nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2023‒03‒27
87 papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Carbon Dioxide as a Risky Asset By Adam Michael Bauer; Cristian Proistosescu; Gernot Wagner
  2. To Starve or to Stoke? Understanding Whether Divestment vs. Investment Can Steer (Green) Innovation By Jacquelyn Pless
  3. IFAD RESEARCH SERIES 89: Incorporating the Impact of Climate and Weather Variables in Impact Assessments: An Application to an IFAD Climate Change Adaptation Project in Viet Nam By McCarthy, Nancy; Cavatassi, Romina; Mabiso, Athur
  4. IFAD RESEARCH SERIES 88: The Impact of Climate Change on Livestock Production in Mozambique By McCarthy, Nancy; Cavatassi, Romina; Maggio, Giuseppe
  5. Human Capital and Climate Change By Noam Angrist; Kevin Winseck; Harry A. Patrinos; Joshua S. Graff Zivin
  6. Unveiling the Carbon Footprint of Europe and Central Asia: Insights into the Impact of Key Factors on CO2 Emissions By Khan, Muhammad Tufail; Imran, Muhammad
  7. The Economic Opportunity Cost of Green Recovery Plans By Timothy Fitzgerald; Casey B. Mulligan
  8. Environmental perceptions and sustainable consumption behavior. The disparity among South Africans. By Frederich Kirsten; Mduduzi Biyase
  9. Goal oriented indicators for food systems based on FAIR data By Ronit Purian
  10. A Market for Brown Assets To Make Finance Green By Laura Cerami; Mr. Domenico Fanizza
  11. Sustainable Development Goals: An Economic and Social Perspective By Singh Tomar, Arun
  12. The Impact of Tourism on the Environment, Socio-culture and Local Communities of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan By Mohammad Armughan
  14. Factor mimicking portfolios for climate risk By Gianluca De Nard; Robert F. Engle; Bryan Kelly
  15. Behavior Mediates the Health Effects of Extreme Wildfire Smoke Events By Sam Heft-Neal; Carlos F. Gould; Marissa Childs; Mathew V. Kiang; Kari Nadeau; Mark Duggan; Eran Bendavid; Marshall Burke
  16. Shifting Gender Roles in Society and the Workplace: Implications for Environmental Sustainability By Khan, Majid
  17. Private production or public project ownership to scale up the construction of photovoltaic power plants in Africa? By Nicolas Guichard,; Christian de Gromard,; Jérémy Gasc,; Étienne Espagne,; Martin Buchsenschutz,; Benoît Gars,; Laetitia Labaute.
  18. COP27: A Brief Account of Contemporary Climate Adaptation and Mitigation Policies, a View from the South By Afaf Zarkik
  19. Recent Findings and Methodologies in Economics Research in Environmental Justice By Lucas Cain; Danae Hernandez-Cortes; Christopher Timmins; Paige Weber
  20. The Green Transition Dilemma: the Impossible (?) Quest for Prosperity of South American Economies By Sebastian VALDECANTOS
  21. Econometric Study of the Impacts of Climate Change on Food Security in Morocco By Arib Fatima; Houria Et-Touile
  22. The World Needs a Green Bank By Hafez Ghanem
  23. Mapping Circular Economy projects funded by ERDF in 2014-2020 By MARQUES SANTOS Anabela; CONTE Andrea; OJALA Tauno
  24. Cooling Externality of Large-Scale Irrigation By Thomas Braun; Wolfram Schlenker
  25. Learning from small islands in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO): A systematic review of responses to environmental change By Meenakshi Poti; Jean Huge; Kartik Shanker; Nico Koedam; Farid Dahdouh-Guebas
  26. The transition of brown regions: A matter of timing? By Stefano Basilico; Nils Grashof
  27. Using firm-level production networks to identify decarbonization strategies that minimize social stress By Johannes Stangl; Andr\'as Borsos; Christian Diem; Tobias Reisch; Stefan Thurner
  28. Management of common pool resources in a nation-wide experiment By Jean-Christian Tisserand; Astrid Hopfensitz; Serge Blondel; Youenn Loheac; César Mantilla; Guillermo Mateu; Julie Rosaz; Anne Rozan; Marc Willinger; Angela Sutan
  29. Are mud housing, wooden housing and open glass buildings architectural masterpieces for green buildings or simply views of sustainable real estate? By Chiemela Victor Amaechi
  30. Optimal transmission expansion planning in the context of renewable energy integration policies By Nikita Belyak; Steven A. Gabriel; Nikolay Khabarov; Fabricio Oliveira
  31. Foreign Demand, Developing Country Exports, and CO2 Emissions: Firm-Level Evidence from India By Hélène Ollivier; Geoffrey Barrows
  32. Adverse weather amplifies social media activity By Kelton Minor; Esteban Moro; Nick Obradovich
  33. Input Subsidies and the Destruction of Natural Capital: Chinese Distant Water Fishing By Gabriel Englander; Jihua Zhang; Juan Carlos Villaseñor-Derbez; Qutu Jiang; Mingzhao Hu; Olivier Deschenes; Christopher Costello
  34. Arctic Amplification of Anthropogenic Forcing: A Vector Autoregressive Analysis By Philippe Goulet Coulombe; Maximilian Gobel
  35. Analyzing the effects of e-waste on human health and environment: A study of Pakistan By Mohammad Armughan; Sameen Zafar
  36. Implications of Lifting the Open-Pit Mining Ban in the Philippines By Domingo, Sonny N.; Manejar, Arvie Joy A.; Pascual, Ludwig John H.
  37. Imperfect competition, emissions tax and the Porter hypothesis By Flavio M. Menezes; Jorge Pereira
  38. Measuring and disclosing Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) information and performance By ANTOLÍN-LÓPEZ Raquel; ORTIZ-DE-MANDOJANA Natalia
  39. Phasing out coal power in a developing country context: Insights from Vietnam By Thang Nam Do; Paul J. Burke
  40. Harmonised labelling of waste receptacles with matching product labels By ALBIZZATI Paola; CRISTOBAL GARCIA Jorge; ANTONOPOULOS Ioannis; EGLE Lukas; FOSTER Gillian; GAUDILLAT Pierre; MARSCHINSKI Robert; PIERRI Erika; TONINI Davide
  41. The More You Breath, The Less You Are Safe. The Effect of Air Pollution on Work Accidents By Domenico Depalo; Alessandro Palma
  42. Issues and prospects of further reforms of the extended producer responsibility institution in the context of "garbage reform" By Kireeva Anastasia
  43. The Short-Run, Dynamic Employment Effects of Natural Disasters: New Insights By Alessandro Barattieri; Patrice Borda; Alberto Brugnoli; Martino Pelli; Jeanne Tschopp
  44. The climate and the economy By Breckenfelder, Johannes; Maćkowiak, Bartosz; Marqués-Ibáñez, David; Olovsson, Conny; Popov, Alexander; Porcellacchia, Davide; Schepens, Glenn
  45. Civic monitoring for environmental enforcement. Exploring the potential and use of evidence gathered by lay people By BERTI SUMAN Anna
  46. A social network analysis of mangrove management stakeholders in Sri Lanka's Northern Province By Thanne Mafaziya Nijamdeen; Jean Huge; Hajaniaina Ratsimbazafy; Kodikara Arachchilage Sunanda Kodikara; Farid Dahdouh-Guebas
  47. Natural disasters and economic inequality: Insights from wildfires across the globe By Jayash Paudel
  48. Circularidad y manejo de desechos para el sector del transporte público en América Latina By Reyes Donoso, Irina
  49. Das Transformationspotential des deutschen Sustainable Finance Diskurses: Eine Einschätzung auf Basis von Logiken und Frames By Dimmelmeier, Andreas; Egerer, Elsa
  50. A Principal-Agent Framework for Optimal Incentives in Renewable Investments By Ren\'e A\"id; Annika Kemper; Nizar Touzi
  51. Long-term impacts of coastal floods in Europe: a probabilistic analysis By MONGELLI Ignazio; VOUSDOUKAS Michail; FEYEN Luc; SORIA RAMIREZ Antonio; CISCAR MARTINEZ Juan Carlos
  52. Prestigieux et engagés : La double casquette des célébrités sur le visage du luxe durable By Oxana Lahbib; Aurélie Kessous; Pierre Valette-Florence
  53. Ecological footprint and population health outcomes: an analysis of E7 countries By Tajul Masron; Mduduzi Biyase; Talent Zwane; Thomas Udimal; Frederich Kirsten
  54. Weather Shocks, Unconditional Cash Transfers and Household Food Outcomes By Ghulam Mustafa
  55. Adapting to Climate Risk? Local Population Dynamics in the United States By Indaco, Agustín; Ortega, Francesc
  56. Germany and Namibia as co-leads for the United Nations: Chances and challenges on the road to the 2024 UN Summit of the future By Beisheim, Marianne; Weinlich, Silke
  57. CSR and logistics: A bibliometric and systematic review of SCOPUS database from 1997 to 2021 By Houssaine Mounaim; Aymane Sarmoh; Oumaima El Mazouni
  58. Strong sustainability and property rights By Eric KEMP-BENEDICT
  59. Assessing and Comparing Fixed-Target Forecasts of Arctic Sea Ice: Glide Charts for Feature-Engineered Linear Regression and Machine Learning Models By Francis X. Diebold; Maximilian Gobel; Philippe Goulet Coulombe
  60. Green Digital Nudging and channel relationships By Aiolfi, Simone
  61. Next7G Project Management - Project Management for the next seven Generations By Glitscher, Wolfgang
  62. Guest editorial: SBM Special Issue EURAM 2021 Conference - reshaping capitalism for a sustainable world - best papers from the Managing Sport SIG By Anna Gerke
  63. Fickle Fossils. Economic Growth, Coal and the European Oil Invasion, 1900-2015 By Miriam Fritzsche; Nikolaus Wolf
  64. The production Inefficiency of the U.S. Electricity Industry in the Face of Restructuring and Emission Reduction By Manh-Hung Nguyen; Chon van Le; Scott Atkinson
  65. Carrying agricultural land in the name of public and collective interests: a diversity of institutional arrangements By Christine Léger Léger-Bosch; Mathilde Fromage
  66. How can accounting reformulate the debate on natural capital and help implement its ecological approach? By Alexandre RAMBAUD
  67. Droit de propriété et protection de l’environnement By François Facchini; Max Falque
  68. Quetta Cafes: An Indigenous Tea Cafes Chain in Twins Cities By Ajmal Kakar; Qaisar Iqbal
  69. Renewable electricity generation and government expenditure on economic growth of South Africa and Botswana By Hlongwane, Nyiko Worship; Daw, Olebogeng David; Sithole, Mixo Sweetness
  70. Gouvernance d'Entreprise et Morale Sociale. By Michel Villette
  71. O impacto do cenário de inflação no segmento Casa Verde e Amarela: uma análise da qualidade do investimento By Isabelle Turri Sanches; Rafael Dutra Gome de Almeida; Eliane Monetti; Leonardo Mason
  72. Global temporal power data collection: electricity load and power generation from solar and wind By SCHMITZ Andreas; DESPRÉS Jacques
  73. Does Similarity in Philippine FTAs Matter in Trade? By Quimba, Francis Mark A.; Barral, Mark Anthony A.
  74. Blowin' in the Wind of an Invisible Killer: Long-Term Exposure to Ozone and Respiratory Mortality in the United States By Liu, Ziheng; Chen, Xi; Lu, Qinan
  75. Towards a Pan-African Approach to Food Security By Hafez Ghanem
  76. Hacia la medición de la electromovilidad en el comercio internacional By Ronzheimer, Ira Nadine; Durán Lima, José Elías; Budnevich, Cristóbal; Gomies, Matthew
  77. Economic Impact of Tennessee Forest Product Exports in 2021 By Muhammad, Andrew; Hellwinckel, Chad M.; Nzayiramya, Savant; Taylor, Adam
  78. A Review of Current Electric Power Network Expansion Models By Wu, Lei; Lu, Shen; Chen, Yinong
  79. Greening Vehicle Fleets: A structural analysis of scrappage programs during the financial crisis By KITANO Taiju
  80. Solar Panel Adoption in SMEs in Emerging Countries By Pedro I. Hancevic; Hector H. Sandoval
  81. Development of measures of demographic policy and a system of relevant targets characterizing achievement of the 2030 national development goals By Efremov Igor; Novikov Kirill; Pustovalov Denis
  82. Tendances et perspectives énergétiques à l’horizon 2023 : survivre à la crise énergétique tout en construisant un avenir plus vert By Rim Berahab
  83. Des promesses de la transition énergétique à la morosité macroéconomique : le cuivre à la croisée des chemins By Yves Jégourel
  84. Rain Rain Go Away: A Snapshot Of The Flood 2022 And Way Forward By Sobia Rose; Abedullah
  85. Absent, outside, inside: integrating the "environment" into Regulation Theory By Nelo Magalhães
  86. How do companies measure and report corporate sustainability? A comparison among the most innovative European companies By ORTIZ-DE-MANDOJANA Natalia; ANTOLÍN-LÓPEZ Raquel
  87. EU-Energielabel: (K-)eine Hilfe bei der Kaufentscheidung? By Hensen, Julia

  1. By: Adam Michael Bauer; Cristian Proistosescu; Gernot Wagner
    Abstract: We develop a financial-economic model for carbon pricing with an explicit representation of decision making under risk and uncertainty that is consistent with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s sixth assessment report. We find that this approach provides economic support for the warming targets in the Paris Agreement across a variety of specifications. We show that risk associated with high damages in the long term leads to stringent mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions in the near term. Our results provide insight into how a systematic incorporation of climate-related risk influences ‘optimal’ emissions abatement pathways.
    Keywords: climate risk, asset pricing, cost of carbon
    JEL: G00 G12 Q51 Q54
    Date: 2023
  2. By: Jacquelyn Pless
    Abstract: More than 1, 500 organizations and investors representing over $40 trillion in assets have committed to fossil fuel divestment to combat climate change. Will it work? This chapter explores whether divestment might induce green innovation, a critical component of transitioning to a cleaner economy. Divestment could theoretically steer innovation by increasing the cost of capital for "dirty firms, " but it is unclear whether the effects will be large enough to significantly reduce investment opportunities. I argue that continuing to invest in dirty industries could drive green innovation conditional on investors being socially-conscious and governing through "voice." This hinges upon understanding which firm strategies actually foster green innovation, though, and the commonly-used ESG indicators come with several limitations. I demonstrate how decomposing them and using alternative approaches to measuring environmental performance can improve investment, strategy, and management decision-making and policy design. I examine the relationship between 14 specific practices and whether large firms in 16 pollution-intensive sectors are on track for meeting the Paris Agreement emissions targets ("carbon performance"). I find no correlation between carbon performance and the most basic practices, like disclosing emissions, but a positive correlation for five more explicit strategies: setting long-term quantitative emissions targets, having a third party verify emissions data, incorporating environmental performance into executive remuneration policies, supporting governmental climate change efforts, and setting an internal price of carbon. I construct a new best practices score based on these results and find that it has a much higher correlation with carbon performance than some other composite measures.
    JEL: G30 O32 O35 Q4 Q5
    Date: 2023–02
  3. By: McCarthy, Nancy; Cavatassi, Romina; Mabiso, Athur
    Abstract: This paper discusses which climate variables to collect, and from which sources, when incorporating them into an impact assessment. It finds that severe saline intrusion in Viet Name—caused by climate change and land and water use—had significant effects on crop choices and negative impacts on a range of production and livelihood outcomes.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, International Development, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2023–03–03
  4. By: McCarthy, Nancy; Cavatassi, Romina; Maggio, Giuseppe
    Abstract: This paper incorporates climate variables, including rainfall conditions and patterns, into an impact assessment of the Value Chain Development Project in the Maputo and Limpopo Corridors (PROSUL) in Mozambique. It focuses on activities targeting improved pasture management, supplemental feed sources and livestock value chain development. Results show weather and climate conditions significantly impact households’ adoption of project activities and livestock productivity outcomes. Project beneficiaries in drought-prone areas are more likely to provide supplemental feed in the dry season, though livestock birth rates are still lower in those areas.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2023–03–03
  5. By: Noam Angrist; Kevin Winseck; Harry A. Patrinos; Joshua S. Graff Zivin
    Abstract: Addressing climate change requires individual behavior change and voter support for pro-climate policies, yet surprisingly little is known about how to achieve these outcomes. In this paper, we estimate causal effects of additional education on pro-climate outcomes using new compulsory schooling law data across 16 European countries. We analyze effects on pro-climate beliefs, behaviors, policy preferences, and novel data on voting for green parties – a particularly consequential outcome to combat climate change. Results show a year of education increases pro-climate beliefs, behaviors, most policy preferences, and green voting, with voting gains equivalent to a substantial 35% increase.
    JEL: D72 H41 I20 I28 P16 Q01 Q5
    Date: 2023–03
  6. By: Khan, Muhammad Tufail; Imran, Muhammad
    Abstract: This study delves into the intricate relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and crucial variables in Europe and Central Asia from 1990-2021. By examining the impact of renewable energy, industry value added, foreign direct investment (FDI), gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, and population density on CO2 emissions using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) method, the study uncovers intriguing findings. The study reveals a significant negative correlation between linear per capita income and CO2 emissions in both the short and long run. Moreover, it confirms the inverted N-shaped environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) relationship between the variables. The study further highlights the unfavorable impact of renewable energy and industry value added on CO2 emissions, pointing to the fact that their growth increases CO2 emissions. On the other hand, population density is found to be a vital factor in reducing CO2 emissions. FDI is identified to have a negative and insignificant impact on CO2 emissions, suggesting that it may not be an effective tool for reducing carbon emissions in the region. The insights from this study have significant implications for policymakers in the region to design and implement effective strategies to reduce CO2 emissions.
    Keywords: Carbon emissions; Economic growth; Renewable energy; FDI inflows; Industry value added, Population density; ARDL estimator.
    JEL: C32
    Date: 2023–01–20
  7. By: Timothy Fitzgerald; Casey B. Mulligan
    Abstract: Advocates in several countries have promoted a “green recovery” from the pandemic, with an emphasis on measures to address climate objectives. We evaluate proposals for the United States and find that as stated, ambitious plans to further cut emissions from transportation and electricity will require more inputs to produce the same outputs, resulting in recurring costs of up to $483 billion per year. We forecast that real GDP and consumption will be 2-3 percent less in the long run if policies are implemented as stated, underscoring the opportunity costs of achieving green objectives when resources might be more efficiently deployed.
    JEL: Q40 Q48 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2023–02
  8. By: Frederich Kirsten (College of Business and Economics, School of Economics, University of Johannesburg); Mduduzi Biyase (College of Business and Economics, School of Economics, University of Johannesburg)
    Abstract: South Africa has the highest level of inequality globally and has been labeled a country of two nations. With a small share of highly affluent people and a mass at the bottom of society struggling to escape poverty, these two vastly different socioeconomic status groups have also been characterized by race, gender, and geographical location. However, very little evidence exists of the varying environmental perceptions among people in these different economic and social positions in South Africa. By using the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) Environment III dataset for 2010, the study assessed the impact of sociodemographic factors on the environmental perceptions and sustainable consumption behavior of South Africans. The results show that environmental concerns are highest among those with low socioeconomic status and Africans. Since these individuals make up the majority of the most vulnerable in society, it supports the exposure to degradation hypothesis in a South African context. Contrastingly sustainable consumption behavior is highest among those with high socioeconomic status suggesting a strong post-materialist effect on pro-environmental consumption. From a policy perspective, environmental policymakers in South Africa could take note of the strong environmental concerns among those more vulnerable to daily environmental degradation and provide further incentives and support their transition to sustainable consumption behavior changes that would assist in environmental protection.
    Keywords: Sustainable consumption behavior, Behavioral intention, Environmental concern, Environmental risk perception, Environmental knowledge, South Africa.
    Date: 2023
  9. By: Ronit Purian
    Abstract: Throughout the food supply chain, between production, transportation, packaging, and green employment, a plethora of indicators cover the environmental footprint and resource use. By defining and tracking the more inefficient practices of the food supply chain and their effects, we can better understand how to improve agricultural performance, track nutrition values, and focus on the reduction of a major risk to the environment while contributing to food security. Our aim is to propose a framework for a food supply chain, devoted to the vision of zero waste and zero emissions, and at the same time, fulfilling the broad commitment on inclusive green economy within the climate action. To set the groundwork for a smart city solution which achieves this vision, main indicators and evaluation frameworks are introduced, followed by the drill down into most crucial problems, both globally and locally, in a case study in north Italy. Methane is on the rise in the climate agenda, and specifically in Italy emission mitigation is difficult to achieve in the farming sector. Accordingly, going from the generic frameworks towards a federation deployment, we provide the reasoning for a cost-effective use case in the domain of food, to create a valuable digital twin. A Bayesian approach to assess use cases and select preferred scenarios is proposed, realizing the potential of the digital twin flexibility with FAIR data, while understanding and acting to achieve environmental and social goals, i.e., coping uncertainties, and combining green employment and food security. The proposed framework can be adjusted to organizational, financial, and political considerations in different locations worldwide, rethinking the value of information in the context of FAIR data in digital twins.
    Date: 2023–02
  10. By: Laura Cerami; Mr. Domenico Fanizza
    Abstract: This paper proposes a market solution to enhance the role of the financial sector in the green transition. Developing a secondary market for “brown exposures” can allow banks to dispose more quickly of stranded assets thereby increasing their capacity to finance green investments. Furthermore, newly created instruments – the brown assets backed securities (B-ABS) - can expand the diversification opportunities for specialized green investors and, thus, attract additional resources for new green investments. The experience of the secondary market for non-performing loans suggests that targeted policy and regulatory measures can simultaneously support the development of the secondary market for brown assets and green finance.
    Keywords: Green finance; financial innovation; greenium; financial sector; climate change; market solution; experience of the secondary market; green transition; policy simulation; Climate finance; Nonperforming loans; Securities markets; Climate policy; Global; Europe
    Date: 2023–01–20
  11. By: Singh Tomar, Arun
    Abstract: As society and the economy continue to grow and develop, technology and science are becoming increasingly important to the success of society and the economy in order to sustain the current state of society and the economy in the future. It is important to note that there are other core elements and methods of implementation that are important to the success of a Green Economy in addition to research, development, deployment, and widespread diffusion of technologies that are environmentally sound. It is also important to note that there are a number of other factors that contribute to the success of the Green Economy, such as innovation, business opportunities, trade of environmental goods and services, finance and investments, and institutional capacity. To eradicate poverty and reorient current unsustainable development trajectories in order to alleviate poverty by 2030, the development and dissemination of affordable technological solutions will be essential over the next fifteen years to eradicate poverty and reorient current unsustainable development trajectories. A number of the gaps that hinder the facilitation and transfer of these technologies can, however, be addressed through the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which offer a unique opportunity to take advantage of this opportunity.
    Keywords: sustainable development goals, technology, green economy, social enterprises, economic growth, economic prosperity, social inclusion, environmental protection
    JEL: F63 Q01 Q5 Q56
    Date: 2021–04–17
  12. By: Mohammad Armughan (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics)
    Abstract: Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) lies in the northern part of Pakistan and has immense potential for tourism due to the immense beauty of its mountain peaks and many valleys and rivers. Many foreign and domestic tourists visit GB every year, with both positive and negative impacts on GB’s economy and its environment. However, the large influx of tourists affects the environment and local community. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted to examine the perspective of the local community regarding tourism’s impact and the role of government in protecting the community. The results showed that tourism in GB generates employment opportunities for the locals but negatively impacts the environment by increasing solid waste, littering, air pollution, noise pollution, water contamination, deforestation, and traffic congestion.
    Keywords: COVID-19, Economic, Environment, Pollution, Socio-culture, Tourism
    Date: 2023
  13. By: Nathalie Touratier-Muller (ESC PAU - Ecole Supérieure de Commerce, Pau Business School); Karim Machat (LIREM - Laboratoire de Recherche en Management (LIREM) - UPPA - Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour); Jacques Jaussaud (TREE - Transitions Energétiques et Environnementales - UPPA - Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This article explores the behaviour of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) regarding mandatory and voluntary measures established by the French government to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions generated by freight transport operations. Through semi-structured interviews with fourteen SMEs (five shippers, eight carriers and a consultant) located throughout France, this research examines the integration of sustainable development into organizational and decision-making practices since the introduction of these programmes on the French territory. Our qualitative study suggests that active environmental implications stem mainly from the company's internal dynamics, driven by its management, as well as end customers' expectations. The voluntary policies seem to appeal more to SMEs than the mandatory measures implemented since 2013. This research shows that the carriers surveyed are highly environmentally proactive, regardless of their size. It also sheds light on techniques that could increase the efficiency and widespread adoption of governmental measures, in particular through the increasing use of on-board telematics.
    Abstract: Cet article explore le comportement des petites et moyennes entreprises (PME) suite aux dispositifs obligatoires et volontaires mis en place par le gouvernement français pour réduire les émissions de CO2 générées par le transport de marchandises. Grâce à des entretiens semi-directifs réalisés auprès de quatorze entreprises réparties sur le territoire français (cinq chargeurs, huit transporteurs et un consultant), nous examinons la prise en compte du développement durable dans les pratiques organisationnelles et décisionnelles des PME depuis l'apparition de ces dispositifs. Notre étude qualitative suggère que les implications environnementales actives découlent principalement de la dynamique interne de l'entreprise, pilotée par sa direction, ainsi que des attentes des clients finaux. Ce sont les démarches volontaires qui semblent séduire davantage les PME par rapport aux dispositifs obligatoires mis en place depuis 2013. Nous identifions une forte proactivité environnementale des transporteurs interrogés, quelle que soit leur taille. Notre travail apporte également un éclairage sur les techniques qui permettraient d'accroître l'efficacité et l'adoption des dispositifs gouvernementaux, notamment via une utilisation croissante de la télématique embarquée.
    Keywords: Sustainable transport, government programmes, freight transport, SME, CO2 emissions reduction, Transport durable, dispositifs gouvernementaux, transport de fret, PME, réduction des émissions de CO2
    Date: 2022
  14. By: Gianluca De Nard; Robert F. Engle; Bryan Kelly
    Abstract: We propose and implement a procedure to optimally hedge climate change risk. First, we construct climate risk indices through textual analysis of newspapers. Second, we present a new approach to compute factor mimicking portfolios to build climate risk hedge portfolios. The new mimicking portfolio approach is much more efficient than traditional sorting or maximum correlation approaches by taking into account new methodologies of estimating large-dimensional covariance matrices in short samples. In an extensive empirical out-of-sample performance test, we demonstrate the superior all-around performance delivering markedly higher and statistically significant alphas and betas with the climate risk indices.
    Keywords: Climate change, factor model, portfolio selection, sustainable portfolio
    JEL: C58 G11 G18 Q54
    Date: 2023–03
  15. By: Sam Heft-Neal; Carlos F. Gould; Marissa Childs; Mathew V. Kiang; Kari Nadeau; Mark Duggan; Eran Bendavid; Marshall Burke
    Abstract: Air pollution is known to negatively affect a range of health outcomes. Wildfire smoke is an increasingly important contributor to air pollution, yet extreme smoke events are highly salient and could induce behavioral responses that alter health impacts. We combine geolocated data covering the near universe of 127 million emergency department (ED) visits in California with estimates of daily surface wildfire smoke PM2.5 concentrations and quantify how increasingly acute wildfire smoke events affect ED visits. Low or moderate levels of ambient smoke increase total visits by 1-1.5% in the week following exposure, but extreme smoke days reduce total visits by 6-9%, relative to a day with no smoke. Reductions persist for at least a month. Declines during extreme exposures are driven by diagnoses not thought to be acutely impacted by pollution, including accidental injuries, and come disproportionately from less insured populations. In contrast, health outcomes with the strongest physiological link to short-term air pollution increase dramatically: ED visits for asthma, COPD, and cough all increase by 30-110% in the week after one extreme smoke day. Because low and moderate smoke days vastly outweigh extreme smoke days in our sample, we estimate that smoke exposure was responsible for roughly 3, 000 additional ED visits per year in CA from 2006-2017.
    JEL: Q5 Q53
    Date: 2023–02
  16. By: Khan, Majid
    Abstract: United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 5 (SDG-5) focuses primarily on the need to provide women and girls with equal opportunities in all spheres of society, such as education, technology, and work. The research looked at the impact of women's empowerment on Pakistan's environmental sustainability agenda from 1975 to 2022, using a market-based methodology. The findings demonstrate that increasing the number of women in the labour force positively impacts the environment by decreasing carbon emissions. Despite improvements in women's rights and literacy rates, as well as technical and economic progress, the country is producing more carbon dioxide because of its economic and industrial conditions that cannot reduce its adverse effects on the environment. The Granger causality estimates verified that economic development caused female labour market outcomes and female autonomy. In contrast, the bidirectional causality estimates proved that female autonomy caused technical progress and vice versa. The research concludes that even though the technology industry continues to expand astoundingly, women are still disproportionately underrepresented. This is a severe issue because women make up more than half of the population yet still account for less than one-quarter of tech jobs. Women's shifting roles in society and the workplace demand more attention. Several causes, including shifts in economic focus from manufacturing to services and shifting cultural norms about women's moral responsibilities, have all played a part in this development. Women's independence significantly impacts the economy, liberal arts, and environmental footprint. More independent women also tend to have more education and work experience than their less independent counterparts. In turn, it reduces carbon output.
    Keywords: Women’s empowerment; Environmental sustainability; Carbon emissions; Technological advancement; Labour market outcomes; Pakistan.
    JEL: C32 J16
    Date: 2023–01–09
  17. By: Nicolas Guichard,; Christian de Gromard,; Jérémy Gasc,; Étienne Espagne,; Martin Buchsenschutz,; Benoît Gars,; Laetitia Labaute.
    Abstract: Despite its abundant solar resources, Africa currently has low solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation capacities compared to other continents. Yet, the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) projects a scale-up in coming years, with a sharp increase in the rate of construction of grid-connected PV power plants to align with the Paris Agreement pathways and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
    Keywords: Afrique
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2023–02–28
  18. By: Afaf Zarkik
    Abstract: This year, the Conference of the Parties (COP27) will be held in in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt. On the outset of this auspicious occasion, it is befitting to reflect upon contemporary climate adaptation and mitigation policies, from a southern and African point of view. Indeed, climate change is one of the stickiest policy problems of the 21st century, because it is inherently a global and multidimensional problem entailing a bundle of policy features. Following the consecutives shocks to the global economy caused by fossil fuels, the timing has never been better to melt the polarization around climate change politics and propose innovative solutions to surf the uncertainty and complexity of this intractable policy problem.
    Date: 2022–11
  19. By: Lucas Cain; Danae Hernandez-Cortes; Christopher Timmins; Paige Weber
    Abstract: This review synthesizes economics-oriented research in environmental justice with a focus on the last decade. We first categorize this literature into broad areas of inquiry and review main findings. Then, we review recent advances in data and methodologies that have allowed for new study designs and research questions. After identifying breakthroughs, we offer some guidance on how to continue to advance research in this area.
    Keywords: environmental justice, procedural justice, equity, distributional impacts
    JEL: Q56 Q53 Q54
    Date: 2023
  20. By: Sebastian VALDECANTOS
    Abstract: This paper explores the tensions that the transition toward a zero-carbon economy entails forcountries relying on natural resources exploitation as the main drivers of (net) exports, as is the case of most South American economies. Given their relatively low diversification and high technology gaps compared to advanced economies, attaining higher prosperity levels driven by sustained economic growth has recurrently been hampered by balance of payments crises. Using a simple long-run demand-led theoretical model with balance of payments constrained growth we show that if the structural limitations in their productive structure are not overcome, the decarbonization of the economy, be it exogenously imposed by the rest of the world or sovereignly decided by each South American country, will be exposed to the dilemma of increasing growth or reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Underpinning this dilemma is the essential role of exports and their associated carbon intensity. Finally, we show that to solve this green transition dilemma, even a process of structural change like the one proposed by the old Latin American structuralist school might not be sufficient – it is only through a “big environmental push” that the long-lastingly desired prosperity of South American countries can cease to be an impossible quest.
    Keywords: Amérique latine
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2023–02–28
  21. By: Arib Fatima; Houria Et-Touile (UCA - Université Cadi Ayyad [Marrakech])
    Abstract: The agricultural sector is one of the most sensitive sectors to climate change, this sector is directly affected by temperature and rainfall and the rate of arable land, which are an input in food security. The main objective of this paper is to assess theimpacts of climate change and arable land on food security in Morocco between 1971 and 2017, using a cointegration model based on the ARDL (Autoregressive Staggered Delayed Rise) approach. The empirical results show that an increase in precipitationhas apositive effect on agricultural GDP, theincrease in temperatureby 1% has a negative effect on agricultural GDP with a decrease of 3.14% in the short term and 5% in the long term, while arable land does not directly influence the country's food security. In order to minimize the negative effects of climate change in Morocco, whose agricultural sector represents the most important sector of the economy, it is important to establish adaptation policies to fight against climate change
    Abstract: Le secteur agricole est l'un des secteurs les plus sensibles au changement climatique, ce secteur est directement affecté par la température et les précipitations et le taux des terres arables, qui sont un intrant dans la sécurité alimentaire. L'objectif principal de cet article est d'évaluer les impacts du changement climatique et des terres arables sur la sécurité alimentaire au Maroc entre 1971 et 2017à partir d'un modèle de cointégration fondé sur l'approche ARDL (autorégressif à retards échelonnés). Les résultats empiriques montrent qu'une augmentation des précipitations a un effet positif sur le PIB agricole, l'augmentation de la température de 1% a un effet négatif sur le PIB agricole avec une diminution de 3.14% à court terme et de 5% à long terme, tandis que les terres arables n'influent pas directement la sécurité alimentaire du pays. Afin de minimiser les effets négatifs du changement climatique au Maroc, dont le secteur agricole représente le secteur le plus important de l'économie, il est important d'établir des politiques d'adaptation pour lutter contre le changement climatique
    Date: 2022–03
  22. By: Hafez Ghanem
    Abstract: Humanity is losing the climate battle, and existing international institutions are not delivering on climate change. Hence, there is a need for a new international institution that would be a repository for global knowledge on climate change, and would advise governments on climate policies, develop green projects across the Global South, mobilize financing for those projects, and support project implementation. The proposed Green Bank would be different from existing multilateral development banks: (1) it would include private shareholders as well as governments; (2) voting rights would be organized so that countries of the Global South would have the same voice as countries of the Global North and private shareholders; and (3) it would only finance green projects which could be national, regional, or global. The Green Bank would primarily support private green investments through equity contributions, loans, and guarantees. It could also support public investments by using grants to buy-down the interest on other multilateral development bank loans that finance projects that support adaptation to climate change. The Loss and Damage Fund agreed at COP27 could be the source of those grants. This proposal builds on the Bridgetown Initiative, with the aim of mobilizing private funding, in addition to the public trust fund that the initiative proposes. The Green Bank would partner with other institutions and complement the work of existing multilateral development banks, and of specialized funds.
    Date: 2023–02
  23. By: MARQUES SANTOS Anabela (European Commission - JRC); CONTE Andrea (European Commission - JRC); OJALA Tauno (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: The circular economy approach aims to contribute to achieve the EU's environmental and climate objectives by ensuring a more efficient, rational and sustainable use of resources. Around €22.9 billion of the ERDF in 2014-2020 was used to support projects related to the development or adoption of circular economy technologies, and more eco-friendly business models (12% of total ERDF). ERDF projects implemented by textiles, construction and energy-intensive industries are around 2 times more likely to be associated with circular economy approaches than the average. Regions in Eastern European countries and Greece are the ones with a higher concentration of ERDF circular economy-related projects.
    Keywords: ERDF, Circular Economy, EU
    Date: 2023–01
  24. By: Thomas Braun; Wolfram Schlenker
    Abstract: We provide novel evidence that large-scale irrigation heterogeneously shifts the temperature distribution towards cooler temperatures during the months of the growing season relative to the rest of the year. We employ a triple-difference estimator using a 59-year-long panel of weather records paired with the fraction of a county that is irrigated in 393 counties over the Ogallala aquifer. Cooling-by-irrigation propagates downwind and reduces the upper tail of the temperature distribution by up to 3C (5F) during the month of August, which has positive externalities on downwind crop yields ($120 million per year) and temperature-induced excess mortality ($240 million per year) that are of equal magnitude as the direct benefits of irrigation by enhancing heat tolerance ($440 million per year). The observed cooling helps explain why the US has seen less warming, especially of very hot temperatures, than what climate models project. Our findings highlight that weather shocks in highly irrigated areas are not exogenous but are influenced by human responses in the form of irrigation.
    JEL: I10 Q15 Q54
    Date: 2023–02
  25. By: Meenakshi Poti; Jean Huge; Kartik Shanker; Nico Koedam; Farid Dahdouh-Guebas
    Abstract: Tropical small islands are particularly vulnerable to environmental impacts. In the small islands of the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), multiple stressors of environmental and socio-economic change interact and intensify at reduced spatial scales. Actors and institutions need to respond to these changes through responses – reactive or proactive actions planned or implemented by individuals, groups or organisations; aimed at responding to changing contexts and scenarios, by reducing, preventing and/or reverting the risks and impacts of environmental change. Through a mixed-method systematic review of academic literature from 2010 to 2020 using the Web of Science literature database, we document the types of responses, actors involved and elements of effective responses. We analysed 329 studies focusing on nine WIO small island states and territories (SISTs) – Zanzibar, Mafia, Seychelles, Comoros, Mayotte, La Réunion, Mauritius, Maldives and Lakshadweep. Using quantitative content analysis, we organised information into categories ranging from institutional (economic instruments, laws, policies and community based), social (educational and informational), infrastructural (engineered and technological) and ecological restoration-based responses. The articles varied in their geographical distribution, focus and depth with regard to the responses studied. Diverse responses are documented, that often overlap across categories and may be combined and pursued simultaneously. For example, responses range from coastal protection structures, land reclamation, land elevation and artificial islands to mangrove restoration, awareness raising programs, coastal zone regulations and climate induced migration and relocation policies. Responses were predominantly institutional (85% of 329 articles, n = 281) – mainly driven by governments. The most common social responses (53%, n = 183) were linked to environmental education programs and knowledge sharing platforms. Although the responses indicated an increasing interest in ecological restoration (27%, n = 91) and community-based initiatives (36%, n = 120), they were largely underrepresented in research. Cataloguing the different responses may help incorporate the diversity into well-informed decisions, offer alternative ways of thinking and highlight specific areas and response types that should be the focus of future research and practice. The elements influencing the effectiveness of responses were identified through thematic synthesis – relevance to the local social-ecological context, resources available (time and funding), knowledge (access, diversity, integration, transfer, innovative and anticipatory), governance of responses (coordinated, transparent, adaptive, equitable, participatory and polycentric) and iterative monitoring. These elements of effectiveness tend to be synergistic and no single element is effective in isolation. When these elements are not considered, the response intervention could be maladaptive or counterproductive. Poorly designed responses result in perverse social and ecological outcomes, further increasing the exposure and vulnerability to the environmental stressors and decreasing public confidence and support. This review documents current literature, points to knowledge gaps and highlights the potential for islands to learn from each other and to further apply these lessons to non-island settings, critically considering the local context.
    Keywords: Adaptation; Decision-making; Environmental change; Indian ocean; Small islands
    Date: 2022–08–01
  26. By: Stefano Basilico (University of Bremen, Faculty of Business Studies and Economics, and Gran Sasso Science Institute, Social Sciences); Nils Grashof (Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration)
    Abstract: Green innovations aim to improve and reduce the environmental impact of economic activities. Thus far, research focus on the positive trajectories of green transition. Recent studies focus also on the speed of transition and on its effects on economic outcomes. Continuing in this direction we focus on brown regions (i.e. specialized in fossil-fuel technologies) and the challenges that they face to become sustainable. Taking as example German Labour Market Regions we identify brown regions and measure their transition using an innovative approach based on Social Network Analysis and Knowledge Spaces. We find that the earlier a region transitioned to green technologies, the better it is for both its social and economic outcomes. Our findings imply that the transition of brown regions has effects on socio-economic outcomes not yet accounted for in the sustainability transition literature.
    Keywords: green transition, green technologies, knowledge spaces, network embeddedness, socio-economic development
    JEL: O32 O33 R11
    Date: 2023–03–09
  27. By: Johannes Stangl; Andr\'as Borsos; Christian Diem; Tobias Reisch; Stefan Thurner
    Abstract: A rapid decarbonization of the economy requires a massive reconfiguration of its underlying production networks. To reduce emissions significantly, many firms need to change production processes, which has major impacts on practically all supply chains. This restructuring process might cause considerable social distress, e.g. in the form of unemployment, if companies have to close down. Here, we use a unique dataset of the entire firm-level production network of a European economy and develop a network-theory-based measure to estimate the systemic social relevance of every single firm. It enables us to estimate the expected direct and indirect job losses in the supply chain triggered by every firm's default. For the largest CO2 emitting firms we link this measure of social relevance to their emissions. We identify firms with low social relevance and high emissions as potential decarbonization leverage points. We compare various decarbonization strategies by simultaneously capturing the social and environmental impact under the assumption that specific sets of firms would no longer produce. We find that a strategy based on the identified decarbonization leverage points could lead to a 20% reduction of CO2 emissions while putting 2% of jobs at risk. In contrast, targeting the largest emitters first, without considering their social relevance, results in 33% of jobs being at risk for comparable emission savings. Our results indicate that supply-chain sensitive CO2 taxation might reduce the social costs of the green transition considerably.
    Date: 2023–02
  28. By: Jean-Christian Tisserand (BSB - Burgundy School of Business (BSB) - Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Dijon Bourgogne (ESC), CEREN - Centre de Recherche sur l'ENtreprise [Dijon] - BSB - Burgundy School of Business (BSB) - Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Dijon Bourgogne (ESC)); Astrid Hopfensitz (EM - emlyon business school, GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon - UJM - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Étienne - Université de Lyon - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Serge Blondel (GRANEM - Groupe de Recherche Angevin en Economie et Management - UA - Université d'Angers - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Youenn Loheac (CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, ESC Rennes School of Business - ESC [Rennes] - ESC Rennes School of Business); César Mantilla (Universidad del Rosario [Bogota]); Guillermo Mateu (BSB - Burgundy School of Business (BSB) - Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Dijon Bourgogne (ESC)); Julie Rosaz (BSB - Burgundy School of Business (BSB) - Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Dijon Bourgogne (ESC)); Anne Rozan (UMR GESTE - Gestion Territoriale de l'Eau et de l'environnement - ENGEES - École Nationale du Génie de l'Eau et de l'Environnement de Strasbourg - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Marc Willinger (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier); Angela Sutan (BSB - Burgundy School of Business (BSB) - Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Dijon Bourgogne (ESC), CEREN - Centre de Recherche sur l'ENtreprise [Dijon] - BSB - Burgundy School of Business (BSB) - Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Dijon Bourgogne (ESC))
    Abstract: Dilemmas related to the use of environmental resources concern diverse populations at local or global scales. Frequently, individuals are unable to visualize the consequences of their actions, where they belong in the decision-making line, and have no information about past choices or the time horizon. We design a new one-shot extraction game to capture these dynamic decisions. We present results from a nationwide common pool resource experiment, conducted simultaneously in eleven French cities, involving a total of 2813 participants. We examine, for the first time, the simultaneous impact of several variables on the amount of resource extracted: the local vs. the national scale of the resource, the size of the group (small vs. big), the low vs. high recovery rate of the resource, and the available information. We show that individuals significantly reduce extraction levels in local as compared to national level dilemmas and that providing recommendations on sustainable extraction amounts significantly improves the sustainability of the resource. Overall, women extract significantly less, but care more about preserving the local resource; older participants extract significantly more resources but extract less from the national resource. Our experiment also fulfills a science popularization pedagogical aim, which we discuss..
    Keywords: Common Pool Resource, Experiment, Large Sample, Science Popularization
    Date: 2022–11
  29. By: Chiemela Victor Amaechi
    Abstract: Over time, the need for shelter, called housing, has been a challenge for mankind. Hence housing techniques have been developed and advanced from ancient ways of using mud materials and other earth with good building properties that could be applied by the builder, civil engineer or architect. However, the question remains unanswered if mud housing, wooden housing and open glass buildings are architectural masterpieces for green buildings or simply views of sustainable real estate? This study looks at different newer related designs that have been considered, applied and successfully utilised in the built industry. Some key qualities of the building materials used are also identified and presented. Recommendations were made towards the frontiers in achieving green buildings globally for sustainable real estate.
    Keywords: Green Building; real estate; sustainability; Sustainable Real Estate
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2022–01–01
  30. By: Nikita Belyak; Steven A. Gabriel; Nikolay Khabarov; Fabricio Oliveira
    Abstract: In light of increasing pressure to curb greenhouse gas emissions, many countries have focused on the development of strategies that encourage renewable generation in liberalised energy markets. This paper presents a modelling assessment of a renewable-driven expansion of the transmission system infrastructure that accounts for decentralized energy market settings. The mathematical optimisation problem formulation involves a bi-level model in which a welfare-maximizing transmission system operator makes investments in transmission lines at the upper level while considering power market dynamics at the lower level. To account for deregulated energy market structure, we assume that the generation companies at the lower level make generation capacity investment decisions as price-takers in perfect competition. Considering alternative levels for a transmission infrastructure expansion budget, carbon emission taxes and monetary incentives for renewable generation capacity expansion, we study how alternative compositions of these three factors affect the share of renewable generation in the total generation mix. We apply the proposed modelling assessment to an illustrative three-node instance and a case study considering a simplified representation of the energy system of the Nordic and Baltic countries. The results suggest the limited efficiency of three renewable-driven measures when applied individually. Nevertheless, applied in composition, these three measures demonstrated a positive impact on Nordics' and Baltics' energy system welfare, VRE share and total generation amount. However, the amplitude of this impact differs depending on the composition of values used for three renewable-driven measures.
    Date: 2023–02
  31. By: Hélène Ollivier (PSE - Paris School of Economics - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Geoffrey Barrows (CREST - Centre de Recherche en Economie et Statistique [Bruz] - ENSAI - Ecole Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Analyse de l'Information [Bruz], X - École polytechnique)
    Abstract: With asymmetric climate policies, regulation in one country can be undercut by missions growth in another. Previous research finds evidence that regulation erodes the competitiveness of domestic firms and leads to higher imports, but increased imports need not imply increased emissions if domestic sales are jointly determined with export sales or if emission intensity of manufacturing adjusts endogenously to foreign demand. In this paper, we estimate for the first time how production and emissions of manufacturing firms in one country respond to foreign demand shocks in trading partner markets. Using a panel of large Indian manufacturers and an instrumental variable strategy, we find that foreign demand growth leads to higher exports, domestic sales, production, and CO2 emissions, and slightly lower emission intensity. The results imply that a representative exporter facing the average observed foreign demand growth over the period 1995-2011 would have increased CO2 emissions by 1.39% annually as a result of foreign demand growth, which translates into 6.69% total increase in CO2 emissions from Indian manufacturing over the period. Breaking down emission intensity reduction into component channels, we find some evidence of product-mix effects, but fail to reject the null of no change in technology. Back of the envelope calculations indicate that environmental regulation that doubles energy prices world-wide (except in India) would only increase CO2 emissions from India by 1.5%. Thus, while leakage fears are legitimate, the magnitude appears fairly small in the context of India.
    Keywords: Globalization, Trade and environment, Product mix, Technological change
    Date: 2021–03
  32. By: Kelton Minor; Esteban Moro; Nick Obradovich
    Abstract: Humanity spends an increasing proportion of its time interacting online. Scholars are intensively investigating the societal drivers and resultant impacts of this collective shift in our allocation of time and attention. Yet, the external factors that regularly shape online behavior remain markedly understudied. Do environmental factors alter rates of online activity? Here we show that adverse meteorological conditions markedly increase social media use in the United States. To do so, we employ climate econometric methods alongside over three and a half billion social media posts from tens of millions of individuals from both Facebook and Twitter between 2009 and 2016. We find that more extreme temperatures and added precipitation each independently amplify social media activity. Weather that is adverse on both the temperature and precipitation dimensions produces markedly larger increases in social media activity. On average across both platforms, compared to the temperate weather baseline, days colder than -5{\deg}C with 1.5-2cm of precipitation elevate social media activity by 35%. This effect is nearly three times the typical increase in social media activity observed on New Year's Eve in New York City. We observe meteorological effects on social media participation at both the aggregate and individual level, even accounting for individual-specific, temporal, and location-specific potential confounds.
    Date: 2023–02
  33. By: Gabriel Englander; Jihua Zhang; Juan Carlos Villaseñor-Derbez; Qutu Jiang; Mingzhao Hu; Olivier Deschenes; Christopher Costello
    Abstract: Input subsidies in natural resource sectors are widely believed to cause depletion of the natural capital on which those sectors rely. But identification and data challenges have stymied attempts to empirically estimate the causal effect of subsidies on resource extraction. China’s fishing fleet is the world’s largest, and in 2016 the government changed its fuel subsidy policy for distant water vessels to one that increases with predetermined vessel characteristics. The policy features 25 thresholds at which subsidies discontinuously increase. Using a regression discontinuity design, we estimate that a 1% increase in fuel subsidy increases hours of fishing by 2.2%. Reducing Chinese distant water fuel subsidies by 50% could eliminate biological overfishing in several ocean regions.
    JEL: H23 O13 Q22 Q28
    Date: 2023–03
  34. By: Philippe Goulet Coulombe (University of Pennsylvania); Maximilian Gobel (Universidade de Lisboa)
    Abstract: On September 15th 2020, Arctic sea ice extent (SIE) ranked second-to-lowest in history and keeps trending downward. The understanding of how feedback loops amplify the effects of external CO2 forcing is still limited. We propose the VARCTIC, which is a Vector Autoregression (VAR) designed to capture and extrapolate Arctic feedback loops. VARs are dynamic simultaneous systems of equations, routinely estimated to predict and understand the interactions of multiple macroeconomic time series. The VARCTIC is a parsimonious compromise between full-blown climate models and purely statistical approaches that usually offer little explanation of the underlying mechanism. Our completely unconditional forecast has SIE hitting 0 in September by the 2060’s. Impulse response functions reveal that anthropogenic CO2 emission shocks have an unusually durable effect on SIE – a property shared by no other shock. We find Albedo- and Thickness-based feedbacks to be the main amplification channels through which CO2 anomalies impact SIE in the short/medium run. Further, conditional forecast analyses reveal that the future path of SIE crucially depends on the evolution of CO2 emissions, with outcomes ranging from recovering SIE to it reaching 0 in the 2050’s. Finally, Albedo and Thickness feedbacks are shown to play an important role in accelerating the speed at which predicted SIE is heading towards 0.
    Date: 2021–05
  35. By: Mohammad Armughan (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics); Sameen Zafar (Suleman Dawood School of Business (SDSB), Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS), Lahore, Pakistan.)
    Abstract: Electronic waste (e-waste) and its effects is an international issue. Globally, Asian developing countries are the most vulnerable countries in terms of e-waste. Informal recycling and crude processing of e-waste cause environmental humiliation and effects human health. Therefore, the study analyzes the effects of e-waste on human health and environment in Pakistan. Moreover, it identifies asthma, respiratory, pulmonary, skin, eye, lungs and inflammatory bowel diseases are induced by e-waste. Furthermore, it analyzes consumer awareness about e-waste effects on human health and environment with mean comparison analysis based on primary data with 312 sample size, meanwhile the study notifies the correlation of e-waste generation with gross domestic product (GDP), population and electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) put in Pakistani market. Lastly, it discusses other pollutants putting burden on human lives and environment.
    Date: 2022
  36. By: Domingo, Sonny N.; Manejar, Arvie Joy A.; Pascual, Ludwig John H.
    Abstract: An order “banning the open-pit method of mining for copper, gold, silver, and complex ores in the country” was issued by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) on April 27, 2017. Justifications for the order included past environmental disasters caused by mining operations that employed the open-pit mining method and indicated that such mining method poses risks to host communities and the environment. The order affects prospective mining projects that would employ the open-pit mining method. On December 23, 2021, the ban was lifted on the premise that the “revitalization of the mineral resource industry is one measure to achieve economic growth amid the crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.” The rationale behind opposing development perspectives/sentiments on open-pit mining was reviewed, and the ecological integrity implications of open-pit mining were discussed. Facts were cited, and challenges or high-level opportunities for improvement on various aspects of regulating mining activities, in general, were flagged. The method of mining (i.e., surface/open pit or underground) and type of commodity extracted (i.e., metallics, non-metallics were emphasized as not the only major factors causing unacceptable outcomes from mining, such as potentials for environmental disasters or negative impact on social welfare. Two major directions were provided, and options moving forward to optimize benefits from approved mining projects were enumerated. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: open-pit mining;tailings management;governance;benefit cost analysis;environmental valuation;social impact;equitable distribution;fair share;fiscal regime
    Date: 2022
  37. By: Flavio M. Menezes (Australian Institute for Business and Economics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia); Jorge Pereira (School of Economics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the conditions under which the design of an emissions tax can align social and private interests. Our contribution is to determine the general conditions for firms' profits and social welfare to be higher under the implementation of an emissions tax than under no tax. We consider n firms producing an homogeneous product and competing over supply schedules, which covers a continuum of imperfect competition equilibria from Bertrand to Cournot. We show that, as competition intensifies, the pass-through of the tax to consumers increases, to a point where the price rises more than offsets the net result of the investment outlay. Our analysis provides new insights into the trade-off between environmental policy, market competition and the so-called "win-win" outcome for firms and society.
    Keywords: Technology; R&D; Environment; Policy; Emission tax; Subsidy; Porter Hypothesis
    JEL: H23 O32 O38 Q55 Q58
    Date: 2023–02–28
    Abstract: Although the need to measure and disclosure companies’ social and environmental information is not new, there has been a recent unprecedented interest growth regarding this subject among businesses, capital market participants, professional organisations, and regulators all over the world. This rapid growth in interest in social and environmental measurement and disclosure has led to a proliferation of different proposals by rating agencies and other organizations to measure the Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) performance of companies, which has contributed to also create confusion. This study aims to shed some light on the current state of ESG measurement and disclosure by examining the evolution of business-related sustainability terms and their connotations; taking stock of existing European Union (EU) regulations and international sustainability frameworks from non-governmental organisations; analysing the evolution of the ESG rating market and main players; identifying, clarifying, and comparing current ESG ratings, metrics, and indices; and finally, elaborating on the challenges and recommendations that can be considered in future developments of ESG measurement and disclosure.
    Keywords: ESG measurement, corporate sustainability
    Date: 2023–02
  39. By: Thang Nam Do (Crawford School of Public Policy, Australian National University); Paul J. Burke (Crawford School of Public Policy, Australian National University)
    Abstract: At the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 26th Conference of the Parties (COP 26) in November 2021, Vietnam pledged to phase out unabated coal power by the 2040s or as soon as possible thereafter. Achieving this will require major efforts. This study investigates the drivers for Vietnam’s coal power phase-out decision, barriers to Vietnam achieving a successful unabated thermal coal phase out, and potential strategies to achieve the pledge. To this end, a survey of 43 experts from government agencies, research institutions, civil society, and industry was carried out, supplemented by 23 follow-up interviews. The results indicate that ambition to attract international support for green growth initiatives in a context of limited financing options for new coal power projects appears to have been the primary driver for the decision. Key barriers include concerns about electricity shortages and incomplete regulatory frameworks for new clean power options. Recommended strategies include: 1) reforming regulations to facilitate investments in clean energy, electricity transmission, and energy storage; 2) continuing political prioritisation; and 3) building broad-based support from the community and enterprises. Vietnam’s case is relevant to other developing countries and beyond.
    Date: 2023–01
  40. By: ALBIZZATI Paola (European Commission - JRC); CRISTOBAL GARCIA Jorge (European Commission - JRC); ANTONOPOULOS Ioannis (European Commission - JRC); EGLE Lukas (European Commission - JRC); FOSTER Gillian (European Commission - JRC); GAUDILLAT Pierre (European Commission - JRC); MARSCHINSKI Robert (European Commission - JRC); PIERRI Erika (European Commission - JRC); TONINI Davide (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: Separate collection of waste is an enabler for the recovery of valuable materials which can be recycled or otherwise valorised. However, it relies on adequate sorting by individuals, which can be facilitated by relevant information provided on the product packaging (on-pack labelling), and on the receptacles used for waste collection. Waste from packaging represents up to 40% of municipal solid waste and can drive the improvement in collection of recyclable materials. Meanwhile, as EU deadlines for separate collection targets close in, Member States are implementing various schemes designed to assist sorting, including labelling on products and bins. This often results in a multiplication of labels to be displayed in different jurisdictions, increasing costs for producers and increasing the risk of confusion for consumers. Harmonised labels to be displayed on product packaging, with matching labels on waste receptacles indicating where those should be disposed of, would address these issues and yield economic and environmental benefits. The analysis presented herein assesses the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of introducing such a harmonised labelling in the EU over the coming years. Results suggest that this measure would generate a net benefit as compared to a business-as-usual scenario. It would be expected to yield overall socio-economic benefits, and improvements in environmental performance in all cases considered.
    Keywords: Waste Collection, Recycling, Municipal Solid Waste, Labelling, Separate Collection, Waste Sorting
    Date: 2023–02
  41. By: Domenico Depalo (Bank of Italy, Labor Market Department); Alessandro Palma (Gran Sasso Science Institute (GSSI) & CEIS, Università di Roma ‘Tor Vergata’)
    Abstract: We estimate the effect of air pollution on work-related accidents using administrative data from Italy in a setting characterized by strict air pollution and work safety regulations. To address the potential endogeneity due to unobserved productivity shifts and firm-specific pollution sources, we use winter heating rules in highly urbanized areas as a exogenous sources of variation in pollution exposure. We find that a one unit increase in PM10 causes 0.014 additional accidents and 0.0013 additional disabilities. We also explore the theoretical implications of these findings in a setting where firms are risk carriers and fully bear the compensation costs of less severe accidents. We empirically confirm that firms have an incentive to deploy defensive investments also when the risk of accidents derives from external factors, as in the case of air quality. Our back-of-the-enveloped calculation shows that each additional unit in PM10 concentration would increase the total cost of an accident by about 1.7%.
    Keywords: air pollution, workplace safety, work accidents, IV, winter heating
    JEL: I18 J28 J81 Q51 Q53
    Date: 2023–02–25
  42. By: Kireeva Anastasia (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: The purpose of the study is to analyze the main economic and legal issues of the institute of extended producer responsibility (EPR) in the context of the "garbage reform", while the study`s main objectives include a retrospective analysis of lawmaking activity aimed at reforming the environmental payment system as a whole and EPR in particular, a review of scientific papers and expert opinions on why the "garbage reform" is not effective enough, an analysis of the main challenges faced by the existing EPR and the Concept on reforming thereof, as well as development of proposals based on the study's findings.
    Keywords: Russian economy, environmental protection, eco-payments
    JEL: Q15 Q24 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2022
  43. By: Alessandro Barattieri (University of Quebec in Montreal); Patrice Borda (Université des Antilles); Alberto Brugnoli (University of Bergamo); Martino Pelli (University of Sherbrooke); Jeanne Tschopp (University of Bern)
    Abstract: We study the short-run, dynamic employment effects of natural disasters. We exploit monthly data for over 90 3-digits NAICS industries and 78 Puerto Rican counties over the period 1995-2017. Our exogenous measure of exposure to natural disasters is computed using the maximum wind speed recorded in each county during each hurricane. Using panel local projections, we find that after the "average" hurricane, employment and wages fall by 1% on average. The effects peak after six months and disappear within two years. Across industries, we find substantial heterogeneity in the employment responses. This heterogeneity can be partly explained by input-output linkages.
    Keywords: Natural Disasters, Employment, High-Frequency Data, Local Projections.
    JEL: Q54 E24
    Date: 2021–06
  44. By: Breckenfelder, Johannes; Maćkowiak, Bartosz; Marqués-Ibáñez, David; Olovsson, Conny; Popov, Alexander; Porcellacchia, Davide; Schepens, Glenn
    Abstract: Climate change and the public policies to arrest it are and will continue reshaping the global economy. This Discussion Paper draws on economic research to identify some key medium- and long-run economic implications of these developments. It explores implications for growth, innovation, inflation, financial markets, fiscal policy, and several socio-economic outcomes. The main message that emerges is that climate change will cause income divergence across individuals, sectors, and regions, adjustment in energy markets, increased inflation variability, financial markets stress, intensified innovation, increased migration, and rising public debt. These challenges appear manageable for EU member states, especially under an early and orderly transition scenario. At the same time, the direction, scope, and speed of economic transformation is subject to large uncertainty due to two separate factors: the wide range of climate scenarios for a given trajectory of greenhouse gas emissions and the exact policy path governments choose, especially in the context of the ongoing Russian aggression in Ukraine. JEL Classification: D6, E3, F2, G2, O1, Q5
    Keywords: climate change, financial markets, growth, inflation, socio-economic implications
    Date: 2023–03
  45. By: BERTI SUMAN Anna (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: → Civic monitoring is a powerful source of evidence for law enforcement. Action in court through evidence gathered by lay people (i.e. people not officially responsible for doing so) can signal unaddressed demands. → The emersion of a spontaneous civic environmental monitoring initiative indicates the potential presence of distrust but can also be an occasion for cooperation between citizens and authorities on a shared issue. → Civic environmental monitoring is also contributing to the provision of public services. Embracing these practices can be an opportunity for authorities to make governance models more inclusive and responsive. → Performing civic environmental monitoring should be recognised as a rightful contribution to official enforcement of environmental law.
    Keywords: Civic monitoring
    Date: 2023–01
  46. By: Thanne Mafaziya Nijamdeen; Jean Huge; Hajaniaina Ratsimbazafy; Kodikara Arachchilage Sunanda Kodikara; Farid Dahdouh-Guebas
    Abstract: The sustainable management of complex social-ecological systems (SES) typically requires coordination and collaboration between various groups of stakeholders. Yet, research on collaborative stakeholder networks and their linkages with sustainable mangrove management strategies is lacking in Sri Lanka. This study presents a social network analysis (SNA) of mangrove management stakeholders and their perceptions of both existing and preferred collaborative relationships (or ties) between stakeholder groups, in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka. It further illustrates how SNA can be used to identify stakeholder collaboration and their potential role(s) in mangrove management. The perspectives of all key stakeholders have an impact on how mangroves need to be managed. Therefore, it is crucial to identify and meet with all key stakeholders in the early stages of management processes to understand their needs and constraints. Our findings indicate that the government departments mandated to conserve mangroves are not only formally appointed key stakeholders but are also perceived as central by others. Communication barriers, lack of awareness regarding the importance of mangroves, and shortages in staff and resources for conservation were major constraints to the existing mangrove management network. We highlight the potential of other stakeholders (i.e. non-mandated government stakeholders, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and private organizations) in improving and influencing the social network in order to increase the diffusion of information. Despite existing resource extraction activities, private organizations were less represented in the mangrove management network of our study. After considering stakeholders’ expectations and requirements, we suggest the inclusion of a bridging organization such as an “Environment Network Unit” or the establishment of bridging entities in the universities and research institutes. We also recommend certain government organizations (i.e. Central Environmental Authority) to take up the role of bridging. This may help to facilitate the incorporation of relatively marginalized stakeholders in an effort to foster sustainable mangrove management in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka and beyond.
    Keywords: Co-management; Collaborative governance; Decision-making; Governance Perspectives; Power distribution
    Date: 2022–09–01
  47. By: Jayash Paudel
    Abstract: Natural disasters cause economic damages and may exacerbate disparities in income distribution among countries across the globe. This paper employs satellite data on real-time active fire locations to evaluate the short-term impact of forest fires on economic inequality around the world. Using quasi-random spatial and temporal variation in both the incidence and intensity of fire events, the study employs year and country fixed effects to show that wildfires exacerbate economic inequality among rural areas.
    Keywords: Natural disasters, Gini coefficient, Inequality, Income
    Date: 2023
  48. By: Reyes Donoso, Irina
    Abstract: Para el aprovechamiento de la oportunidad de innovación que supone el despliegue de la movilidad eléctrica, las instituciones públicas y privadas deben forjar un enfoque integrado, con metas conjuntas de largo plazo que consideren el desarrollo tecnológico, las políticas públicas y las condiciones de mercado de América Latina. En el contexto de la transición energética, la economía circular ofrece una oportunidad para desarrollar nuevas actividades económicas y transformar las actividades ya existentes, aumentando su eficiencia material y reduciendo su impacto medioambiental. En este estudio se analiza el tema de los principales desechos en la prestación de servicios de transporte público por autobús en cinco ciudades de América Latina y los distintos niveles de manejo, reutilización y reciclaje de materiales. Se identifican también los desechos generados por la conversión de autobuses que funcionan con tecnología diésel a tecnología eléctrica. Por último, se presentan las potenciales oportunidades de mejora y desarrollo de políticas, así como medidas de circularidad que podrían ser aplicables a la prestación de servicios de transporte público por autobús en la región.
    Date: 2022–12–20
  49. By: Dimmelmeier, Andreas; Egerer, Elsa
    Abstract: Against the backdrop of a simultaneous dynamization of sustainable finance and intensifying environmental and social crises, the following article carries out an analysis of the transformation potential of the sustainable finance discourse that is present in German governance discussions. The discourse is illustrated through a content analysis of the German government's Sustainable Finance Strategy and the final report of the first Sustainable Finance Advisory Council. In order to evaluate the transformation potential, a frame analysis is conducted. Subsequently, the analyzed frames are linked to the concept of institutional logics, which allows for an assessment of their transformation potential. The article comes to the conclusion that the governance discourse on sustainable finance in Germany is dominated by an integrative frame, which describes sustainable finance per se as desirable, and a frame, which emphasizes financial risks. With regard to institutional logics, a state logic that is motivated by location specific competitiveness policies and a financial market logic dominate. This is consistent with the interpretation that the mainstreaming of sustainable finance is accompanied by an increasingly financialized discourse that derives its goals largely from its own system logics, i.e. those inherent in the financial system. Based on the analysis, the article concludes that the transformation potential of the assessed governance discourse on Sustainable Finance in Germany is relatively low.
    Date: 2023–02–05
  50. By: Ren\'e A\"id; Annika Kemper; Nizar Touzi
    Abstract: We investigate the optimal regulation of energy production reflecting the long-term goals of the Paris Climate Agreement. We analyze the optimal regulatory incentives to foster the development of non-emissive electricity generation when the demand for power is served either by a monopoly or by two competing agents. The regulator wishes to encourage green investments to limit carbon emissions, while simultaneously reducing intermittency of the total energy production. We find that the regulation of a competitive market is more efficient than the one of the monopoly as measured with the certainty equivalent of the Principal's value function. This higher efficiency is achieved thanks to a higher degree of freedom of the incentive mechanisms which involves cross-subsidies between firms. A numerical study quantifies the impact of the designed second-best contract in both market structures compared to the business-as-usual scenario. In addition, we expand the monopolistic and competitive setup to a more general class of tractable Principal-Multi-Agent incentives problems when both the drift and the volatility of a multi-dimensional diffusion process can be controlled by the Agents. We follow the resolution methodology of Cvitani\'c et al. (2018) in an extended linear quadratic setting with exponential utilities and a multi-dimensional state process of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck type. We provide closed-form expression of the second-best contracts. In particular, we show that they are in rebate form involving time-dependent prices of each state-variable.
    Date: 2023–02
  51. By: MONGELLI Ignazio (European Commission - JRC); VOUSDOUKAS Michail (European Commission - JRC); FEYEN Luc (European Commission - JRC); SORIA RAMIREZ Antonio (European Commission - JRC); CISCAR MARTINEZ Juan Carlos (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: In this report, we quantify the long-term economic impacts of coastal flooding in Europe, in particular, how the direct coastal damages generate long-term economic losses that propagate and compound throughout the century. We integrate a set of probabilistic projections of inundation-related monetary impacts (to residential buildings, firms’ physical assets and agriculture production) into a stochastic dynamic economic model. The uncertainty related to the economic agents’ behaviour and other relevant macroeconomic assumptions, i.e. how would consumers finance the repairing of their homes, how long does it take for a firm to reconstruct, do firms decide to build-back-better after the inundation and possibly compensate the losses with a productivity gain, is explicitly considered. The results show that the long-term total impacts of coastal floods are larger than the direct damages generated by the inundations: by the end of the century EU27 plus UK could lose every year between 0.25% - 0.91% of GDP, under a high emission scenario (RCP8.5). The results present a strong regional variation and in some countries the losses for the economy could reach worrying proportions.
    Keywords: climate change, coastal impacts, uncertainty, economic analysis
    Date: 2023–01
  52. By: Oxana Lahbib (CERGAM - Centre d'Études et de Recherche en Gestion d'Aix-Marseille - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - UTLN - Université de Toulon); Aurélie Kessous (CERGAM - Centre d'Études et de Recherche en Gestion d'Aix-Marseille - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - UTLN - Université de Toulon); Pierre Valette-Florence (CERAG - Centre d'études et de recherches appliquées à la gestion - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes)
    Abstract: The dissonance arising from the marriage of luxury and sustainability, and the scepticism generated by the ethical argument of brands leave the luxury industry unsure regarding the best strategy to prove the ethical aspect of its activity. Recent works have proposed the celebrity as a solution to this impasse. This study hence seeks to confirm in a first stage the role of a celebrity in the acceptance of sustainable luxury by its clientele (qualitative exploration), and then attempts to identify for which type of cause defended by the brand (social or environmental) this collaboration would have a greater impact on its clients (quantitative confirmation). The study shows that the celebrity helps customers to better perceive the notion of sustainable luxury: while the defence of a social cause reinforces the luxury aspect of the brand, the defence of an environmental cause leads customers to spread the information to their entourage.
    Abstract: La dissonance créée par le mariage du luxe et du durable ainsi que les sentiments de scepticisme générés par l'argument éthique des marques laissent l'industrie du luxe incertaine quant à la meilleure stratégie lui permettant de prouver l'aspect durable de son activité. De récents travaux proposent la célébrité comme solution à cette impasse. Cette étude cherche à confirmer dans un premier temps le rôle de la célébrité dans l'acceptation du luxe éthique par sa clientèle (exploration qualitative), puis tente d'identifier pour quel type de cause défendue par la marque (sociale ou environnementale) cette collaboration aurait un plus grand impact sur ses clients (confirmation quantitative). L'étude démontre en effet que la célébrité aide les consommateurs à mieux percevoir la notion de luxe durable : alors que la défense d'une cause sociale renforce l'aspect luxueux de la marque, la défense d'une cause environnementale conduit les clients à diffuser l'information à leur entourage.
    Keywords: luxe, développement durable, scepticisme, endossement par les célébrités
    Date: 2022–05–18
  53. By: Tajul Masron (School of Management, Universiti Sains Malaysia); Mduduzi Biyase (College of Business and Economics, School of Economics, University of Johannesburg); Talent Zwane (College of Business and Economics, School of Economics, University of Johannesburg); Thomas Udimal (Southwest forestry University); Frederich Kirsten (College of Business and Economics, School of Economics, University of Johannesburg)
    Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between ecological footprint and health outcomes in E7 countries from 1990 to 2017. The study makes use of panel fully modified ordinary least square (FMOLS) and dynamic ordinary least square (DOLS) models to assess the relationship between the ecological footprint and health outcomes. Although the findings show that ecological footprint has a positive effect on life expectancy, implying that the current levels of ecological footprints support life expectancy, failure to strictly observe the level of ecological footprint in the long run may result in a negative impact on life expectancy. Therefore, a more serious efforts and strategies are needed to keep the size of ecological footprints to be favorable to human life.
    Keywords: Ecological footprint, CO2, CH4, N2O, life expectancy, mortality, E7
    Date: 2023
  54. By: Ghulam Mustafa (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics)
    Abstract: Weather shocks have become a colossal threat to Pakistan due to its limited financial and technical ability to mitigate and adapt to extreme weather events. These threats are expected to be increasingly scaled up in the coming years. Food insecurity is one of the most significant aspects of household wellbeing, directly affected by climatic variability. The ultra-poor segment of households is highly susceptible to increasing weather shocks. In such a scenario, the role of the Benazir Income Support Program (BISP) cash transfer scheme is inevitably essential.
    Keywords: Weather Shocks, Cash Transfers, Household Food,
    Date: 2022
  55. By: Indaco, Agustín (Carnegie Mellon University); Ortega, Francesc (Queens College, CUNY)
    Abstract: Using a new composite climate-risk index, we show that population in high-risk counties has grown disproportionately over the last few decades, even relative to the corresponding commuting zone. We also find that the agglomeration is largely driven by increases in the (white) working-age population. In addition, we show that high-risk tracts have typically grown more than low-risk tracts within the same county, suggesting the presence of highly localized amenities in high-risk areas. We also document heterogeneous population dynamics along a number of dimensions. Specifically, population has been retreating from high-risk, low urbanization locations, but continues to grow in high-risk areas with high residential capital. The findings above hold for most climate hazards. However, we document that tracts with high risk of coastal flooding have grown significantly less than other tracts in the same county.
    Keywords: climate risk, agglomeration, migration
    JEL: J3 J7
    Date: 2023–03
  56. By: Beisheim, Marianne; Weinlich, Silke
    Abstract: The President of the United Nations General Assembly has appointed the German and Namibian permanent representatives as co-facilitators for the Summit of the Future. The summit is scheduled for September 2024. Its aim is to reinforce the UN and global governance structures to better address old and new challenges. That includes making progress on implementing the sustainable development goals (SDGs) by 2030. Given the current geopolitical tensions, this will be no easy task. At this juncture it is important to get the process off to a good start in order to gather support, generate attention and engender confidence.
    Keywords: Germany, Namibia, United Nations, 2024 UN Summit of the Future, sustainable development goals (SDGs), António Guterres
    Date: 2023
  57. By: Houssaine Mounaim (UCA - Université Cadi Ayyad [Marrakech]); Aymane Sarmoh (UCA - Université Cadi Ayyad [Marrakech]); Oumaima El Mazouni (UCA - Université Cadi Ayyad [Marrakech])
    Abstract: This bibliometric and systematic study aims to contribute to the ongoing debate on the link between CSR and Supply Chain. The objective is to analyze a large number of documents in a simple and reliable way by examining the relationship between articles, citations, and keywords, thus providing detailed scientific information. Through a preliminary study of the literature «scoping study», we developed the search query by juxtaposing the two terms «SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY» and «SUPPLY CHAIN». Following its deployment on the SCOPUS database chosen for its quality of coverage of the different research fields and after several manipulations of automatic and manual filters, we have kept 2950 documents. The data of the selected articles were exported in Bibtex format to be analyzed on the free software developed in the R environment bibliometrix. Thanks to its toolbox, we were able to generate visualizations of the annual evolution of scientific production, the most important journals, the most contributing authors, the most active countries, the most cited articles, and the leading themes. In addition to the visualizations, a systematic analysis of the 10 most cited articles was performed. The analysis of these documents allowed us to have an idea about the evolution of the research structure and to identify its tendencies. The results reflect a very important gain of interest and maturity in this field based on a deep theorization. The results also reflect the interest given to the economic and environmental aspects, unlike the social dimension which does not attract enough attention from the scientific community. Despite the methodological limitations that may impact our research, notably the risk of irrelevance in picking words for the query, and the risk of coverage related to the choice of the database. This study will allow the scientific community to clearly identify literature gaps that can be considered opportunities to deepen our thinking.
    Keywords: Corporate social responsibility, Supply chain, Sustainability, Logistics
    Date: 2022–07–31
  58. By: Eric KEMP-BENEDICT
    Abstract: The core principle of strong sustainability is non-substitutability. Many economic resources rely on ecosystem function, which is at best partially substitutable; ecosystem function can be maintained under moderate pressure, but at some level ecosystem function is compromised. Markets tend to promote degradation of ecosystems and loss of ecosystem function, raising the question what possible alternatives could support human provisioning while maintaining ecosystem function. This paper argues that a useful entry point is the property rights regimes that underpin markets. It briefly reviews how property rights have been theorized or observed to act in economic systems. It then draws on indigenous property law and the Law and Political Economy literatures to critique prevailing views. Finally, it suggests that property rights in an economics for strong sustainability should be framed in terms of general duties (or duties in rem) towards ecosystems.
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2023–02–23
  59. By: Francis X. Diebold (University of Pennsylvania); Maximilian Gobel (University of Lisbon); Philippe Goulet Coulombe (University of Quebec in Montreal)
    Abstract: We use "glide charts" (plots of sequences of root mean squared forecast errors as the target date is approached) to evaluate and compare fixed-target forecasts of Arctic sea ice. We first use them to evaluate the simple feature-engineered linear regression (FELR) forecasts of Diebold and Göbel (2022), and to compare FELR forecasts to naive pure-trend benchmark forecasts. Then we introduce a much more sophisticated feature-engineered machine learning (FEML) model, and we use glide charts to evaluate FEML forecasts and compare them to a FELR benchmark. Our substantive results include the frequent appearance of predictability thresholds, which differ across months, meaning that accuracy initially fails to improve as the target date is approached but then increases progressively once a threshold lead time is crossed. Also, we find that FEML can improve appreciably over FELR when forecasting "turning point" months in the annual cycle at horizons of one to three months ahead.
    Keywords: Seasonal climate forecasting, forecast evaluation and comparison, prediction
    JEL: Q54 C22 C52 C53
    Date: 2022–07
  60. By: Aiolfi, Simone
    Abstract: The promotion of responsible behavior is one of the main areas of nudging and, more recently, digital nudging. Technologies can enable new forms of horizontal and vertical relationships in a pre-competitive context where negotiating perspectives are overcome by a collective benefit that can generate reputational effects. In this case, the role of Institutions is indispensable, especially in the FMCG sector where there is high intrabrand-competition. Starting from these considerations, the paper explores the potential organizational architectures in the topic of sustainable digital nudging through a critical review of the main national and international initiatives.
    Date: 2023–02–06
  61. By: Glitscher, Wolfgang
    Abstract: To steer sustainable developments, such as for sustainable manufacturing, project management needs an expanded definition that can be translated into corporate action beyond delivering project results in closed, structured systems. Project managers are shapers of futures. In the sense of managing sustainable processes, they themselves are affected by the results from the realization of their projects. A Next7G Project Management is based on a principle from Iroquois lore. This considers the effects of actions on the next seven generations. This makes it necessary to pay attention to feasible and visionary further developments of project results in the direction of sustainable project management. The re-integration of customer, cooperation and creativity are current developments in project management. For Next7G Project Management a super customer has to be defined: The home planet. The super customer home planet provides resources. This common good - water, raw materials, air, earth, etc. - has no price. - has no price. The super customer home planet provides these goods for all, but cannot articulate itself and is not involved in the project work and does not have its own rights regarding its utilization. The superclient home planet is subject to destruction and exploitation by human activities. Confronted with increasing complexity and the management of mega projects in global challenges, project results are indispensable to think as an ongoing process for the product life cycle within a project from the individual customer: What does he really need and what are the implications? Newer, so-called agile methods of project management, already involve the customer in all phases of a project. Furthermore, due to the necessity of cooperation for complexity management, the limits of organizations as well as of states have to be considered. Within a project realization, ideas and approaches can be taken up by project managers and be continued for the further development of the project results in the direction of sustainability. In this way, project managers become designers of cooperations and also the initiators of creativity, initiating and controlling the processes necessary for this. They thus develop an understanding of processes that can lead to sustainable innovations. These innovations are the basic knowledge for a further development towards sustainability of the project results. The 17 SDG's could be used here, for example, as a basis for the development of KPI's (Key Performance Indicators) in the direction of sustainable project management. In addition, Key Competence Indicators (KCI) for sustainable project management need to be defined. Thinking outwards about the delivery of project results in terms of time and cost, taking into account the requirements of the super customer home planet, is necessary. In this sense, all project results are to be understood as intermediate products, for which a further use must be intended.
    Date: 2023–02–07
  62. By: Anna Gerke (Audencia Recherche - Audencia Business School)
    Date: 2022–09–19
  63. By: Miriam Fritzsche; Nikolaus Wolf
    Abstract: Fossil fuels have shaped the European economy since the industrial revolution. In this paper, we analyse the effect of coal and oil on long-run economic growth, exploiting variation at the level of European NUTS-2 and NUTS-3 regions over the last century. We show that an “oil invasion†in the early 1960s turned regional coal abundance from a blessing into a curse, using new detailed data on carboniferous strata as an instrument. Moreover, we show that human capital accumulation was the key mechanism behind this reversal of fortune. Not only did former coal regions fail to accumulate sufficient levels of human capital, but pre-industrial human capital helped declining regions to reinvent themselves. Without sufficient human capital, fossil fuels did never generate sustainable growth.
    Keywords: Coal, Oil Invasion, Education, Reinvention, Economic Growth
    JEL: O13 Q32 N13 R10 I25
    Date: 2022–11–29
  64. By: Manh-Hung Nguyen (TSE-R - Toulouse School of Economics - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Chon van Le (VNU-HCM - Vietnam National University - Ho Chi Minh City); Scott Atkinson (University of Georgia [USA])
    Abstract: The paper investigates the production inefficiency of the US electricity industry in the wake of restructuring and emission reduction regulations.
    Keywords: Technical inefficiency, Electricity industry, Restructuring, Emissions
    Date: 2022–11–24
  65. By: Christine Léger Léger-Bosch (Territoires - Territoires - AgroParisTech - VAS - VetAgro Sup - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche en alimentation, santé animale, sciences agronomiques et de l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Mathilde Fromage (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: Land ownership by public and associative actors is developing as a support and lever for agricultural and environmental action. This article analyzes the diversity of the resulting agreements between these new lessors and their farmers through an analysis of institutional arrangements and bundles of rights. The study of 29 cases in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region shows that they emerge in territories that are rather densely populated and agriculturally diversified. The projects respond to the objectives of the lessors, which are sectoral – focusing on a single issue, such as water quality – or integrative – multi-stakeholder, such as food, landscape and economic. The lessors create demanding arrangements - in which the owner imposes terms of use – to partnership arrangements – in which the owner consults with the user to decide the terms of use. Prior to the agreement, the clarification of these objectives and their confrontation with the values of the user and his vision of the farming profession reduce the probability of renegotiation and even the risk of conflict.
    Abstract: Le portage foncier par les acteurs publics et associatifs se développe, comme support et levier d'action agricole et environnementale. Cet article analyse la diversité des accords en résultant, entre ces nouveaux bailleurs et leurs fermiers. Il s'appuie sur une lecture par les arrangements institutionnels et les faisceaux de droits. L'étude de 29 cas en région Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes montre qu'ils émergent dans des territoires plutôt densément peuplés et diversifiés au niveau agricole. Les projets répondent aux objectifs des bailleurs qui sont sectoriels – portant sur un seul enjeu, la qualité de l'eau par exemple –, à intégrateurs – multi-enjeux, tels qu'alimentaire, paysager, économique. Les bailleurs façonnent des arrangements exigeants – dans lesquels le propriétaire impose des modalités d'usage –, à partenariaux – les modalités d'usage sont décidées en concertation entre propriétaire et usager. En amont de l'accord, l'explicitation de ces objectifs et leur confrontation aux valeurs de l'usager et à sa vision du métier d'agriculteur, réduisent la probabilité de renégociations voire le risque de conflits.
    Keywords: Agriculture, Public organizations, NGO, Institutional arrangements, Societal expectations, Bundle of rights, Portage foncier, Acteurs publics, Associations, Arrangements institutionnels, Demande sociétale, Faisceau de droits
    Date: 2023–02–01
  66. By: Alexandre RAMBAUD
    Abstract: This paper shows that the mainstream usage of ‘natural capital’ (NC) is incompatible with an ecological approach. It argues that accounting is relevant for (re)structuring the debate around NC and implementing an alternative approach to NC that works with an ecological perspective.It first performs a ‘Latourian’ anthropological analysis of the mainstream notion of capital, resituated in the Modern cosmology, as well as the notion of ‘ecology’. It goes on to propose an ‘accounting’ study of capital with the objective of suggesting an alternative vision of NC and underlines its potential. The study shows that the mainstream use of NC is incompatible with an ecological approach, even in the case of strong sustainability. Mainstream NC is associated with ‘capital as a debit concept’, but a credit-based approach to NC would align it better with an ecological perspective. The paper renews the critical analysis of NC and of strong/weak sustainability. It opens a potential path of research in ecological accounting based on an alternative perspective on NC. It proposes an extension of the ‘classical’ accounting practices in historical costs to a more ecological vision of NC, linking accounting practices understood by current corporate stakeholders to ecological requirements.
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2023–03–06
  67. By: François Facchini (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Max Falque
    Abstract: Ce que souhaite rappeler cet article c'est qu'il existe de nombreuses raisons de ne pas avoir confiance dans les solutions publiques pour traiter des problèmes environnementaux. Il est l'occasion de faire connaître ou de rappeler les conclusions de la nouvelle économie des ressources et en particulier le fait que l'État est trop souvent un pompier pyromane qui évince les solutions privées qui auraient émergé s'il n'était pas intervenu. Au lieu de faire, les hommes politiques devraient faire faire. Ils devraient avoir l'humilité de déléguer la gestion des problèmes environnementaux à une société civile qui aurait repris confiance dans l'institution pivot des ordres décentralisés : la propriété. L'article s'organise de la manière suivante. Il présente succinctement l'histoire et les principales contributions de la nouvelle économie des ressources (1) puis montre par quelques exemples pourquoi il est juste de traiter l'État de pompier pyromane en matière d'environnement mais aussi pourquoi le recours à la réglementation s'avère inefficace pour traiter l'ensemble des problèmes environnementaux (2). Il propose pour cette raison une liste de mesures de politique publique alternatives qui font confiance aux institutions du marché et à ses entrepreneurs (3).
    Keywords: droit de propriété, environnement, free ecology, défaillances de l'Etat, climat, déchet, réglementation, biodiversité
    Date: 2022–09
  68. By: Ajmal Kakar (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics); Qaisar Iqbal (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics)
    Abstract: The trend of Quetta Cafes (QCs) strongly relates to the drought in Balochistan; historical and climatological records prove drought is an indefinite natural issue for Balochistan. Moreover, the precipitation data reveals that 18 drought events with an interval of 3.3 years were recorded between 1950-2010, with the most significant and catastrophic drought, lasting 10 years, recorded between 1945-1955.
    Keywords: Quetta Cafes, Tea Cafes Chain,
    Date: 2022
  69. By: Hlongwane, Nyiko Worship; Daw, Olebogeng David; Sithole, Mixo Sweetness
    Abstract: The study analysed renewable electricity generation and government expenditure on economic growth of South Africa and Botswana. The study utilizes time series data from 1980 to 2021 collected from the World Bank and International Energy. The study performed the DF-GLS and PP unit root test, ARDL Bounds tests and related diagnostics tests. Empirical evidence revealed that renewable electricity generation has a favourable impact in South Africa and a detrimental effect in Botswana on economic growth. The study only found long run relationship between the variables in South Africa with the aid of the bounds test results. Related policies were given in the study based on statistical evidence.
    Keywords: Renewable Electricity Generation Government Expenditure Economic Growth South Africa Botswana
    JEL: O4 Q4 Q42
    Date: 2023–01–04
  70. By: Michel Villette (ETT-CMH - Enquêtes, Terrains, Théorie (ETT) / Equipe du Centre Maurice Halbwachs - CMH - Centre Maurice Halbwachs - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Département de Sciences sociales ENS-PSL - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres)
    Abstract: Les bons principes ne survivent jamais aux circonstances défavorables ( Le Monde, 2002). L'entreprise peut-elle devenir un vecteur du développement durable ? (Le Monde, 2003) Friedman contre Freeman: Deux conceptions de l'entreprise responsable ( THE CONVERSATION, 2022) L'éthique est-elle trop subtil pour laisser les hommes d'affaires s'en occuper ? (Annales des Mines, 2011) Ethique d'entreprise : la tentation du caméléon... (Les ECHOS, 2005) La mise en marché: une mise à l'épreuve de nos conceptions morales? (Annales des Mines, 2015) Loi PACTE : vers une réforme purement cosmétique ? (THE CONVERSATION, 2018).
    Keywords: Ethique des affaires, gouvernance d'entrerprise, morale sociale, responsabilité sociale des entreprises, développement durable, politiques publiques.
    Date: 2023–01–24
  71. By: Isabelle Turri Sanches; Rafael Dutra Gome de Almeida; Eliane Monetti; Leonardo Mason
    Abstract: Apesar da construcao civil ser o segundo maior setor do PIB brasileiro, o deficit habitacional e alto no pais, principalmente nas camadas menos favorecidas economicamente. Para alem do desafio de diminuir o deficit, atraves de programas que fomentam a construcao de habitacao de interesse social, no periodo da pandemia do COVID-19 (2020 e 2021) verificou-se uma alta expressiva nos custos de construcao, dificultando as analises de investimentos em empreendimentos voltados para esse publico. A inflacao e um tema sensivel quando tratamos desses empreendimentos, que operaram com margens baixas, e pouco espaco para aumentos de custos acima do orcado nas analises. Alem disso, o modelo de financiamento deste segmento, o credito associativo, nao repassa a inflacao ao desenvolvedor imobiliario, que por sua vez tem que encontrar estrategias para continuar em atividade dentro deste cenario. A analise foi pautada, inicialmente, em uma discussao teorica sobre a concepcao do Indice Nacional da Construcao Civil (INCC), e sua aderencia aos orcamentos praticados em empreendimentos de baixo padrao. Ademais, o estudo buscou compreender o negocio de empreendimentos enquadrados do Casa Verde e Amarela (CVA), esmiucando o funcionamento do credito associativo, modelo de financiamento do segmento. Por fim, foi construida uma Analise da Qualidade do Investimento (AQI) com base em um estudo de caso, com dados reais de uma incorporadora inserida nesse modelo de negocio. A partir da analise feita, foi discutido como o descolamento global dos custos e de alguns pacotes de entrega de obra impactam em margem e taxa interna de retorno do empreendimento (TIR), visando auxiliar o empreendedor na tomada de decisao. Esta pesquisa e um trabalho de conclusao de curso (TCC) realizado no periodo de abril a dezembro de 2021 pelos alunos da Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, durante a Graduacao em Engenharia Civil.
    Keywords: alta dos custos; Análise da Qualidade do Investimento; Casa Verde e Amarela; Crédito Associativo; Green and Yellow House; High costs; Inflação; Inflation; Quality of Investment Analysis
    JEL: R3
  72. By: SCHMITZ Andreas (European Commission - JRC); DESPRÉS Jacques
    Abstract: This technical report provides a global collection of temporal data of the power sector covering about 60 countries and regions worldwide. This global collection makes available temporal data of electricity load as well as power generation from wind and solar. The temporal data consists of hourly time series and representative daily profiles. This wealth of data can be visualised in interactive data viewers publicly accessible online. The time series for electricity load cover at least a period of one year and up to 10 years. The time series for wind and solar generation span from 2004 to 2018 and are derived from meteorological data provided by satellite reanalysis data. The wind and solar time series are provided for different spatial distributions of generator locations in order to examine the effect of spatial capacity distributions on the time series. The representative daily profiles are calculated based on five different clustering methods. Different shares of wind and solar in the power mix are taken into account according to the 2°C scenario of Global Energy and Climate Outlook 2018 for scenario years 2010 to 2100. As a result, representative daily profiles (electricity load, wind & solar, net load) for almost any country or region of the world are made available for a range of spatial capacity distributions, clustering methods, wind & solar shares and number of representative daily profiles.
    Keywords: time series, hourly, solar, wind, electricity load, representative daily profiles, representative days, power generation, power system, residual load, net load, POLES, energy model, energy scenario, GECO, Global Energy and Climate Outlook
    Date: 2022–12
  73. By: Quimba, Francis Mark A.; Barral, Mark Anthony A.
    Abstract: This study seeks to understand the design of the Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement and European Free trade Association (EFTA), notably the similarities with other free trade agreements (FTAs) of Japan and EFTA-member countries, respectively, and how these similarities affect Philippine trade. To do this, the study proposes using text-of-trade-analysis, that is, text analysis employing text-as-data. The paper demonstrates the application of text analysis to complement the conventional methods of assessing the impacts of trade agreements. The results reveal that similarity across trade agreements, both at document and chapter or topic-specific provisions (e.g., trade in goods, rules of origin, strong references to sustainable development) may influence and encourage trade. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: EFTA-PH FTA;Cosine LSA;Export;Jaccard;Free Trade Agreements;PJEPA;Non-Tariff Measures;Rules of Origin;Sustainable Development;Text Analysis;Similarity;Trade in Goods
    Date: 2022
  74. By: Liu, Ziheng (University of Wisconsin-Madison); Chen, Xi (Yale University); Lu, Qinan (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
    Abstract: In light of the low public awareness of ozone pollution and the potential health threats posed by long-term ozone exposure, this study estimates the causal effect of long-term ozone exposure on respiratory mortality. By employing an instrumental variable based on the long-distance transmission of ozone from upwind neighbor counties, we discover that an increase of one standard deviation in the average concentrations of ozone in the preceding five years increases respiratory mortality by 0.062–0.066 standard deviations. The findings indicate that long-term ozone exposure increases mortality from both acute and chronic respiratory diseases and has significant adverse effects on vulnerable groups. Furthermore, we discover that the respiratory mortality rate responds to long-term ozone exposure nonlinearly, and that there is a critical threshold at which the adverse effects of ozone exposure commence. Our bootstrap simulation results suggest that if ozone concentrations in the preceding five years decrease by 10 percent, 11, 391 deaths from respiratory diseases could be avoided in the United States annually, with resulting health benefits valued at around $106.85–113.67 billion. Our further estimates suggest that, consistent with general respiratory diseases, long-term ozone exposure also contributes to deaths from COVID-19 during the pandemic.
    Keywords: long-term exposure, ozone, respiratory diseases, nonlinear responses, health benefits, COVID-19
    JEL: I15 J14 Q51 Q53
    Date: 2023–03
  75. By: Hafez Ghanem
    Abstract: This brief argues for a pan-African food security initiative that would: 1). encourage free trade in food products between African countries; 2). promote multi-country regional investments in infrastructure to enhance agricultural productivity and resilience to climate change; 3). support public-private partnerships to establish fertilizer factories across the continent; 4). create an African council responsible for coordinating and encouraging agricultural research and development; and 5). support a facility that would ensure vulnerable African countries can finance food imports in times of crisis.
    Date: 2022–11
  76. By: Ronzheimer, Ira Nadine; Durán Lima, José Elías; Budnevich, Cristóbal; Gomies, Matthew
    Abstract: En este documento, elaborado en el marco de un proyecto de colaboración entre la Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL) y la Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), se presenta una metodología para desagregar los autobuses eléctricos y convencionales en sus distintas piezas, con el fin de analizar los flujos de comercio internacional de los componentes relacionados con la electromovilidad. Los vectores desarrollados se basan en la edición de 2017 de la nomenclatura del Sistema Armonizado de Designación y Codificación de Mercancías (SA) e incluyen todas las partes necesarias para construir autobuses eléctricos convencionales (diésel). Esta metodología contribuye a medir la proporción del comercio internacional relacionada con dichas partes en tres niveles: materias primas, partes elaboradas y partes semielaboradas. La desagregación permite, además, reconstruir las cadenas globales de valor de los autobuses eléctricos y determinar cuáles son los proveedores de insumos clave en los tres niveles. La metodología puede emplearse también para estimar el potencial de integración productiva en la fabricación de autobuses en América Latina y el Caribe.
    Date: 2022–12–16
  77. By: Muhammad, Andrew; Hellwinckel, Chad M.; Nzayiramya, Savant; Taylor, Adam
    Abstract: U.S. forest product exports were negatively impacted by the U.S. trade war with China in 2018 and 2019, and the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. Muhammad and Taylor (2020) note that the pandemic had a significant impact on U.S. and Tennessee forest product exports due to supply and demand disruptions in the global market for finished wood products (e.g., furniture) and the interrelated market for raw materials and inputs (e.g., logs and lumber). These effects were in addition to the negative impact of China’s retaliatory tariffs on U.S. timber (Muhammad et al., 2022). In 2021, U.S. companies expected a recovery due to the U.S. Phase One Trade Agreement with China signed on January 2020, which included exemptions from related retaliatory tariff for forest products shipped to China (Inouye, 2020). In addition, the lifting of pandemic-imposed measures such as port closures and shutdowns in construction and manufacturing suggested a recovery for U.S. exports overall (Susskind and Vines, 2020). In this report, we focus on the post-pandemic period and its impacts on Tennessee forest product exports. We examine the export changes in 2021 (relative to 2020) across destination countries and product categories, and further assess the full economic impact of export sales on income and jobs at the state level. The impacts of the trade war and the COVID-19 pandemic on U.S. and Tennessee forestry exports have been discussed in previous reports (Muhammad and Taylor, 2020; Muhammad and Smith, 2020; and Muhammad et al., 2022). Forest product exports from 2018 to 2021 at the national, regional and state level are reported in Table 1. From 2018 to 2020, U.S. forest product exports decreased by $2.2 billion. In 2021, however, exports increased by $2.1 billion when compared to the previous year. The increase was mostly in southern states ($829 million), followed by Western states ($677 million). The gains in 2021 were a welcomed recovery from the decrease in exports the previous years.
    Keywords: Demand and Price Analysis, International Relations/Trade, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2023–02–24
  78. By: Wu, Lei; Lu, Shen; Chen, Yinong
    Abstract: Electric power transmission expansion planning (TEP), which involves identifying the areas where the existing transmission infrastructure is inadequate, determining the optimal locations and routes for new transmission lines and substations, and evaluating each option in detail. TEP is important for ensuring the reliable and cost-effective delivery of electricity to consumers, and it requires consideration of technical, economic, environmental, and social factors. In this paper, we briefly compare different TEP models, while addressing the advantages and disadvantages of each approach.
    Keywords: power system planning, transmission expansion planning, optimization models
    JEL: Q4
    Date: 2022–02–13
  79. By: KITANO Taiju
    Abstract: Vehicle scrappage programs (SPs) have been a common policy tool to replace aged and/or fuel-inefficient vehicles with fuel-efficient ones, recently adopted to make national vehicle fleets greener. This study evaluates the impacts of the SPs by examining the Japanese private passenger vehicle market in which the government allocated the second-largest program expenditure during the financial crisis. The evaluation is conducted based on the structural model of oligopolistic competition in the presence of the SP, which is estimated using market-level sales, price, and attribute data for each car model from FY2006 to FY2009. To conduct the structural analysis, this study develops a simple method to estimate the demand side in the presence of the SP, which incorporates data on aggregate program outcomes such as the program expenditure in the estimation of the discrete choice models. Given the estimates of the structural model, I simulate counterfactual outcomes under alternative SP designs and discuss program designs that could cost-effectively improve the environmental quality of vehicle fleets, considering the welfare and fiscal stimulus impacts.
    Date: 2023–03
  80. By: Pedro I. Hancevic (CIDE/Universidad Panamericana); Hector H. Sandoval (Bureau of Economic and Business Research)
    Abstract: We analyze the determinants of adoption of distributed solar photovoltaic systems, focusing on small and medium-sized commercial and service firms. We make use of monthly billing data that is perfectly matched with data from the ENCENRE-2019 –a novel survey that gathers data on electricity consumption, stock of electric equipment, and a rich set of firm characteristics in the Metropolitan Area of Aguascalientes, Mexico. Using an econometric model, we find evidence that a set of explanatory variables such as business characteristics, the economic sector, ownership status, stock and usage of equipment and appliances, presence of other solartechnologies, and views about the use of renewable energy are important determinants of the probability of adoption of solar panel systems. Furthermore, using machine learning methods to identify the best predictors of solar adoption, we indirectly validate the theory-driven empirical model by assessing a large set of explanatory variables and selecting a subset of these variables. In addition, we investigate relevant cases where a priory solar panel adoption seems to be costeffective but structural adoption barriers and adoption gaps might coexist for certain groups of electricity users. We also calculate the social cost savings and the avoided CO2 emissions. Finally, based on our results, we provide several policy implications and recommendations.
    Keywords: small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), distributed photovoltaic generation, electricity consumption, technology adoption, Mexico
    JEL: D22 O14 Q40 Q53
    Date: 2023–03
  81. By: Efremov Igor (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Novikov Kirill (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Pustovalov Denis (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: The object of the research is fertility, mortality, the relationship between fertility, mortality, population migration, targets of national projects on the one hand and measures provided for by national projects on the other. The main aim of the research is to propose reasonable measures of state demographic policy that contribute to the achievement of national goals – to increase life expectancy to 78 years and sustainable population growth by 2030. The main fundamental and applied problems solved in the research: analysis of the consistency of the main (demographic) national goals with each other and determination of ranges of values of their indicators necessary to achieve national goals; analysis of indicators of a Common plan to achieve national development goals of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2030, submission of proposals for measures aimed at achieving demographic goals of national projects in accordance with current demographic trends in Russia. The methods we use are statistical methods of demographic analysis, decomposition methods in demographic analysis; methods of medical statistics; cross-methods of assessing the interference of demographic indicators. Main results of the research: existing indicators of achieving national goals in terms of demographic development of the country are being analyzed. Indicators that are inconsistent with each other and the final goals are identified. Changes in the parameters of such indicators are proposed, as well as additional indicators for achieving life expectancy of 78 years by 2030. State policy measures designed to accelerate the reduction of mortality, the growth of the birth rate and the migration growth of the Russian population are proposed.
    Keywords: Russian education, demography, fertility, mortality, population migration, life expectancy, birth rate
    JEL: I21 I22 I23 I24 I25 I26 I28 I29
    Date: 2022
  82. By: Rim Berahab
    Abstract: Les fluctuations que connaissent les marchés de l'énergie depuis le début de la pandémie de la Covid-19 en 2019/2020 se sont prolongées, avec une incertitude sans précédent, sur l'approvisionnement énergétique mondial, qui s'est développée au cours de 2022 Ã la suite de l'invasion de l'Ukraine par la Russie, dans un contexte d'affaiblissement de la macroéconomie et d'inflation élevée. Alors que certains voyaient en ce contexte un risque de ralentissement de la transition énergétique, d’autres y ont vu une opportunité pour s’affranchir des énergies fossiles et accélérer le développement des technologies propres. Ce Policy Brief explore cinq tendances récentes qui sont susceptibles de façonner la transformation du système énergétique en 2023 et met l’accent sur les enjeux des technologies propres qui seront nécessaires pour accélérer la transition vers un avenir plus vert.
    Date: 2023–01
  83. By: Yves Jégourel
    Abstract: Le cuivre est assureÌ ment le meÌ tal de la transition eÌ nergeÌ tique, preÌ sent dans l’ensemble des systeÌ€mes permettant la deÌ carbonation de notre monde, du veÌ hicule eÌ lectrique aux infrastructures eÌ nergeÌ tiques. Alors que ses reÌ serves minieÌ€res sont limiteÌ es, que sa demande devrait eÌ‚tre deÌ multiplieÌ e au cours des deux prochaines deÌ cennies et que les volumes provenant du recyclage interrogent encore, le meÌ tal rouge semble devoir offrir aux entreprises et aux pays producteurs des lendemains treÌ€s favorables. AÌ€ long terme, aÌ€ tout le moins, car les cours du cuivre ont chanceleÌ en 2022 en raison de leur forte exposition aÌ€ la demande chinoise, elle-meÌ‚me bien incertaine. Les perspectives macroeÌ conomiques n’eÌ tant gueÌ€re favorables pour 2023, un rebond semble bien improbable mais, soumis aux quatre vents de la geÌ opolitique et de l’eÌ conomie, le monde des matieÌ€res premieÌ€res peut reÌ server bien des surprises !
    Date: 2023–01
  84. By: Sobia Rose (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics); Abedullah (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics)
    Abstract: The devastation caused by the recent floods in Pakistan is the result of poor management. Despite several warnings of an unusually high rainfall during the months of July and August, a lack of preparedness resulted in a huge catastrophe. The knowledge brief provides a snapshot of the extent of rainfall and subsequent floods, losses that occurred after the disaster and how the issue can be tackled in case of any such disaster in future. The major threats from the recent floods include the spectre of food insecurity of an already deprived population; loss of education and health; and an increase in social unrest due to more criminal activity.
    Date: 2022
  85. By: Nelo Magalhães (LADYSS - Laboratoire Dynamiques Sociales et Recomposition des Espaces - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - UP8 - Université Paris 8 Vincennes-Saint-Denis - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - UPD7 - Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This text aims to explain a paradox: the modest contribution of Regulation Theory to the debates on the Capitalocene. After explaining the changing role of the "environment" in regulationist analyses for nearly 50 years, we argue that they mostly adopt an apolitical definition / perspective of the environment and lack a critical and reflexive approach. In brief, the regulationist framework needs a truly political ecology.
    Keywords: Capitalocene, epistemology, environment, political ecology
    Date: 2022–09–08
    Abstract: The field of measuring and reporting CS practices currently faces relevant challenges. First, although important steps have been taken towards transparency in reporting CS practices, there is still significant flexibility in terms of the international sustainability frameworks that guide the reporting, the key performance indicators (KPIs) that need to be included, and even the specific aspects that must be reported. Second, there is a wide range of CS metrics rooted in different methodologies and assumptions that still lack standardization and convergence. These two challenges make it difficult to compare companies and understand their evolution towards greater sustainability. Based on these challenges in measuring and reporting CS practices, this study has two objectives: (1) analysing companies’ CS reporting to determine the trends in terms of the terminology, EU regulations, international sustainability frameworks, ratings and indices, KPIs, and materiality approaches used, and (2) comparing the CS metrics of some of the most relevant rating agencies to identify their similarities and differences. To achieve these objectives, we collected data on the 250 EU companies ranked better in the 2021 EU Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard. Overall, this work aims to contribute to advancing greater homogenisation in the measurement and reporting of CS.
    Keywords: Corporate Sustainability, ESG, R&D investors
    Date: 2023–02
  87. By: Hensen, Julia
    Abstract: Beim Kauf von Haushaltsgeräten ist der Verbraucher mit vielen Entscheidungskriterien konfrontiert. Um die Kaufentscheidung stärker auf Energieeffizienz zu lenken, gibt es seit einigen Monaten ein neues EU-Label für bestimmte Produktgruppen. Studien zeigen jedoch, dass die Energieeffizienz der Geräte in der Kaufentscheidung eine untergeordnete Rolle einnimmt und der Anschaffungspreis übermäßig Berücksichtigung findet. Kann die Neuskalierung der EU-Label Abhilfe schaffen?
    Date: 2023

This nep-env issue is ©2023 by Francisco S. Ramos. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.