nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2022‒09‒19
sixty papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Can Information and Communication Technology and Institutional Quality help mitigate climate change in E7 economies? An Environmental Kuznets Curve extension By Bright A. Gyamfi; Asiedu B. Ampomah; Festus V. Bekun; Simplice A. Asongu
  2. The Effectiveness of Policy Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions from Passenger Cars in Austria By Tobias Eibinger; Hans Manner
  3. Economic Globalisation and Inclusive Green Growth in Africa: Contingencies and Policy-Relevant Thresholds of Governance By Isaac K. Ofori; Francesco Figari
  4. How carbon tariffs and climate clubs can slow global warming By Shantayanan Devarajan; Delfin S. Go; Sherman Robinson; Karen Thierfelder
  5. Climate alpha and the global capital market By Alexander Golub; Jon Anda; Anil Markandya; Michael Brody; Aldin Celovic; Angele Kedaitiene
  6. Integrated modelling approaches for sustainable agri-economic growth and environmental improvement: Examples from Canada, Greece, and Ireland By Jorge A. Garcia; Angelos Alamanos
  7. Sustainability assessment of the public interventions supported by the ReSTART project in the CITI4GREEN framework By Laura Cavalli; Mia Alibegovic; Davide Vaccari; Andrea Spasiano; Fernando Nardi
  8. Economic Globalisation and Inclusive Green Growth in Africa: Contingencies and Policy-Relevant Thresholds of Governance By Ofori, Isaac K.; Figari, Francesco
  9. Agent-Based Models for Climate Change Adaptation in Coastal Zones. A Review By Jlenia Di Noia
  10. Allocation, allocation, allocation! The political economy of the development of the European Union Emissions Trading System By Sato, Misato; Rafaty, Ryan; Calel, Raphael; Grubb, Michael
  11. Minería y desarrollo sostenible: seguimiento de la evaluación del desempeño ambiental del Perú By Pereira, Mauricio; Ballón, Eduardo; Castro, Mariano; Constantin, Achim; de Miguel, Carlos; García, Rocío; Glave, Marisa; Lanegra, Iván
  12. System Dynamics modelling and Climate Change Adaptation in Coastal Areas: A literature review By Alberto Gabino Martínez-Hernández
  13. Environmental Policies Benefit Economic Development: Implications of Economic Geography By Seth Morgan; Alexander Pfaff; Julien Wolfersberger
  14. An Empirical Note on Tourism and Sustainable Development Nexus By Destek, Mehmet Akif; Aydın, Sercan
  15. Sustainable corporate governance in the United Kingdom: Environmental sustainability in directors' decision-making By Jung, Constantin
  16. Green & non-green relatedness: challenges and diversification opportunities for regional economies in Argentina By Belmartino, Andrea
  17. Technological developments to address climate change in South Technological developments to address climate change in South Africa and their potential economic impacts By Jarrad Wright
  18. Motivate the crowd or crowd-them out? The impact of local government spending on the voluntary provision of a green public good By Lara Bartels; Martin Kesternich
  19. Will COVID-19 fiscal recovery packages accelerate or retard progress on climate change? By Hepburn, Cameron; O'Callaghan, Brian; Stern, Nicholas; Stiglitz, Joseph; Zenghelis, Dimitri
  20. Intensive and extensive impacts of EU subsidies on pesticide expenditures at the farm level By Magali Aubert; Geoffroy Enjolras
  21. Die EU – Vorreiter im weltweiten Kampf gegen den Klimawandel? By Neubäumer, Renate
  22. Democratic Climate Policies with Overlapping Generations By Arnaud Goussebaïle
  23. A climate change modelling framework for financial stress testing in Southern Africa By Vafa Anvari; Channing Arndt; Faaiqa Hartley; Konstantin Makrelov; Kenneth Strezepek; Tim Thomas; Sherwin Gabriel; Bruno Merven
  24. Cover Practice Definitions and Incentives in the Conservation Reserve Program By Pratt, Bryan; Wallander, Steven
  25. USDA Conservation Technical Assistance and Within-Field Resource Concerns By Rosenberg, Andrew B.; Wallander, Steven
  26. Financial implications of the EU Emission Trading System: an analysis of wavelet coherence and volatility spillovers By Pietro De Ponti; Matteo Romagnoli
  27. Globalized system of market production in crisis. Global warming, rare earths, GAFAM, economic war By Jacques Fontanel
  28. Better Safe than Sorry: Toxic Waste Management after Unionization By Magnus Schauf; Eline Schoonjans
  29. The Next Wave of Energy Innovation: Which Technologies? Which Skills? By David Popp; Francesco Vona; Myriam Gregoire-Zawilski; Giovanni Marin
  31. Creating a Global Hydrogen Economy: Review of International Strategies, Targets, and Policies with a Focus on Japan, Germany, South Korea, and California By Vijayakumar, Vishnu; Fulton, Lewis; Shams, Mahdi; Sperling, Daniel
  32. Improving the estimates of fiscal space By Adham Jaber
  33. Electric stoves as a solution for household air pollution: Evidence from rural India By E. Somanathan; Marc Jeuland; Eshita Gupta; Utkarsh Kumar; T. V. Ninan; Rachit Kamdar; Vidisha Chowdhury; Suvir Chandna; Michael H. Bergin; Karoline Barkjohn; Christina Norris; T. Robert Fetter; Subhrendu K. Pattanayak
  34. The Interactions of Social Norms about Climate Change: Science, Institutions and Economics By Antonio Cabrales; Manu Garc\'ia; David Ramos Mu\~noz; Angel S\'anchez
  35. The unequal distribution of water risks and adaptation benefits in coastal Bangladesh By Barbour, Emily J.; Sarfaraz Gani Adnan, Mohammed; Borgomeo, Edoardo; Paprocki, Kasia; Shah Alam Khan, M.; Salehin, Mashfiqus; W. Hall, Jim
  36. Where does the CAP money go? Design and priorities of the draft CAP Strategic Plans 2023-2027 By Becker, Stefan; Grajewski, Regina; Rehburg, Pia
  37. OECD blended finance guidance for clean energy By OECD
  38. A framework for measuring social value in infrastructure and built environment projects: an industry perspective By Fujiwara, Daniel; Dass, Daniel; King, Emily; Vriend, Myriam; Houston, Richard; Keohane, Kieran
  39. Intensidad de materiales en la transición energética de América Latina: estimaciones sobre la base de un escenario de integración energética de América del Sur By Leañez, Frank
  40. Metodología de prospectiva para la movilidad sostenible By Gómez, Beatriz; Sandoval, Carlos; Sierra, Darío
  41. Enabling factors for the development of sustainable business models in a support programme By Sofia Lamperti; Sylvie Sammut; Jean-Marie Courrent
  42. Quels enjeux socioéconomiques pour une alimentation durable ?, AgroParisTech By Pierre Levasseur
  44. What is wellbeing for rural South African women? Textual analysis of focus group discussion transcripts and implications for programme design and evaluation By Ferrari, Giulia
  45. The development of the arid tropics: lessons for economic history By Roy, Tirthankar
  46. Weather Shocks and Inflation Expectations in Semi-Structural Models By Jose Vicente Romero; Sara Naranjo Saldarriaga
  47. Intervenir sur les biocarburants et sur le stock OMC de riz du Japon pour stabiliser les prix alimentaires mondiaux By Franck Galtier
  48. El camino de desarrollo de las ciudades inteligentes: una evaluación de Bogotá, Buenos Aires, Ciudad de México y São Paulo By Cabello, Sebastián M.
  49. Wohin fließt das Geld? Finanzielle und inhaltliche Schwerpunkte der eingereichten GAP-Strategiepläne 2023 bis 2027 By Becker, Stefan; Grajewski, Regina; Rehburg, Pia
  50. The Role of STEM Education in Improving the Quality of Education: A Bibliometric Study By Jamali, Seyedh Mahboobeh; Nader, Ale Ebrahim; Jamali, Fatemeh
  51. Agregación de valor en la producción de compuestos de litio en la región del triángulo del litio By Jiménez, Daniel; Sáez, Martín
  52. Arbeitsanleitung für die dritte Bodenzustandserhebung im Wald (BZE III): Manual on the third soil inventory in forests By Wellbrock, Nicole; Makowski, Vera; Bielefeldt, Judith; Dühnelt, Petra-Elena; Grüneberg, Erik; Bienert, Oliver; Blum, Uwe; Drescher-Larres, Katja; Eickenscheidt, Nadine; Evers, Jan; Falk, Wolfgang; Greve, Martin; Hartmann, Peter; Henry, Juliane; Jacob, Frank; Martin, Jan; Milbert, Gerd; Riek, Winfried; Rückamp, Daniel; Schilli, Carsten; Schwerhoff, Jürgen; Süß, Rüdiger
  53. Rolling out of agro-ecology practices in Lukudzi Section, Ntcheu, Malawi: A case study By Kabambe, Vernon H; Chamdimba, Bridget; Phiri, Jechner
  54. Sustainable Food System in Southeast Asia Under and Beyond COVID-19 Policy Evidence and Call for Action a Conference Synthesis By Bhadrakom, Chayada; Boughton, Duncan; Kitchaicharoen, Jirawan; Napasintuwong, Orachos; Saiyut, Pakapon; Satsue, Palakorn; Punjatewakupt, Piyawong; Suebpongsang, Pornsiri; Yotapakdee, Teeka; Satimanon, Thasanee
  55. Do Investors Hedge Against Green Swans? Option-Implied Risk Aversion to Wildfires By Amine Ouazad
  56. Metodología aplicada en las encuestas del Carnaval boliviano de 2022 By Agnes Medinaceli; Alejandra Gonzales; Andres Aramayo; Martha Jemio; Ariel Tamayo
  57. Externalities in the Wildland - Urban Interface: Private Decisions, Collective Action, and Results from Wildfire Simulation Models for California By Howard Kunreuther; Artem Demidov; Mark Pauly; Matija Turcic; Michael Wilson
  58. The Growing US-Mexico Natural Gas Trade and Its Regional Economic Impacts in Mexico By Haoying Wang; Rafael Garduno Rivera
  59. Generic catastrophic poverty when selfish investors exploit a degradable common resource By Claudius Gros
  60. Gender Equality and Women Empowerment in Social Economy Enterprises: Enablers and Barriers By Anastasia COSTANTINI; Alessia SEBILLO

  1. By: Bright A. Gyamfi (Cyprus International University, Nicosia, Turkey); Asiedu B. Ampomah (Cyprus International University, Nicosia, Turkey); Festus V. Bekun (Istanbul Gelisim University, Istanbul, Turkey); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: Understanding the role of information communication and technology (ICT) in environmental issues stemming from extensive energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission in the process of economic development is worthwhile both from policy and scholarly fronts. Motivated on this premise, the study contributes to the rising studies associated with the roles economic growth, institutional quality and information and communication technology (ICT) have on CO2emissionin the framework of the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) on climate convention in Paris. Obtaining data from the emerging industrialized seven (E7) economies (China, India, Indonesia, Russia, Mexico, Brazil and Turkey) covering annual frequency from 1995 –2016 for our analysis achieved significant outcome. From the empirical analysis, economic globalization and renewable energy consumption both reduce CO2 emissions while ICT, institutional quality and fossil fuel contribute to the degradation of the environment. This study affirms the presence of an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) phenomenon which shows an invented U-Shaped curve within the E7 economies. On the causality front, both income and its square have a feedback causal relationship with carbon emissions while economic globalization, institutional quality, ICT and clean energy all have a one-way directional causal relationship with CO2 emissions. Conclusively, the need to reduce environmental degradation activities should be pursued by the blocs such as tree planting activities to mitigate the effect of deforestation. Furthermore, the bloc should shift from the use of fossil-fuel and leverage on ICT to enhance the use of clean energy which is environmentally friendly.
    Keywords: ICT; environmental sustainability; institutional quality; renewable energy transition; carbon-reduction; economic globalization, panel econometrics; E7 economies
    Date: 2022–01
  2. By: Tobias Eibinger (University of Graz, Austria); Hans Manner (University of Graz, Austria)
    Abstract: Passenger transport plays a crucial role in achieving climate-neutrality. While a switch to zero-emission vehicles is a crucial part in this process, policy makers likely have to resort to a differentiated mix of complementary policy measures to achieve global targets on climate-neutrality. To help policy makers design effective measures, we analyse the effect of environmental policies on CO2 emissions from passenger cars in Austria from 1965-2019. In a first step, we propose an environmental policy stringency index for the Austrian transport sector for the period 1950-2019. In a second step, we analyse the effect of different policies on transport-related CO2 emissions in a structural vector autoregressive model. This allows us to control for possible interdependencies between the variables. We find that taxes on vehicle-related emissions and policies that influence the usage of cars (through, e.g., speed limits, car-free days, road pricing) can significantly reduce CO2 emissions and contribute to an accelerated transition towards a carbon-neutral society. Among tax-based policies, we find emission-based taxes on new vehicles to be most effective. Finally, our results indicate that more efficient fuels can reduce emissions from existing vehicles at a limited magnitude.
    Keywords: Climate change; CO2 emissions; passenger transport; mitigation; policy stringency; vector autoregression.
    JEL: C32 C54 Q54 Q58 R48
    Date: 2022–08
  3. By: Isaac K. Ofori (University of Insubria, Varese, Italy); Francesco Figari (University of Insubria, Varese, Italy)
    Abstract: This study employs macrodata for 23 African countries to examine whether good governance interacts with economic globalisation (EG) to foster inclusive green growth (IGG). First, the study finds that EG hampers IGG in Africa. Second, although unconditionally good governance promotes IGG, only government effectiveness interacts with EG to foster IGG. Across the social and environmental sustainability dimensions of IGG, however, the effects differ substantially. Notably, while the EG-governance pathways yield remarkable environmental sustainability net gains, a modest harmful effect was observed for socioeconomic sustainability. Evidence from our threshold analyses also suggests that while government effectiveness is critical for propelling EG to promote IGG, across the social and environmental perspectives of IGG, it is investments in building frameworks and structures for corruption control and the rule of law that are crucial. Our results shed new light on IGG and have several implications for Agenda 2030 and Agenda 2063.
    Keywords: Africa; Economic Globalisation; Governance; Inclusive Growth; Inclusive Green Growth; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Sustainable Development
    JEL: F18 F4 F6 F63 F64 H1 O55 Q01 Q56
    Date: 2022–01
  4. By: Shantayanan Devarajan (Georgetown University); Delfin S. Go; Sherman Robinson (Peterson Institute for International Economics); Karen Thierfelder (US Naval Academy)
    Abstract: Slowing global warming requires countries to reduce carbon emissions, which imposes costs on their economies. To be effective, most countries must agree collectively to participate (e.g., the Paris Agreement, COP26). However, every country has an incentive not to comply and still reap the benefits of other countries' actions--a classic free-rider problem. This paper evaluates recent recommendations to use trade policy to solve the free-rider problem associated with climate mitigation strategies. It shows that the European Union's carbon border adjustment mechanism (CBAM tariffs) are effective at offsetting the unfair competitive advantage of noncompliant countries in the markets of compliant countries but have little effect on the trade of noncompliant countries, who can divert trade to other noncompliers. CBAM tariffs alone have little impact on global CO2 emissions. The paper also examines "climate clubs" (coalitions of countries that agree to impose carbon taxes or other equivalent policies and impose punitive tariffs on non-club members to induce them to join the club). It finds that punitive climate club tariffs can be effective in inflicting significant damage on the economies of nonmembers, providing a strong incentive for them to join the club. The paper identifies trade dependence between club and non-club members as an important consideration for the success of a climate club. Club members that are strongly linked to non-club members suffer losses when the club punishes non-club members, which would make them hesitant to impose punitive tariffs on a major nonmember trading partner.
    Keywords: carbon taxes, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, climate clubs, carbon tariffs, carbon border adjustment mechanism (CBAM), computable general equilibrium (CGE) models, trade dependence
    JEL: F18 C68 Q54 Q43
    Date: 2022–09
  5. By: Alexander Golub (American University and Climate Equity Research); Jon Anda (Climate Equity Research); Anil Markandya (Basque Centre for Climate Change); Michael Brody (George Mason University); Aldin Celovic (SA Consulting GmbH); Angele Kedaitiene (Lithuanian Environment Agency)
    Abstract: The way in which climate policy and climate risks are currently accounted for in financial and real investment decisions is inadequate. The paper demonstrates weaknesses in methods presently used and proposes an alternative that aims to bridge the duration gap between climate policy modeling and mitigation capital. The core tool is real options analysis combined with an Integrated Assessment Framework designed to capture the complex set of issues linking climate change, climate policy and the economy. The tools are meant for use in both capex decisions by corporations and portfolio decisions by investors. The tools will be a hedge against the risk of mitigation short squeeze occurring because investment is deferred beyond the 5 year or less timeframe of finance.
    Keywords: Climate alpha, option value, abatement short squeeze, green transition
    JEL: G11 G17 G18 Q54
    Date: 2022–08
  6. By: Jorge A. Garcia; Angelos Alamanos
    Abstract: Complex agricultural problems concern many countries, as the economic motives are increasingly higher, and at the same time the consequences from the irrational resources use and emissions are becoming more evident. In this work we study three of the most common agricultural problems and model them through optimization techniques, showing ways to assess conflicting objectives together as a system and provide overall optimum solutions. The studied problems refer to: i) a water-scarce area with overexploited surface and groundwater resources due to over-pumping for irrigation (Central Greece), ii) a water-abundant area with issues of water quality deterioration caused by agriculture (Southern Ontario, Canada), iii) and a case of intensified agriculture based on animal farming that causes issues of water, soil quality degradation, and increased greenhouse gases emissions (Central Ireland). Linear, non-linear, and Goal Programming optimization techniques have been developed and applied for each case to maximize farmers welfare, make a less intensive use of environmental resources, and control the emission of pollutants. The proposed approaches and their solutions are novel applications for each case-study, compared to the existing literature and practice. Furthermore, they provide useful insights for most countries facing similar problems, they are easily applicable, and developed and solved in publicly available tools such as Python.
    Date: 2022–08
  7. By: Laura Cavalli (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei); Mia Alibegovic (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei); Davide Vaccari (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei); Andrea Spasiano (Water Resources Research and Documentation Center, Università per Stranieri di Perugia); Fernando Nardi (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei and Water Resources Research and Documentation Center, Università per Stranieri di Perugia)
    Abstract: As part of the CITI4GREEN project, this contribution analyzes the public interventions contained in Re-START “Territorial Resilience of the Central Apennines Earthquake Reconstruction” assessing their impacts on the sustainability guidelines posed by the United Nations through the establishment of the 2030 Agenda and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). To do so, the paper applies the methodology developed in Cavalli et al. (2020, 2021) to the 1278 reconstruction, repair, and restoration works in the Italian regions of Abruzzo, Lazio, Marche, and Umbria, affected by the seismic events of 2016 and 2017. The results are a clear priority given to Goal 4, “Quality education” which accounts for the 24.2% of the investments that af-fect the Agenda. Goal 11, “Sustainable cities and communities” takes the second place with 19.8%. Goals 14 “Life below water” and 7 “Affordable and clean energy” are, respectively, last and second last. All the three pillars of sustainability — environmental, social, and economic — are embraced by the public interventions. However, clear priority has been given to social and environmental sustainability. The economic dimension results under-represented. Additional policies are needed to ensure a more integrated sustainable development.
    Keywords: sustainable development, SDGs, cohesion policy, public finance, sustainability assessment
    JEL: R58 H83 C43 Q56
    Date: 2022–08
  8. By: Ofori, Isaac K.; Figari, Francesco
    Abstract: This study employs macrodata for 23 African countries to examine whether good governance interacts with economic globalisation (EG) to foster inclusive green growth (IGG). First, the study finds that EG hampers IGG in Africa. Second, although unconditionally good governance promotes IGG, only government effectiveness interacts with EG to foster IGG. Across the social and environmental sustainability dimensions of IGG, however, the effects differ substantially. Notably, while the EG-governance pathways yield remarkable environmental sustainability net gains, a modest harmful effect was observed for socioeconomic sustainability. Evidence from our threshold analyses also suggests that while government effectiveness is critical for propelling EG to promote IGG, across the social and environmental perspectives of IGG, it is investments in building frameworks and structures for corruption control and the rule of law that are crucial. Our results shed new light on IGG and have several implications for Agenda 2030 and Agenda 2063.
    Keywords: Africa; Economic Globalisation; Governance; Inclusive Growth; Inclusive Green Growth; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Sustainable Development
    JEL: F18 F4 F6 F63 F64 H11 O5 O55 Q01 Q56
    Date: 2022–09
  9. By: Jlenia Di Noia (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei)
    Abstract: Worldwide, with different frequencies and magnitudes, coastlines are increasingly being affected by climate change hazards. The high urbanization rate, due to economic opportunities and natural amenities, further exacerbates vulnerabilities in these areas, requiring prompt and effective adaptation to climate induced events –from gradual sea level rise to abrupt storms and floods. The ability of different actors (households, firms, financial entities and Government) to cope with such events can be addressed and studied through the use of agent-based models, which allow for an heterogeneous treatment of agents’ behaviour, from individual risk perceptions’ modelling to decision-making rules on the adaptation option to be put into practice (whether related to coastal management or to coastal defense). Since the natural system needs to be considered together with the socio-economic human system, if we are willing to enhance sustainable practices, integrated-assessment models can be used as a tool to account for these interrelated complexities. A comprehensive review on integrated-assessment agentbased models on climate change adaptation in coastal zones, thus, is here provided to investigate the current state of the art.
    Keywords: Agent-based models, Integrated-assessment models, Review, Climate change, Adaptation, Coastal zones
    JEL: C63 Q01 Q26 Q54
    Date: 2022–08
  10. By: Sato, Misato; Rafaty, Ryan; Calel, Raphael; Grubb, Michael
    Abstract: The European Union's pioneering carbon Emissions Trading System, the EU ETS, has inspired countries around the world to launch their own CO 2 markets. This paper analyses the evolution of the EU ETS from a political economy perspective, emphasizing the interaction of economic principles and political interests at pivotal moments, and showing how each compromise changed the scope for future design choices. We focus on the allowance allocation issue, which provides a window into the complex tug-of-war between economic efficiency and the politics of distribution. Our account highlights the dynamic nature of CO 2 market reform, and provides lessons that can help inform the design of more stable and effective CO 2 markets in the future. This article is categorized under: Climate Economics > Economics of Mitigation The Carbon Economy and Climate Mitigation > Policies, Instruments, Lifestyles, Behavior.
    Keywords: allowance allocation; carbon pricing; emissions trading; EU ETS; industry lobby; political economy; ES/N016971/1; ES/R009708/1; Grant recipient(s): MISATO SATO); Horizon 2020 Framework Programme (GrantNumber(s): GEMCLIME-2020 GA number 681228; Grant recipient(s): MISATO SATO); Wiley deal
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2022–08–01
  11. By: Pereira, Mauricio; Ballón, Eduardo; Castro, Mariano; Constantin, Achim; de Miguel, Carlos; García, Rocío; Glave, Marisa; Lanegra, Iván
    Abstract: En este trabajo se da seguimiento a la primera evaluación del desempeño ambiental del Perú, publicada en 2017 por la Comisión Económica para América y el Caribe (CEPAL) y la Organización de Cooperación y Desarrollo Económicos (OCDE), en la que se hizo una serie de recomendaciones para mejorar la gestión ambiental del país. Se analiza el cumplimiento de las recomendaciones vinculadas con la actividad del sector minero y se examinan los últimos cambios institucionales y normativos en dicho sector. Se observan una evolución heterogénea y ciertos rezagos con respecto a algunas recomendaciones específicas relativas a la minería. También se resaltan los hitos de cumplimiento a corto, mediano y largo plazo del Plan de Acción para Implementar las Recomendaciones de la Evaluación de Desempeño Ambiental del Perú, desarrollado por este país.
    Date: 2022–07–28
  12. By: Alberto Gabino Martínez-Hernández (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei)
    Abstract: Climate change impacts in coastal areas (CA) have exposed coastal ecosystems to unprecedented conditions. System dynamic modelling (SD) has been used as a powerful tool to improve climate change adaptation (CCA) strategies. However, until now there are no review papers that summarize how academic literature that employs SD modelling has addressed CCA in CA. Hence, the main objective of this study is to provide an overview of the state of the art of this field. A systematic literature review was chosen as the main method of analysis, which was complemented with a bibliometric analysis and a categorization of the main contents of the papers selected. Our results suggest that the literature is clustered in three groups: physical or social impacts, water and agriculture management, as well as ecosystem services. Following the classification of key representative risks (KRK) of the IPCC, some topics have been addressed more than others. Most papers focus on Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) compared to adaptation to slow onset hazards. Besides, research in developing countries remains scarce, except for the case of Vietnam. One group of models seem to be in an advanced stage or abstract enough to be applied in other areas, whereas another group is better suited for local modelling. Quantitative SD modelling has been preferred compared to qualitative or mixed approaches. Finally, Stella and Vensim seem to be the most popular platforms to run simulations.
    Keywords: Climate change adaptation, Coastal areas, System dynamics modelling, Environmental modelling, Literature review
    JEL: C61 C63 Q54
    Date: 2022–08
  13. By: Seth Morgan; Alexander Pfaff; Julien Wolfersberger (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: For over a century, starting with the work of Alfred Marshall (and including in resource economics), economic geography has emphasized the productivity of dense urban agglomerations. Yet little attention goes to one key policy implication of economic geography's core mechanisms: Environmental policies can aid economic development, per se—not hurting the economy to help the environment but advancing both objectives. We review mechanisms from economic geography which imply that environmental policies can deliver such win-wins: influences upon agglomeration of long-standing natural conditions, like usable bays, which long were perceived as fixed yet now are being shifted by global environmental quality; agglomeration's effects on other influential conditions, like urban environmental quality; and the effects of rural nvironmental quality on the flows to cities of people and environmental quality. Finally, we consider a geographic policy typology in asking why society leaves money on the table by failing to promote environmental policies despite the potential win-wins that we highlight.
    Keywords: economic geography,development,environment,natural resources
    Date: 2022–10
  14. By: Destek, Mehmet Akif; Aydın, Sercan
    Abstract: The goal of this research is to investigate the impact of tourism on sustainable development in the 10 most visited countries. For this purpose, following the STIRPAT model, the impact of urbanization, energy intensity and tourism on the newly designed sustainable development index is examined for the period 1995-2015. In doing so, tourism is represented by two different indicators, the number of tourists and tourism receipts. In addition, the impact of tourism on economic growth is analyzed to compare the effects of tourism development on economic growth and sustainable development. While doing this, second generation panel data methods are used to take into account the possible inter-country dependency. According to the findings obtained in the study, tourism, energy intensity and urbanization have positive effects on economic growth. On the other hand, the effects of all three factors on the sustainable development index are negative and statistically significant. These findings indicate that the harmful effects of tourism on other dimensions of sustainable development are greater than the beneficial effects of tourism on economic growth.
    Keywords: Tourist Arrivals; Sustainable Development Index; Energy Intensity; Urbanization; Panel Data
    JEL: Q5
    Date: 2021–09–09
  15. By: Jung, Constantin
    Abstract: Environmental sustainability is one of the greatest challenges of this century. It depends on both compliance with environmental protection laws and its integration into directors' decision-making beyond these laws. In this regard, the duty to promote the company's success stipulates in the Companies Act 2006 that directors, who are protected by Business Judgment Rule, shall consider their companies' environmental impacts. Since the stakeholders' interests are regarded as a means to increase shareholder value, directors may pursue their companies' environmental sustainability through a business case. The latest changes to the UK Corporate Governance Code 2018 further encourage directors to consider environmental sustainability in their business decisions. They may also link environmental sustainability to mandatory and voluntary disclosures through publishing their companies' achievements. As a result, directors have broad discretion to pursue environmental sustainability beyond environmental protection laws. However, evidence shows that directors frequently neglect this discretion, the environmental sustainability's resulting business case and that they even cause environmental damages to increase (the short-term) shareholder value. This is due to the social norm of shareholder primacy, which is now exacerbated by Brexit's and the Ukraine war's unclear economic impacts as well as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. In this regard, the current approach of the UK's company law in the predominant form of narrative reporting laws is insufficient because of the resulting greenwashing possibilities. This paper's main argument is thus that changes to the current legal framework for directors' decision-making are needed to achieve more environmental sustainability. Accordingly, a new principle for the UK Corporate Governance Code 2018 could lead to a greater consideration of environmental sustainability in directors' decision-making and increased shareholder value in times of rising societal awareness of climate change and a growing trend towards environmental activist shareholders.
    Date: 2022
  16. By: Belmartino, Andrea
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the role of relatedness in the development of new green specializations for the Argentinean provinces between 2008-2019. The development of products with environmental benefits (called green products) is considered one step towards a sustainable transition. These products present a growing demand that may provide an opportunity in terms of green development. The empirical strategy draws on the evolutionary economic geography through indices that capture knowledge bases in the region. The aim is to analyze the role of green and non-green relatedness in the development of new green specializations and to identify potential diversification opportunities. Empirical results show that the green economy has an uneven spatial distribution across the country, that remains stable over time. Furthermore, the development of a new green specialization is positively related to the productive knowledge bases present in the region (proxied by relatedness density). Both, green and non-green relatedness are relevant to develop new specializations in green products. Potential diversification opportunities are also in favor of wealthier regions. Finally, the results reveal a path dependence process on the development of new specialization in green products.
    Keywords: Diversificación de la Producción; Economía Regional; Economía Verde; Argentina; 2008-2019;
    Date: 2022–07
  17. By: Jarrad Wright
    Abstract: Technological developments to address climate change in South Africa and their potential economic impacts
    Date: 2022–05–25
  18. By: Lara Bartels (University of Kassel); Martin Kesternich (University of Kassel)
    Abstract: Cities are increasingly hold accountable for climate action. By demonstrating their pro-environmentality through own climate-related activities, they not at least aspire to encourage individual climate protection efforts. Based on standard economic theory there is little reason to assume that this is a promising strategy. Financed by taxpayers’ money, cities’ contributions are considered as substitutes that crowd-out private contributions to the same public good. Inspired by research on providing information on reference group behavior, we challenge this argument and conduct a framed-field experiment to analyze the impact of reference group information on the voluntary provision of a green public good. We investigate whether information on previous contributions by fellow citizens or the city affect individual contributions. We do not find statistical evidence that city-level information crowds-out additional individual contributions. A reference to fellow citizens significantly increases the share of contributors as it attracts subjects that are not per-se pro-environmentally oriented.
    Keywords: Voluntary provision of environmental public goods; Social Norms; Crowding-out; Willingness to pay; Framed-field experiment
    JEL: C93 C83 D9 H41 Q54
    Date: 2022
  19. By: Hepburn, Cameron; O'Callaghan, Brian; Stern, Nicholas; Stiglitz, Joseph; Zenghelis, Dimitri
    Abstract: The COVID-19 crisis is likely to have dramatic consequences for progress on climate change. Imminent fiscal recovery packages could entrench or partly displace the current fossil-fuel-intensive economic system. Here, we survey 231 central bank officials, finance ministry officials, and other economic experts from G20 countries on the relative performance of 25 major fiscal recovery archetypes across four dimensions: speed of implementation, economic multiplier, climate impact potential, and overall desirability. We identify five policies with high potential on both economic multiplier and climate impact metrics: clean physical infrastructure, building efficiency retrofits, investment in education and training, natural capital investment, and clean R&D. In lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs) rural support spending is of particular value while clean R&D is less important. These recommendations are contextualized through analysis of the short-run impacts of COVID-19 on greenhouse gas curtailment and plausible medium-run shifts in the habits and behaviours of humans and institutions.
    Keywords: climate change; Covid-19; fiscal stimulus; green recovery; coronavirus
    JEL: E62 E65 Q54
    Date: 2020–09–28
  20. By: Magali Aubert (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Geoffroy Enjolras (CERAG - Centre d'études et de recherches appliquées à la gestion - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes)
    Abstract: This paper studies the intensive and extensive effects of European subsidies on pesticide expenditures at the farm level. Intensive effects refer to the relative value of pesticide expenditures to sales, while extensive effects consider acreage effects. Our approach is original insofar as we consider the consequences of EU policies at the farm level. The analysis relies on the French Farm Accountancy Data Network database from 2007 to 2015 which provides detailed information on farm structure and accounting. The influence of subsidies on pesticide expenditures is measured through a simultaneous equation model using panel data. Even if the aggregate value of EU subsidies does not seem to influence pesticide expenditures, each of the pillars has for its part a significant influence: the 1st pillar contributes to increasing pesticide expenditures, while the 2nd pillar leads to decreasing pesticide expenditures, except for subsidies to crop insurance policies. Overall subsidies and subsidies from the 1st pillar have also a significant and positive impact on farm acreage. The very contrasting effect of European subsidies on pesticide expenditures thus questions the effectiveness of public policies towards the issue of environmentally friendly practices.
    Keywords: Pesticides,EU subsidies,FADN,France
    Date: 2022
  21. By: Neubäumer, Renate (University of Koblenz-Landau)
    Abstract: Die EU ist durch ihre Erweiterung auf 27 Länder zunehmend heterogener geworden. Ihre Mitgliedsstaaten unterscheiden sich hinsichtlich ihres Pro-Kopf-Einkommens und ihres Energiemix und - eng damit verknüpft - ihrer CO2-Intensität sowie ihrer Einstellungen zum Klimaschutz, zum Kohleausstieg und zur Nutzung von Kernkraft und Gas als Übergangstechnologien. Als Folge kommt es zu zahlreichen Konflikten zwischen den Mitgliedsstaaten über die Verschärfung der Klimaziele durch den "European Green Deal" sowie die Instrumente zur Erreichung von Klimaneutralität 2050. Kann die EU vor diesem Hintergrund "Führer der Welt im Kampf gegen den globalen Klimawandel" sein – wie sie selbst beansprucht?
    Keywords: Klimaschutz, Europäischer „Green Deal“, EU
    JEL: F53 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2022–08
  22. By: Arnaud Goussebaïle (CER-ETH – Center of Economic Research at ETH Zurich, Zuerichbergstrasse 18 8092 Zurich, Switzerland)
    Abstract: An extensive climate policy literature provides various recommendations, but they are not supported democratically since the models employed consider either infinitely-lived individuals or normative social objectives (or both). In contrast, the present paper provides policy recommendations that are able to go through democratic processes. I develop an overlapping generation model with political process micro-foundations. I analyze how democratic policies, which are directly and indirectly related to climate change, differ from standard recommended policies. The novel politico-economic formula derived for the interest rate highlights that individual pure time preference, individual altruism toward descendants, and young generation political power are key determinants of democratic climate policy ambition.
    Keywords: Climate change; Discounting; Externality; Overlapping generations; Political economy
    JEL: D6 D7 E6 Q5
    Date: 2022–08
  23. By: Vafa Anvari; Channing Arndt; Faaiqa Hartley; Konstantin Makrelov; Kenneth Strezepek; Tim Thomas; Sherwin Gabriel; Bruno Merven
    Abstract: A climate change modelling framework for financial stress testing in Southern Africa
    Date: 2022–08–05
  24. By: Pratt, Bryan; Wallander, Steven
    Abstract: The environmental benefits of the USDA Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) depend on both the environmental sensitivity of land enrolled and the conservation covers selected for that land. The CRP’s General Signup, which enrolls the majority of program acreage, uses a combination of competitive pressure and cost sharing to encourage higher quality conservation covers. In this report, we examine recent data obtained for General Signups 45, 49, and 54 (implemented in 2013, 2016, and 2020, respectively) to understand offer value and cost-share payments for cover choices. The findings in the report include identifying the most common practice choices, reporting on the average practice cost paid by the participants and USDA, how the participant's choice of cover practice responds to these costs and the incentive points associated with practices. We use our empirical results and a simple conceptual model to describe the implications of policy changes that would adjust the ranking or financial incentives to select higher quality conservation covers. The report presents evidence to suggest that the costs of cover practices—and related policy levers—impact producers decisions and, by extension, program outcomes.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural Finance, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management, Land Economics/Use, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2022–02–23
  25. By: Rosenberg, Andrew B.; Wallander, Steven
    Abstract: The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Conservation Technical Assistance (CTA) program provides conservation planning and field-level assessments of conservation strategies, partnering with a network of county field offices, conservation districts, and State agencies. The CTA program supports these efforts with more than $700 million per year in Federal funding. A similar amount of technical assistance funding is provided to directly support the planning required to enroll land in the USDA’s working lands programs, such as the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) and the Conservation Stewardship Program (USDA, Office of Budget and Program Analysis, 2019). The CTA program and the working lands programs help reduce soil erosion, improve water quality conditions, and address other resource conditions referred to as resource concerns. This bulletin looks at how many fields in several major commodity crops have self-reported, on-field resource concerns and whether the producers received technical assistance to address these concerns from USDA or other sources. Using field-level data from the Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS) for soybeans, wheat, oats, and cotton, the analysis focuses on within-field, predominately soil-related concerns—such as water-driven erosion, wind-driven erosion, soil compaction, poor drainage, low organic matter, within-field water quality concerns, or some other concern—that are self-reported by survey respondents. Respondents report that 49 percent of fields represented have at least one resource concern and 26 percent have multiple resource concerns. Of the fields represented with at least one concern, only 24 percent received technical assistance. Fields with three or more respondent-reported concerns are more likely to have received assistance. The largest source of assistance is the USDA’s Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), but other USDA agencies, cooperative extension, and non-USDA entities also provide technical assistance. Notably, 25 percent of the fields having received technical assistance for at least one resource concern obtained assistance from multiple sources.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management, Industrial Organization, Production Economics
    Date: 2022–05–05
  26. By: Pietro De Ponti (Department of Economics, Management and Statistics, University of Milano-Bicocca); Matteo Romagnoli (Department of Economics, Management and Statistics, University of Milano-Bicocca)
    Abstract: We study the European Union’s Emission Trading System (EU ETS) from a financial perspective. Using ARMA-eGARCH filtered volatilities, we first discuss the evolution of the volatility of EU ETS allowances’ returns from 2008 to 2021. Second, we study the degree of co-movement and interdependence between the EU ETS returns’ volatility and those of 37 large companies in industries subject to the System; to this end, we employ Wavelet Coherence and Volatility Spillovers Analyses. Despite spotting seasons of co-movement between volatilities in the markets under consideration, the market performances of the companies in our sample are not particularly responsive to the EU ETS dynamics, except for temporary seasons of interconnection in correspondence of relevant policy changes.
    Keywords: EU Emission Trading System, volatility spillovers, wavelet coherence
    JEL: C22 G11 Q58
    Date: 2022–08
  27. By: Jacques Fontanel (CESICE - Centre d'études sur la sécurité internationale et les coopérations européennes - UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - Grenoble 2 - IEPG - Sciences Po Grenoble - Institut d'études politiques de Grenoble)
    Abstract: The globalized system of market production is in a strong crisis. Global warming, rare earths, GAFAM, economic war. Climate change poses a problem for the economic system that fostered the polluting industrial revolutions of coal and oil. Today, the digital economy revolution offers significant hope for reducing pollution and promoting decarbonisation. However, the economic interest struggles of the powerful lobbies of the polluting sectors seem to reduce the potential for transformation of an economic system driven by the search for shortterm profit. The major powers want to preserve their economic gains and are undertaking this revolution at a pace that suits them, which is not without conflict, given the urgency of action in the face of the harmful transformations undergone by ecosystems. Furthermore, the GAFAMs, the powerful providers of digital services and instruments, together with their Chinese competitors, have a considerable economic and strategic force that could undermine freedoms and human and citizens' rights. For the production of digital tools, rare earths are likely to pose new problems, those relating to the pollution involved in their production and their relative scarcity compared to the stocks known today. Finally, the economic war threatens the World Trade Organization, with the establishment of international and regional blocks.
    Keywords: Digital economy,climate change,GAFAM,Rare Earths,Economic war
    Date: 2021–02–08
  28. By: Magnus Schauf; Eline Schoonjans
    Abstract: studies the impact of organized labor on toxic waste management at US facilities between 1991 and 2020. If unions, as collective voice, bargain for worker benefits such as workplace safety and member health, their effect on toxic releases remains unclear due to a tradeoff. Reducing toxic waste releases has positive health and environmental effects but requires more and dangerous activities to handle waste after production. Using a regression discontinuity design on close-call union elections, we find a significantly negative effect of unionization on the sum of toxic waste recycling, energy recovery, and treatment at the facility site. In contrast, total toxic releases to air, land, and water increase after unionization. These e ects are more pronounced in states without right-to-work laws, for less toxic chemicals, and for non-heavy industries. Finally, we show that unionized facilities increase waste prevention activities through innovative product and process modifications and have less catastrophic releases. However, these effects cannot o set the reduction in waste handling, resulting in more waste releases. Our findings suggest that unions prioritize safety over sustainability and call upon managerial and governmental action to better align these two objectives.
    Date: 2022–08
  29. By: David Popp; Francesco Vona; Myriam Gregoire-Zawilski; Giovanni Marin
    Abstract: The costs of low-carbon energy fell dramatically over the past decade, leading to rapid growth in its deployment. However, many challenges remain to deploy low-carbon energy at a scale necessary to meet net zero carbon emission targets. If net zero goals are to be met, developing complementary technologies and skills will be a necessary part of the next wave of low-carbon energy innovation. These include both improvements in physical capital, such as smart grids to aid integration of intermittent renewables, and human capital, to develop the skills workers need for a low-carbon economy. We document recent trends in energy innovation and discuss the lessons learnt for policy. We then discuss the potential role for complementary innovation in both physical capital—using smart grids as an example of how policy can help—and human capital, where we show how a task approach to labor informs policy and research on the worker skills needed for the energy transition.
    JEL: J24 O31 O38 Q42 Q55
    Date: 2022–08
  30. By: Löw, Philipp; Osterburg, Bernhard; Klages, Susanne
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management
    Date: 2021–09
  31. By: Vijayakumar, Vishnu; Fulton, Lewis; Shams, Mahdi; Sperling, Daniel
    Abstract: Motivated by increasing emphasis on decarbonization, hydrogen as an energy carrier is enjoying unprecedented political and business momentum. This paper reviews the status of hydrogen strategies and progress in major global economies, with a particular focus on four leading jurisdictions (Japan, Germany, S. Korea and California). These have been among the most aggressive, though in different ways. Japan, Germany, and S. Korea have been more focused on developing a sustainable hydrogen supply chain, while California has been more focused on spurring hydrogen demand, especially in the transportation sector. Japan’s strategy involves forging partnerships to import “blue” hydrogen (from methane with carbon abatement strategies) while Germany has focused on “green” (e.g., electrolytic) hydrogen production, along with plans to leverage its extensive natural gas pipelines for hydrogen distribution. Japan anticipates the power sector to be the largest consumer of hydrogen, while others expect the transportation and industry sectors to be the prime movers of future hydrogen demand. Japan, S. Korea and Germany will likely import a substantial portion of their future hydrogen supplies, while California has the potential for low-cost hydrogen production, but will need to establish demand and invest in hydrogen transportation and distribution infrastructure. In all four jurisdictions, investments are still relatively small and there exists huge opportunities for cooperation to develop a self-sustaining global hydrogen market.
    Keywords: Engineering, GHG emissions, sector coupling, blue hydrogen, green hydrogen, hydrogen economy
    Date: 2022–08–30
  32. By: Adham Jaber (Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne)
    Abstract: I contribute to the fiscal space literature in both technical and empirical perspectives. First, I compute a time-varying fiscal space and show that complex fiscal space numbers resulting from solving the model provide crucial information in assessing fiscal sustainability; thus, they should not be ignored. I propose three different scenarios to deal with complex numbers in an empirical framework. Second, I provide a new determinant for fiscal sustainability: sustainable development. Using data from 24 OECD countries from 1998–2015, I find that sustainable development, proxied by an environmental, social, and governance performance index, has a robust positive impact on fiscal space.
    Date: 2022–08–01
  33. By: E. Somanathan (Indian Statistical Institute, Delhi); Marc Jeuland (Duke University, RWI-Leibniz Institute for Economic Research); Eshita Gupta (KPMG India); Utkarsh Kumar (Indian Statistical Institute, Columbia Univeristy); T. V. Ninan (Indian Statistical Institute, University of Washington); Rachit Kamdar (Indian Statistical Institute, University of Maryland); Vidisha Chowdhury (Indian Statistical Institute); Suvir Chandna (Indian Statistical Institute, United Nations Development Programme); Michael H. Bergin (Duke University); Karoline Barkjohn (Duke Univesity, US Environmental Protection Agency); Christina Norris (Duke University); T. Robert Fetter (Duke University); Subhrendu K. Pattanayak (Duke University)
    Abstract: We collected minute-by-minute data on electricity availability, electric induction stove use, and kitchen and outdoor particulate pollution in a sample of rural Indian households for one year. Using within household-month variation generated by unpredictable outages, we estimate the effects of electricity availability and electric induction stove use on kitchen PM2.5 concentration at each hour of the day. Electricity availability reduces kitchen PM2.5 by up to 50 μg/m3, which is between 10 and 20 percent of peak concentrations during cooking hours. Induction stove use instrumented by electricity availability reduces PM2.5 in kitchens by 200-450 μg/m3 during cooking hours
    Keywords: household air pollution, indoor air pollution, induction cookstoves, electricity reli- ability
    Date: 2022–08
  34. By: Antonio Cabrales; Manu Garc\'ia; David Ramos Mu\~noz; Angel S\'anchez
    Abstract: We study the evolution of interest about climate change between different actors of the population, and how the interest of those actors affect one another. We first document the evolution individually, and then provide a model of cross influences between them, that we then estimate with a VAR. We find large swings over time of said interest for the general public by creating a Climate Change Index for Europe and the US (CCI) using news media mentions, and little interest among economists (measured by publications in top journals of the discipline). The general interest science journals and policymakers have a more steady interest, although policymakers get interested much later.
    Date: 2022–08
  35. By: Barbour, Emily J.; Sarfaraz Gani Adnan, Mohammed; Borgomeo, Edoardo; Paprocki, Kasia; Shah Alam Khan, M.; Salehin, Mashfiqus; W. Hall, Jim
    Abstract: Increasing flood risk, salinization and waterlogging threaten the lives and livelihoods of more than 35 million people in Bangladesh’s coastal zone. While planning models have long been used to inform investments in water infrastructure, they frequently overlook interacting risks, impacts on the poor and local context. We address this gap by developing and applying a stochastic-optimization model to simulate the impact of flood embankment investments on the distribution of agricultural incomes across income groups for six diverse polders (embanked areas) in coastal Bangladesh. Results show that increasing salinity and waterlogging negate the benefits of embankment rehabilitation in improving agricultural production while improved drainage can alleviate these impacts. Outcomes vary across income groups, with risks of crop loss being greatest for the poor. We discuss the need for planning models to consider the interacting benefits and risks of infrastructure investments within a local political economy to better inform coastal adaptation decisions.
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2022–04–01
  36. By: Becker, Stefan; Grajewski, Regina; Rehburg, Pia
    Abstract: The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) 2023-2027 is implemented through national strategic plans. This paper examines the strategic plans submitted for approval, analysing their financial priorities to identify commonalities, differences and overarching patterns of national CAP implementation. It aims to provide general orientation on the new funding period as well as starting points for further studies. The paper shows that the member states use the discretion granted in the Strategic Plan Regulation in various ways. Despite common goals and funding guidelines, the plans show great heterogeneity. Regarding the general design, the plans differ quite vastly mainly in the reallocation of funds between the first and the second pillar or the level of contribution rates. In the first pillar, the plans not only vary in their shares of decoupled and coupled direct payments as well as the newly introduced eco-schemes; they also differ considerably in how these interventions are designed. Overall, the funds planned for eco-schemes are slightly above the prescribed minimum, while some member states are close to the maximum share of coupled direct payments. Interventions in specific sectors also vary. Some offerings are highly differentiated; however, most funds will flow into the fruit and vegetable and wine sectors. The second pillar is marked by overall continuity. Despite the eco-schemes in the first pillar, agri-environment-climate measures also remain important in the second pillar. Support for organic farming and animal welfare measures even increase slightly in relative terms. The same is true for risk management, where Italy and France make substantial use of CAP funds. Support for investments remains high, but becomes less important. More significant than the changes compared to the current funding period are national differences: The strategic plans attribute quite different importance to each of these interventions. Despite the heterogeneity, the strategic plans heavily focus on the agricultural sector; services of general interest and business development in rural areas as well as the forestry sector are only secondary. The goals primarily pertain to income, competitiveness and the environment. This pattern is also evident, albeit in a weakened form, if only the second pillar is considered. Nevertheless, the overall diversity of strategic plans is further evidence of the subsidiarity in the Common Agricultural Policy.
    Keywords: Common Agricultural Policy,CAP strategic plans,direct payments,eco-schemes,agri-environment-climate measures,rural development,Gemeinsame Agrarpolitik,GAP-Strategiepläne,Direktzahlungen,Ökoregelungen,Agrarumwelt-und Klimamaßnahmen,Ländliche Entwicklung
    JEL: Q18 Q15
    Date: 2022
  37. By: OECD
    Abstract: Meeting the Paris Agreement goals will need a rapid acceleration of finance towards clean energy investments in emerging and developing economies. Blended finance is an important tool that can help mobilise commercial investment towards clean energy, whilst preserving scarce public resources for wider climate and development objectives. A systematic approach to the deployment of blended finance – that tailors instruments to the nature of underlying barriers to commercial investment, minimises concessionality, has a clear exit strategy, and is co-ordinated within a wider ecosystem of support and enabling measures – can help maximise its development impact and stimulate private sector development. This paper explores specific features of clean energy projects, and the wider transition, to draw lessons for donors, policymakers in beneficiary governments, and financial institutions on whether and how best to deploy blended finance in the sector. It revisits the OECD DAC's Blended Finance Principles, specifically Principle 2: designing blended finance to increase the mobilisation of commercial finance, and explores their applicability to clean energy. It also explores sector-specific considerations for the deployment of clean energy, setting out the considerations development practitioners can make to inform better decision-making on, and maximise the development impact of, blended finance interventions.
    Keywords: blended finance, clean energy, energy efficiency, off-grid renewables, renewable energy
    JEL: F35 G15 G18 G23 G28 H23 H41 L94 Q20 Q21 Q28
    Date: 2022–08–30
  38. By: Fujiwara, Daniel; Dass, Daniel; King, Emily; Vriend, Myriam; Houston, Richard; Keohane, Kieran
    Abstract: As the infrastructure and built environment sectors shift from traditional economic valuation towards more holistic approaches, projects are being designed, built and evaluated in new ways. An important emerging technique for the economic evaluation of projects is social value measurement. This paper sets out the foundations for the social value measurement techniques that underpin the methods and frameworks developed in central governments and by multilateral and international organisations and describes how these can be adapted to value the broader societal and environmental effects of infrastructure and built environment projects. The paper provides practical evidence of social value measurement in valuing heritage impacts for Stonehenge World Heritage Site as well as presenting a detailed account of the foundations of cost-benefit analysis as a tool for social value measurement and non-market valuation.
    Keywords: built environment; infrastructure planning; public policy; social impact
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2022–08–04
  39. By: Leañez, Frank
    Abstract: En esta investigación, se analiza y documenta cuantitativamente la intensidad de uso de minerales de las distintas tecnologías de generación y transmisión eléctrica, particularmente las basadas en energías renovables, considerando distintos escenarios de transición energética proyectados para los países de América del Sur que han formado parte de la simulación llevada a cabo con el programa PLEXOS, en el marco del programa Complementariedad Energética y Desarrollo Sostenible (ECOSUD), cuyo objetivo es la planificación de la expansión óptima de la capacidad instalada del sector eléctrico regional hacia 2032. Conocer la intensidad de uso de minerales permite dimensionar la importancia que tiene la actividad minera en otros sectores de la economía; en este estudio en concreto, el de las energías renovables. Por otro lado, dados los efectos negativos que puede acarrear la explotación de los recursos mineros, se hace un nuevo llamado a reflexionar sobre la necesidad de gestionar estos recursos de manera más sostenible para apoyar la transición energética y el desarrollo de las economías de América Latina.
    Date: 2022–08–08
  40. By: Gómez, Beatriz; Sandoval, Carlos; Sierra, Darío
    Abstract: En este documento se presenta un conjunto de pasos para incorporar los principales elementos del análisis prospectivo a la movilidad sostenible, lo que permite generar estrategias anticipatorias que ayudan a comprender la movilidad urbana sostenible como un fenómeno sistémico y multicausal en el que se reflejan los diferentes componentes del desarrollo: sociales, económicos y ambientales. Al mismo tiempo, contribuye a identificar los efectos de corto, mediano y largo plazo de acciones para potenciar los instrumentos de planificación de las ciudades, como los planes de desarrollo, ordenamiento territorial y estrategias ambientales, e identificar iniciativas que faciliten la articulación de sus lineamientos. Esta propuesta puede ser aplicada tanto en procesos de elaboración de estrategias de movilidad como en su actualización.
    Date: 2022–08–04
  41. By: Sofia Lamperti (Labex Entreprendre - UM - Université de Montpellier, MRM - Montpellier Research in Management - UPVM - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - Groupe Sup de Co Montpellier (GSCM) - Montpellier Business School - UM - Université de Montpellier, UM - Université de Montpellier); Sylvie Sammut; Jean-Marie Courrent
    Abstract: Start-ups are important tools for promoting sustainable development through the creation of new ventures with a sustainable business model. However, to make a tangible contribution, start-ups need to embed and balance their sustainability impact in their business model from the very beginning. Incubators are a promising way to support them in this process. Despite the academic interest in incubators, few studies have focused on sustainable incubators in general, and even less on the sustainable business model development process. This study explores how a support programme delivered by an incubator with a sustainability profile can affect the sustainable business model development of start-ups. A case study approach based on a French incubator was used in combination with the resource-based view to understand the creation process of sustainability-oriented ventures and the resource needs of start-ups to achieve a sustainable impact. The results show that besides the classic support services for the development of a sustainable business model, there are additional interesting factors that come into play.
    Date: 2021–09–30
  42. By: Pierre Levasseur (SADAPT - Sciences pour l'Action et le Développement : Activités, Produits, Territoires - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Date: 2022–03–08
  43. By: Ye Qianyuan
    Abstract: Yoga culture and the traditional ecological concept of Bai nationality in Dali have many connections in terms of basic cognition of natural things, the handling of the relationship between man and nature, and the philosophical thinking about the relationship between man and nature. Exploring the correlation between the two is conducive to finding cultural commonalities, promoting intercultural exchanges, and at the same time providing reference for human physical and mental health and healthy social development in the post-epidemic era. Key words: yoga culture; ecological concept; ethnic minorities; southwest China
    Date: 2022–06
  44. By: Ferrari, Giulia
    Abstract: Policy makers’ ultimate goal is to deliver the highest possible level of population welfare. Economists investigate the effect of socio-economic dimensions on wellbeing using unidimensional measures of life satisfaction or happiness as proxies for welfare. However, social psychologists have shown that wellbeing is a much broader construct and that an intervention may have opposite effects on its components. Unidimensional measures may hide these patterns. Most literature focuses on high-income countries. The growing evidence from low- and middle-income countries also largely relies on standard unidimensional measures. This study tests the validity of this reliance by exploring the wellbeing construct of South African women, quantitatively analysing textual data from focus group discussions to investigate whether unidimensional measures are appropriate in this context. It provides evidence against the indiscriminate use of unidimensional wellbeing measures. Cluster and correspondence analysis of the transcripts show that relevant domains of women’s wellbeing include relations with others, autonomy, and a perception of control over their environment (environmental mastery). Results also reveal that participants have a relational view of themselves, distinct from the individuated view predominant in the US and Europe and the collectivist view found in East Asia. Such relational self-perception modifies study participants’ wellbeing construct in ways that are important for policy implementation and evaluation. For example, women’s autonomy and environmental mastery rely on shared peer-identity to redefine rules and meet challenges. Wellbeing measures for policy evaluation would benefit from incorporating these insights to meaningfully measure progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 3 on ‘good health and wellbeing’ in South Africa and other contexts that exhibit similar concepts of wellbeing.
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2022–07–25
  45. By: Roy, Tirthankar
    Abstract: For centuries, the world’s tropical regions have been poorer than the temperate-zone countries. Does tropicality make the struggle for economic development harder? What do people caught up in the struggle do? The paper defines ‘tropicality’ as the combination of aridity and seasonal rainfall, and in turn, high inter- and intra-year variability in moisture influx. In the past, this condition would generate a variety of adaptive strategies such as migration and transhumance. In the twentieth century, the response pattern changed from adapting to moisture supply towards control of moisture supply. This process unleashed conflict and environmental stress in the vulnerable geography of the semi-arid tropics.
    Keywords: tropical; economic growth; inequality; drought; development; Taylor & Francis deal
    JEL: N10 N55 N57
    Date: 2022–08–11
  46. By: Jose Vicente Romero (Banco de la Republica); Sara Naranjo Saldarriaga (Banco de la Republica)
    Abstract: Colombia is particularly affected by the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) weather fluctuations. In this context, this study explores how the adverse weather events linked to ENSO affect the inflation expectations in Colombia and how to incorporate these second-round effects into a small open economy New Keynesian model. Using BVARx models we provide evidence that the inflation expectations obtained from surveys and break-even inflation measures are affected by weather supply shocks. Later, using this stylised fact, we modify one of the core forecasting models of the Banco de la Republica by incorporating the mechanisms in which weather-related shocks affect marginal costs and inflation expectations. We find that ENSO shocks had an important role in both inflation and the dynamics of inflation expectations, and that policymakers should consider this fact.
    Keywords: Inflation; inflation expectations; inflation expectations anchoring; weather shocks
    JEL: D84 E31 E52 Q54
    Date: 2022–08–15
  47. By: Franck Galtier (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement, Cirad-ES - Département Environnements et Sociétés - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement)
    Abstract: Sur les marchés internationaux, les prix des céréales (blé, maïs) et des huiles végétales (colza, tournesol, soja, palme) ont augmenté à partir de la mi-2020. Les biocarburants jouent un rôle majeur dans cette hausse et la guerre en Ukraine, qui a débuté en février 2022, l'a exacerbée. Les biocarburants lient en effet le prix de ces denrées à celui du pétrole : lorsque le prix du pétrole augmente, l'industrie des biocarburants accroît sa demande de maïs et d'huiles végétales. Limiter provisoirement cet usage industriel ferait baisser leurs prix. De plus, en cas de hausse du prix du riz, une solution serait d'autoriser le Japon à exporter son stock de riz constitué dans le cadre des règles de l'Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC). Afin de prévenir les crises futures, ces deux leviers pourraient être déclenchés dès que les prix internationaux de ces denrées agricoles atteignent des niveaux prédéfinis.
    Keywords: Prix,Stabilisation des prix,Politique des prix,Produit alimentaire,Céréale,blé,maïs,huile végétale,huile de colza,huile de tournesol,huile de palme,huile de soja,pétrole,biocarburant,combustibles fossiles,crise économique,Sécurité alimentaire,Marché intérieur,Marché mondial,stock alimentaire,OMC,riz,Afrique,États-Unis,monde,pays développé,pays en développement,Russie,Ukraine,pays de l’Union européenne
    Date: 2022
  48. By: Cabello, Sebastián M.
    Abstract: En este trabajo, se analizan las estrategias implementadas en las ciudades de Bogotá, Buenos Aires, Ciudad de México y São Paulo (Brasil), en relación con el concepto de “ciudades inteligentes”. Mediante entrevistas, cuestionarios y el contacto directo con los funcionarios a cargo de la transformación digital de dichas ciudades, se pudo examinar su nivel de organización y preparación institucional, la infraestructura de conectividad disponible y su aplicación de tecnologías y soluciones digitales. A partir de este análisis, se definieron una serie de ejes de trabajo y recomendaciones para lograr que las ciudades sean más sostenibles, inclusivas e inteligentes. Entre estos ejes, cabe destacar el diseño institucional enfocado en la provisión de servicios basados en datos, la cercanía con el sector privado, la importancia de la digitalización para la creación de confianza, la conectividad como servicio público, el trabajo con actores relevantes para reducir las barreras al despliegue de infraestructura, la importancia de promover la compartición y coubicación de la infraestructura de conectividad, el resguardo de la privacidad y la ciberseguridad, la importancia del monitoreo, la evaluación y la retroalimentación, la capacitación permanente y la incorporación de la perspectiva de género en el diseño de políticas.
    Date: 2022–07–15
  49. By: Becker, Stefan; Grajewski, Regina; Rehburg, Pia
    Abstract: Die Umsetzung der Gemeinsamen Agrarpolitik (GAP) 2023 bis 2027 erfolgt im Rahmen nationaler Strategiepläne. Dieses Working Paper untersucht die zur Genehmigung eingereichten Strategiepläne hinsichtlich ihrer finanziellen Schwerpunkte, um Gemeinsamkeiten, Unterschiede und übergreifende Muster der nationalen GAP-Umsetzung zu erfassen. Die Ergebnisse sollen eine grundlegende Orientierung für die neue Förderperiode und Ansatzpunkte für weitere vertiefende Untersuchungen liefern. Es zeigt sich, dass die Mitgliedstaaten die Umsetzungsspielräume der Strategieplanverordnung in vielfältiger Weise nutzen. Die nationalen Pläne weisen trotz gemeinsamer Ziele und Förderleitplanken große inhaltliche und finanzielle Heterogenität auf. Im grundlegenden Design der Pläne zeigt sich diese Verschiedenheit u. a. in der Umschichtung zwischen 1. und 2. Säule und der Höhe der Beteiligungssätze. In der 1. Säule variieren unter den Mitgliedstaaten nicht nur die Anteile von entkoppelten und gekoppelten Direktzahlungen sowie den neu eingeführten Ökoregelungen; auch inhaltlich sind die jeweiligen Angebote sehr unterschiedlich. Dabei erreichen die Ökoregelungen insgesamt nur knapp den vorgeschriebenen Mindestanteil, während die Möglichkeiten für gekoppelte Direktzahlungen vielerorts nahezu ausgereizt werden. Bei den Interventionen in bestimmten Sektoren sind ebenfalls Unterschiede zu erkennen. Zum Teil sind die Angebote sehr kleinteilig, im Wesentlichen aber fließen die Mittel in die Sektoren Obst und Gemüse sowie Wein. Die 2. Säule ist insgesamt von Kontinuität geprägt. Trotz des neuen Angebots von Ökoregelungen in der 1. Säule behalten Agrarumwelt- und Klimamaßnahmen ihre Bedeutung in der 2. Säule. Die Förderung des Ökolandbaus und von Tierwohlmaßnahmen nimmt relativ betrachtet sogar leicht zu. Gleiches gilt für das Risikomanagement, bei dem insbesondere Italien und Frankreich auf GAP-Mittel setzen. Die Förderung von Investitionen verliert indes an relativer Bedeutung. Wichtiger als Veränderungen zur laufenden Förderperiode sind nationale Unterschiede: Die Strategiepläne messen den Interventionen stark variierende Bedeutung zu.Trotz aller Heterogenität fokussieren die Strategiepläne säulenübergreifend vornehmlich auf den Agrarsektor; Daseinsvorsorge und Unternehmensentwicklung in ländlichen Räumen sowie der Forstsektor spielen lediglich Nebenrollen. Die dabei verfolgten Ziele konzentrieren sich auf die Bereiche Einkommen, Wettbewerbsfähigkeit und Umwelt. Dieses Bild zeigt sich in abgeschwächter Form auch, wenn nur die 2. Säule berücksichtigt wird. Gleichwohl sind die eingereichten Strategiepläne in ihrer gesamten Vielfalt ein weiterer Ausweis der Subsidiarität in der Gemeinsamen Agrarpolitik.
    Keywords: Gemeinsame Agrarpolitik,GAP-Strategiepläne,Direktzahlungen,Ökoregelungen,Agrarumwelt-und Klimamaßnahmen,Ländliche Entwicklung,Common Agricultural Policy,CAP strategic plans,direct payments,eco-schemes,agri-environment-climate measures,rural development
    JEL: Q18 Q15
    Date: 2022
  50. By: Jamali, Seyedh Mahboobeh; Nader, Ale Ebrahim; Jamali, Fatemeh
    Abstract: The United Nations (UN) has launched several initiatives to promote the role of education in Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and set Goal 4 for quality education among other SDGs. The integrated Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) approach is a promising educational framework for sustainable development that improves education quality. In this study, a bibliometric analysis was conducted to evaluate the scientific results of the role of integrated STEM education specifically in improving the quality of education (SDG 4). A hundred and fifty publications, with an increasing trend in the number of documents each year, out of the total number of 74,879 documents related to “education quality” and 5,430 documents related to “STEM education” were chosen from the SCOPUS database. The study analyzes the growth and development of research activities in the area of “STEM education” and “Quality education” as reflected in the publications output in the time span of 27 years from 1993 to 2020. The publication and citation trends, the most frequently used keywords, the most influential authors and journals, and the research hotspots were investigated using VoSviewer and Bibliometrix software. Accordingly, the United States happened to be the most productive country in this field owning two-thirds of the number of publications. The “Science Education” journal is ranked at the top of the highly cited journals. The findings show that topics such as “early childhood education”, “computing education”, and “environmental education” are the main hotspots in the research area of STEM and quality of education. The results of this study will help enhance the understanding of integrated STEM education in improving the quality of education and will support future works in this area.
    Keywords: Sustainable development, Quality of education, STEM education, Education computing, Early childhood education
    JEL: I2 I21 I23
    Date: 2021–03–18
  51. By: Jiménez, Daniel; Sáez, Martín
    Abstract: La revolución energética y la electromovilidad están remplazando paulatinamente el uso de motores de combustión interna, con lo que se incrementa el consumo de baterías. El litio es una materia prima clave en la producción de baterías de ion de litio. Su valor y demanda han aumentado de manera exponencial en los últimos años, y las proyecciones futuras son muy optimistas. El triángulo del litio, compuesto por la Argentina, Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de) y Chile, se destaca en el mundo por contar con importantes reservas de este elemento. Los tres países buscan progresar en la minería del litio aprovechando la oportunidad para agregar valor, pero con trayectorias distintas debido a sus políticas y leyes respecto del tema. En el presente documento se analizan los ámbitos técnico, tecnológico, económico y legislativo de la producción en el triángulo del litio, y qué medidas podrían agregar valor a la producción de compuestos de litio, con especial énfasis en la cadena de valor hasta la producción de baterías. Además, se plantea que el reciclaje de litio afectará la demanda de litio minado y se destaca la urgencia de aumentar la producción en el corto plazo. En la producción de los distintos compuestos de litio, la de carbonato de litio del triángulo tendría una ventaja comparativa frente a la de Australia; en este documento se explica también por qué este país es un competidor importante.
    Date: 2022–08–10
  52. By: Wellbrock, Nicole; Makowski, Vera; Bielefeldt, Judith; Dühnelt, Petra-Elena; Grüneberg, Erik; Bienert, Oliver; Blum, Uwe; Drescher-Larres, Katja; Eickenscheidt, Nadine; Evers, Jan; Falk, Wolfgang; Greve, Martin; Hartmann, Peter; Henry, Juliane; Jacob, Frank; Martin, Jan; Milbert, Gerd; Riek, Winfried; Rückamp, Daniel; Schilli, Carsten; Schwerhoff, Jürgen; Süß, Rüdiger
    Abstract: Die Arbeitsanleitung der dritten Bodenzustandserhebung im Wald ist die methodische Grundlage der BZE III. Die Erhebung wird in den Jahren 2022-2024 an knapp 1900 Punkten in allen Bundesländern der Bundesrepublik Deutschland durchgeführt. Insgesamt werden über 300 Parameter im Gelände aus den Bereichen Boden, Waldernährung, Vegetation und Waldwachstum (lebender Bestand und Totholz) aufgenommen, wobei die meisten Informationen zum wiederholten Mal erhoben werden. Einige unveränderliche Parameter dürfen auch aus den Altdaten der BZE II übernommen werden. Für jeden Parameter ist in der Arbeitsanleitung angegeben, wie er im Gelände erhoben wird, welche Ausprägungen er haben kann, mit welcher Labormethode er erhoben wird und in welcher Form er in die Datenbank eingegeben wird. Die Anleitung ist in Kapitel untergliedert, wobei jedes Kapitel einen thematischen Teilabschnitt der Erhebung behandelt. Erhoben werden Daten zu Boden, Vegetation und Bestand an sämtlichen BZE-Punkten. Es werden gestörte und ungestörte Bodenproben für chemische und physikalische Untersuchungen sowie Nadel- bzw. Blattproben entnommen. Grundlegende Standortinformationen, etwa zum Klima und forstlichen Daten, werden im Rahmen der BZE ebenfalls abgefragt. Das Kapitel X beschreibt außerdem sämtliche Labormethoden, die im Rahmen der BZE zum Einsatz kommen. Die Arbeitsanleitung der BZE III wurde gemeinsam von der Bund-Länder-Arbeitsgruppe zur BZE-Wald erarbeitet.
    Keywords: Monitoring,Boden,Wald,Bodenzustandserhebung,Waldzustand,soil,forest,soil inventory,forest condition
    Date: 2022
  53. By: Kabambe, Vernon H; Chamdimba, Bridget; Phiri, Jechner
    Abstract: This bulletin has been prepared by the Malawi Agro-Ecological Intensification (AEI) hub as a case study to highlight how AEI practices are being rolled out in Chibale Model Village, Likudzi Section, Manjawila Extension planning Area (EPA) in Ntcheu district. The efforts are led by public extension service, using multi-model extension approach-es and multi-stakeholder collaboration to harness synergy. FAO (2018) suggested ten elements of agro-ecology as analytical tools to help in identifying important properties of agro-ecological systems and approaches and also relevant considerations in developing enabling environments for agro-ecology. The ten elements also serve as guide to policy makers, practitioners and stakeholders in planning, managing and evaluating agro-ecological transitions. Thus the same FAO’s (2018) ten elements have been used as basis for appraisal. The review shows that all ten elements are being promoted in the area, with variation in intensity and scale, and also some more directly and others more indi-rectly. We identified areas needing more emphasis as market linkages, and responsible local governance to enable protection of resources in the field such as plant material used as cover in CA systems and long duration crops such as pigeon peas and cassava, from uncontrolled fires and free ranging animals. Through farmer field schools farmers are generating evidence of the use of neem leaf powder as organic treatment for notorious fall army worm infestation in maize. This is commendable and is worth scaling out.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2022–08–01
  54. By: Bhadrakom, Chayada; Boughton, Duncan; Kitchaicharoen, Jirawan; Napasintuwong, Orachos; Saiyut, Pakapon; Satsue, Palakorn; Punjatewakupt, Piyawong; Suebpongsang, Pornsiri; Yotapakdee, Teeka; Satimanon, Thasanee
    Abstract: The conference focused on the key role of research evidence for the design of policy and institutional innovations that accelerate the transformation to healthier, more sustainable, equitable, and resilient food systems. Research offers many important contributions to achieve the SDGs. It generates the basic inputs for innovations, i.e. policy and institutional innovations (incl. social and business innovations) as well as technology-based innovations to catalyze, support, and accelerate food systems transformation. Second, research assesses targets and actions by understanding the impliciations of various development pathways (for instance through quantitative analyses and food systems modeling) as well as assessing impacts ex-post to ensure learning and corrective measures. Taking a food systems approach that draws on expertise and evidence from different research disciplines is necessary to understand how investments and choices in food production, distribution, processing, and consumption determine outcomes related to nutrition, food security, socio-economic welfare, and environmental health. The conference demonstrated that high quality evidence is available even if there are still important gaps that need to be filled. The human and organizational capacity to generate evidence and innovation is also available if we can mobilize the financial resources and regional collaboration to address them. Of course, we must also use evidence to accelerate positive change. This is an important part of the “call to action” of this conference.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2022–03–20
  55. By: Amine Ouazad
    Abstract: Measuring beliefs about natural disasters is challenging. Deep out-of-the-money options allow investors to hedge at a range of strikes and time horizons, thus the 3-dimensional surface of firm-level option prices provides information on (i) skewed and fat-tailed beliefs about the impact of natural disaster risk across space and time dimensions at daily frequency; and (ii) information on the covariance of wildfire-exposed stocks with investors' marginal utility of wealth. Each publicly-traded company's daily surface of option prices is matched with its network of establishments and wildfire perimeters over two decades. First, wildfires affect investors' risk neutral probabilities at short and long maturities; investors price asymmetric downward tail risk and a probability of upward jumps. The volatility smile is more pronounced. Second, comparing risk-neutral and physical distributions reveals the option-implied risk aversion with respect to wildfire-exposed stock prices. Investors' marginal utility of wealth is correlated with wildfire shocks. Option-implied risk aversion identifies the wildfire-exposed share of portfolios. For risk aversions consistent with Barro (2012), equity options suggest (i) investors hold larger shares of wildfire-exposed stocks than the market portfolio; or (ii) investors may have more pessimistic beliefs about wildfires' impacts than what observed returns suggest, such as pricing low-probability unrealized downward tail risk. We calibrate options with models featuring both upward and downward risk. Results are consistent a significant pricing of downward jumps.
    Date: 2022–08
  56. By: Agnes Medinaceli (SDSN Bolivia); Alejandra Gonzales (SDSN Bolivia); Andres Aramayo (ORBITA); Martha Jemio (ORBITA); Ariel Tamayo (ORBITA)
    Abstract: El Observatorio Boliviano para la Industria Turística Sostenible (ORBITA), en coordinación con varias instituciones académicas bolivianas, realizó encuestas en las entradas de carnaval de La Paz, Oruro y Cochabamba el 2022, con el propósito de poder desarrollar análisis, en base a datos, que fomenten mejoras en varios aspectos de estas festividades. Adicionalmente, se realizaron encuestas en las terminales de buses y aeropuertos de La Paz, El Alto, Cochabamba y Tarija. Este boletín se enfoca en describir a detalle la metodología que se implementó para la recolección de datos y el análisis respectivo.
    Keywords: Turismo, desarrollo sostenible, género, Bolivia
    JEL: J30 J50 J80
    Date: 2022–08
  57. By: Howard Kunreuther; Artem Demidov; Mark Pauly; Matija Turcic; Michael Wilson
    Abstract: Much of the property damage from wildfires occurs when fires spread into built up areas, the wildland urban interface. Fire spread within such areas occurs from house to house, as embers from one burning structure ignite neighboring ones. Actions can be taken to mitigate the chances that a given house will ignite. This size and configuration of this external benefit depends on the assumed process of fire spread. In this paper we use a simulation model based on plausible parameters to illustrate likely patterns of marginal benefit from mitigation as a function of building density and effectiveness of mitigation. The model indicates that a common pattern is for marginal benefit to unmitigated neighbors to be low at low levels of community mitigation, rise to a maximum, and then fall quickly to a low level. This maximum marginal benefit (known as “herd immunity”) helps to indicate the optimal pattern of mitigation in a community. However individual owners in Nash equilibrium will not take the spillover benefits into account. We use the distribution of house values in a California community relative to an assumed cost of mitigation to illustrate in the model the level of mitigation owners will undertake when they make independent investment decisions, and the corrective actions that can lead to the social optimum. We discuss the use of rules or subsidies for insurance premium adjustments based on mitigation activities. Because it will rarely be optimal to mitigate all homes, the optimal solution may involve unequal treatment and raise equity issues.
    JEL: H0 Q0
    Date: 2022–08
  58. By: Haoying Wang; Rafael Garduno Rivera
    Abstract: With the recent administration change in Mexico, the fluctuations in national energy policy have generated widespread concerns among investors and the public. The debate centers around Mexico's energy dependence on the US and how Mexico's energy development should move forward. The goal of this study is two-fold. We first review the history and background of the recent energy reforms in Mexico. The focus of the study is on quantifying the state-level regional economic impact of the growing US-Mexico natural gas trade in Mexico. We examine both the quantity effect (impact of import volume) and the price effect (impact of natural gas price changes). Our empirical analysis adopts a fixed-effects regression model and the instrumental variables (IV) estimation approach to address spatial heterogeneities and the potential endogeneity associated with natural gas import. The quantity effect analysis suggests a statistically significant positive employment impact of imports in non-mining sectors. The impact in the mining sector, however, is insignificant. The state-level average (non-mining) employment impact is 127 jobs per million MCFs of natural gas imported from the US. The price effect analysis suggests a statistically significant positive employment impact of price increases in the mining sector. A one-percentage increase in natural gas price (1.82 Pesos/GJ, in 2015 Peso) leads to an average state-level mining employment increase of 140 (or 2.38%). We also explored the implications of our findings for Mexico's energy policy, trade policy, and energy security.
    Date: 2022–08
  59. By: Claudius Gros
    Abstract: The productivity of a common pool of resources may degrade when overly exploited by a number of selfish investors, a situation known as the tragedy of the commons (TOC). Without regulations, agents optimize the size of their individual investments into the commons by balancing incurring costs with the returns received. The resulting Nash equilibrium involves a self-consistency loop between individual investment decisions and the state of the commons. As a consequence, several non-trivial properties emerge. For $N$ investing actors we proof rigorously that typical payoffs do not scale as $1/N$, the expected result for cooperating agents, but as $(1/N)^2$. Payoffs are hence functionally reduced, a situation denoted catastrophic poverty. This occurs despite the fact that the cumulative investment remains finite when $N\to\infty$. Catastrophic poverty is instead a consequence of an increasingly fine-tuned balance between returns and costs. In addition, we point out that a finite number of oligarchs may be present. Oligarchs are characterized by payoffs that are finite and not decreasing when $N$ increases. Our results hold for generic classes of models, including convex and moderately concave cost functions. For strongly concave cost functions the Nash equilibrium undergoes a collective reorganization, being characterized instead by entry barriers and sudden death forced market exits.
    Date: 2022–08
  60. By: Anastasia COSTANTINI (Diesis Network); Alessia SEBILLO (Diesis Network)
    Abstract: Women remain underrepresented in the labour market. In the EU, they earn 14,1% less than men, and they still experience barriers to access and remain at the labour market (Eurostat, 2021a). Currently, the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the gender dimension of social and economic inequalities, producing a severe gender impact and the risk of economic marginalisation of women. Why do we expect the social and solidarity economy to improve gender equality at work? Therefore, the paper will discuss the potential and limits of the SEEs in promoting gender equality and women's empowerment. The analysis has referenced existing literature and available information on the sector, including interviews with experts and illustrative cases within Diesis Network2, one of the broadest European networks supporting the social economy and social enterprise development. The aim is to show impactful solutions of SEEs and bring social and solidarity economy closer to the gender perspective to increase their impact in supporting inclusive and sustainable growth.
    Keywords: Gender Equality, Gender Gap, Economic Growth, Social Economy, Social Economy Enterprise, Cooperative, Labour Market, Social Innovation, Sustainable Development
    JEL: J16 O33 O35
    Date: 2022–02

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