nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2023‒01‒30
63 papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. A Marginal Abatement Cost Curve for Greenhouse gases attenuation by additional carbon storage in French agricultural land By L. Bamière; V. Bellassen; D. Angers; R. Cardinael; E. Ceschia; C. Chenu; J. Constantin; N. Delame; A. Diallo; A.-I. Graux; S. Houot; K. Klumpp; C. Launay; E. Letort; R. Martin; D. Mézière; C. Mosnier; O. Réchauchère; M. Schiavo; O. Thérond; S. Pellerin
  2. Mexico: Financial Sector Assessment Program-Technical Note on Climate Risk Analysis By International Monetary Fund
  3. Regulatory Stringency and Emission Leakage Mitigation By Fabio Antoniou; Panos Hatzipanayotou; Nikos Tsakiris
  4. A Unifying Theory of Foreign Intervention in Domestic Climate Policy By Juan Moreno-Cruz; Anthony Harding
  5. Induced Innovation and Carbon Leakage By Jonathon M. Becker; Jared C. Carbone; Andreas Loeschel
  6. From sellers' screens to buyers' screens: Screen-to-Screen Smartphone App to digitize all types of print receipts, invoices and paper documents for sustainability and green development By Moustafa, Khaled
  7. Climate change and winter tourism: evidence from Italy By Gioia Maria Mariani; Diego Scalise
  8. Climate justice, from top to bottom By Eloi Laurent
  9. Impacts of economic growth and CO2 emissions on health expenditures in Morocco ARIB Fatima, TARBALOUTI Essaid, ET-TOUILE Houria, MOUSSANE Aboutayeb By Arib Fatima; Tarbalouti Essaid; Houria Et-Touile; Moussane Aboutayeb
  10. Early warnings and emerging accountability: Total’s responses to global warming, 1968-2021 By Christophe Bonneuil; Pierre-Louis Choquet; Benjamin Franta
  11. Adapting long-lived investments under climate change uncertainty By Eisenack, Klaus; Paschen, Marius
  12. Climate change and women’s voice and agency beyond the household: Insights from India By Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Raghunathan, Kalyani; Kosec, Katrina
  13. Financial development, human capital and energy transition: A global comparative analysis By Elvis D. Achuo; Pilag B.C. Kakeu; Simplice A. Asongu
  14. Climate change increases resource-constrained international immobility By Hélène Benveniste; Michael Oppenheimer; Marc Fleurbaey
  15. Promoting Environmental Sustainability in Africa: Evidence from Governance Synergy By Awa Traoré; Cheikh T. Ndour; Simplice A. Asongu
  16. The optimal fuel and emission tax combination for life-cycle emissions under imperfect competition By Hiroaki Ino; Toshihiro Matsumura
  17. On the role of farmers in seed innovations: a brief introduction By Stéphane Lemarié
  18. Distributional heterogeneity in climate change impacts and adaptation: Evidence from Indian agriculture By Surender Kumar; Madhu Khanna
  19. Sustainable Investing Under Delegated Investment Management By Meg Adachi-Sato; Hiroshi Osano
  20. ESG disclosure: regulatory framework and challenges for Italian banks By Tommaso Loizzo; Federico Schimperna
  21. Atmospheric Pollution in Chinese Cities: Trends and Persistence By Guglielmo Maria Caporale; Nieves Carmona-González; Luis Alberiko Gil-Alana
  22. Climate change heterogeneity: A new quantitative approach By Maria Dolores Gadea; Jesus Gonzalo
  23. Looking at Payments for Ecosystems Services in the Philippines By Domingo, Sonny N.; Manejar, Arvie Joy A.; Ocbina, John Joseph S.
  24. The Impact of International Trade on the Price of Solar Photovoltaic Modules: Empirical Evidence By Ivan Hajdukovic
  25. Cointegrating Polynomial Regressions With Power Law Trends: Environmental Kuznets Curve or Omitted Time Effects? By Yicong Lin; Hanno Reuvers
  26. Small-scale solar panel adoption by the non-residential sector: The effects of national and targeted policies in Australia By Rohan Best; Paul J. Burke
  27. The trilemma of innovation, logistics performance, and environmental quality in 25 topmost logistics countries: a quantile regression evidence By Magazzino, Cosimo; Alola, Andrew Adewale; Schneider, Nicolas
  28. The effect of natural resources on sustainable development: the institutional threshold By Baghdedi Sghayri
  29. Peer-to-Peer Solar and Social Rewards: Evidence from a Field Experiment By Stefano Carattini; Kenneth Gillingham; Xiangyu Meng; Erez Yoeli
  30. Qatar World Cup 2022: making stadiums profitable investments by transforming them into food production farms By Moustafa, Khaled
  31. Urban Pollution: A Global Perspective By Rainald Borck; Philipp Schrauth
  32. Land allocation and the adoption of innovative practices in agriculture: a real option modelling of the underlying hidden costs By Marc Baudry; Edouard Civel; Camille Tévenart
  33. It is time to update cultural additivity By Nguyen, Minh-Hoang; Jin, Ruining; Le, Tam-Tri
  34. Immune Deficiency in SARS-CoV-2 Virology — Institutional Crimes and Administrative Oversights By Pachankis, Yang
  35. Agent-based modelling of a small-scale fishery in Corsica By Eric Innocenti; Corinne Idda; Dominique Prunetti; Pierre-Régis Gonsolin
  36. Towards integrating social dynamics into climate economic scenarios literature review By Barth, Simon
  37. Natural resource management and nutrition outcomes: an evaluation of fisheries decentralization in Laos By Benjamin Chipperfield; Paulo Santos
  38. Breaking it down: a techno-economic assessment of the impact of battery pack design on disassembly costs By Lander, Laura; Tagnon, Chris; Nguyen-Tien, Viet; Kendrick, Emma; Elliott, Robert J.R.; Abbott, Andrew P.; Edge, Jacqueline S.; Offer, Gregory J.
  39. Ecological lightweight design for sustainable composites: Need for application of frugal engineering principles By Achtelik, Timo; Tiwari, Rajnish
  40. A Gender-Sensitive Earthquake Recovery Assessment Using Administrative and Satellite Data: The Case of Indonesia’s 2016 Aceh Earthquake By Akter, Sonia; Fauzia, Talitha; Pundit, Madhavi; Schroder, Marcel
  41. Greenhouse gases emissions: estimating corporate non-reported emissions using interpretable machine learning By Jeremi Assael; Thibaut Heurtebize; Laurent Carlier; Fran\c{c}ois Soup\'e
  42. Estudio descriptivo de la oferta y la demanda global del sector minero en la República de Perú: una comparación con América Latina By Espinoza, Jorge Luis Vargas; Reátegui, Marcelo Ramos; Velásquez, Wily Leopoldo Velásquez; Velásquez, Zulema Velásquez; Turpo, Giovana Araseli Flores
  43. Paddy and Prejudice: Evidence on the Agricultural Origins of Prejudice from China and 12 other Asian Societies By An Huang; Paulo Santos; Russell Smyth
  44. Negotiations of Oil and Gas Auxiliary Lease Clauses: Evidence from Pennsylvania’s Marcellus Shale By Max Harleman; Pramod Manohar; Elaine L. Hill
  45. Risk Management of Energy Communities with Hydrogen Production and Storage Technologies By Feng, Wenxiu; Ruiz Mora, Carlos
  46. Resolving the base of the pyramid inclusion paradox through supplier development By Carolin Brix‐asala; Stefan Seuring; Philipp C Sauer; Axel Zehendner; Lara Schilling
  47. The Music Education role in cultural economics and sustainable development دور التربية الموسيقية والتعليم الموسيقي في اقتصاديات الثقافة والتنمية المستدامة By Essefi, Mohammed Mehdy
  48. Women's voice and agency in choosing assets: A new study on MGNREGA in India By Karachiwalla, Naureen; Kosec, Katrina; Kyle, Jordan; Narayanan, Sudha; Raghunathan, Kalyani
  49. Close the Gap: Accelerating Post-pandemic Recovery through Social Justice By Domingo, Sonny N.; Ulep, Valerie Gilbert T.; Epetia, Ma. Christina F.
  50. Suspension : lorsque la syndémie enchevêtre Covid-19, recherche et urgence climatique By Celine Berrier-Lucas
  51. Regulatory approximation under ALECA: Assessing the economic and social effects on the Tunisian agricultural sector By Raza, Werner G.; Tröster, Bernhard; Von Arnim, Rudi; Chandoul, Jihen; Ben Rouine, Chafik
  52. In defense of farmer saved seeds By Richard S. Gray
  53. Estudio descriptivo de la oferta y demanda global del sector minero en la Republica de Perú: una comparación con Argentina By Reátegui, Marcelo Ramos; Guillermo, Juan Carlos Lázaro; Torres, Luisa Riveros; Carlos, Mariano Magdaleno Mendoza; Díaz, Ayda Guisella Ávalos
  54. The Stench of Failure: How Perception Affects House Prices By Kristle Cortés; Mandeep Singh; David H. Solomon; Philip Strahan
  55. Governance quality and trade performance in Sub-Saharan Africa By Simplice A. Asongu; Nicholas M. Odhiambo
  56. Assessing the Competitiveness of Secondary Battery Value Chains: Policy Implications By Kim, Minji; Lee, Jun
  57. Philippines: 2022 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; and Staff Report By International Monetary Fund
  58. Enhancing Resilience: Model-based Simulations By d'Artis Kancs
  59. Análisis económico de América Latina y el Caribe y su vínculo con la pobreza y el Covid-19 By Guillermo, Juan Carlos Lázaro; Torres, Luisa Riveros; Reátegui, Marcelo Ramos; Vásquez, Humberto Escudero; Pallares, Oscar Novoa
  60. ¿Qué retos enfrenta la minería informal de oro en el Perú? Lecciones aprendidas de La Rinconada, Puno By Robles, Maria Eugenia; Geenen, Sara; Verbrugge, Boris
  61. Underground struggles: improving working conditions in artisanal and small-scale gold mining: lessons from Mindanao, Philippines By Robles Mengoa, Eugenia; Geenen, Sara; Verbrugge, Boris; Besmanos, Beverly; López Valverde, Rafael
  62. Directions for Inclusive and Sustainable Industrial Development in Zimbabwe and the Republic of Korea By Lim, Soyoung; Lee, Keun; Ndlela, Daniel; Kim, Kyehwan; Yu, Jinkeun; Mushayandebvu, Tichaona
  63. Contributions of the bibliometric approach and the Cortext Manager tool to the review of scientific literature. An application to the analysis of the consideration of the environment in Regional Science litterature (1999-2019) By Béatrice Davi; Stéphanie Truchet-Aznar; Olivier Aznar; Francis Aubert

  1. By: L. Bamière (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); V. Bellassen (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Dijon - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); D. Angers; R. Cardinael; E. Ceschia (CESBIO - Centre d'études spatiales de la biosphère - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - UT3 - Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - OMP - Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - UT3 - Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - CNES - Centre National d'Études Spatiales [Toulouse] - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Météo-France - CNES - Centre National d'Études Spatiales [Toulouse] - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); C. Chenu (ECOSYS - Ecologie fonctionnelle et écotoxicologie des agroécosystèmes - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); J. Constantin (AGIR - AGroécologie, Innovations, teRritoires - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); N. Delame (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); A. Diallo (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Dijon - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); A.-I. Graux (PEGASE - Physiologie, Environnement et Génétique pour l'Animal et les Systèmes d'Elevage [Rennes] - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); S. Houot (ECOSYS - Ecologie fonctionnelle et écotoxicologie des agroécosystèmes - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); K. Klumpp (UREP - Unité Mixte de Recherche sur l'Ecosystème Prairial - UMR - VAS - VetAgro Sup - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche en alimentation, santé animale, sciences agronomiques et de l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); C. Launay (ECOSYS - Ecologie fonctionnelle et écotoxicologie des agroécosystèmes - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, AGIR - AGroécologie, Innovations, teRritoires - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); E. Letort (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); R. Martin (UREP - Unité Mixte de Recherche sur l'Ecosystème Prairial - UMR - VAS - VetAgro Sup - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche en alimentation, santé animale, sciences agronomiques et de l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); D. Mézière; C. Mosnier (UMRH - Unité Mixte de Recherche sur les Herbivores - UMR 1213 - VAS - VetAgro Sup - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche en alimentation, santé animale, sciences agronomiques et de l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); O. Réchauchère (Agronomie - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); M. Schiavo (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); O. Thérond; S. Pellerin (UMR ISPA - Interactions Sol Plante Atmosphère - Bordeaux Sciences Agro - Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Sciences Agronomiques de Bordeaux-Aquitaine - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Following the Paris agreement in 2015, the European Union (EU) set a carbon neutrality objective by 2050, and so did France. The French agricultural sector can contribute as a carbon sink through carbon storage in biomass and soil, in addition to reducing GHG emissions. The objective of this study is to quantitatively assess the additional storage potential and cost of a set of eight carbon-storing practices. The impacts of these agricultural practices on soil organic carbon storage and crop production are assessed at a very fine spatial scale, using crop and grassland models. The associated area base, GHG budget, and implementation costs are assessed and aggregated at the region level. The economic model BANCO uses this information to derive the marginal abatement cost curve for France and identify the combination of carbon storing practices that minimizes the total cost of achieving a given national net GHG mitigation target. We find that a substantial amount of carbon, 36.2 to 52.9 MtCO2e yr-1, can be stored in soil and biomass for reasonable carbon prices of 55 and 250 € tCO2e-1, respectively (corresponding to current and 2030 French carbon value for climate action), mainly by developing agroforestry and hedges, generalising cover crops, and introducing or extending temporary grasslands in crop sequences. This finding questions the 3-5 times lower target of 10 MtCO2e.yr-1 retained for the agricultural carbon sink by the French climate neutrality strategy. Overall, this would decrease total French GHG emissions by 9.2 to 13.8%, respectively (reference year 2019).
    Abstract: Suite aux accords de Paris en 2015, l'Union européenne (UE) s'est fixé un objectif de neutralité carbone d'ici à 2050, tout comme la France. En plus de réduire les émissions de GES, le secteur agricole français peut contribuer à la neutralité carbone en tant que puits de carbone, par le stockage de carbone dans le sol et la biomasse. L'objectif de cette étude est de quantifier le potentiel de stockage additionnel et le coût d'un ensemble de huit pratiques stockantes. Les impacts de ces pratiques agricoles sur le stockage du carbone organique du sol et les rendements des cultures sont évalués à une échelle spatiale très fine, à l'aide de modèles de cultures et de prairies. L'assiette, le bilan GES net et le coût de mise en œuvre associés à chaque pratique sont également évalués et agrégés au niveau régional. Le modèle économique BANCO utilise ces informations pour générer la courbe de coût marginal d'abattement pour la France, et identifier la combinaison de pratiques stockantes qui minimise le coût total pour atteindre un objectif national donné d'atténuation des émissions de GES nettes. Nous montrons qu'une quantité non négligeable de carbone, de 36, 2 à 52, 9 MtCO2e an-1, peut être stockée dans le sol et la biomasse pour des prix du carbone raisonnables de 55 et 250 € tCO2e-1, respectivement (correspondant à la "valeur de l'action pour le climat" actuelle et 2030, fixée par le gouvernement français), et cela principalement par le développement de l'agroforesterie et des haies, la généralisation des cultures intermédiaires, l'introduction ou l'extension des prairies temporaires dans les séquences de culture. Ce résultat remet en cause l'objectif 3 à 5 fois inférieur retenu pour le puits de carbone agricole (10 par la stratégie nationale bas carbone. Globalement, ce stockage additionnel de carbone permettrait de réduire les émissions totales de GES de la France de 9, 2 à 13, 8 %, respectivement (année de référence 2019).
    Keywords: soil organic carbon sequestration, climate change mitigation, greenhouse gas, carbon neutrality, agriculture, abatement cost
    Date: 2023–01
  2. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: Mexico is exposed to both transition and physical risks from climate change. Mexico’s total energy supply is dominated by fossil fuels and non-renewable energy sources. The country is the second largest emitter of greenhouse gases (GHG) in Latin America. Emissions are highly concentrated in a few economic sectors that play an important role in the Mexican economy. The Mexican financial sector has sizable exposures to these emission intensive sectors. As such, the transition to a low carbon economy raises challenges for the economy and financial sector that need to be considered. Meanwhile, Mexico is exposed to a range of physical risks, including acute risks associated with floods and tropical cyclones, by virtue of the exposure to both the North Atlantic and Eastern Pacific hurricane basins, droughts, and heatwaves, and chronic risks.
    Date: 2022–12–08
  3. By: Fabio Antoniou (Athens University of Economics and Business); Panos Hatzipanayotou (Athens University of Economics and Business); Nikos Tsakiris
    Abstract: We construct a two-country trade model where emissions are an input in production and generate cross-border pollution. We examine the strategic incentives of an active regulator that sets a binding level of emissions in production. We show that, in the presence of terms of trade and emission leakage strategic motives, tighter regulation can mitigate emission leakage, reduce global pollution, and improve a country's welfare. This result and the corresponding policy implications depend on the relative magnitude of emissions intensities of goods between sectors and on their relationship in production and consumption.
    Keywords: Environmental Regulation, International Trade, Emission Leakage, Cross-border Pollution
    JEL: F18 H23 Q54
    Date: 2023–01–13
  4. By: Juan Moreno-Cruz; Anthony Harding
    Abstract: We propose a theory of climate-policy motivated foreign intervention to study different forms of international climate governance in the presence of power imbalance. Foreign countries have at least three options to intervene in another country’s domestic climate policy: i.) Agreements with Extraction; ii.) Agreements with Transfers; and iii.) Agreements with Sanctions. We distill the fundamental properties of different climate policy options into a simple parameterization and examine the incentivizes and preferences for each type of foreign intervention. We find that the preference for the type of foreign intervention depends critically on the policy externality of different domestic climate policies.
    Keywords: climate change, mitigation, adaptation, geoengineering, international environmental agreements
    JEL: Q54 Q55 C72
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Jonathon M. Becker (Department of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines); Jared C. Carbone (Department of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines); Andreas Loeschel (Ruhr University Bochum)
    Abstract: We explore the ability of unilateral climate policies to induce innovation and diffusion of technology and its impacts on carbon leakage. We consider both energy-saving and carbon-saving (end-of-pipe) technologies, such as carbon capture and storage (CCS). To do so, we combine a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of North-South trade with assumptions about R&D-based technological change to simulate counterfactual climate policies in the North. We model both a carbon tax and a carbon tariff levied on imports from South to North. Both policies drive an increase in R&D in carbon-saving technologies which comes primarily at the expense of investment in other sectors. Carbon-saving technology allows the North to meet its carbon reduction target without abating as much fossil fuel use, leaving demand and international prices for fossil fuels closer to pre-policy levels. Reduced R&D in energy and energy-intensive sectors raises the cost of production in these sectors. Both effects mitigate carbon leakage in the South. Technology diffusion to the South has a modest effect on leakage under the carbon tax. It leads to somewhat larger reductions in leakage when the cap is paired with carbon tariffs, as the tariffs provide an incentive for the South to adopt carbon-saving technologies developed in the North.
    Keywords: induced innovation, R&D, carbon leakage, carbon tariffs, carbon tax, carbon cap, technology diffusion, knowledge spillovers, computable general equilibrium
    JEL: C68 F10 O30 Q43 Q55
    Date: 2022–08
  6. By: Moustafa, Khaled (Founder & Editor of ArabiXiv)
    Abstract: Billions of purchasing receipts, invoices and bills are printed every year worldwide. Manufacturing paper and printing involve large quantities of natural resources (trees, water and energy) while producing large amounts of chemical pollutants and greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. If visual smartphone-scannable codes (VSC) can be developed to encrypt and store large amounts of texts such as purchasing receipts and invoices, and if a smartphone application (App) is developed to scan such codes “from screen-to-screen” (sellers’ screens to buyers’ screens), substantial amounts of environmental resources can be saved and considerable amounts of chemical pollutants and green gas emissions can be avoided. For this purpose, a smartphone App, called “Screen-to-Screen” (STS) is proposed to transfer purchasing receipts and invoices directly from sellers’ monitor displays (i.e., supermarkets, stores, restaurants, pharmacies, etc.) to customer smartphones’ screens without the need to print them anymore. Customers should need only to scan visual scannable codes (VSC) that encrypt purchasing details to convert them into digital formats on the customers’ smartphones screens. As a result, significant amounts of energy, trees, and water can be protected, and important amounts of environmental wastes and chemicals (inks, plastics) used in paper manufacturing and printing can be saved for more vital needs than for printing.
    Date: 2022–12–27
  7. By: Gioia Maria Mariani (Banca d'Italia); Diego Scalise (Banca d'Italia)
    Abstract: Increasing temperatures and snow-scarce winter seasons challenge the winter tourism industry, one of the most weather-sensitive economic sectors. In this paper we assemble a novel dataset matching weather conditions and tourism flows in a sample of 39 Italian ski resorts in the last 20 years. We study the relationship between snow conditions, ski passes and overnight stays at ski resort level by means of a panel estimator with double fixed effects to quantify the risk of tourism losses due to climate change. We estimate a positive and significant relationship between snowfall conditions and winter tourism flows in Italian Alpine resorts. According to our estimates and to consensus projections on climate variables, in the coming years the impacts of climate change on ski passes and overnight stays could be significant, especially at lower altitudes. We also find evidence that providing artificial snow only has a weak effect on winter tourism flows, pointing toward the need for a more comprehensive approach to adaptation strategies.
    Keywords: Climate change, winter tourism
    JEL: Q51 Q54
    Date: 2022–12
  8. By: Eloi Laurent (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po)
    Abstract: In this paper, I attempt to give empirical meaning to climate justice by defining simple criteria of allocation of the remaining global carbon budget based on biophysics constraints and recognized justice principles. The originality of the paper, beyond the choice of indicators meeting justice criteria and their empirical incarnation, is to connect global climate justice to national climate justice, showing how a given country (France in this case) can opt for a national strategy of emissions reduction criteria to allocate its national globally determined carbon budget. In this sense, the paper descends from biophysical constraint down to individual allocation. The first section of the paper deals with global climate justice while the second section relates to national climate justice in France.
    Abstract: Dans cet article, je tente de donner un sens empirique à la notion de justice climatique en définissant des critères simples d'allocation du bilan carbone global restant à émettre d'ici à 2050 sur la base de contraintes biophysiques et de principes de justice reconnus dans la littérature académique. L'originalité de l'article, au-delà du choix des indicateurs correspondant à ces critères et de leur incarnation empirique, est de relier la justice climatique mondiale à la justice climatique nationale, en montrant comment un pays donné (la France en l'occurrence) peut opter pour une stratégie nationale de réduction de ses émissions pour allouer son budget carbone national globalement déterminé. En ce sens, l'article permet de descendre de la contrainte biophysique jusqu'à l'allocation individuelle. La première section de l'article traite de la justice climatique mondiale tandis que la deuxième section porte sur les modalités de la justice climatique nationale en France.
    Keywords: climate justice, carbon budget, COP 26, France
    Date: 2021–01–01
  9. By: Arib Fatima (UCA - Université Cadi Ayyad [Marrakech]); Tarbalouti Essaid (UCA - Université Cadi Ayyad [Marrakech]); Houria Et-Touile (UCA - Université Cadi Ayyad [Marrakech]); Moussane Aboutayeb (UCA - Université Cadi Ayyad [Marrakech])
    Abstract: Health expenditures, CO2 emissions, and economic growth play a central role in the current debate on environmental protection and sustainable development. Carbon dioxide is the main GHGs that deteriorates the environment and has an impact on human health. At the same time, economic growth also impacts health conditions positively or vice versa. This paper attempts to study the impact of economic growth and CO2 emissions on health expenditures in the presence of trade per capita and gross fixed capital formation in Morocco using auto regressive distributed lag (ARDL) method for the period 1990-2020. Our empirical results show that there is a significant long-run as well as the short-run relationship between health expenditures, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in Morocco. The empirical evidence indicates a significant positive impact of CO2 emissions and economic growth on health expenditures in Morocco over the study period. The results also revealed that CO2 emissions and economic growth had a positively significant impact on health expenditures in the long run; however, there was no significant impact in the short run. Fixed capital formation and trade per capita were also found to have no significant impact on health expenditures in the short run. The current study and results have significant implications in theory and practice. Then, policy recommendations to control pollution, especially CO2 emissions and health expenditures without compromising economic growth are proposed.
    Abstract: Les dépenses de santé, les émissions de CO2 et la croissance économique jouent un rôle central dans le débat actuel sur la protection de l'environnementet le développement durable, Le dioxyde de carbone est le principal GES qui détériore l'environnement et a un impact sur la santé humaine. En parallèle, la croissance économique affecte également les conditions de santé, parfois de manière positive ou vice versa. Notre article s'efforce d'étudier l'impact de la croissance économique et des émissions de CO2 sur les dépenses de santé en présence de la formation brute de capital fixe et du commerce par habitant au Maroc en utilisant un modèle dynamique de données de panel estimé à l'aide de la méthode des ARDL pour la période 1990-2020. Nos résultats empiriques montrent qu'il existe une relation significative à long terme ainsi qu'à court terme entre les dépenses de santé, les émissions de CO2 et la croissance économique au Maroc. L'évidence empirique indique un impact positif significatif des émissions de CO2 et de la croissance économique sur les dépenses de santé du Maroc pour la période étudiée. Les résultats ont également révélé que les émissions de CO2 et la croissance économique avaient un impact positivement significatif sur les dépenses de santé à long terme ; cependant, il n'y avait pas d'impact significatif à court terme. Il a également été constaté que la formation de capital fixe et du commerce par habitant n'avait d'impact significatif sur les dépenses de santé à court terme. L'étude et les résultats actuels ont des implications significatives en théorie et en pratique. Ensuite, des recommandations de politiques visant à contrôler la pollution, en particulier les émissions de CO2 et les dépenses de santé sans compromettre la croissance économique sont proposées.
    Keywords: health expenditures, economic growth, CO2 emissions, Morocco, ARDL, croissance économique, émissions de CO2, Maroc, dépenses de santé
    Date: 2022–12
  10. By: Christophe Bonneuil (CRH (UMR 8558 CNRS / EHESS) - Centre de Recherches Historiques (CRH) _ Unité Mixte de Recherches (UMR 8558 CNRS / EHESS) - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Pierre-Louis Choquet (CSO - Centre de sociologie des organisations (Sciences Po, CNRS) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Benjamin Franta (Stanford University)
    Abstract: Building upon recent work on other major fossil fuel companies, we report new archival research and primary source interviews describing how Total responded to evolving climate science and policy in the last 50 years. We show that Total personnel received warnings of the potential for catastrophic global warming from its products by 1971, became more fully informed of the issue in the 1980s, began promoting doubt regarding the scientific basis for global warming by the late 1980s, and ultimately settled on a position in the late 1990s of publicly accepting climate science while promoting policy delay or policies peripheral to fossil fuel control. Additionally, we find that Exxon, through the International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA), coordinated an international campaign to dispute climate science and weaken international climate policy, beginning in the 1980s. This represents one of the first longitudinal studies of a major fossil fuel company's responses to global warming to the present, describing historical stages of awareness, preparation, denial, and delay.
    Keywords: Oil industry, Climate change, Global warming, Agnotology, Denial, Public relations
    Date: 2021
  11. By: Eisenack, Klaus; Paschen, Marius
    Abstract: Does climate change adaptation require that investments are designed to be more robust? What about when climate change is more uncertain? What if the climate changes faster? This decision problem is difficult if the design of the investments is irreversible for their lifetime, for instance, in the construction industry. We study an irreversible design decision when the investment starts, combined with an irreversible option to abandon. The design determines the investment's robustness to sustain detrimental conditions. We find that for short-lived investments, optimal robustness decreases if the climate changes faster, and increases if uncertainty is higher. For long-lived investments, these effects reverse. This has implications for decision makers who plan infrastructure adaptation, for instance, that adverse climate change does not require more robust investments under the identified circumstances.
    Keywords: Irreversibility, Lifetime, Optimal stopping, Robustness, Stochastic dynamic control
    JEL: C61 D25 D81 Q54
    Date: 2022
  12. By: Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Raghunathan, Kalyani; Kosec, Katrina
    Abstract: Women’s Voice & Agency beyond the household (VABH) has increasingly been recognized as critical to strengthening resilience, increasing women’s access to important resources, improving women’s decision-making power, and facilitating broader social networks (Njuki et al. 2022). Despite rapidly intensifying climate change in recent years, a knowledge gap persists as to how climate change may affect women’s VABH in developing countries. This has been particularly challenging in countries like India, which host one of the largest numbers of the poor and has been increasingly plagued by droughts, floods, cyclones, rising temperatures, and increasing rainfall fluctuations. This study provides a conceptual discussion on the linkages between climate change and VABH and analyzes their empirical relationship using multiple rounds of nationwide household data from India (India Human Development Survey 2005, 2012; World Values Survey 2001, 2006, 2012); climate data; and data on women’s political representation at the district level. Our results suggest that in rural parts of India, adverse climate change and natural disasters, such as cyclones and/or floods, have consistently negative associations with a broad range of VABH-related outcomes. Moreover, in rural areas, greater political representation by women in district assemblies broadly mitigates the potential effects of adverse climate change on VABH-related outcomes. These patterns generally hold across various populations, differentiated by marriage status and age groups, and are more robust in rural compared to urban areas. There are also generally consistent gender differences in these associations. Specifically, results indicate that women’s VABH are disproportionately more negatively affected by adverse CC than men’s VABH, while greater female representation at local district assemblies has greater effects in mitigating adverse CC on VABH among women than men. The results underscore the importance of enhancing women’s political representation as a means to improve women’s VABH.
    Keywords: INDIA, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, climate change, climatic data, cyclones, data analysis, decision making, developing countries, drought, extreme weather events, gender, gender analysis, gender equality, gender equity in access to land, global warming, household, economic resources, flooding, men, natural disasters, politics, political systems, poverty alleviation, rain, resilience, role of women, rural areas, social networks, social protection, social structure, storms, women's empowerment, voice, weather hazards, women, Women’s Voice & Agency beyond the household (VABH)
    Date: 2022
  13. By: Elvis D. Achuo (University of Dschang, Cameroon); Pilag B.C. Kakeu (University of Bamenda, Cameroon); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: Despite the global resolves to curtail fossil fuel consumption in favour of clean energies, several countries continue to rely on carbon-intensive sources in meeting their energy demands. Financial constraints and limited knowledge with regard to green energy sources constitute major setbacks to the energy transition process. This study therefore examines the effects of financial development and human capital on energy consumption. The empirical analysis is based on the System Generalised Method of Moments (SGMM) for a panel of 134 countries from 1996-2019. The SGMM estimates conducted on the basis of three measures of energy consumption, notably fossil fuel, renewable energy as well as total energy consumption, provide divergent results. While financial development significantly reduces fossil fuel consumption, its effect is positive though non-significant with regard to renewable energy consumption. Conversely, financial development has a positive and significant effect on total energy consumption. Moreover, the results reveal that human capital development has an enhancing though non-significant effect on the energy transition process. Additionally, the results reveal that resource rents have an enhancing effect on the energy transition process. However, when natural resources rents are disaggregated into various components (oil, coal, mineral, natural gas, and forest rents), the effects on energy transition are divergent. Although our findings are consistent when the global panel is split into developed and developing economies, the results are divergent across geographical regions. Contingent on these findings, actionable policy implications are discussed.
    Keywords: Energy transition, Financial development, Fossil fuel, Human capital, Energy consumption, Eco-innovation
    Date: 2023–01
  14. By: Hélène Benveniste (Harvard University [Cambridge]); Michael Oppenheimer (Princeton University); Marc Fleurbaey (PSE - Paris School of Economics - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Migration is a widely used adaptation strategy to climate change impacts. Yet resource constraints caused by such impacts may limit the ability to migrate, thereby leading to immobility. Here we provide a quantitative, global analysis of reduced international mobility due to resource deprivation caused by climate change. We incorporate both migration dynamics and within-region income distributions in an integrated assessment model. We show that climate change induces decreases in emigration of lowest-income levels by over 10% in 2100 for medium development and climate scenarios compared with no climate change and by up to 35% for more pessimistic scenarios including catastrophic damages. This effect would leave resource-constrained populations extremely vulnerable to both subsequent climate change impacts and increased poverty.
    Date: 2022–07
  15. By: Awa Traoré (University Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal); Cheikh T. Ndour (University Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: The present study complements the extant literature by assessing how environmental sustainability can be promoted by means of policies that entail the simultaneous implementation of six governance dynamics, notably, political governance (political stability/ no violence and ‘voice & accountability’), economic governance (government effectiveness and regulatory quality) and institutional governance (corruption-control and the rule of law). The study focuses on 44 African countries for the period 2000 to 2020 and the empirical evidence is based on the generalized method of moments (GMM). The findings show that while the individual governance indicators positively influence carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, the combined or composite governance indicator has a negative effect on CO2 emissions. Moreover, urbanization, economic growth, trade and foreign investment promote CO2 emissions while information and communication technology in terms of mobile phone subscriptions and internet penetration have the opposite effect. Policy implications are discussed.
    Keywords: CO2 emissions, ICT, governance, urbanization, GMM model
    JEL: C33 C52
    Date: 2023–01
  16. By: Hiroaki Ino (School of Economics, Kwansei Gakuin University); Toshihiro Matsumura (Institute of Social Science, The University of Tokyo)
    Abstract: This study examines the optimal combination of emission and fuel taxes for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gases are emitted during both production and consumption stages. We present two cases in which a government should impose an additional fuel tax even when an optimal emission tax is introduced: the case in which consumers select the fuel consumption and case in which a producer selects fuel efficiency endogenously. In other words, we show that a government should maintain fuel taxes even after introducing an effective emission tax.
    Keywords: fuel tax, emission tax, carbon pricing, heterogeneous consumers, vehicle industry
    JEL: Q58 Q48 H23 L51
    Date: 2023–01
  17. By: Stéphane Lemarié (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes)
    Date: 2021
  18. By: Surender Kumar (Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics); Madhu Khanna (Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics)
    Abstract: This study estimates the distributional heterogeneity in the effects of climate change on yields of three major cereal crops: rice, maize, and wheat in India using district-level information for the period 1966-2015. We distinguish between the effects of changes in growing season weather from those due to changes in long-term climate trends and the heterogeneity in these effects across the distribution of crop yields by estimating naïve and climate penalty inclusive models using fixed-effect quantile panel models. We observe an absence of adaptation against rising temperatures for rice and wheat. However, we find a statistically significant presence of adaptation for wheat and maize for changes in precipitation, though the magnitude is small. Moreover, we find that the effects are asymmetric, and are larger at the lower tail of productivity distribution and smaller at the upper tail of the distribution. A 1 C increase in temperature lowers rice and wheat productivity by 23% and 9%, respectively at the first quantile, but the damage is only 6% and 5% at the ninth quantile. Heterogeneity in impacts and adaptation estimates over the yield distribution curve and across crops suggests the importance of customizing strategies for adaptation to changing weather and climate conditions across regions, crops, and current productivity levels. JEL Codes: Q54, C23, Q16
    Date: 2023–01
  19. By: Meg Adachi-Sato (Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration, Kobe University Faculty of Business Administration, JAPAN and Accountancy, Khon Kaen University, THAILAND); Hiroshi Osano (Faculty of Economics, Konan University, JAPAN)
    Abstract: This paper considers how profit-motivated fund managers of sustainable and passive funds govern the firms in the portfolios they construct using the capital collected from socially responsible investors. The fund managers endogenously choose their level of engagement with these firms to increase their profit, while reducing the negative externality. Using the search model framework between fund managers and investors, we derive several theoretical and empirical implications regarding the effects of improvement in environmental, social, and governance (ESG) information quality, sustainable fund growth, and passive fund growth on ESG and monetary performances generated by portfolio firms.
    Keywords: Delegated asset investment; ESG; Passive fund; Social impact; Socially responsible investing; Sustainable fund
    JEL: D83 G23 G32 M14
    Date: 2023–01
  20. By: Tommaso Loizzo (Bank of Italy); Federico Schimperna (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: In line with developments at the global level, the attention of financial regulators on ESG factors, particularly on environmental and climate-related risks, has significantly increased over recent years. In this context, disclosure of relevant climate-related information plays a key role, for both financial and non-financial stakeholders. The EU regulatory framework on disclosure is rather advanced when compared with other jurisdictions and will be almost ready for implementation in the next few months. The Bank of Italy, in line with the ECB and other national supervisors, has started a number of initiatives aimed at actively contributing to major international projects, strengthening the dialogue with the national industry and assessing the progress made by supervised entities. The paper: i) summarises the main regulatory requirements for ESG disclosure; ii) investigates the areas of commonalities at the EU level between the Pillar 3 disclosure requirements and those envisaged by the standards under development by the EFRAG; iii) takes stock of the main supervisory initiatives undertaken so far and presents some preliminary thoughts on the major challenges ahead to be faced by Italian banks.
    Keywords: ESG, sustainability, climate change, disclosure, CSRD, banks, Pillar 3, ESRS
    JEL: G21 K20 M41
    Date: 2022–12
  21. By: Guglielmo Maria Caporale; Nieves Carmona-González; Luis Alberiko Gil-Alana
    Abstract: This paper applies fractional integration methods to investigate the behaviour of various pollutants (PM10, PM25, SO2 and NO2) in seven Chinese cities (Shanghai, Beijing, Chongqing, Tianjin, Shenzhen, Nanjing and Xian) using daily data over the period January 1, 2014 – November 18, 2022. The results suggest that the steps recently taken by the Chinese authorities to reduce emissions and improve air quality have already had some effect: in most cases the air pollutant series are in the stationary range, with mean reversion occurring and shocks only having temporary effects, and there are significant downward trends indicating a decline over time in the degree of pollution in Chinese cities. It is also interesting that in the most recent period the Zero-Covid policy of the Chinese authorities has led to a further fall. On the whole, it would appear that the action plan adopted by the Chinese government is bringing the expected environmental benefits and therefore it is to be hoped that such policies will continue to be implemented and extended to improve air quality even further.
    Keywords: China, pollution, trends, persistence, long-range dependence
    JEL: C22 Q53
    Date: 2022
  22. By: Maria Dolores Gadea; Jesus Gonzalo
    Abstract: Climate change is a non-uniform phenomenon. This paper proposes a new quantitative methodology to characterize, measure, and test the existence of climate change heterogeneity. It consists of three steps. First, we introduce a new testable warming typology based on the evolution of the trend of the whole temperature distribution and not only on the average. Second, we define the concepts of warming acceleration and warming amplification in a testable format. And third, we introduce the new testable concept of warming dominance to determine whether region A is suffering a worse warming process than region B. Applying this three-step methodology, we find that Spain and the Globe experience a clear distributional warming process (beyond the standard average) but of different types. In both cases, this process is accelerating over time and asymmetrically amplified. Overall, warming in Spain dominates the Globe in all the quantiles except the lower tail of the global temperature distribution that corresponds to the Arctic region. Our climate change heterogeneity results open the door to the need for a non-uniform causal-effect climate analysis that goes beyond the standard causality in mean as well as for a more efficient design of the mitigation-adaptation policies. In particular, the heterogeneity we find suggests that these policies should contain a common global component and a clear local-regional element. Future climate agreements should take the whole temperature distribution into account.
    Date: 2023–01
  23. By: Domingo, Sonny N.; Manejar, Arvie Joy A.; Ocbina, John Joseph S.
    Abstract: The payment for ecosystem services (PES) emerges as part of an arsenal of tools for innovative domestic financing for otherwise absent markets relating to natural resource management. Its traditional framework aspects of conditionality, voluntary transaction, at least one buyer and seller, and an identified ecosystem service. However, most domestic cases in the Philippines do not meet the first two criteria. Further to this, existing templates remain dispersed and not harmonized. Common barriers that contribute to these are negotiation bottlenecks, missing policies, and institutions, weak sustainability measures, and data unavailability. Stronger integration with sector-specific initiatives involves pursuing in the long run a legal platform for PES at NGA and subnational levels alongside natural capital management, framing sustainable mechanisms, capitalizing on evolving definition, and riding on ongoing efforts at the national level. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: payments for ecosystem services;environment;ecological integrity;ecosystem services
    Date: 2022
  24. By: Ivan Hajdukovic (University of Barcelona)
    Abstract: This paper provides an empirical examination on the relationship between international trade and the price of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules. Using a sample of 15 countries over the period 2006-2015, we propose a dynamic linear panel data model based on a new specification, including number of relevant factors influencing solar PV module prices. The empirical analysis reveals that an increase in imports of solar PV cells and modules is associated with a decline in solar PV module prices. This finding suggests that international trade could lead to further price reductions, thus fostering the deployment of solar PV technology. The use of renewable energy can in turn have positive effects on environmental quality by reducing the emission of detrimental greenhouse gases generated by the consumption of fossil fuels. The empirical part reveals several other important findings. Market and technological development are key factors explaining the decline in solar PV module prices. Government policies such as public budget for R&D in PV and feed-in tariff for solar PV are effective in reducing the price of solar PV modules. Moreover, an increase in renewable energy consumption has a negative influence on solar PV module prices.
    Keywords: Dynamic panel data models, Solar photovoltaic module prices, Trade and Environment, Trade and Environment JEL Classification: C23, F18, Q42, Q56
    Date: 2022–10–07
  25. By: Yicong Lin (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam); Hanno Reuvers (Erasmus University Rotterdam)
    Abstract: The environmental Kuznets curve predicts an inverted U-shaped relationship between air pollution and economic growth. Current analyses frequently employ models that restrict nonlinearities in the data to be explained by economic growth only. We propose a Global Trend Augmented Cointegrating Polynomial Regression (GTACPR) to allow for nonlinearities in time and economic growth. The theoretical properties of the GTACPR are established. Empirically, a single global trend accurately captures all nonlinearities for all the countries studied, leading to a linear relationship between GDP and CO2. This suggests that the environmental improvement of the last years is due to factors different from GDP.
    JEL: C12 C13 C32 Q56
    Date: 2022–12–15
  26. By: Rohan Best (Department of Economics, Macquarie University); Paul J. Burke (Crawford School of Public Policy, Australian National University)
    Abstract: Use of solar photovoltaic (PV) panels by the non-residential sector can contribute to climate-change mitigation and boost economic outcomes. Prior studies have primarily focused on the residential sector. Using data from 1, 595 postcodes across the Australian National Electricity Market, we investigate five novel research questions for non-residential solar-panel adoption. National and sectoral policies, business size, and cross-sectoral influences are found to be key drivers of non-residential solar PV uptake. We find a subsidy elasticity of about 1.2 for Australia’s Small-scale Renewable Energy Scheme (SRES), an economy-wide renewable portfolio standard for small-scale renewables. Residential solar capacity is positively associated with future adoption by the local non-residential sector, and geographical convergence effects are observed. The findings align with the principle that investment is spurred by policies that lower upfront capital costs. Following Australia’s experience, a small-scale renewable portfolio standard is particularly worthy of consideration for further adoption.
    Date: 2022–04
  27. By: Magazzino, Cosimo; Alola, Andrew Adewale; Schneider, Nicolas
    Abstract: While the deployment of technological innovation was able to avert a devastating global supply chain fallout arising from the impact of ravaging COronaVIrus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, little is known about potential environmental cost of such achievement. The aim of this paper is to identify the determinants of logistics performance and investigate its empirical linkages with economic and environmental indicators. We built a macro-level dataset for the top 25 ranked logistics countries from 2007 to 2018, conducting a set of panel data tests on cross-sectional dependence, stationarity and cointegration, to provide preliminary insights. Empirical estimates from Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS), Generalized Method of Moments (GMM), and Quantile Regression (QR) model suggest that technological innovation, Human Development Index (HDI), urbanization, and trade openness significantly boost logistic performance, whereas employment and Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF) fail to respond in such a desirable path. In turn, an increase in the Logistic Performance Index (LPI) is found to worsen economic growth. Finally, LPI exhibits a large positive effect on carbon emissions, which is congruent with a strand of the literature highlighting that the modern supply chain is far from being decarbonized. Thus, this evidence further suggest that more global efforts should be geared to attain a sustainable logistics.
    Keywords: CO emissions; Economic growth; Green supply chain management; Logistics performance; Panel data; Quantile regression
    JEL: L91 L92 N70
    Date: 2021–11–01
  28. By: Baghdedi Sghayri (ESCT - École supérieure de commerce de Tunis)
    Abstract: Many studies have been conducted to study the relationship between institutions and development. However, the relationship remains a contentious issue. The study includes 70 countries and data that characterize them, over a period from 1980 to 2020, by applying dynamic panel threshold regression following the GMM estimation technique, the choice of data is explained by the availability as well only by their relevance. Our results show the existence of a threshold relationship between institutional quality and sustainable development; similarly natural resources positively affect development provided that countries previously display a certain threshold of institutional quality which is of the order of 8.43. The impact of natural resources on sustainable development is not automatic; therefore it depends on a minimum threshold of institutional quality beyond which countries could benefit from the privileges resulting from the flow of natural resources.
    Keywords: natural resources, institutions, sustainable development JEL: Q30, O13, C51, sustainable development, GMM JEL: Q30
    Date: 2022–11–12
  29. By: Stefano Carattini; Kenneth Gillingham; Xiangyu Meng; Erez Yoeli
    Abstract: Observability has been demonstrated to influence the adoption of pro-social behavior in a variety of contexts. This study implements a field experiment to examine the influence of observability in the context of a novel pro-social behavior: peer-to-peer solar. Peer-to-peer solar offers an opportunity to households who cannot have solar on their homes to access solar energy from their neighbors. However, unlike solar installations, peer-to-peer solar is an invisible form of pro-environmental behavior. We implemented a set of randomized campaigns using Facebook ads in the Massachusetts cities of Cambridge and Somerville, in partnership with a peer-to-peer company. In the campaigns, treated customers were informed that they could share “green reports” online, providing information to others about their greenness. We find that interest in peer-to-peer solar increases by up to 30% when “green reports, ” which would make otherwise invisible behavior visible, are mentioned in the ads.
    Keywords: peer to peer solar, pro-environmental behavior, social rewards, visibility, Facebook
    JEL: C93 D91 Q20
    Date: 2022
  30. By: Moustafa, Khaled (Founder & Editor of ArabiXiv)
    Abstract: The FIFA World Cup 2022, organized in Qatar from 20 November 2022 to 18 December 2022, is the most controversial sporting event since its inception in 1930. When Qatar was selected in 2010 to host the competition, it was lacking the infrastructure necessary for the tournament. To build stadiums, hotels, accommodations, subways, highways, tourist attractions, etc., Qatar spent up to $229 billion , making it more expensive than all its previous editions altogether. Upon selection, Qatar was, and still, severely criticized rightly or excessively on a number of questions related to environment, human rights and work conditions. Historically, Qatar is not a nation of football or sport more generally. Once the game is over, the stadiums will most likely have no or little uses. A dereliction of stadiums will mean that huge investments would have been wasted fruitlessly. Seven of the eight stadiums built for the occasion will be dismantled and the construction materials will be donated to other countries†. Hotels, shopping centers, cafés, schools and sporting accommodations are expected to build in place. To recalibrate the investments in more Qatar-environmentally adapted and economically viable investments than cement buildings, particularly under arid conditions and lack of natural resources, as is the case in Qatar, I’d suggest to transform the stadiums into research centers, universities or better into plant and/or animal farms such as crop or vegetable greenhouses, poultry, fishery, cow or camel farms. Plant or animal farms of such kinds will help produce food products that Qatar needs and imports mostly from abroad. Some stadiums can be adapted to produce fodder and others to produce animal products, taking advantage of the already existing air-conditioning to reduce the impacts of high temperature on plants and animals. A mix of fodder production and animal breeding stations can also be set up in the same stadium (same farm), depending on the size and species of crops and animals to breed. Seven stadiums transformed into seven large crop greenhouses and/or animal farms to produce thousands of tons of food products would undoubtedly be more economically viable than to erect cement constructions which, in turn, will entail increased needs of food resources that Qatar lacks basically. By transforming large stadiums into food production farms, Qatar can auto-satisfy of some food products locally, and save money spent on food importation from the overseas while reducing environmental impacts of food importation from long distances. The stadium-farms can be irrigated with seawater and solar energy as previously suggested [1] [2] or using traditional greenhouses irrigation systems.
    Date: 2022–12–17
  31. By: Rainald Borck; Philipp Schrauth
    Abstract: We use worldwide satellite data to analyse how population size and density affect urban pollution. We find that density significantly increases pollution exposure. Looking only at urban areas, we find that population size affects exposure more than density. Moreover, the effect is driven mostly by population commuting to core cities rather than the core city population itself. We analyse heterogeneity by geography and income levels. By and large, the influence of population on pol-lution is greatest in Asia and middle-income countries. A counterfactual simulation shows that PM2.5 exposure would fall by up to 36% and NO2 exposure up to 53% if within countries population size were equalized across all cities.
    Keywords: population density, air pollution, gridded data
    JEL: Q53 R12
    Date: 2022
  32. By: Marc Baudry; Edouard Civel; Camille Tévenart
    Abstract: The agricultural sector is faced with barriers to the adoption and dissemination of innovative practices that cannot be properly captured by the standard financial analysis of their profitability. These barriers can be particularly detrimental to the shift towards practices favorable to environmental protection and mitigation or adaptation to climate change. This article focuses on how different "hidden" costs of adoption can combine, including risk aversion, uncertainty and irreversibility. It emphasizes the particular context of agriculture, in particular the role of land allocation choices which make it possible to modulate the uncertain and potentially irreversible consequences of adoption by a particular type of hedging. It is highlighted from a numerical simulation on the case of Myscanthus in France that "hidden" costs of prima facie low magnitude can strongly curb the adoption and diffusion of an innovative practice.
    Keywords: Technology diffusion; Uncertainty, Irreversibility, Land allocation
    JEL: D83 Q16 O33
    Date: 2023
  33. By: Nguyen, Minh-Hoang; Jin, Ruining; Le, Tam-Tri
    Abstract: We think it is the right time to develop the “cultural additivity” concept into something more comprehensive and practical: Cultural Additivity Theory. The theory is expected to provide reasoning for conflicting thinking and behaviors in environmental protection, or how the cultural additivity level of humans’ collective structures (organization, society, country, etc.) can be determined by the abundance or constraint of environmental resources.
    Date: 2022–12–26
  34. By: Pachankis, Yang
    Abstract: Introduction: The research was conducted during the COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) lockdown measures of People’s Republic of China (PRC) with a history & continuation of nuclear proliferation, current electronic warfare, metallic pollution from military heavy industry, and actinic radiation pollutants from chip production. Apart from the biomedical harm sources, the purposes behind the source productions such as chips have been the sources of psychological tortures in neuro-cognitive warfare. The research adopted a human security paradigm primarily in mainland China with multilateral and global implications. Methodology: The research was conducted with the pressure of human trafficking conducted by the PRC. It counteracts the PRC’s disinformation with empirical research, analysis, and psychotherapeutic approaches. The meta-analysis demonstrates that PRC’s declared pandemic responses in fact have not contributed to the positive duties in protecting the public’s right to health, and on the contrary, its accumulated environmental determinants along with power intentions only worsened the public’s autonomous selfceare and mutual assistance responses in the public health situations. Results: The environmental factors in PRC substantially undermine the referential values of biomedical data in international settings, and if applicable, biomedical products export in the global supply chain. Genetic technologies based on applied research in telomerase must have thorough assessments in their impacts on telomeres consumption. Renormalization from and further research into nuclear proliferation and environmental determinants is the only way to improve public health. The PRC has never fulfilled any duties to the liberal institutions nor the territorial civil society. Military intervention and peacekeeping are necessary for PRC’s judicial independence.
    Keywords: COVID-19 politicization, crime against humanity, disinformation, immune system, morality, right to health
    JEL: I12 I14 I18 K14 K21 K32 K33 K42 Q27 Q34 Q49 Q51 Q53 Q54 Q55
    Date: 2023–01–02
  35. By: Eric Innocenti (LISA - Lieux, Identités, eSpaces, Activités - UPP - Université Pascal Paoli - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Corinne Idda (LISA - Lieux, Identités, eSpaces, Activités - UPP - Université Pascal Paoli - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Dominique Prunetti (LISA - Lieux, Identités, eSpaces, Activités - UPP - Université Pascal Paoli - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Pierre-Régis Gonsolin
    Abstract: In this work we introduce a new multi-stock, multi-fleet, multi-species and bioeconomic model for the complex system of a small-scale fishery. The objective is to study fisheries in order to ensure the renewal of the stock of biomass. This stock represents both a means of subsistence for fishermen but also contributes to food security. We model the system as a Multi-Agent System using both Cellular Automata Model (CAM) and Agent-Based Model (ABM) computational modelling approaches. CAM are used to describe the environment and the dynamics of resources. ABM are used to describe the behaviour of fishing activities. The main interest of the conceptual model lies in the proposed laws and in its capacity to organize hierarchically all the local interactions and transition rules within the simulated entities. We report preliminary results showing that our modelling approach facilitates software parameterization for the specific requirements implied by the context of a small-scale fishery. The main results of this work consist in the creation of a computer modelling structure CAM and ABM, which constitutes a preliminary for an optimized resources management. In a future development, we will improve the behavior of economic agents in order to consider the complexity of their decision making.
    Keywords: Fishery modelling, Multi-Agent System, NetLogo pattern
    Date: 2022–09–19
  36. By: Barth, Simon
    Abstract: Climate policy options are usually elaborated scientifically by Integrated Assessment Models that combine the economic system, the energy system and the climate system in one comprehensive framework. Most of them follow a neo-classical economic paradigm and calculate cost-efficient technological transformation pathways of the energy system. Critique has grown that the real-world problem is more complex especially with regard to the dynamics reigning in human societies. These should be considered in the models in order to derive effective policy recommendations. This literature review presents and structures a list of publications making first steps into this direction, either by delivering promising methodological suggestions, by reporting evidence on social dynamics or by presenting first model integrations. By this, the paper illuminates the scientific challenge of integrating social dynamics into climate economic scenarios and builds a knowledge basis for future research endeavors.
    Keywords: climate economics, social dynamics, energy transitions, integrated assessment
    Date: 2022
  37. By: Benjamin Chipperfield (Monash University); Paulo Santos (Monash University)
    Abstract: We estimate the impact of Lao PDR’s 2009 policy of fisheries decentralization on the nutritional status of children under 2 years old, using a double robust estimator that combines propensity score and OLS regression. Fisheries decentralization led to important gains in height-for-age in young children living in environments that, due to seasonal absence of local markets, are highly dependent on local natural resources. The analysis of the impact of this policy on older children and on health behaviors that are unlikely to be influenced by natural resource management (vaccination) supports the causal interpretation of these estimates. We identify higher consumption of fish as one mechanism that explains these gains. This change is not accompanied by greater allocation of time to fishing or investment in fishing assets, suggesting that decentralization of fisheries management likely led to better management of the resource, rather than its over-exploitation.
    Keywords: Fisheries decentralization , height-for-age z-score , propensity score, placebo
    JEL: Q22 Q28
    Date: 2023–01
  38. By: Lander, Laura; Tagnon, Chris; Nguyen-Tien, Viet; Kendrick, Emma; Elliott, Robert J.R.; Abbott, Andrew P.; Edge, Jacqueline S.; Offer, Gregory J.
    Abstract: The electrification of the transport sector is a critical part of the net-zero transition. The mass adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) powered by lithium-ion batteries in the coming decade will inevitably lead to a large amount of battery waste, which needs handling in a safe and environmentally friendly manner. Battery recycling is a sustainable treatment option at the battery end-of-life that supports a circular economy. However, heterogeneity in pack designs across battery manufacturers are hampering the establishment of an efficient disassembly process, hence making recycling less viable. A comprehensive techno-economic assessment of the disassembly process was conducted, which identified cost hotspots in battery pack designs and to guide design optimisation strategies that help save time and cost for end-of-life treatment. The analyses include six commercially available EV battery packs: Renault Zoe, Nissan Leaf, Tesla Model 3, Peugeot 208, BAIC and BYD Han. The BAIC and BYD battery packs exhibit lower disassembly costs (US$50.45 and US$47.41 per pack, respectively), compared to the Peugeot 208 and Nissan Leaf (US$186.35 and US$194.11 per pack, respectively). This variation in disassembly cost is due mostly to the substantial differences in number of modules and fasteners. The economic assessment suggests that full automation is required to make disassembly viable by 2040, as it could boost disassembly capacity by up to 600 %, while substantially achieving cost savings of up to US$190 M per year.
    Keywords: battery pack design; battery pack disassembly; circular economy; electric vehicles; techno-economics
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2023–02–01
  39. By: Achtelik, Timo; Tiwari, Rajnish
    Abstract: Lightweight design is regarded as a technological approach to engineer products in a more energy and material efficient- and, therefore, resource-saving way. In this sense, high-tech multi-materials, also referred to as composites, have become very popular for many decades due to their adaptability of material characteristics as well as high specific mechanical properties. However, composites in particular have also challenging characteristics, for example in the end-of-life of a product, as they cannot be recirculated in a typical material stream, or can only be recycled to a very limited extent (also known as 'downcycling'). Alongside a common product lifecycle, we therefore describe challenges and constraints of ecological lightweight design and underpin the identified issues using semi-structured interviews with experts from the lightweight industry. We further approach the topic through the theoretical lens of frugal engineering, which critically evaluates and reduces the effective features and performances needed for an innovation thus resulting in more affordable and sustainable outcomes. Arguably, frugality might play a decisive role in ecological material transition as technology-driven innovation paradigms in search for the best material are substituted by more use case oriented engineering principles in search for the most suitable material.
    Keywords: Lightweight, composites, sustainability, product lifecycle, frugal innovations, frugalengineering
    Date: 2022
  40. By: Akter, Sonia (Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore); Fauzia, Talitha (Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore); Pundit, Madhavi (Asian Development Bank); Schroder, Marcel (Asian Development Bank)
    Abstract: This study presents a gender-specific assessment of medium-term disaster recovery following a series of earthquakes in Indonesia’s Aceh Province on 7 December 2016. For this assessment, we combine the village-level nighttime radiance data obtained from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite instrument, distance from the earthquake epicenters collected from the United Nations Satellite Centre and the Village Potential Statistics (PODES) 2014 and 2018—administrative data collected by Indonesia’s Central Statistics Bureau. We develop a novel index to represent women’s welfare in the context of a disaster—the Women’s Welfare after Disasters Index (W2DI). The nighttime radiance scores are used as indicators of overall economic welfare, while the W2DI specifically represents women’s welfare. Using the difference-indifferences method, we compare the average monthly nighttime radiance and W2DI scores in earthquake-affected and unaffected villages of the Aceh Province before and after the 2016 earthquake series. Similar to studies using the nighttime radiance to monitor disaster recovery and relief, our findings reveal that, on average, the monthly nighttime radiance scores of the earthquake-affected villages 2 months after the earthquakes were brighter relative to the changes of the unaffected villages, implying an improvement in overall economic well-being of the earthquake-affected population. However, findings from the W2DI give us richer insights related to women’s welfare. While an important domain of women’s welfare—particularly, availability and access to the health infrastructure—improved significantly after the earthquake series, there was substantial deterioration in access to basic needs (e.g., water, fuel, sanitation). Such access plays an essential role in women’s well-being as they are directly linked to women’s role in the society. This study demonstrates that women in disaster-affected areas may experience a setback in some domains of their welfare in the medium term even when the economic welfare in the disaster-affected areas, in general, improved because of the gradual increase of human activities after reconstruction work occurred. The study also shows how a gender-specific disaster assessment tool can be developed and applied to monitor and assess disaster recovery for a subgroup of population and identify areas that require intervention.
    Keywords: disaster relief; recovery; climate injustice; socioeconomic vulnerability; gender
    JEL: I30 J16 Q54
    Date: 2022–12–22
  41. By: Jeremi Assael (BNPP CIB GM Lab, MICS); Thibaut Heurtebize (BNPP CIB GM Lab); Laurent Carlier (BNPP CIB GM Lab); Fran\c{c}ois Soup\'e
    Abstract: As of 2022, greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions reporting and auditing are not yet compulsory for all companies and methodologies of measurement and estimation are not unified. We propose a machine learning-based model to estimate scope 1 and scope 2 GHG emissions of companies not reporting them yet. Our model, specifically designed to be transparent and completely adapted to this use case, is able to estimate emissions for a large universe of companies. It shows good out-of-sample global performances as well as good out-of-sample granular performances when evaluating it by sectors, by countries or by revenues buckets. We also compare our results to those of other providers and find our estimates to be more accurate. Thanks to the proposed explainability tools using Shapley values, our model is fully interpretable, the user being able to understand which factors split explain the GHG emissions for each particular company.
    Date: 2022–12
  42. By: Espinoza, Jorge Luis Vargas; Reátegui, Marcelo Ramos; Velásquez, Wily Leopoldo Velásquez; Velásquez, Zulema Velásquez; Turpo, Giovana Araseli Flores
    Abstract: El sector minero es importante para el desarrollo económico y social de muchos países, y los minerales continúan siendo esenciales para la vida moderna. Durante años se ha enfatizado la importancia de la minería en varios países desde el punto de vista económico; pero en la coyuntura actual, los aspectos socioambientales están cobrando tanta fuerza que, de no ser atendidos adecuadamente, se acumularán conflictos en el desarrollo del sector minero y en las economías de los países de América Latina y el Caribe (ALC). Por lo tanto, es fundamental reexaminar la prevalencia de la minería en la región, cómo los países han abordado los aspectos socioambientales de la minería en sus planes nacionales de desarrollo y los conflictos socioambientales vinculados y sus efectos económicos expresados en términos monetarios. En el contexto regional, las condiciones geológicas de ALC favorecieron la formación de diversos recursos minerales con reservas significativas, dando como resultado en una explotación continua de las reservas de materia prima, necesarias para el desarrollo de la infraestructura vial, vivienda y la industria local. Por lo tanto, la explotación a gran escala de minerales como el cobre, el oro, el carbón y el níquel comercializados en los mercados internacionales atraen la inversión extranjera, generan regalías, impuestos y empleos para impulsar la economía en la región. Para la CEPAL, la minería en ALC es una actividad que incide en la economía de la región y es un importante motor económico para comunidades por su gran aportación al Producto Interno Bruto (PIB), sin embargo, su explotación debe prestar especial atención al impacto ambiental y a la identificación de los posibles conflictos que se presenten en las regiones mineras. Puesto que los conflictos ambientales y sociales logran afectar en gran medida el desarrollo de la minería, influyendo en las inversiones que se puedan hacer en este sector, el inicio de proyectos e incluso provocar la suspensión de proyectos importantes para la extracción de oro, carbón y cobre. Actualmente, el peso de los conflictos socioambientales influye más que nunca en los procesos de desarrollo y transformación de ALC en las agendas internacionales.
    Date: 2022–12–01
  43. By: An Huang (Monash University); Paulo Santos (Monash University); Russell Smyth (Monash University)
    Abstract: This paper examines the role of agricultural technology, in the form of paddy rice cultivation, on contemporary levels of prejudice. Using environmental suitability for paddy as an instrumental variable, we find that people living in areas where paddy rice farming has been long practiced exhibit lower prejudice towards outgroup members. This relationship is mediated by greater exposure to markets and trade, itself derived from paddy’s higher land productivity, likely reflecting the opportunities for interpersonal contact created by markets. In contrast, the irrigation needs and high labour demands of paddy galvanize local cooperation, likely fostering prejudice directed to outsiders.
    Keywords: paddy rice, prejudice, market, contact hypothesis, group identity
    JEL: J15 N55 Z1
    Date: 2023–01
  44. By: Max Harleman; Pramod Manohar; Elaine L. Hill
    Abstract: Oil and gas lease negotiations provide mineral owners the opportunity to negotiate for both compensation and auxiliary clauses that may protect their health and properties. We use optical character recognition to assemble a novel dataset of compensation and specific clauses in nearly 60, 000 leases signed in the Marcellus Shale Play of Pennsylvania. We leverage the dataset to produce three main findings. First, contrary to the standard utility maximization model, we find a positive relationship between compensation and clauses. Second, we find that as development of the shale play progressed over time, compensation rose and leases became more likely to contain environmentally protective clauses. Third, we find that compensation and the presence of clauses have a weak relationship with the geologic productivity of nearby wells. Together, our findings indicate that oil and gas firms simultaneously make concessions by raising compensation and approving clauses, but these concessions do not depend on geologic productivity. This suggests that some mineral owners, such as those that are high-income or from more socially organized communities, have the skills or resources to negotiate for more favorable leases all-around and point to similar environmental justice concerns identified in other shale plays.
    JEL: D23 Q32 Q33 R11
    Date: 2022–12
  45. By: Feng, Wenxiu; Ruiz Mora, Carlos
    Abstract: The distributed integration of renewable energy sources plays a central role in the decarbonization of economies. In this regard, energy communities arise as a promising entity to coordinate groups of proactive consumers (prosumers) and incentivize the investment on clean technologies. However, the uncertain nature of renewable energy generation, residential loads, and trading tariffs pose important challenges, both at the operational and economic levels. We study how this management can be directly undertaken by an arbitrageur that, making use of an adequate price tariff system, serves as an intermediary with the central electricity market to coordinate different types of prosumers under risk aversion. In particular, we consider a sequential futures and spot market where the aggregated shortage or excess of energy within the community can be traded. We aim to study the impact of the integration of hydrogen production and storage systems, together with a parallel hydrogen market, on the community operation. These interactions are modeled as a game theoretical setting in the form of a stochastic two-stage bilevel optimization problem, which is latter reformulated without approximation as a single-level mixed-integer linear problem (MILP). An extensive set of numerical experiments based on real data is performed to study the operation of the energy community under different technical and economical conditions. Results indicate that the optimal involvement in futures and spot markets is highly conditioned by the community's risk aversion and self-sufficiency levels. Moreover, the external hydrogen market has a direct effect on the community's internal price-tariff system, and depending on the market conditions, may worsen the utility of individual prosumers.
    Keywords: Energy Community; Hydrogen Market; Risk Management; Sequential Energy Markets; Storage Systems
    Date: 2023–01–16
  46. By: Carolin Brix‐asala (Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg); Stefan Seuring (Universität Kassel [Kassel]); Philipp C Sauer (Free University of Bozen-Bolzano); Axel Zehendner; Lara Schilling (Universität Kassel [Kassel])
    Abstract: Resulting from divergent business environments between actors, the integration of the base of the pyramid (BoP) into formal supply chain (SC) structures is often hampered by institutional voids, which can result in the emergence of paradoxical situations. This paper analyzes the potential of supplier development (SD) for addressing the BoP inclusion paradox. The study develops a framework based on the assumption that SD enables the development of capabilities and supplier performance, which is especially relevant when operating in BoP contexts. Seventy-two semi-structured interviews stemming from two case studies of (a) a local dairy and (b) an international certified pineapple SCs with BoP involvement provide empirical insights into the theoretical framework. Paradox resolution strategies (temporal separation, spatial separation, and synthesis) are related to (direct and indirect) SD practices. The proposed framework and results show that indirect SD can be used as temporal and spatial separation, but not as synthesis strategy. Contrastingly, direct SD can be used as temporal separation and synthesis. The BoP context needs direct SD to address two sustainability goals simultaneously: the social dimension of BoP inclusion and the economic dimension of formal and efficient SCs. This research extends the discussion on paradoxes in sustainability management to SCs, especially to BoP SCs. It is relevant to show that BoP inclusion is neither a sole win-win nor trade-off scenario. Resulting paradoxical situations can be addressed by SD, thereby moving to sustainable supply chain management (SSCM).
    Keywords: bottom of the pyramid, fair trade, institutional voids, paradox theory, supplier development, sustainability tensions
    Date: 2021
  47. By: Essefi, Mohammed Mehdy (Hassan II University - Casablanca)
    Abstract: Art materials in Morocco and the Arab world have not received enough attention, perhaps due to a lack of awareness of their ability to contribute to development, by creating long-term added value, and achieving an integrated cultural economy that strongly supports the country's economy, to preserve culture and to preserve identity. Music productions may not attract the interest of managers and investors, not because of their few, but because of their low quality and low positive impact on the beneficiary, and therefore their impact on the workings of the country's economy. On the other hand, musical productions depend on the economic boom, political stability, cultural heritage and also are closely linked to scientific research. How, then, can a society with a shabby musical culture, a musical identity in the process of being forgotten, and an almost total absence of musical scientific research aspire to a sound cultural economy? Is it possible to do without music industries in the economy of a country? How can music education and music education contribute to scientific, cultural and economic development? Keywords: Music Education, Cultural Economics, Sustainable Development.
    Date: 2021–04–01
  48. By: Karachiwalla, Naureen; Kosec, Katrina; Kyle, Jordan; Narayanan, Sudha; Raghunathan, Kalyani
    Abstract: In 2005, India passed the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA, “the Act†), a law guaranteeing all rural households 100 days of work at a minimum wage through the building of durable assets, which created one of the largest anti-poverty programs in the world. Now known as the Mahatma Gandhi NREGA (MGNREGA), a notable feature of the program is that it envisions a democratic, bottom-up process of choosing which durable assets would be built within a community. Toward this end, the Act gives citizens the right to participate in the process of identifying potential projects and delegates responsibility to village governments in selecting which assets to build. Yet, in the long history of public works programs, there has been limited research on how assets created under such workfare programs are selected, or how to increase the role of women or other marginalized groups in the decision-making process. The Act provides a list of permissible works that span natural resource management, individual and community assets, common infrastructure for women’s groups, and rural infrastructure more broadly. Given the scale of the program, the assets selected at the village level have tremendous potential to enhance rural resilience to unexpected shocks and crises, especially those related to climate change. This is important, as extreme weather events on the Indian subcontinent are increasing, both in frequency and in the magnitude of their impacts on agricultural productivity, household livelihoods, assets and incomes, and health and nutrition. These events, as well as their impacts on incomes, often affect women more severely (Mason and Agan 2015; Kosec et al. forthcoming). Understanding how to enhance women’s voice and agency within the process of selecting community assets is important for three major reasons. First, women and men may have different asset preferences (Chattopadhyay and Duflo 2004). Recent time-use survey data from India find that women spend far more time on unpaid domestic and care work than men (eight times as much) (India, NSO 2019). Thus, women may place relatively more value on projects that reduce effort in collecting fuel and water, for example. If their voices are not included in the asset selection process, the village could miss out on a range of development projects that would improve overall productivity, resilience, and well-being. Second, where projects are built affects who benefits from them. Households that had MGNREGA assets built on their own land or that live near an asset cultivate more land, use more inputs (including their own labor), and have higher agricultural output (Gehrke 2015; Muralidharan et al. 2021). Ensuring that women influence asset placement is thus critical. Third, greater participation and inclusivity in the process of selecting community development projects can increase the perceived legitimacy and satisfaction with projects, as well as willingness to contribute toward their construction and maintenance (Olken 2010). Within MGNREGA, households that report playing a greater role in project selection also report greater satisfaction with the usefulness, quality, and maintenance of the projects (Ranaware et al. 2015).
    Keywords: INDIA, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, agriculture, agricultural productivity, assets, data, data analysis, data collection, employment, households, extreme weather events, labour market, government, income, health, living standards, natural resource user groups, nutrition, remuneration, poverty, poverty alleviation, rural employment, rural poverty, surveys, women, working women, community assets, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), women’s voice and agency, workfare programs
    Date: 2022
  49. By: Domingo, Sonny N.; Ulep, Valerie Gilbert T.; Epetia, Ma. Christina F.
    Abstract: Socioeconomic disparities run deep in the Philippines, but the COVID-19 pandemic further exacerbated these inequities. Globally, there is a renewed sense of urgency to break these inequities and place social justice at the front and center of the post-COVID recovery. Social justice is about redressing power imbalances, assuring the protection of equal access to liberties, rights, and opportunities, and distributing the benefits, risks, and costs among peoples across generations. This paper examined the disproportionate impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic in the following sectors: health, labor and education, and environment, as well as the deep-seated structural and systems challenges that could explain these disparities. Avenues for insightful discourses and genuine reforms are needed to address concerns on human capital development and social protection and environment resilience and climate change. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: social justice;inequality;COVID-19;social protection;labor;education;health;environment;resilience
    Date: 2022
  50. By: Celine Berrier-Lucas (ISG Paris - Institut Supérieur de Gestion - International Business School, Paris)
    Date: 2021
  51. By: Raza, Werner G.; Tröster, Bernhard; Von Arnim, Rudi; Chandoul, Jihen; Ben Rouine, Chafik
    Abstract: The negotiations on a deep and comprehensive free trade area (DCFTA) between Tunisia and the European Union (EU) have been ongoing since 2015. Better known by its French acronym - Projet d'accord de libre-échange complet et approfondi' (ALECA) - the agreement aims for an ambitious liberalisation of trade and investment in order to integrate Tunisia's economy further into the EU single market. In this study, the authors explicitly consider the costs that Tunisian producers have to incur in the process of regulatory approximation of agricultural standards to EU regulations through ALECA. Based on estimations of compliance costs from interviews with Tunisian exporters to the EU, the effects of regulatory adjustment to EU regulations and private standards in agricultural and food sectors are simulated in the ÖFSE Global Trade model. Moreover, the effects of bilateral reductions in tariffs and quotas and potential changes in productivity and NTM trade costs are taken up in interrelated scenarios. With this approach, the authors are able to provide a more comprehensive picture than previous studies of the multiple implications of ALECA for the agricultural sector in Tunisia. Our assessment concludes that ALECA has significant downside risks, as value-added in Tunisian agriculture might decline by up to 8.3 %. These effects need to be considered in the negotiations and in the broader context for sustainable agricultural development in Tunisia.
    Date: 2022
  52. By: Richard S. Gray (U of S - University of Saskatchewan [Saskatoon])
    Abstract: In many countries, farmer saved seed (FSS) competes directly with a highly regulated commercial seed industry that sells certified seed. Opponents to the use FSS argue that it reduces the royalty income for plant breeders and is inferior in quality, which reduces farm profitability. We argue that because farmers have knowledge about field history and the quality of saved seed, they can make profit enhancing decisions to use, or not to use, FSS. We also show that payment of royalties is a matter of intellectual property rights and not directly a function of the use of FSS. Notably, Australia actively promotes the use of FSS for wheat and has some of the highest levels of rates of royalty revenue collection in the world.
    Keywords: Farmer saved seed, Profitability, Revenue
    Date: 2021
  53. By: Reátegui, Marcelo Ramos; Guillermo, Juan Carlos Lázaro; Torres, Luisa Riveros; Carlos, Mariano Magdaleno Mendoza; Díaz, Ayda Guisella Ávalos
    Abstract: Desde una perspectiva extractivista y centrada en la inversión, la competitividad de una jurisdicción (región, país, provincia) y los recursos minerales (prospectos, proyectos) que retiene puede entenderse como el grado o nivel de atracción que puede representar para hacer trabajos de minería. De acuerdo con esto, las tendencias muestran que cada vez es más claro para las empresas mineras y los gobiernos que la competitividad de un proyecto de minería de metales depende no solo de las condiciones geológicas y macroeconómicas de la jurisdicción en la que se ubica, sino también de las condiciones institucionales, pero también de temas ambientales y "licencia social" (la licencia social para el proyecto en desarrollo). En este sentido, el análisis de los conflictos sociales y ambientales proporciona una evidencia cuantitativa de riesgo para una empresa minera: un conflicto con una comunidad local puede significar una pérdida semanal de $20 millones en valor presente neto del proyecto empresa (Franks et al, 2014). Por otro lado, una buena gestión de las relaciones con la comunidad puede reducir el conflicto, el riesgo y la tasa de descuento que los mercados financieros aplican a un proyecto minero entre un 33% y un 12 % (Henisz, Dorobantu y Nartey, 2014). Entre 2000 y 2013, hubo un aumento significativo en el número de conflictos sociales y ambientales relacionados con proyectos mineros (Andrews et al., 2017), lo que provocó un cambio en la percepción de las empresas mineras e inversionistas sobre el potencial o competitividad del proyecto si bien las inversiones están impulsadas por factores económicos-financieros y político-institucionales tradicionales (geología, política macroeconómica, tenencia, respeto al estado de derecho, estabilidad política y jurídica, previsibilidad fiscal, baja corrupción, etc.) (ECLAC, 2016).
    Date: 2022–10–06
  54. By: Kristle Cortés; Mandeep Singh; David H. Solomon; Philip Strahan
    Abstract: In Australian real estate markets, about a third of properties are sold at auction. We show that properties that fail auctions sell later for a 2.6% discount. This effect increases for properties failing multiple auctions and when no bids are made. Consistent with a causal channel, the effect holds when auction failure is instrumented by the tendency of owners to anchor on nearby better properties (and thus set reserve prices too high). Prices cluster just below salient round numbers, and the discount fades over time, inconsistent with our effects reflecting unobserved property characteristics. We test for several mechanisms and conclude that most of the pricing discounts reflect stigma, which reduces potential buyers’ willingness to pay.
    JEL: G40 R3
    Date: 2022–12
  55. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaounde, Cameroon); Nicholas M. Odhiambo (Pretoria, South Africa)
    Abstract: In this study, nexuses between governance and trade performance in terms of natural resource rents are assessed in 44 sub-Saharan African countries. The empirical evidence is based on Tobit regressions. The findings show that political governance (entailing “voice & accountability†and political stability) and institutional governance (consisting of the rule of law and corruption control) have a negative effect on trade performance. The findings are consistent with the perspective that resources rents are linked to inefficiencies in governance which are further detrimental to trade performance within the remit of natural resource rents on the one hand and, on the other, the premise of the prevailing weak institutions in the region less likely to boost trade performance.
    Keywords: Natural Resources; Economic Growth; Governance; Sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: H10 Q20 Q30 O11 O55
    Date: 2023–01
  56. By: Kim, Minji (Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade); Lee, Jun (Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade)
    Abstract: Secondary batteries are garnering more and more attention as a key to carbon reduction and eventually, carbon neutrality. Formerly associated mostly with IT devices such as laptop computers and mobile phones, secondary batteries are now enjoying renewed interest and rising demand as they are used to provide power for electric vehicles and to store electricity generated by renewable energy. Korea, China, and Japan are the three strongholds of the secondary battery industry on the world stage. The focus on accelerating the transition to electric vehicles has prompted both Europe and the United States to seek to enhance the stability of secondary battery supply chains, and they have both promulgated a series of measures to foster their own industries, threatening to raise the intensity of global competition and posing challenges for Asian manufacturers. Although Korean companies have been developing innovative secondary battery technologies since the early 1990s, the industry still faces key obstacles to growth, such as a high dependency on imported raw materials and limited domestic demand. In this report, we survey the structure and characteristics of the value chains of the secondary battery industry and assess comparative advantages with the goal of identifying how best to foster the future growth of the Korean secondary battery industry. In order to ensure Korea’s continued leadership in the global secondary battery market, it is critical to maintain the “super-gap” between Korean technologies and others, while also enhancing the robustness of the industry’s value chains.
    Keywords: Electric Vehicle; Secondary Battery Supply Chains; Korean Secondary Battery
    JEL: L62 O25 Q31
    Date: 2022–06–27
  57. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: A new administration took office in July with a blueprint to secure an inclusive, sustainable, and green recovery. While the economy remains fundamentally sound, the new administration will face three important challenges: (1) striking the right policy mix to secure the recovery and safeguard price stability; (2) building fiscal buffers as insurance against downside risks; and (3) raising the Philippine’s long-term growth.
    Date: 2022–12–15
  58. By: d'Artis Kancs
    Abstract: Since several years, the fragility of global supply chains (GSCs) is at historically high levels. In the same time, the landscape of hybrid threats is expanding; new forms of hybrid threats create different types of uncertainties. This paper aims to understand the potential consequences of uncertain events - like natural disasters, pandemics, hybrid and/or military aggression - on GSC resilience and robustness. Leveraging a parsimonious supply chain model, we analyse how the organisational structure of GSCs interacts with uncertainty, and how risk-aversion vs. ambiguity-aversion, vertical integration vs. upstream outsourcing, resilience vs. efficiency trade-offs drive a wedge between decentralised and centralised optimal GSC diversification strategies in presence of externalities. Parameterising the scalable data model with World-Input Output Tables, we simulate the survival probability of a GSC and implications for supply chain robustness and resilience. The presented model-based simulations provide an interoperable and directly comparable conceptualisation of positive and normative effects of counterfactual resilience and robustness policy choices under individually optimal (decentralised) and socially optimal (centralised) GSC organisation structures.
    Date: 2022–12
  59. By: Guillermo, Juan Carlos Lázaro; Torres, Luisa Riveros; Reátegui, Marcelo Ramos; Vásquez, Humberto Escudero; Pallares, Oscar Novoa
    Abstract: Inicialmente, el producto interno bruto (PIB) se concibió como una medida limitada de la producción a la actividad del mercado y, por lo tanto, insuficiente no solo para medir el bienestar sino también para dar cuenta de toda la actividad económica de un país. Además de las actividades excluidas del producto interior bruto, como el mercado de trabajo doméstico y de cuidados fuera de otras actividades que no están debidamente valoradas a pesar de estar en el balance. Los costos y el acceso a la salud y la educación, los impactos ambientales, los bienes y servicios gratuitos son los temas más importantes para el bienestar de las personas y el ejercicio de sus derechos humanos, pero la base para la medición del PIB agregado aún no se captura por completo. A pesar de estas limitaciones, con la difusión del uso, el producto interno bruto se convirtió en una variable más ponderada para evaluar el desempeño económico y decidir sobre políticas nacionales. Las decisiones económicas que priorizan el crecimiento sobre el bienestar ponen en peligro el presente y el futuro de toda la sociedad. Estas decisiones se toman debido a la distancia entre el PIB y el valor social. En la actualidad, la crisis ambiental y la pandemia del covid-19 han vuelto a plantear la necesidad de mediciones adicionales que tengan en cuenta el carácter económico, pero sobre todo cuán importantes son las dimensiones como el cuidado, el uso del tiempo y el bienestar. La pandemia ha puesto de manifiesto la interdependencia y la fragilidad de todos los cuerpos, variables que se han invisibilizado en la larga historia del pensamiento económico del que siempre han hablado los feminismos. En caso de emergencias, la insuficiencia de los fondos existentes para situaciones inesperadas en diferentes escenarios es generalmente evidente. En este contexto, la afirmación feminista de la economía, que sitúa la sostenibilidad de la vida en el centro de los problemas económicos (Picchio, 2001; Bosch, Carrasco y Grau, 2005), aporta evidencias para lograr una recuperación sostenible tanto para los derechos humanitarios como el medio ambiente. La sustentabilidad de la vida es entendida como un proceso multidimensional, que se refiere no sólo a la posibilidad real de la continuación de la vida - humana, social y ecológicamente, sino también al hecho de que el proceso en cuestión significa condiciones de vida, calidad de vida aceptable para la población general (Bosch et al. 2005, p. 322). Esto último también significa que los estándares fueron definidos de manera democrática y justa (Carrasco y Recio, 2014). En América Latina y el Caribe, la pandemia ha provocado múltiples crisis y ha exacerbado nodos estructurales de desigualdad de género. La región experimentó su peor recesión económica en más de un siglo las rutinas cambiaron en todos los ámbitos de la vida, generando profundos efectos sociales que se mantuvieron en tiempos de reactivación (CEPAL, 2021b). La crisis sanitaria rápidamente se convirtió en una crisis económica y social sin precedentes, revelando lo que es tan obvio, a veces olvidado: sin salud, sin cuidados, no hay economía (CEPAL, 2022).
    Date: 2022–11–29
  60. By: Robles, Maria Eugenia; Geenen, Sara; Verbrugge, Boris
    Abstract: La minería informal de oro en el Perú es una actividad que alberga económicamente a miles de trabajadores. Sin embargo, enfrenta serios retos que afectan tanto a sus trabajadores como al espacio en el que habitan. En el marco del proyecto InForMining del Instituto de Políticas del Desarrollo (IOB en sus siglas en holandés) de la Universidad de Amberes, y la Fundación de Investigación Flanders (FWO en sus siglas en holandés) de Bélgica, se realizó una encuesta a 150 trabajadores de La Rinconada el año 2019. Los resultados analizan los retos encontrados en esta localidad, reuniendo las necesidades y reclamos de sus trabajadores. Ello nos permite entender desde una perspectiva local sus condiciones laborales con una mirada introspectiva de la actividad minera, de un enfoque no sólo productivo, sino también social e individual.
    Keywords: Peru, mining, working conditions, gold mining
    Date: 2022–08
  61. By: Robles Mengoa, Eugenia; Geenen, Sara; Verbrugge, Boris; Besmanos, Beverly; López Valverde, Rafael
    Abstract: In 2019, the InForMining project of the Institute of Development Policy (IOB, University of Antwerp, Belgium) carried out a survey in three artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) areas in the Philippine region of Mindanao (provinces of Agusan del Sur, South Cotabato, and Davao de Oro). The objective of this survey was to understand the profile of the informal miner and the work he/she performs from his/her own experience. In this sense, we were able to gather data that allowed us to identify important challenges faced by the three mining provinces, which are analyzed in this policy brief. This document suggests some recommendations for sustainable solutions, that were validated and adjusted by the communities themselves.
    Keywords: Philippines, mining, working conditions, Mindanao, gold mining
    Date: 2022–08
  62. By: Lim, Soyoung (Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade); Lee, Keun (Seoul National University); Ndlela, Daniel (Zimconsult); Kim, Kyehwan (Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade); Yu, Jinkeun (Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade); Mushayandebvu, Tichaona (United Nations Industrial Development Organization)
    Abstract: This report is the result of a joint study by the Korea Institute of Industrial Economics and Trade (KIET) and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), based on the experience of economic development in Korea and Zimbabwe. This collaboration originated from an existing foundation for cooperation established by the signing a memorandum of understanding (MOU) on academic information exchange, joint research and seminars, and research personnel exchange between two organizations in 2015. In its assessment of Korea’s industrialization process, this report focuses on the trends and current status of industrialization in Korea, and informed by the findings of that analysis proposes suggestions for Zimbabwean industrial policy and action, taking into account lessons learned from comparative studies on the process of industrial development in Korea and Zimbabwe.
    Keywords: Zimbabwe; Korea; UNIDO; industrial development; innovation; governance; industrial cooperation; sustainability; sustainable development; inclusiveness; inclusive development; economic growth; growth; economic development; developmental economics; development policy; development planning; trade; trade policy; exports; export policy; industrial policy; innovation policy
    JEL: F63 F68 I25 O11 O14 O15 O24 O25
    Date: 2022–01–31
  63. By: Béatrice Davi; Stéphanie Truchet-Aznar (Territoires - Territoires - AgroParisTech - VAS - VetAgro Sup - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche en alimentation, santé animale, sciences agronomiques et de l'environnement - UCA [2017-2020] - Université Clermont Auvergne [2017-2020] - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Olivier Aznar (Territoires - Territoires - AgroParisTech - VAS - VetAgro Sup - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche en alimentation, santé animale, sciences agronomiques et de l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Francis Aubert (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Dijon - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: This article presents an original bibliometric approach and certain functionalities of a bibliometric analysis tool, the Cortext Manager platform, via an application focused on the analysis of the integration of environmental issues in articles published on regional science between 1999 and 2019. The first step of the analysis consists in describing, on the basis of classical bibliometric indicators, the entire corpus of 1 145 articles extracted from the Web of Science. Then, an analysis of keywords cooccurrences is carried out to distinguish 4 main thematic groups. Lastly, new bibliometric analyses, coupled with a qualitative analysis of articles cited the most frequently, makes it possible to characterize each thematic group from the angle of outstanding documents, the main themes dealt with, and seminal works. Additional bibliometric analyses carried out on each of these groups and crossed with the qualitative analyses on the main articles of the groups pro-vide a more precise view of the content of the articles, and identifying the major scientific issues broached and the groups of seminal works cited.
    Abstract: Cet article présente une démarche bibliométrique originale ainsi que certaines des fonctionnalités d'un outil d'analyse bibliométrique, la plate-forme Cortext Manager, à travers une application portant sur la prise en compte des enjeux environnementaux dans les articles publiés en sciences régionales entre 1999 et 2019. La première étape de l'analyse a consisté à décrire, à partir d'indicateurs bibliométriques classiques, l'ensemble du corpus de 1 145 articles extraits de Web of Science. Dans un deuxième temps, la réalisation d'une analyse des cooccurrences entre les mots-clés a permis de distinguer 4 grands groupes thématiques. Enfin, de nouvelles analyses bibliométriques, couplées avec une analyse qualitative des articles les plus cités, ont permis de caractériser chaque groupe thématique du point de vue des documents phares, des principaux thèmes abordés et des travaux séminaux. Des analyses bibliométriques complémentaires, menées sur chacun de ces groupes et croisées avec les analyses qualitatives sur les principaux articles des groupes, ont permis d'avoir une vision plus précise du contenu des articles et de dégager les principales questions scientifiques abordées ainsi que les groupes de travaux séminaux cités.
    Keywords: Bibliometrics, Cooccurrences Analysis, Methodology, Environment, Regional science, Bibliométrie, Cortext Manager, Analyse de cooccurrences, Méthodologie, Environnement, Sciences régionales
    Date: 2022–11

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