen Vertrauens der Entwicklungsländer in den multilateralen Prozess. Trotz allem ist es aber gelungen, beim kritischen Thema Schäden und Verluste (Loss and Damage) eine Einigung zu erzielen, auch wenn viele zentrale Aspekte noch zu klären sind. Bei der Emissionsreduzierung droht sich die aktuelle Glaubwürdigkeitskrise noch zu verschärfen, nicht nur weil sich nach dem Angriff Russlands auf die Ukraine politische Prioritäten offenkundig verschoben haben. Für die internationale Klimakooperation der nächsten Jahre wird es entscheidend sein, vereinbarte Zusagen und Prozesse einzuhalten und diplomatisches Fingerspitzengefühl im Umgang mit Partnerländern zu zeigen.
    Keywords: Klimapolitik, Klimawandel, UN-Klimarahmenkonvention (UNFCCC), 27. Vertragsstaatenkonferenz (COP 27) in Scharm El-Scheich, Schäden und Verluste, Loss and Damage, Klimaschutz, Mitigation, Klimafolgenanpassung, Adaptation, Global Shield
    Date: 2023
  75. By: Santos Espina Mairal; Hildegart Ahumada; Fernando Navajas; Alejandro Rasteletti
    Abstract: We extend the measurement of effective carbon rates, adapting the OECD methodology (OECD-ECR, 2019, 2021), to 18 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) for 2018, starting from energy balances and revising comprehensively the level and structure of excises and carbon taxes across countries and accounting for specificities in the emission structure (eg biofuels) and the existence of energy subsidies, all that quite differ from OECD patterns. This allows us to build up a sample of 66 countries (which includes some Asian and African countries also captured by OECD estimates) across 6 sectors and document stylized facts about the sectoral and aggregate level and structure of carbon pricing. Such facts show a biased structure of taxation towards road transport (which has a genesis, decades ago, different from the sole objectives of carbon taxation). This motivates an econometric modelling strategy where we first account for the determinants of economy-wide effective carbon rates (ECR) and then explain differences in road transport and the rest of sectors across countries with an automatic, machine learning model selection and using large set of potential explanatory variables that cover different structural, economic and institutional dimensions. Fiscal variables such as proxies for the marginal cost of public funds are important determinants of ECR in the road transport sector, as expected from the genesis of fuel excises. Emission trading systems tend to increase the value of ECR, while the same does not happen for carbon taxes suggesting that the later are introduced in a reform that substitute for excises. We document that LAC has a lower ECR and that energy subsidies are relevant in changing results only for some countries. However, we find that LAC does not depart from the model estimated for the whole sample insofar the main determinants of ECR. The exception are ETS since these are not observed in LAC, suggesting there might be an avenue for improving ECR by the introduction of ETS in some LAC countries.
    JEL: Q4 H2
    Date: 2022–11
  76. By: Cerniauskas, Simonas; Fulton, Lewis; Ogden, Joan
    Keywords: Engineering, Social and Behavioral Sciences, transportation fuel, hydrogen, transportation infrastructure, pipeline
    Date: 2023–03–01
  77. By: Mauro David Reyes Pontet
    Abstract: Las instituciones son definidas como las reglas que ordenan y regulan el comportamiento de una sociedad, de manera formal e informal. Por otro lado, la calidad (o fortaleza) de las instituciones es un aspecto difícil de definir y, por ende, difícil de valuar. A partir de los avances recientes en el análisis institucional, el marco de Buena Gobernanza definido por el Banco Mundial y el empleo de un método de ponderación afín, este trabajo presenta la construcción y valuación de un Índice de Calidad Institucional (ICI, en adelante), el cual se calcula para el período 2007-2016 en una muestra de 113 países. Luego, a través de la aplicación del método k-medias se conforman tres clústeres de países con fundamento en la relación de la calidad institucional y otras variables componentes del desarrollo económico y contaminación del medioambiente (ingreso, emisiones de CO2, educación, salud, inflación, entre otras).
    JEL: C10 O10
    Date: 2022–11
  78. By: Masato Abe (Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific); Nick Freeman (Consultant, Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific); Mike Troilo (Consultant, Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific)
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic is a global catastrophe, with no region spared including Asia and the Pacific. The cost has been considerable, whether measured in terms of public health or economic fallout. In a bid to constrain the spread of the coronavirus, national and local governments were obliged to lock down public spaces, forbade business transactions in person, restricted travel, and otherwise interdicted the flow of people, goods, and services globally. The consequences for business have been acute (ESCAP, 2021). Micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) naturally suffered more than large firms, given their limited human and financial resources, and heavier reliance on cash flows. The exogenous shock of the sudden, dramatic curtailment of business was a blow that ended an unknown number of MSMEs across the region. Access to finance, already a major constraint to MSME development prior to the pandemic, has worsened considerably, even in cases where governments have had sufficient resources to enact emergency policies aimed at keeping their MSME sectors afloat (ESCAP, 2021). The environment remains difficult. Despite these challenges, the pandemic represents an opportunity for MSME finance in the region. Policymakers can build back better to enable MSME finance to be more sustainable, efficient, and resilient. This will require dramatic changes in how policymakers and all stakeholders, including members of the international development community such as ESCAP, view MSME finance: its provision and related services. In this policy brief, we propose a holistic framework to capture this new thinking.
    Date: 2021–09
  79. By: Ailton Moisés Xa Fiorentin; Carlos Augusto Arantes; Marcelo Rossi de C. Lima; Taís Diane Nico Fiorentin; Luciana Márcia Gonçalves
    Abstract: Os indices de uso dos solos aplicados nos calculos da Nota Agronomica (NA), em varios casos, nao tem se mostrados aderentes aos modelos de avaliacao de imoveis rurais. Deste modo, o objetivo desse artigo e apresentar uma metodologia para obtencao dos Indices de Potencial Agronomico (IPA) utilizados para homogeneizacao no calculo do Valor de Terra Nua (VTN), alem da apresentacao do conceito da Nota Rodoviaria (NR). O estudo se mostra relevante pois foram observadas variacoes de ate 262% entre os indices encontrados pela matriz de limitacoes e os utilizados atualmente. Ademais, o conceito proposto para NR implementou uma metodologia para quantificacao ponderada das condicoes de uso da rota de acesso ao imovel. Assim, a NA resultante entre a relacao do IPA com a NR aprimorou o tratamento estatistico, dando maior precisao na homogeneizacao da principal variavel para calculo do VTN em laudos de avaliacao de imoveis rurais.
    Keywords: Agronomic Indices; Agronomic Note; Avaliação rural; Índice agronômico; Nota agronômica; Nota rodoviária; Road Note; rural evaluation; Valor de terra nua; Value of Naked Land
    JEL: R3
  80. By: Flavia Poinsot
    Abstract: La tragedia de los comunes se puede utilizar para describir otra tragedia, la de los políticos y los votantes. Cada uno de estos actores, imbuido de su propio interés en un escenario con un marco institucional defectuoso, busca sacar ventajas cada uno para sí, los votantes aumento de consumo actual y los políticos aumento de votos en el presente. Es en este escenario que los votantes, en función de sus conocimientos, creencias e ideas, eligen políticos que diseñan políticas que queriendo maximizar el bienestar explotan en forma ilimitada al recurso limitado, la capacidad del stock de capital y de trabajo para sostener una trayectoria de crecimiento sostenido. Dadas las características inherentes de las políticas, bajo cierto marco institucional, éstas pueden depredar los stocks de capital y de trabajo que entonces no pueden sustentar variables flujos como la inversión en cantidad suficiente para colocar al país en una trayectoria de crecimiento sostenible. Al final, todos pierden porque se devastan los stocks, disminuyendo los flujos de inversión, disminuyendo el bienestar y alejando al país de toda trayectoria de crecimiento. El rol de las instituciones es central al facilitar la coordinación intertemporal de las políticas y restringir los comportamientos de los actores siendo idóneas como instrumentos de compromiso
    JEL: B3 B4
    Date: 2022–11
  81. By: Leplat Mélody (L@BISEN - Laboratoire ISEN - Institut supérieur de l'électronique et du numérique (ISEN) - YO - YNCREA OUEST); Loheac Youenn (ESC [Rennes] - ESC Rennes School of Business); Teillet Eric (SensoStat)
    Keywords: meat substitutes, sensory evaluation, choices experiment, real products
    Date: 2022–06–30
  82. By: Emre Hatipoglu; Brian Efird; Saleh Al Muhanna (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the evolving political will in Japan to restart nuclear power plants to generate electric power, in light of the country’s political and economic developments over the past few years. We apply a model of collective decision-making processes (CDMPs), using the KAPSARC Toolkit for Behavioral Analysis (KTAB), to simulate the interactions among different interest groups including policymakers, national and local political leaders, electricity companies, and the public, given their varying interests, goals and priorities.
    Date: 2023–01–29
  83. By: Ignacio Benito Amaro
    Abstract: La producción agropecuaria tiene un rol muy relevante en Argentina, más del 70% de las exportaciones del país provienen de productos agropecuarios y agroindustriales. En el sector agropecuario el factor productivo especifico que posee es el suelo. La fertilidad química de los suelos en Argentina comienza a manifestar déficit en nutrientes. Siendo que el sector agrícola es un sector tan relevante de la economía es que uno debe tratar de comprender que es lo que está ocurriendo. Para entender qué es lo que está ocurriendo con el Stock de Fosforo (uno de estos nutrientes en déficit) es que uno se puede preguntar qué factores influyen en el aprovechamiento óptimo en términos económicos de este recurso. Se llega a la conclusión que los factores que afectan el Stock de Fosforo son, la tasa a la que descuentan los agentes sus fondos, la probabilidad de renovación del alquiler, el precio del fertilizante, el precio del bien, y el costo variable. Los costos fijos no modificaron el estado estacionario. Además, diferentes rotaciones afectan de cultivos afectan los stocks de nutrientes en suelo óptimos.
    JEL: Q1
    Date: 2022–11
  84. By: André Fontana
    Abstract: En tenant compte de l’influence de la masse d’un véhicule sur l’énergie dépensée au train roulant, l’incidence d’un surpoids lié à l’installation de batteries, la consommation d’énergie nette est évaluée. En se basant sur des consommations moyennes d’essence, des rendements des moteurs, de ceux du système de charge des batteries en des rendements des productions et transports d’énergie, l’impact environnemental du « tout électrique » montre un accroissement non négligeable des énergies brutes consommées.
    Keywords: voiture électrique; énergie; Environnement
    Date: 2023–03–17
  85. By: Amro Elshurafa; Abdelrahman Muhsen; Frank Felder (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: We quantify the cost, footprint and reliability implications of using hydrogen in off-grid electric vehicle charging stations (CS) using an optimization model coupled with a geographical information system (GIS) analysis for the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We also account for the challenges associated with wind energy deployment as a generation technology for CS within city centers.
    Keywords: Battery Storage, Benefits of electricity trade, Business models, Consumer behavior
    Date: 2023–01–29
  86. By: Nathalie Lazaric (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (1965 - 2019) - COMUE UCA - COMUE Université Côte d'Azur (2015-2019) - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Côte d'Azur)
    Abstract: Innovations vertes ET MODES DE CONSOMMATION Décryptage. Les enjeux et défis de l'économie verte sont immenses tant au niveau local qu'au niveau national. Selon l'Insee (Institut national de la Statistique et des Études économiques), l'économie verte est la principale source de croissance de profits, de valeur ajoutée, de création d'emplois… et aussi un moteur d'innovations et de dépôts de brevets.
    Date: 2022–02–14

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