nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2022‒06‒27
fifty-four papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Green versus sustainable loans: The impact on firms’ ESG performance By Özlem Dursun-de Neef; Steven Ongena; Gergana Tsonkova
  2. Climate Stabilization Taxation-and-Bonds Strategy Adjusted for Consumption By Julia M. Puaschunder
  3. Climate change and the economy: an introduction By António R. Antunes; Bernardino Adão; João Valle e Azevedo; Nuno Lourenço; Miguel Gouveia
  4. Climate change concerns and actions – Can provision of information motivate people to fight climate change? By Tzamourani, Panagiota
  5. How do environmental policies affect green innovation and trade? Evidence from the WTO Environmental Database (EDB) By Bellelli, Francesco S.; Xu, Ankai
  6. Trade-offs between economic, environmental and social sustainability on farms using a latent class frontier efficiency model: Evidence for Spanish crop farms By Amer Ait Sidhoum; K. Hervé Dakpo; Laure Latruffe
  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and its Main Drivers: a Panel Assessment for EU-27 Member States By I. Jianu; S. M. Jeloaica; M. D. Tudorache
  8. Acuerdo Regional sobre el Acceso a la Información, la Participación Pública y el Acceso a la Justicia en Asuntos Ambientales en América Latina y el Caribe. Guía de implementación By -
  9. Global trends in the invention and diffusion of climate change mitigation technologies By Probst, Benedict; Touboul, Simon; Glachant, Matthieu; Dechezleprêtre, Antoine
  10. Air Pollution and Student Performance in the U.S. By Michael Gilraine; Angela Zheng
  11. Community Carbon Footprints and the Climate Transition: An Initial Assessment for Treherbert By Jones, Calvin
  12. Transformative change for a sustainable management of global commons: Biodiversity, forests and the ocean. Recommendations for international cooperation based on a review of global assessment reports and project experience By Wittmer, Heidi; Berghöfer, Augustin; Büttner, Leonie; Chakrabarty, Ruchira; Förster, Johannes; Khan, Sabina; König, Claudia; Krause, Gesche; Kreuer, David; Locher Krause, Karla Estela; Moreno Soares, Thais; Muñoz Escobar, Marcela; Neumann, Malte; Renner, Isabel; Rode, Julian; Schniewind, Imma; Schwarzer, Dorothea; Tröger, Ulrike; Zinngrebe, Yves; Spiering, Salina
  13. Does Hotter Temperature Increase Poverty? Global Evidence from Subnational Data Analysis By Dang, Hai-Anh; Trinh, Trong-Anh
  14. Putting cities in the framework of Sustainable Development; Evolution, Evaluation and Features of SDG 11 By METAXAS, IOANNIS; Metaxas, Theodore
  15. The multi-level economic impacts of deep decarbonization strategies for the energy system By Gaëlle Le Treut; Julien Lefevre; Francisco Lallana; Gonzalo Bravo
  16. Regional Agreement on Access to Information, Public Participation and Justice in Environmental Matters in Latin America and the Caribbean. Implementation guide By -
  17. A new Arctic strategy for the EU: Maritime security and geopolitical signalling By Paul, Michael
  18. An optimal strategy to control mining and recycling of non-renewable resources By Silvia Bertarelli; Chiara Lodi; Stefania Ragni
  19. Sustainable Lifestyle Revolution: Agrohoods, Ecowellness and Biophilia Trends By Julia M. Puaschunder
  20. On the Short-term Impact of Pollution: The Effect of PM 2.5 on Emergency Room Visits By Evangelina Dardati; Ramiro de Elejalde; Eugenio Giolito
  21. The Eastern Mediterranean as a focus for the EU's energy transition: Deep-rooted enmities and new opportunities for cooperation between Greece, Turkey and Cyprus By Rau, Moritz; Seufert, Günter; Westphal, Kirsten
  22. Reforming Fertilizer Import Policies for Sustainable Intensification of Agricultural Systems in Sri Lanka: Is there a Policy Failure? By Weerahewa, Jeevika; Senaratne, Athula; Babu, Suresh
  23. Energy Consumption and Human Development in South Africa: Empirical Evidence from Disaggregated Data By Mercy T. Musakwa; Nicholas M. Odhiambo
  24. Strategic Pricing, Lifespan Choices and Environmental Implications of Peer-to-Peer Sharing By Francisco J. André; Carmen Arguedas; Sandra Rousseau
  25. How to Mitigate Transportation Emissions in Saudi Arabia? The Role of Energy Price Governance By Sa'd Shannak; Jeyhun Mikayilov; Rubal Dua
  26. From a “half full or half empty glass†to “definitely a success†. Explorative comparison of impacts of climate assemblies in Ireland, France, Germany and Scotland By Stack, Shauna; Griessler, Erich
  27. Case studies’ evidence of greenium in green bond sovereign issuances during the pandemic selloff of March 2020. By Ramos Murillo, Erick
  28. Why and when coalitions split? An alternative analytical approach with an application to environmental agreements By Raouf Boucekkine; Carmen Camacho; Weihua Ruan; Benteng Zou
  29. Back to the future? International climate policy in 2021. New constellations for the EU's climate diplomacy By Dröge, Susanne; Schrader, Tessa-Sophie
  30. Decarbonising EU-Turkey energy cooperation: Challenges and prospects By Tastan, Kadri
  31. Next COP ahead: Europe has work to do By Dröge, Susanne; Geden, Oliver
  32. Stellungnahme zur Anhörung des Ausschusses für Klimaschutz und Energie im Deutschen Bundestag: CO2-Grenzausgleichsmechanismus By Fremerey, Melinda; Gerards Iglesias, Simon; Hüther, Michael
  33. The Social Cost of Carbon with Intragenerational Inequality under Economic Uncertainty By Rick van der Ploeg; Johannes Emmerling; Ben Groom
  34. Modeling the interface between the social geosystem and the environment By Tolstoguzov, Oleg; Belykh, Anastasia
  35. Motivating Sustainable Resource Consumption Through the Design of Goal Setting in Smart Meter User Interfaces By Wendt, Charlotte; Benlian, Alexander
  36. Environmental rights and conflicts over raw materials in Latin America: The Escazú Agreement is ready to come into force in 2021 By Maihold, Günther; Reisch, Viktoria
  37. Sustainable food systems science based on physics’ principles By Hugo de Vries; Mechthild Donner; Monique Axelos
  38. Russia in the global hydrogen race: Advancing German-Russian hydrogen cooperation in a strained political climate By Zabanova, Yana; Westphal, Kirsten
  39. Vínculos territoriales en el municipio de Lejanías: el ecoturismo en la región del Ariari (Meta, Colombia) By Fernández Delgado, Eduardo; Cifuentes Noyes, Ariel; Ramírez Jaramillo, Juan Carlos
  40. Stranded Assets in the Coal Export Industry? The Case of the Australian Galilee Basin By Christian Hauenstein; Franziska Holz; Lennart Rathje; Thomas Mitterecker
  41. Public-private alliances for sustainable commodity supply chains: Opportunities and risks in the South African mining sector By Müller, Melanie; Saulich, Christina; Schulze, Meike
  42. The Digital Transition for a Sustainable Mobility Regime? A Long-Run Perspective By Ralph Hippe; Damien Demailly; Claude Diebolt
  43. A Bioeconomic Projection of Climate‐Induced Wildfire Risk in the Forest Sector By Miguel Riviere; F. Pimont; P. Delacote; S. Caurla; J. Ruffault; A. Lobianco; T. Opitz; J. Dupuy
  44. Risk Management for Smallholder Farmers: An Empirical Study on the Adoption of Weather-Index Crop Insurance in Rural Kenya By Keiko Fukumori; Ayumi Arai; Tomoya Matsumoto
  45. Commercial performance of the integration of standards in olive oil and agri-food marketing By Rocio Carrillo Labella; Fatiha Fort; Manuel Parras Rosa
  46. A policy toolkit to increase research and innovation in the European Union By Andreas Teichgraeber; John Van Reenen
  47. A Ten-Year Review of the Southeast U.S. Green Industry, Part II: Addressing Labor Shortages and Internal and External Factors Affecting Business Strategies By Rihn, Alicia L.; Fulcher, Amy; Khachatryan, Hayk; LeBude, Anthony; Warner, Laura A.; Schnexnayder, Susan
  48. Hacia una ganadería sostenible en Vichada: Instrumentos políticos y financieros By Muñoz Escobar, Marcela; Fernández Lavado, Andrea Paola; Montenegro Calvo, Maria Juliana; García Ugarte, Mario; Forero Azabache, Oscar
  49. Eliminating government support to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing By Claire Delpeuch; Emanuela Migliaccio; Will Symes
  50. Legal frameworks for the social and solidarity economy: OECD Global Action “Promoting Social and Solidarity Economy Ecosystems” By OECD
  51. Proportional Incremental Cost Probability Functions and their Frontiers By Fève, Frédérique; Florens, Jean-Pierre; Simar, Léopold
  52. The political economy of moving up in global value chains: how Malaysia added value to its natural resources through industrial policy By Lebdioui, Amir
  53. The practicality of regional import substitution as a strategy for sustainable development in the Caribbean By Alleyne, Antonio; Lorde, Troy; Moore, Winston
  54. Two strategies for boreal forestry with goodwill in capitalization By Petri P. Karenlampi

  1. By: Özlem Dursun-de Neef (Goethe University Frankfurt); Steven Ongena (University of Zurich - Department of Banking and Finance; Swiss Finance Institute; KU Leuven; NTNU Business School; Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR)); Gergana Tsonkova (Goethe University Frankfurt)
    Abstract: This paper studies the development of a firm’s Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) performance following the issuance of “green loans” earmarked for green projects versus “sustainable loans” to firms bench-marked by ESG criteria. Firms issuing green loans appear to be effective in shrinking their environmental emissions; however, they weaken in social performance indicated by a decrease in their human rights, community, and product responsibility scores. This implies that they prioritize their environmental goals, yet neglect their commitment towards their clients and society. Sustainable loans, on the other hand, we find to incentivize firms to improve their ESG performance by increasing their environmental and governance scores. Thus, the issuance of a sustainable loan surely precedes (and may consequentially signal) subsequent improvements in a firm’s overall ESG performance.
    Keywords: Green Loans; Sustainability Linked Loans; Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) Performance; Sustainable Finance
    JEL: G21 G32 M14
    Date: 2022–05
  2. By: Julia M. Puaschunder (The New School, New York, USA)
    Abstract: Current climate change mitigation and adaptation financing efforts are calling for innovative green investment strategies. An emerging literature and awareness on the economic gains and losses of a warming globe being distributed unequally between countries can serve as novel basis of redistribution schemes. A taxation-and-bonds strategy over the entire world could fund climate change alleviation. A financial asset transfer could be enacted in form of tax-debt mechanisms. Proposed taxation and bonds strategy could aid in broad-based and long-term market incentivization of a transition to a clean energy economy. Strategies could feature some countries’ financing green bonds via carbon taxation, while other countries are climate bonds premium recipients. The bonds recipients would be funded by the climate taxation countries. The bonds could be tradable and issued controlled by global governance institutions, such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the United Nations or the World Trade Organization. In most redistribution schemes with market incentives, such as – for example – the cap-and-trade emissions trading system, the CO2 emissions levels are addressed. This article advocates for attention to potential economic gains from a warming globe as a source of assets for redistribution. These gains could be redistributed to areas and industries of the world that are clearly losing from climate change immediately. Contrary to most economic redistribution models concerning climate change that primarily weight in relative CO2 emissions for production, this paper argues for attention to CO2 emissions consumption levels. The trade-adjusted consumption-based CO2 emissions levels appear fairer in the judgment what countries have a higher responsibility to fund the burden of climate change. Market-mechanisms – such as consumption taxation and price mark-ups for consumers – are discussed as additional market strategies to redistribute costs, risks and losses implied by climate change.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Climate Stabilization, Economics, Economics of the Environment, Environmental Justice, Environmental Governance, Equality, Monetary policy, Redistribution, Social Justice, Sustainability
    Date: 2021–12
  3. By: António R. Antunes; Bernardino Adão; João Valle e Azevedo; Nuno Lourenço; Miguel Gouveia
    Abstract: This work presents in an accessible way the functioning of the natural climate system and the mechanisms through which global warming occurs. The warming of the Earth’s surface and the evolution of precipitation throughout the 20th century are documented, including for the Portuguese case. The channels of transmission of climate change to the economy are also analysed. The likely impact on the level of global GDP is negative, with a range of estimates very sensitive to the occurrence of phenomena that are difficult to predict. It also discusses economic policy proposals addressing the problem of fossil carbon emissions. Significant carbon taxation will likely have to coexist with the existing carbon emission permit system. The role of central banks in mitigating the effects of excessive CO2 emissions is analysed, highlighting regulatory reporting with a focus on environmental issues and the assumption of concerns related to sustainability and corporate responsibility. Finally, modelbased estimates of economic costs associated to climate change are presented. In this example, we conclude that the adoption of an optimal global policy would save Portugal about 0.5ºC of warming.
    JEL: E21 E60 F40
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Tzamourani, Panagiota
    Abstract: Are individuals concerned enough about climate change to change their behavior and bear additional costs as a consequence? How can they be motivated to fight climate change? A Bundesbank survey conducted between April 2020 and December 2021 shows that people are more concerned about climate change than about the state of the economy. During most of the ongoing pandemic, only the coronavirus was of a higher concern. While people who rate climate change as a serious issue are also more willing to take on additional costs to help fight climate change, providing information on ways to reduce carbon emissions further increases their willingness to do so.
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Bellelli, Francesco S.; Xu, Ankai
    Abstract: This study investigates how environmental policies impact trade and innovation in environmental goods. We make two major contributions to the economic debate. First, we extract a set of information from the WTO Environmental Database (EDB) through natural language processing techniques that could be useful for future research and policy analysis. Second, we use this data to test a set of economic hypotheses on how environmental measures impact environmental innovation and trade. Our findings show that environmental measures can be an effective tool for stimulating green innovation and trade in green goods. However, policy design matters. Green innovation is most sensitive to R&D expenditure and measures on intellectual property protection and enforcement, whereas trade in green goods increases with environmental subsidies and support measures. Conversely, we find that non-tariff barriers - such as quarantine requirements, import quotas, regulation affecting movement or transit - reduce both imports and exports of environmental goods. Our findings also highlight strong path dependency in innovation. Hence, the earlier the intervention, the greater the accumulated benefits from green innovation. Conversely, delays in intervention increase the cost of transition by further "locking-in" the economy on dirtier exports and technologies. Finally, our result highlight that there is a clear linkage between innovation and trade. Past patents are a strong predictor of future exports, and nations tend to innovate more in technologies related to their exports. We also find evidence of strong technological spillovers across countries and sectors integrated in Global Value Chains (GVC). Hence, integration in environmental goods' GVCs could provide further channels of green technology diffusion and development.
    Keywords: trade and environment,environmental policies,innovation
    JEL: F14 F18 O38 Q55 Q58
    Date: 2022
  6. By: Amer Ait Sidhoum; K. Hervé Dakpo; Laure Latruffe (GREThA - Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée - UB - Université de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This article studies trade-offs of farms in terms of economic sustainability (proxied here by technical efficiency), environmental sustainability (proxied here by farmers' commitment towards the environment) and social sustainability (proxied here by farmers' contribution to on farm well-being and communities' well-being). We use the latent class stochastic frontier model and create classes based on three separating variables, representing farms' environmental sustainability and social sustainability. The application to a sample of Spanish crop farms shows that more environmentally sustainable farms are likely to have lower levels of technical efficiency. However, improvements in social concerns, both towards own farm and the larger community, may lead to improved technical efficiency levels. In general, our study provides evidence of trade-offs for farms between economic sustainability and environmental sustainability, but also between environmental sustainability and social sustainability.
    Keywords: Sustainable agriculture,Sustainability science,Agricultural economics,Farms,Crops,Agricultural workers,Pesticides,Agriculture
    Date: 2022–01–10
  7. By: I. Jianu; S. M. Jeloaica; M. D. Tudorache
    Abstract: This paper assesses the effects of greenhouse gas emissions drivers in EU-27 over the period 2010-2019, using a Panel EGLS model with period fixed effects. In particular, we focused our research on studying the effects of GDP, renewable energy, households energy consumption and waste on the greenhouse gas emissions. In this regard, we found a positive relationship between three independent variables (real GDP per capita, households final consumption per capita and waste generation per capita) and greenhouse gas emissions per capita, while the effect of the share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption on the dependent variable proved to be negative, but quite low. In addition, we demonstrate that the main challenge that affects greenhouse gas emissions is related to the structure of households energy consumption, which is generally composed by environmentally harmful fuels. This suggests the need to make greater efforts to support the shift to a green economy based on a higher energy efficiency.
    Date: 2022–04
  8. By: -
    Date: 2022–04–06
  9. By: Probst, Benedict; Touboul, Simon; Glachant, Matthieu; Dechezleprêtre, Antoine
    Abstract: Increasing the development and diffusion of climate change mitigation technologies on a global scale is critical to reaching net-zero emissions. We have analysed over a quarter of a million high-value inventions in all major climate change mitigation technologies patented from 1995 to 2017 by inventors located in 170 countries. Our analysis shows an annual growth rate of 10% from 1995 to 2012 in these high-value inventions. Yet, from 2013 to 2017, the growth rate of these inventions fell by around 6% annually, likely driven by declining fossil fuel prices, low carbon prices and increasing technological maturity for some technologies, such as solar photovoltaics. Invention has remained highly concentrated geographically over the past decade, with inventors in Germany, Japan and the United States accounting for more than half of global inventions, and the top ten countries for almost 90%. Except for inventors in China, most middle-income economies have not caught up and remain less specialized in low-carbon technologies than high-income economies.
    Keywords: ES/R009708/1
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2021–11
  10. By: Michael Gilraine; Angela Zheng
    Abstract: We combine satellite-based pollution data and test scores from over 10,000 U.S. school districts to estimate the relationship between air pollution and test scores. To deal with potential endogeneity we instrument for air quality using (i) year-to-year coal production variation and (ii) a shift-share instrument that interacts fuel shares used for nearby power production with national growth rates. We find that each one-unit increase in particulate pollution reduces test scores by 0.02 standard deviations. Our findings indicate that declines in particulate pollution exposure raised test scores and reduced the black-white test score gap by 0.06 and 0.01 standard deviations, respectively.
    JEL: I14 I24 Q53
    Date: 2022–05
  11. By: Jones, Calvin
    Abstract: We estimate the consumption carbon footprint for Treherbert, a small community in South Wales. Our results suggest an annual household footprint of around 47,000 tonnes with a further 11,000 tonnes attributable to industry located within the Ward. The emissions are fairly equally distributed across the range of sources and uses, suggesting there is no single, dominant action to progress to net-zero: wide ranging and I integrated actions are required. Less important in the overall footprint for this community is commuting, and land-based carbon sequestration opportunities will be limited, even though Treherbert is surrounded by extensive treescapes. Actions to move to net-zero must include deep and meaningful engagement, if no co-creation with, communities that have hitherto been largely ignored in the development of public policy
    Date: 2022–05–19
  12. By: Wittmer, Heidi; Berghöfer, Augustin; Büttner, Leonie; Chakrabarty, Ruchira; Förster, Johannes; Khan, Sabina; König, Claudia; Krause, Gesche; Kreuer, David; Locher Krause, Karla Estela; Moreno Soares, Thais; Muñoz Escobar, Marcela; Neumann, Malte; Renner, Isabel; Rode, Julian; Schniewind, Imma; Schwarzer, Dorothea; Tröger, Ulrike; Zinngrebe, Yves; Spiering, Salina
    Abstract: Global scientific assessments increasingly reach the conclusion that transformative change of global production and consumption systems is necessary to safeguard and maintain global commons, such as biodiversity, natural forests and the ocean, and to stabilise climate at the global scale. Against this background the present study analyses the conclusions of global assessments and derives recommendations on how to increase the transformative potential of international negotiations and agreements as well as development cooperation programs, projects, and initiatives. The study develops a conceptual framework building on the academic literature and argues that interventions are much more likely to achieve transformation to sustainability if they are embedded within a more comprehensive framing of transformative change consisting of 1. a compelling transformative vision, 2. knowledge on systemic change, 3. navigation of the dynamics inherent in changing development pathways, and 4. emancipated agency providing room for inclusive deliberation and 5. combine transformative modes of governance. The study identifies core challenges and gaps for the conservation and sustainable management of biodiversity in general and for forests and the ocean by (i) examining the recommendations from global assessments and reports on the state of nature and the environment, and (ii) by analysing international cooperation projects for biodiversity, forests and the ocean with regard to their transformative potential. Finally, the study provides recommendations on how Germany can support transformation in the context of international and development cooperation.
    Keywords: sustainable development,biodiversity,forests,the ocean,ecosystems,transformative change,SDGs,sustainability goals,global assessments,global commons,sustainability transformation,policy measures,German Development cooperation,governance
    Date: 2021
  13. By: Dang, Hai-Anh (World Bank); Trinh, Trong-Anh (University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: Despite a vast literature documenting the negative effects of climate change on various socio-economic outcomes, little, if any, evidence exists on the global impacts of hotter temperature on poverty. Analyzing a new global dataset of subnational poverty in 166 countries, we find higher temperature to increase poverty. This finding is robust to various model specifications, data samples, and measures of temperature. Our preferred specification shows that a 1˚C increase leads to a 2.1 percent increase in the headcount poverty rate, using the US$ 1.90 daily poverty threshold. Regional heterogeneity exists, with Sub-Saharan African countries being most vulnerable to higher temperature. We find suggestive evidence that reduction in crop yields could be a key channel that explains the effects of rising temperature. Further simulation indicate that global warming can significantly increase poverty, with more pronounced effects occurring in poorer regions and under scenarios of higher greenhouse gas emissions without mitigation policies.
    Keywords: climate change, global warming, poverty, agriculture
    JEL: Q54 I32 O1
    Date: 2022–05
  14. By: METAXAS, IOANNIS; Metaxas, Theodore
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to analyze in first basis, how the International Community, reached the adoption of the SDG’s goals, and to discuss the assets and the problems, the omissions of these goals. Then, this text will give emphasis to the inclusiveness, resilience, safety and sustainability of the cities, and will indicate the extent that those goals were well – promoted and protected under the Millennium Sustainable Development Goals (MDGs) and the Sustainable Development Goals. Moreover, this assignment, will trace the upgrade and integration of these goals into an entrenched and united goal (Goal 11 of Sustainable Development) and the current developments and problems that seem to emerge, mostly regarding the sustainability of the cities. Furthermore, this paper will try to prove the strong linkage between SDG 3 (Good Health – Well Being) and SDG 11
    Keywords: United Nations;, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs); Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); Sustainable Cities, SDG 3.
    JEL: I3 I38 O2 O20 R5
    Date: 2022–05–04
  15. By: Gaëlle Le Treut (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech); Julien Lefevre (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Francisco Lallana; Gonzalo Bravo
    Abstract: To cap global warming below 2 • C, countries are urged to upscale their climate commitments and develop national deep decarbonization (DD) strategies for the energy system. But, fast and deep transformations will have wide-ranging economic implications at the macroeconomic level, in energy industries, and also in other sectors. Such impacts need to be understood by policy-makers. This paper develops an original integrated approach based on loading consolidated energy pathways into a multi-sector economy-wide model to assess within a consistent framework the multi-level economic impacts of the DD strategies. The method is applied to Argentina and gives representative insights into the global challenge to move towards a low-carbon economy. Our results show key multi-level impacts of shifting from a 'reference' to a DD pathway by 2050. In energy industries, value-added and employment shift from fossil fuel to low-carbon power industries. Aggregated GDP and welfare impacts are limited but incremental investments are significant at the macroeconomic level, with indirect and induced impacts across the economy. It includes net job creations in upstream industries that supply low-carbon infrastructures, but also risks of job losses in exposed sectors. Eventually, our approach highlights enabling conditions and possible block points to lift to trigger the transition.
    Date: 2021–07–01
  16. By: -
    Date: 2022–02–08
  17. By: Paul, Michael
    Abstract: The European Union is an Arctic actor with a long record of engagement. Climate change and safeguarding the Arctic, sustainable development and international co­operation are the priority areas guiding its Arctic policy and its numerous projects in the region. Although the Union lacks formal observer status in the Arctic Council, member states Finland, Sweden and the Kingdom of Denmark are members of the body, along with Iceland and Norway, which are members of the European Economic Area and participate in the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation. Whereas the environmental and sustainability elements spelled out in the Commission's communication of 2016 remain highly relevant, the region's growing geo­political significance makes the lack of a security policy component an increasingly pressing concern. This should therefore be addressed in the EU's new Arctic policy, which is currently being finalised after the public consultation ended in November 2020. Maritime security offers a tested and appropriate field for expanding EU engage­ment.
    Date: 2021
  18. By: Silvia Bertarelli (Department of Economics and Management, Università di Ferrara); Chiara Lodi (Department of Economics, Society & Politics, Università di Urbino Carlo Bo); Stefania Ragni (Department of Economics and Management, Università di Ferrara)
    Abstract: The current debate on non-renewable resources has been increasingly recognizing their critical role over time, since natural reserves are dramatically decreasing. We aim at studying non-renewable resource management when extraction from natural reserves and recycling are considered, as well as the impact of technological progress on consumption and welfare in the short-run term. Mathematical modelling may provide significant help to policymakers in devising suitable strategies for social welfare optimization and environmental conservation. In this direction, we introduce an optimal control model for allocating labor between mining and recycling over a finite time horizon; specifically, we aim at optimally manage virgin resource depletion and waste accumulation. Actually, a suitable scrap value function is involved in the optimization process, in order to account for the issue of reducing waste accumulation and preserving natural stock in the forthcoming future. We analyze the problem and provide the necessary optimality conditions.
    Keywords: Non-renewable resource; Recycling; Optimal control; Waste disposal
    Date: 2022
  19. By: Julia M. Puaschunder (The New School, New York, USA)
    Abstract: The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is an external shock to all world societies with lasting impact. With millions of infected already and no foreseeable end as well as an estimated 10-50% of those previously infected with COVID-19 to face a longer-term or long-term health impact and/or chronic debilitation, the broad-based and long-term impact COVID Long Haulers has the potential to change our world and modern society lastingly. Generation COVID-19 already now exhibits three trends towards de-urbanization to live in Agrohoods, attention to Ecowellness and Biophilia design preference. Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, de-urbanization trends evolved with a massive flow of people having moved from large metropolitan areas to more rural spaces to socially distance and enjoy nature while being productive online. New community development in harmony with nature are forming in so-called Agri- or Agrohoods, which are neighborhoods that are directly attuned to the surrounding and celebrate the natural and cultural heritage. Creative Ecowellness options and sustainable lifestyle innovations take into account health and well-being, considering the given natural constraints set by ecological limits. The environment is also represented by biophilic architecture design trends booming, which resemble or use the natural environment. For instance, the fashion world has picked up the trend in the form of sustainable fabrics. The United Nations Conference of the Parties (COP-26) discussed sustainable fashion trend solutions as a broad-based integration of sustainability in everyone’s lifestyle that aids in the transition to a greener economy. Plant- and fungus-based clothing booms in the design world as a carbon-negative and organic alternative to fast fashion. Given the widespread impetus of COVID-19 and the long-term impact of Coronavirus Long Haulers, the proposed trends are likely to become general sustainable changes heralding a pro-environmental Renaissance.
    Keywords: Agrohood, Architecture, Biophilia Trends, Biophilic Design, Community, Coronavirus, COVID-19, De-urbanization, Design, Ecowellness, Environment, Generation COVID-19, Lifestyle, Pandemic, Social Justice, Sustainability, Trend Analysis
    Date: 2021–12
  20. By: Evangelina Dardati; Ramiro de Elejalde; Eugenio Giolito
    Abstract: In this paper, we study the short-term effect of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure on respiratory Emergency Room (ER) visits in Chile, a middle-income country with high levels of air pollution. To instrument for PM 2.5 we use wind speed at different altitudes (pressure levels). Unlike previous papers, our data allow us to study the impact of increasing air pollution at high levels of pollution. We find that a1microgram per cubic meter (μg/m3) increase in PM 2.5 exposure for one day increases ER visits for respiratory illness by 0.36 percent. The effect is positive for all age groups, including the middle-age population, a novel finding in the literature.
    Keywords: Air Pollution, PM 2.5, Emergency Room Visits.
    JEL: I12 I18 Q51 Q53
    Date: 2022–05
  21. By: Rau, Moritz; Seufert, Günter; Westphal, Kirsten
    Abstract: The EU and Germany have set themselves ambitious climate and energy policy targets. Taking into account the need to reduce emissions from all sectors of the economy, they now have a different perspective on the energy situation in the Eastern Mediterranean than a few years ago.
    Date: 2022
  22. By: Weerahewa, Jeevika; Senaratne, Athula; Babu, Suresh
    Abstract: The government of Sri Lanka has implemented a myriad of fertilizer import and use options during 2015 – 2021 with the objective of making agricultural systems more financially and environmentally sustainable. However, these policy actions were not fully informed by global and national evidence. This policy brief illustrates how the fertilizer policy environment influences the performance of agricultural systems in Sri Lanka, reviews past policy changes and presents a set of options for sustainable intensification of Sri Lankan agricultural systems.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2021–08–27
  23. By: Mercy T. Musakwa; Nicholas M. Odhiambo
    Abstract: This study investigated the impact of energy consumption on human development in South Africa, using annual data from 1990 to 2019. The study used disaggregated data on energy measures namely: oil products consumption; electricity consumption; renewable energy consumption; natural gas; coal and lignite; and total energy consumption at an aggregate level. Human Development Index (HDI) was used as a measure of human development. By employing autoregressive distributed lag bounds test to cointegration and error correction model, the study found the impact of energy consumption on human development to be positive in the short run when renewable energy was used as a proxy, but insignificant in the long run. When oil products, natural gas and total energy were used as proxies for energy, a negative impact was confirmed in the short run, while an insignificant impact was confirmed in the long run. When electricity, coal and lignite were used as proxies for energy, an insignificant impact was confirmed, irrespective of the time frame considered. The results revealed that the positive impact of renewable energy on human development is not big enough to offset the negative impact of other energy sources. This suggests that South Africa has to continue to expand renewable energy if a positive impact of energy on human development is to be realised.
  24. By: Francisco J. André (Dpt. Economic Analysis and ICE, Universidad Complutense de Madrid); Carmen Arguedas (Dpt. Economic Analysis, Autonomous University of Madrid); Sandra Rousseau (Faculty of Economics and Business, KU Leuven)
    Abstract: Peer-to-peer sharing has become increasingly popular in recent years. Many digital platforms exist that allow individuals to use others’ belongings part-time. These platforms explicitly mention their green credentials, as the environmental benefits of such sharing initiatives are often taken for granted. However, several recent empirical studies show evidence of the contrary. For the first time in the literature, we provide a theoretical framework to analyze the economic and environmental implications of peer-to-peer sharing. We present a stylized model where a monopolist supplies a product that is suitable for rent on a sharing platform. Counterintuitively, we find that the existence of such a platform is typically beneficial for the monopolist, especially if it can strategically choose the price and lifespan of the product to affect the use price in the sharing market. Such a scenario is not at all beneficial for consumers, especially for those who rent the good rather than buy it. Moreover, the existence of the sharing platform induces higher use and (under some likely conditions) larger production levels and shorter lifespans of the products. The combination of these three aspects contributes to a worse environmental impact with sharing, which provides a theoretical rationale for the aforementioned empirical studies.
    Keywords: peer-to-peer sharing; environmental externalities; strategic pricing; strategic lifespan.
    JEL: D16 D21 D62 L12 Q56
    Date: 2022–05–31
  25. By: Sa'd Shannak; Jeyhun Mikayilov; Rubal Dua (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: In light of Saudi Arabia’s recent energy-pricing reform strategy, this paper investigates the main drivers of fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the transport sector. We employed a battery of econometric techniques to analyze the long-run relationships between income, fuel prices, energy share, population, and total carbon emissions in the transportation sector.
    Keywords: Agent Based modeling, Analytics, Applied Research, Autometrics
    Date: 2022–05–22
  26. By: Stack, Shauna (IHS, Vienna); Griessler, Erich (IHS, Vienna)
    Abstract: In recent years many countries, including Austria, have commissioned citizen assemblies in response to the complex issue of climate change. Based on an explorative qualitative study, this paper examines the impact of climate assemblies on policy making and looks at elements that further or impede their impact. In addition, the paper identifies several other impacts of climate assemblies such as those on deliberative democracy and quality of discourse around contentious topics. The paper compares climate assemblies in France, Germany, Ireland and Scotland.
    Keywords: climate assembly, citizen assembly, deliberative democracy, cross-country analysis, impact of participation
    Date: 2022–03
  27. By: Ramos Murillo, Erick
    Abstract: Achieving the SDG goals will require enormous financing efforts from governments and the private sector. Green bonds have been emerging as a useful tool to help finance the gap for SDGs and have been expected to deliver some financial advantages. Nevertheless, there has not been strong evidence of this. This research finds initial evidence of a possible financial advantage for issuers. That is, green bonds’ issuances yields spiked lower during the Covid19 selloff versus their non-green comparables. There are several potential explanations for this and not enough data to point at one but this paper explores investor composition as a potential factor and finds some evidence of different investor behavior.
    Keywords: Greenium, green bonds, investor base, investor composition, MDBs, multilateral development banks, green issuances, yields, thematic bonds, financial advantages, financial markets, fixed income securities, sovereign issuances, sovereign bonds.
    JEL: F47 G01 G11 G12 G15 Q56
    Date: 2022–05–21
  28. By: Raouf Boucekkine (ESC Rennes School of Business - ESC Rennes School of Business); Carmen Camacho (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Weihua Ruan (Purdue University Northwest); Benteng Zou (University of Luxembourg [Luxembourg])
    Abstract: We use a parsimonious two-stage differential game setting where the duration of the first stage, the coalition stage, depends on the will of a particular player to leave the coalition through an explicit timing variable. By specializing in a standard linear-quadratic environmental model augmented with a minimal constitutional setting for the coalition (payoff share parameter), we are able to analytically extract several nontrivial findings. Three key aspects drive the results: the technological gap as an indicator of heterogeneity across players, the constitution of the coalition and the intensity of the public bad (here, the pollution damage). We provide with a full analytical solution to the two-stage differential game. In particular, we characterize the intermediate parametric cases leading to optimal finite time splitting. A key characteristic of these finite-time-lived coalitions is the requirement of the payoff share accruing to the splitting country to be large enough. Incidentally, our two-stage differential game setting reaches the conclusion that splitting countries are precisely those which use to benefit the most from the coalition. Constraining the payoff share to be low by Constitution may lead to optimal everlasting coalitions only provided initial pollution is high enough, which may cover the emergency cases we are witnessing nowadays.
    Keywords: Differential games,Multistage optimal control Coalition splitting,environmental agreements,constitutional vs technological heterogeneity,Coalition splitting
    Date: 2022–05
  29. By: Dröge, Susanne; Schrader, Tessa-Sophie
    Abstract: In 2021 the international climate policy agenda will need to catch up on much that was not accomplished in 2020. Because of the pandemic, deadlines were postponed and processes slowed down. What is the position of major climate policy powers in early 2021, and what momentum can we expect for international negotiations? The most important impetus this year will come from the EU, the US and China. However, since these three powers are also competitors, the EU and its member states will have to strengthen multilateral cooperation overall so as to push for reaching the Paris Agreement targets, formulate clear expectations, and ensure that all actors remain on equal terms. For Germany and the EU it will therefore be crucial to continue to focus decisively on joint action with partner countries within networks, and to concentrate on core issues with the US. Obvious areas for cooperation with Washington are a joint diplomatic approach for the next international climate conference (COP26), and reconciling climate and trade policy.
    Date: 2021
  30. By: Tastan, Kadri
    Abstract: Russia's attack on Ukraine has once again highlighted Europe's heavy dependence on Russian natural gas and thus, among other things, underlined the significance of energy cooperation between the European Union (EU) and Turkey. Traditionally, Turkish-European energy relations have prioritised the diversification of energy resources in the face of Europe's dependence on Russia. The new emerging political, geopolitical, and energy context will have repercussions on Turkish-European energy relation. However, it is the ambitious process of decarbonisation of the economy and energy launched by the EU that will decisively shape the nature and future of Turkey-EU energy relations. Indeed, both European and Turkish interests related to energy security, energy affordability, and climate change mitigation require EU-Turkey cooperation in the decarbonisation process, which is expected to be very challenging. Energy transition is the key to medium- and long-term energy security for both sides.
    Date: 2022
  31. By: Dröge, Susanne; Geden, Oliver
    Abstract: International climate negotiations at the 26th Conference of the Parties (COP26) in Glasgow were surprisingly productive. The Glasgow Climate Pact adds new tasks to the already full climate agendas of the European Union and its member states. Euro­pean policy makers will need to focus even more on limiting the long-term temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius and to secure adequate commitments and action by the biggest global greenhouse gas emitters - all before the next COP in Egypt (COP27) at the end of 2022. Climate financing also needs to be secured in a manner that generates trust on the part of the developing countries. Germany's G7 presidency in 2022 will be crucial for accelerating international climate cooperation. The German government must also work to involve the G20 states and push to speed up adoption of the European Union's Fit for 55 package.
    Date: 2022
  32. By: Fremerey, Melinda; Gerards Iglesias, Simon; Hüther, Michael
    Abstract: Die verschärften Klimaziele der Europäischen Union für 2050 und 2030 ("Fit for 55") erfordern neue klimapolitische Maßnahmen, um neben der Erreichung jener Ziele auch die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit der europäischen Industrie zu wahren. Dazu soll die in Europa bislang kostenlose Zuteilung der EU-EHS Zertifikate an energieintensive Unternehmen schrittweise auslaufen und gleichzeitig ein Mechanismus geschaffen werden, der europäische Produzenten vor Wettbewerbsverlusten gegenüber im Ausland produzierenden Unternehmen schützen soll. Mit dem CO2-Grenzausgleichsmechanismus, CBAM, hat die Europäische Kommission ein Instrument geschaffen, das die europäische CO2-Bepreisung auf eine transnationale Ebene hebt. Ziel dieses Mechanismus ist es, auch die im Ausland produzierten Emissionen einzupreisen. Neben der unklaren WTOKonformität dieses Mechanismus, weist der derzeitige Vorschlag einige entscheidende wirtschaftspolitischen Lücken auf. Insbesondere für die exportorientierten Industriebranchen reichen die bisherigen Regelungen dieses Mechanismus nicht aus, um Wettbewerbsnachteile auszugleichen. Bei der Implementierung des CBAM müssen daher einige bislang unberücksichtigte Aspekte beachtet werden: Durch den geplanten Wegfall der kostenlosen Zuteilung von EU-EHS Zertifikaten an emissionsreiche Industrien muss eine Exportrabattierung gewährleistet werden. Außerdem sollten nicht nur Grundstoffproduzenten, sondern auch nachgelagerte Industrien dem CBAM unterliegen, die durch die Weitergabe der erhöhten Zertifikatskosten aus der Grundstoffindustrie ebenfalls höheren CO2-Kosten ausgesetzt sind. Ferner ist weiterhin dafür zu sorgen, dass eine internationale verbindliche und gleichwertige Bepreisung von CO2 stattfinden. Hierbei bildet die Einrichtung von "Klimaclubs" eine effektive Lösung.
    Date: 2022
  33. By: Rick van der Ploeg; Johannes Emmerling; Ben Groom
    Abstract: A formula is derived for the social cost of carbon (SCC) that takes account of intragenerational income inequality and its evolution with economic growth. The social discount rate (SDR) should be adjusted to account for intragenerational and intergenerational inequality aversion and for risk aversion. If growth increases (reduces) intra-generational inequality, the SDR is lower (higher) and the SCC higher (lower) than along an inequality-neutral growth path, especially if intra-generational and intergenerational inequality aversion are higher. The same qualitative result is shown for two welfare specifications, one with a representative agent with equally distributed equivalent (EDE) income and the other considers individuals separately across the income distribution. The latter specification causes an additional impact of income inequality on the SDR and SCC because individuals are compared both within and between time periods. Our preferred EDE calibration to a scenario in which global intragenerational inequality declines over time, leads to a SCC in 2020 of $70/tCO2 compared to a value of $85/tCO2 without the effect of inequality.
    Keywords: social discount rate, social cost of carbon, intra- and intergenerational inequality aversion, risk aversion, inequality, growth, uncertainty
    JEL: C61 D31 D62 D81 G12 H23 Q54
    Date: 2022
  34. By: Tolstoguzov, Oleg; Belykh, Anastasia
    Abstract: This article deals with the context of a new rationality in modeling due to the climate agenda and the introduction of ESG-type principles. We studied a geosystem with homogeneous natural-territorial complexes with the same geological basement, mesoforms of relief and industrial-territorial complexes. They function in a unified institutional climate. In this case, the focus is on the mesoscale of systems. The institutional order is based on the relationship between private and general institutions, and on organizational features of regions. The Dixit-Stiglitz monopolistic competition model is used to account for financial performance and utility in an equilibrium industry with high nature intensity. What is new is the introduction of the concept of social brands associated with ecosystem services and used simultaneously to account for the utility and customization of the new economic order, as well as the introduction of a social discount rate (a discount factor). Social brands create a certain “green” meaningful context in relation to natural capital and acting brands through social platforms. Thus, the society, through the mechanism of social brands, is offered a new format of interactions in which the structure of social brands becomes a priority in relation to the productive structure of the economy.
    Keywords: climate agenda; natural and social geosystems; utility; social discount; social brand
    JEL: Q56 Q57 R58
    Date: 2022–02–11
  35. By: Wendt, Charlotte; Benlian, Alexander
    Date: 2022
  36. By: Maihold, Günther; Reisch, Viktoria
    Abstract: On 5 November 2020 Mexico ratified the socalled Escazú Agreement, a treaty between Latin American and Caribbean states on establishing regional transparency and environment standards, as the eleventh country to do so. The prescribed quorum of ratifications has thus been attained, and the agreement can come into force in 2021. This will launch an innovative multilateral instrument that is intended to create more citizen participation and improve the assertion of citizens' rights in environmental matters. In Latin America, economic interests dominate when it comes to the exploitation of raw materials; furthermore, there is a large number of conflicts over resources. The agreement thus offers affected indigenous tribes and humanrights defenders more opportunities for information, participation and access to the justice system in environmental matters. Despite this binding first step, some leading countries in the region have so far failed to ratify the agreement. Many of them are reluctant to join, arguing that certain provisions violate their national sovereignty and their freedom of decision. For Germany and Europe, the agreement offers new leverage for drafting supply chain laws.
    Date: 2021
  37. By: Hugo de Vries (UMR IATE - Ingénierie des Agro-polymères et Technologies Émergentes - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - UM - Université de Montpellier - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Mechthild Donner (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Monique Axelos (INRAE - TRANSFORM Division - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Background In Europe, the Farm to Fork Strategy provides ambitions for sustainable and circular food systems. However, what are the driving and uniting forces that keep systems sustainable? Scope and approach First, food systems are regarded as open thermodynamic systems, fuelled by solar energy, with seven building blocks: players, pieces, moves, playing fields, rules, wins, and time. Second, sustainable food systems are complex adaptive systems evolving in a melting zone, or safe and just operating space, between frozen states and chaos. Third, players (actors) and pieces (resources and products) are bound by 4 fundamental forces, as in physics, namely the strong, weak, electromagnetic energy, and gravitation forces. Key findings and conclusions A physics-based first-order approximation concept of sustainable food systems permits formulating relevant, future Food Science and Technology Developments. A network of food actors re-orient single food chains towards systems of diverse food products, resources, and diets. Their features are multi-functionality, resilience, adaptability, temporal and spatial flexibility regarding food handling. Their pathways are characterized by balancing patterns between frozen states and chaos, and not endless growth curves.
    Keywords: Sustainability,food systems,conceptual framework,physics principle,food science and technology
    Date: 2022–03
  38. By: Zabanova, Yana; Westphal, Kirsten
    Abstract: In October 2020, Russia adopted a roadmap for hydrogen development, and a full-length Hydrogen Development Concept is expected soon. Even though Russia remains somewhat sceptical about hydrogen's much-vaunted transformative potential, it is interested in using its natural gas wealth to become a leading exporter of this new energy carrier and views Germany as a key partner in this effort. In the absence of a serious national decarbonisation agenda in Russia, stimulating hydrogen production primarily for exports and without significant domestic demand will be a challenge. Still, amid Russia's steadily worsening political relations with the West, clean energy (and hydrogen in particular) is one of the few promising areas of cooperation between Germany and Russia, with the potential to become a major steppingstone for the development of hydrogen value chains in both countries.
    Date: 2021
  39. By: Fernández Delgado, Eduardo; Cifuentes Noyes, Ariel; Ramírez Jaramillo, Juan Carlos
    Abstract: Este trabajo busca establecer la contribución del ecoturismo a la intensificación de relaciones rurales-urbanas, con referencia a un conjunto de pequeños emprendimientos localizados en el Río Güejar, en Lejanías, Meta, afectado por décadas de violencia. Entre los impactos de estos emprendimientos se constató la generación de nuevos empleos e ingresos; mejora en las condiciones de vida de los hogares; innovación en la provisión de servicios; recuperación de relaciones de confianza entre los actores sociales; y una cultura de conservación, que contribuye a la protección y aprovechamiento sostenible de los atractivos naturales, como bienes públicos de importancia local y regional. La indagación identificó tres factores coadyuvantes: i) la importancia de la acción colectiva, que activó la construcción de una política pública; ii) la articulación de una respuesta superior a la capacidad local, con la intervención de la Mesa Regional de Turismo y iii) la apertura de nuevos espacios para el disfrute del turismo y para la construcción social del territorio, derivada de la firma del Acuerdo de Paz.
    Date: 2022–04–13
  40. By: Christian Hauenstein; Franziska Holz; Lennart Rathje; Thomas Mitterecker
    Abstract: Steam coal exporters face increasing uncertainty about future coal demand and risks of asset stranding. Nevertheless, new export-oriented coal mine projects are still brought forward. In this study, we use the coal sector model COALMOD-World to assess the economic prospects of investments in the export-oriented steam coal sector, and in particular of coal mines in the Galilee Basin, Australia. We parameterize coal mining in the Galilee Basin based on the Carmichael coal mine and export project specifics. We construct three coal demand scenarios with varying climate policy ambitions based on bottom-up coal sector data of the major coal consuming countries in Asia. We find that, even under most optimistic assumptions, new coal mines in the Galilee Basin are not economically viable in the longrun and prone to become stranded assets. In other Australian basins only very limited investments are required in the most conservative demand scenarios and only to replace exhausted coal mining capacities. Australian steam coal production decreases significantly in all scenarios due to down-phasing domestic demand and shrinking export opportunities. Investments in other world regions are only viable in the most conservative demand scenario. Any new investments in steam coal supply in Australia and globally, and particularly in export-oriented coal supply, are at risk of becoming stranded assets.
    Keywords: Coal, international coal trade, stranded assets, numerical modeling, scenarios, Galilee Basin, Australia, Asia
    JEL: Q31 Q37 Q47 L72 C61
    Date: 2022
  41. By: Müller, Melanie; Saulich, Christina; Schulze, Meike
    Abstract: The promotion of public-private cooperation in resource-rich countries of the Global South can serve as a flanking measure that strengthens the impact of supply chain laws. The case of the South African mining sector in its struggle against Covid-19 shows that close cooperation between companies, the state and private organisations can, under certain conditions, increase the sustainability of transnational supply chains. Nevertheless, these types of alliances carry the risk of negative cascading effects if core state tasks are delegated to companies. The German government should there­fore take into account the public regulatory landscape in the mining sector, particu­larly the quality of the implementation of laws in partner countries, and initiate measures that can work to strengthen social and environmental rights.
    Date: 2022
  42. By: Ralph Hippe (EU agency Cedefop, Thessaloniki, Greece); Damien Demailly (Institute for Climate Economics (I4CE), Paris, France.); Claude Diebolt (BETA/CNRS (UMR 7522), University of Strasbourg, 61 avenue de la Forêt Noire, France)
    Date: 2022
  43. By: Miguel Riviere (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); F. Pimont (URFM - Ecologie des Forêts Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); P. Delacote (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, CEC - Chaire Economie du Climat - Université Paris Dauphine-PSL - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres); S. Caurla (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, Chaire Energie & Prospérité - ENSAE Paris - École Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Administration Économique - X - École polytechnique - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - Institut Louis Bachelier); J. Ruffault (URFM - Ecologie des Forêts Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); A. Lobianco (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); T. Opitz (BioSP - Biostatistique et Processus Spatiaux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); J. Dupuy (URFM - Ecologie des Forêts Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Date: 2022–04
  44. By: Keiko Fukumori; Ayumi Arai; Tomoya Matsumoto
    Abstract: This study examines the determinants of smallholder farmers’ adoption of weather-index crop insurance, which is considered to be a promising means of mitigating the negative welfare impacts of crop loss caused by drought or excess rainfall. The study utilizes household survey data covering 495 smallholder farmers in rural Kenya. It finds that a better understanding of insurance, together with a significant positive effect of years of education, considerably increases insurance uptake. The evidence suggests that it is important to provide educational programs on new financial products when introducing such products to smallholder farmers. However, it also shows the limitations of this study by revealing how important proper study design is to draw reliable methodological impact evaluations.
    Keywords: agriculture, weather risk, weather-index insurance, rural households, Kenya, JEL (O12, O13, O33, G22)
    Date: 2022–04
  45. By: Rocio Carrillo Labella (Department of Business Organization, Marketing and Sociology - UJA - Universidad de Jaén); Fatiha Fort (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro - Montpellier SupAgro); Manuel Parras Rosa (Department of Business Organization, Marketing and Sociology - UJA - Universidad de Jaén)
    Abstract: Globalisation has led to more and more companies in the agri-food sector turning to accreditations such as those guaranteeing quality (ISO 9001), environmental sustainability (ISO 14001) and food safety (ISO 2200, BRC and IFS) for commercial purposes. However, these changes may not lead to an improved economic and commercial performance for olive oil companies. This study, therefore, has two specific objectives: first, to find out if there are groups of accreditations that determine company profiles; and, secondly, to analyse whether these profiles have any kind of influence on the economic and commercial performance of the olive oil industry. A quantitative investigation was carried out using ANOVA and among the main results, a bipolarity was observed between those that have no certification and those that are highly accredited for quality, environment, and food safety. Regarding the second objective, the results uphold the commercial function of accreditation in terms of improving commercialisation. It was not possible however to confirm such positive results in operative earnings, but it was observed that the companies with the strongest results invest more in accreditations, especially in food safety.
    Date: 2022–01–20
  46. By: Andreas Teichgraeber; John Van Reenen
    Abstract: What research and innovation (R&I) policies should Europe adopt? The world faces a challenge to rebuild after the pandemic, but also faces the same structural slowdown of productivity growth that occurred in the decades before the COVID crisis. We need to have a plan around innovation policy to address the challenge. We show that Europe is less innovative on many dimensions compared to other advanced regions, such as the US and parts of Asia. We review the econometric evidence on R&I policies and argue that there is good evidence for the efficacy of many of them. A mix of R&D subsidies, reinvigorated competition and a big push on expanding the quantity and quality of human capital is needed. These could be bound together around the need for green innovation in order to achieve the mission to radically reduce carbon emissions.
    Keywords: innovation, R&D, human capital, Europe
    Date: 2022–12
  47. By: Rihn, Alicia L.; Fulcher, Amy; Khachatryan, Hayk; LeBude, Anthony; Warner, Laura A.; Schnexnayder, Susan
    Abstract: Agriculture can be a very labor-intensive industry. While some types of crops and livestock operations have become highly mechanized and have incorporated precision agriculture technologies in planting, fertilizing, and harvesting activities, specialty crops, including nursery crops, still rely heavily on manual labor. For example, planting, pruning, fertilizing, staking, weeding, harvesting and pulling orders are often done manually by workers due to the diversity of products (e.g., size, shape), fragility of the product, and low consumer tolerance for aesthetic damage on plants. Labor accounts for approximately 40 percent of nursery production costs (Mathers et al., 2010; Hall & Ingram, 2014). However, a business model that depends on maintaining the current labor force may not be successful. Current surveys reveal that a shrinking workforce is becoming a greater barrier for producers. For example, Tennessee growers report that labor-related challenges including hiring and retaining domestic employees are increasing. A common refrain from Tennessee nursery owners is that locally sourced employees routinely do not return from lunch on their first day, if they show up at all. Tennessee producers’ experiences are not unique. Nationally, nearly 80 percent of nurseries indicated that labor is their greatest challenge, and more than 50 percent stated the lack of a qualified workforce limited their ability to fill vacant positions (McClellan, 2018). Given the persistent and widespread labor scarcity that U.S. nurseries are facing, growers may need to adopt strategies that improve efficiency and production to best utilize their limited workforce. In Part I of this series of publications, A Ten-Year Review of the Southeast U.S. Green Industry, Part I: Labor and Firm Characteristics, we explored annual sales, product types and workforce demographics. In Part II, we discuss what actions nurseries are taking to address the labor shortage and the role other factors and issues have on business decisions that could affect the future sustainability of the U.S. green industry. Growers and other industry stakeholders can use these results to evaluate strategies to address and alleviate labor issues. These results may also help decision makers within nurseries identify solutions, including technologies that align with their unique production situations. The results could also help elected officials, state and federal agriculture entities, and trade associations identify opportunities to develop new, and expand existing, cost share programs and similar initiatives that support nursery producers.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2022–05–02
  48. By: Muñoz Escobar, Marcela; Fernández Lavado, Andrea Paola; Montenegro Calvo, Maria Juliana; García Ugarte, Mario; Forero Azabache, Oscar
    Date: 2022
  49. By: Claire Delpeuch; Emanuela Migliaccio; Will Symes
    Abstract: This report assesses how to stop illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing benefitting from government support. Based on a survey of OECD countries and partner economies participating in the work of the OECD Fisheries Committee, it recommends actions that can be undertaken by countries to maximise the chances of excluding individuals and companies with links to IUU fishing from government support, and to minimise the risk that such support benefits IUU fishing ex ante, given the inherent difficulty to take action ex post. Eight specific recommendations are presented.
    Keywords: Fisheries, IUU, Marine resources, Ocean, Subsidy
    JEL: Q22 Q27 Q28 H25
    Date: 2022–06–08
  50. By: OECD
    Abstract: The OECD Global Action “Promoting Social and Solidarity Economy Ecosystems”, funded by the European Union, through its work stream on legal frameworks, endeavours to: 1) increase knowledge and understanding on legal frameworks for the social and solidarity economy; 2) explore approaches and trends of legal frameworks to regulate the social and solidarity economy as a whole and social economy organisations; and 3) understand how legal frameworks can be used to promote and develop the social and solidarity economy in different contexts. This paper defines the legal notions, traditions and approaches to better understand legal frameworks that regulate the field. It presents and analyses the diversity, relevance and implications of legal frameworks that regulate the social economy; takes stock of the processes that lead to their design and implementation; identifies possible criteria for assessing their performance; and highlights the crosscutting issues and policy examples that could inspire countries.
    Keywords: cooperative, legal framework, local development, policy ecosystem, social economy, social enterprise
    JEL: L31 L33
    Date: 2022–06–08
  51. By: Fève, Frédérique; Florens, Jean-Pierre; Simar, Léopold (Université catholique de Louvain, LIDAM/ISBA, Belgium)
    Abstract: The econometric analysis of cost functions is based on the analysis of the condi- tional distribution of the cost Y given the level of the outputs X ∈ Rp+ and given a set of environment variables Z ∈ Rd. The model basically describes the conditional distribution of Y given X ≥ x and Z = z. In many applications, the dimension of Z is naturally large and a fully nonparametric specification of the model is limited by the curse of the dimensionality. Most of the approaches so far are based on two-stage estimations when the frontier level does not depend on the value of Z. But even in the case of separability of the frontier, the estimation procedure suffers from several prob- lems, mainly due to the inherent bias of the estimated efficiency scores and the poor rates of convergence of the frontier estimates. In this paper we suggest an alternative semi-parametric model which avoids the drawbacks of the two-stage methods. It is based on a class of model called the Proportional Incremental Cost Functions (PICF), adapted to our setup from the Cox proportional hazard models extensively used in survival analysis for durations models. We define the PICF model, then we examine its properties and propose a semi-parametric estimation. By this way of modeling, we avoid the first stage nonparametric estimation of the frontier and avoid the curse of dimensionality keeping the parametric √n rates of convergence for the parameters of interest. We are also able to derive √n-consistent estimator of the conditional order-m robust frontiers (which, by contrast to the full frontier, may depend on Z) and we prove the Gaussian asymptotic properties of the resulting estimators. We illustrate the flexibility and the power of the procedure by some simulated examples and also with some real data sets.
    Keywords: Cost efficiency ; Nonparametric robust frontier ; Proportional hazard model ; Environmental variables
    JEL: C10 C14 C51 D22
    Date: 2022–05–01
  52. By: Lebdioui, Amir
    Abstract: This article investigates the role of industrial policy in promoting upgrading in commodity sectors by examining the case of the petroleum, rubber, and palm oil industries in Malaysia. By doing so, it aims to contribute to an emerging scholarship that bridges the developmental state and the global value chains literature. Several findings emerge from this study. First, linkages do not unfold through market forces alone. Commodity value addition processes can be hindered by a range of barriers, including power dynamics alongside global commodity chains. The existence of high barriers for linkage development in developing nations justifies the need of state interventions. Second, successful government interventions for commodity value addition in Malaysia have gone far beyond fixing market failures and a ‘facilitative’ role of the state. Instead, the productive capabilities necessary for value addition were accumulated through coherent industrial policies and the strategic orientation of rents towards achieving productivity gains and learning. Third, political considerations, such the base of the ruling coalition, the regime type (marked by both executive dominance and political competition), and the influence of the regional intellectual climate, are essential to understanding both the policy will and ability to pursue a developmental approach towards commodity value addition.
    Keywords: global value chains; heterodox economics; industrial policy; macroeconomic analyses of economic development; natural resources
    JEL: O11 O13 O14 O53 Q17
    Date: 2020–11–18
  53. By: Alleyne, Antonio; Lorde, Troy; Moore, Winston
    Abstract: It has long been apparent that economic development in the Caribbean could not be sustained on the basis of traditional agricultural exports. Since the 1960s the debate has centered on what should take their place, and what mechanism should be used to achieve, at least in part, sustainable development. One reoccurring topic is the notion of import substitution. Contrary to previous literature, this study evaluates the feasibility of import substitution at the regional rather than at the country level on the basis that it is not economically feasible to supply all the goods that a country may consume on its own. To evaluate the feasibility of this approach, we use a trade database that matches imports (consumption) and exports (production capabilities) of various Caribbean countries. We then conduct counterfactual simulations of the feasibility of import substitution if all of the trade overlaps within the region are exploited. We discuss the implications that this might have for intra-regional trade, economic activity and employment. The overall feasibility of such an approach is also assessed.
    Keywords: trade, import substitution, Caribbean, CARICOM
    JEL: F14 F17
    Date: 2022–04–11
  54. By: Petri P. Karenlampi
    Abstract: Two strategies for boreal forestry with goodwill in estate capitalization are introduced. A strategy focusing on Real Estate (RE) is financially superior to Timber Sales (TS). The feasibility of the RE requires the presence of forest land end users in the real estate market, like insurance companies or investment trusts, and the periodic boundary condition does not apply. Commercial thinnings do not enter the RE strategy in a stand-level discussion. However, they may appear in estates with a variable age structure and enable an extension of stand rotation times.
    Date: 2022–05

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