nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2022‒05‒16
fifty-five papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Can unconventional monetary policy contribute to climate action? By Alice Eliet-Doillet; Andrea Maino
  2. Effects of Carbon Pricing on Inflation By Richhild Moessner
  3. Climate change affectedness and innovation in German firms By Horbach, Jens; Rammer, Christian
  4. European investment Bank loan appraisal, the EU climate bank ? By Ebeling Antoine
  5. Climate Regulatory Risks and Corporate Bonds By Lee Seltzer; Laura Starks; Qifei Zhu
  6. Policy Sequencing Towards Carbon Pricing - Empirical Evidence From G20 Economies and Other Major Emitters By Mr. Adil Mohommad; Gregor Schwerhoff; Manuel Linsenmeier
  7. Lessons learned from the impacts of climate change on a water infrastructure programme in the Brazilian semiarid By Louise Cavalcante; Patrícia S. Mesquita
  8. Klimawandel und Soziale Arbeit By Wassermann, Dirk
  9. Inflation expectations and climate concern By Meinerding, Christoph; Poinelli, Andrea; Schüler, Yves
  10. Survey on the contribution of ICT to the environmental sustainability of actions of EU enterprises By Daan DB Bijwaard; Teodora TG Gyupchanova; Allison AD Dunne; Julien Gosse; Charles Hoffreumon; Nicolas van Zeebroeck
  11. Resurgence of ESG Investments in India: Toward a Sustainable Economy By Sarangi, Gopal Krishna
  12. Global cropland could be almost halved: Assessment of land saving potentials under different strategies and implications for agricultural markets By Schneider, Julia M.; Zabel, Florian; Schünemann, Franziska; Delzeit, Ruth; Mauser, Wolfram
  13. The Inherent Trade-Off Between the Environmental and Anti-Poverty Goals of Payments for Ecosystem Services By Seema Jayachandran
  14. Cumulative Climate Shocks and Migratory Flows: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa By Salvatore Di Falco; Anna B. Kis; Martina Viarengo
  15. Mountains of Evidence: The Effects of Abnormal Air Pollution on Crime By Birzhan Batkeyev; David R. DeRemer
  16. Air Pollution and the Labor Market: Evidence from Wildfire Smoke By Mark Borgschulte; David Molitor; Eric Zou
  17. CBAM! - Assessing potential costs of the EU carbon border adjustment mechanism for emerging economies By Simola, Heli
  18. United for and by the environment: toward a reassessment of the role of co-workers as part of an integrated multisource model of perceived support for environmental initiatives By Patrick Valéau; Pascal Paille
  19. How far is China from hitting its climate targets? An overview of China's energy sector By Kaaresvirta, Juuso; Kerola, Eeva; Nuutilainen, Riikka; Parviainen, Seija; Solanko, Laura
  20. Between complexity and unfamiliarity: Preferences for soil-based ecosystem services By Bartkowski, Bartosz; Massenberg, Julian Richard; Lienhoop, Nele
  21. Reducing Water Pollution from Nitrogen Fertilizer: Revisiting Insights from Production Economics By Chai, Yuan; Pannell, David J.; Pardey, Philip G.
  22. What Determines Effectiveness of Renewable Energy Standards? General Equilibrium Analytical Model and Empirical Analysis By Don Fullerton; Chi L. Ta
  23. Capacity investments in a competitive energy market By Lukas Block; Bastian Westbrock
  24. Cliometrics of Climate Change By Olivier Damette; Claude Diebolt; Stephane Goutte; Umberto Triacca
  25. Strengthening capacity for climate action in developing countries: Overview and recommendations By Juan Casado-Asensio; Dominique Blaquier; Jens Sedemund
  26. Scientific Selection: A Century of Increasing Crop Varietal Diversity in U.S. Wheat By Chai, Yuan; Pardey, Philip G.; Silverstein, Kevin A.T.
  27. Environmental Gentrification By Wen Wang
  28. How impact evaluation methods influence the outcomes of development projects? Evidence from a meta-analysis on decentralized solar nano projects By Fatoumata Nankoto Cissé
  29. Air Quality Impacts of Proposed Changes to Oregon’s Clean Fuels By Murphy, Colin; Kleeman, Michael J.; Wang, Guihua; Li, Yiting
  30. Modeling Expected Air Quality Impacts of Oregon’s Proposed Expanded Clean Fuels Program By Murphy, Colin; Kleeman, Michael J.; Wang, Guihua; Li, Yiting
  31. The monthly rhythms of aviation: A global analysis of passenger air service seasonality By Frédéric Dobruszkes; Jean-Michel Decroly; Pere Suau-Sanchez
  32. Monetary Policy in Disaster-Prone Developing Countries By Mr. Chris Papageorgiou; Mr. Giovanni Melina; Mr. Alessandro Cantelmo; Nikos Fatouros
  33. Petroleum Industry Diversification in the Middle East and Its Policy Implications for Korea in the Era of Energy Transition By Lee, Kwon Hyung; Son, Sung Hyun; Jang, Yunhee; Ryou, Kwangho; Lee, Dawoon
  34. Fostering co-operation through participation in natural resource management. An integrative review By Ortiz-Riomalo, Juan Felipe; Koessler, Ann-Kathrin; Engel, Stefanie
  35. Russia's oil & gas sector in global energy transition By Simola, Heli; Solanko, Laura
  36. The Role of Venture Capital and Governments in Clean Energy: Lessons from the First Cleantech Bubble By Matthias van den Heuvel; David Popp
  37. Oil Price Shocks and Green Bonds: A Longitudinal Multilevel Model By Azhgaliyeva, Dina; Mishra, Ranjeeta; Kapsalyamova, Zhanna
  38. Natural Disasters and Economic Dynamics: Evidence from the Kerala Floods. By Beyer, Robert C. M.; Narayanan, Abhinav; Thakur, Gogol Mitra
  39. The role of Venture Capital and Governments in Clean Energy: Lessons from the First Cleantech Bubble By Matthias van den Heuvel; David Popp
  40. Économie islamique et objectifs de développement durable : divergences, convergences et essai d’unification By Ezzedine Ghlamallah
  41. Impact of GHG Reporting Quality on Investors’ Valuations in a Regulatory Context: The Case of SBF 120 Companies By Emmanuelle Fromont; Thi Le Hoa Vo; Gulliver Lux
  42. Social justice and sustainable regional development: reflections on discourse and practice in public policies and public budget By Vitor Vieira Vasconcelos
  43. Barriers and Enablers to Clothing Repair and Repurpose in UK Citizens By Zhang, Lisa; Hale, Joanna
  44. Mali’s Fragility: Root Causes and Potential Recovery Pathways By KOLOMA, YAYA
  45. Economy’s response to Rainfall and Economic factors By Nilabja Ghosh; M. Rajeshwor; Hrishabh Narayan
  46. Une alimentation plus durable augmente-t-elle le budget des consommateurs ? By Lucile Rogissart; Valentin Bellassen; Claudine Foucherot
  47. Is the impact of transport modes on health an individual determinant of transport mode choice By Hélène Bouscasse; Sandrine Mathy; Rim Rejeb; Carole Treibich
  48. Unreliable Public Water Supply and Coping Mechanisms of Low-Income Households in Delhi By Satarupa Chakravarty; Sukanya Das; Saudamini Das
  49. Mobiliser les filières économiques face au changement climatique By Fabrice Roubelat; Anne Marchais-Roubelat
  50. Investigating the impact of smart energy management system on the residential electricity consumption in Austria By Mascherbauer, Philipp; Kranzl, Lukas; Yu, Songmin; Haupt, Thomas
  51. Jobmotor Klimaschutz – Beschäftigungseffekte durch ambitionierten Klimaschutz By Lisa Becker; Dr. Christian Lutz
  52. Clean Energy Access: Gender Disparity, Health, and Labour Supply By Anjali P. Verma; Imelda
  53. “Earthquake exposure and schooling: impacts and mechanisms” By Khalifany-Ash Shidiqi; Antonio Di Paolo; Álvaro Choi
  54. A critical assessment of the National Entrepreneurship Context Index of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor By Cornelius A. Rietveld; Pankaj C. Patel

  1. By: Alice Eliet-Doillet (Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne); Andrea Maino (University of Geneva)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of central banks when supporting policies aiming at greening the financial system. The July 2021 Monetary Policy Strategy Review of the European Central Bank unexpectedly dedicated a whole workstream to climate change. The announcement had a significant effect on the pricing and issuance of green bonds in the Eurozone. We find that ECB eligible green bonds’ Yield-to-Maturity decreased following the announcement when compared to equivalent conventional bonds. Firms incorporated in the Eurozone reacted to the announcement by increasing the amount of green bond issued, for both the segments of ECB-eligible and non-ECB-eligible green bonds.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Central Banks, Green Bonds, Carbon Emissions, Quantitative Easing, Monetary Policy, ESG
    JEL: Q58 E52 E58 G12
    Date: 2022–04
  2. By: Richhild Moessner
    Abstract: We study how carbon pricing has affected inflation ex-post, using dynamic panel estimation of New-Keynesian Phillips curves for 35 OECD economies from 1995 to 2020. As carbon pricing we consider prices of emissions trading systems (ETS) and carbon taxes. We find that an increase in prices of ETS by $10 per ton of CO2 equivalents increases energy CPI inflation by 0.8 percentage points (pp), and headline inflation by 0.08pp, but has no significant effects on food and core CPI inflation. We also find that an increase in carbon taxes by $10 per ton of CO2 equivalents increases food CPI inflation by 0.1pp, but has no significant effects on energy CPI inflation, headline and core CPI inflation.
    Keywords: climate policies, carbon tax, carbon emission trading system, climate change, inflation
    JEL: E31 E52 E58 Q48 Q58
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Horbach, Jens; Rammer, Christian
    Abstract: Eco-innovations are crucial for the mitigation of climate change effects. It is therefore important to know if the existing climate change regulations and carbon pricing are appropriate and sufficient to trigger such innovations. Besides government measures, the demand for carbon neutral products or the impacts of climate change such as extreme weather conditions leading to higher costs for the affected firms may also promote eco-innovation activities. For the first time, the new wave of the Community Innovation Survey 2020 in Germany allows an analysis of the effects of climate change policy and costs, demand for climate friendly goods and extreme weather conditions on (eco-)innovation. The results of probit and treatment effect models show that innovative firms seem to be significantly more affected by climate change measures and consequences compared to other firms. All climate change indicators are positively correlated to eco-innovations. Interestingly, other innovation activities also profit from the extent to which a firm is affected by climate change albeit the marginal effects are lower compared to eco-innovations. Demand for climate neutral products is significantly important for all eco-product-innovations.
    Keywords: Climate change,eco-innovation,Community Innovation Survey,probit regression,treatment effect models
    JEL: C25 C21 O31 Q54 Q55
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Ebeling Antoine
    Abstract: What are the determining factors in the allocation of European Investment Bank (EIB) green investments? Using data describing more than 17,000 EIB loans to European Union (EU) member states from 1960 to 2020, we first break down EIB loans into green, neutral and brown loans. We then provide evidence that EIB green investments tend to be allocated to the most advanced economies, specifically, that green investment is positively correlated with high GDP per capita and increases with national environmental expenditure. Our findings illustrate the dichotomy between economic development and environmental objectives faced by the EIB.
    Keywords: European investments Bank ; Green investment ; Climate policy.
    JEL: E22 G24 Q56
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Lee Seltzer; Laura Starks; Qifei Zhu
    Abstract: Investor concerns about climate and other environmental regulatory risks suggest that these risks should affect corporate bond risk assessment and pricing. We test this hypothesis and find that firms with poor environmental profiles or high carbon footprints tend to have lower credit ratings and higher yield spreads, particularly when their facilities are located in states with stricter regulatory enforcement. Using the Paris Agreement as a shock to expected climate risk regulations, we provide evidence that climate regulatory risks causally affect bond credit ratings and yield spreads. Accordingly, the composition of institutional ownership also changes after the Agreement.
    Keywords: climate risk; regulatory risk; fixed income
    JEL: G38 G24 G00
    Date: 2022–04–01
  6. By: Mr. Adil Mohommad; Gregor Schwerhoff; Manuel Linsenmeier
    Abstract: Carbon pricing is considered the most efficient policy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions but it has also been conjectured that other policies need to be implemented first to remove certain economic and political barriers to stringent climate policy. Here, we examine empirical evidence on the the sequence of policy adoption and climate policy portfolios of G20 economies and other major emitters that eventually implemented a national carbon price. We find that all countries adopted carbon pricing late in their instrument sequence after the adoption of (almost) all other instrument types. Furthermore, we find that countries that adopted carbon pricing in a given year had significantly larger climate policy portfolios than those that did not. In the last part of the paper, we examine heterogeneity among countries that eventually adopted a carbon price. We find large variation in the size of policy portfolios of adopters of carbon pricing, with more recent adopters appearing to have introduced carbon pricing with smaller portfolios. Furthermore, countries that adopted carbon pricing with larger policy portfolios tended to implement a higher carbon price. Overall, our results thus suggest that policy sequencing played an important role in climate policy, specifically the adoption of carbon pricing, over the last 20 years.
    Keywords: carbon pricing, climate policies, policy sequencing, political economy
    Date: 2022–04–01
  7. By: Louise Cavalcante (IPC-IG); Patrícia S. Mesquita (IPC-IG)
    Keywords: climate change; climate models; water management
    Date: 2021–09
  8. By: Wassermann, Dirk
    Keywords: Climate Change,Human Rights Profession Social Work,Sustainable Development,Global and Local Perspectives,Civil Society,Public Administration,Universities of Applied Sciences
    Date: 2021
  9. By: Meinerding, Christoph; Poinelli, Andrea; Schüler, Yves
    Abstract: Using survey data from German households, we find that individuals with lower climate concern tend to have higher inflation expectations up to five years ahead. This correlation is most pronounced among individuals with extremely high inflation expectations. Evaluating candidate explanations, we find that part of the link between climate concern and inflation expectations can be associated with individuals' perceived exposures to climate-related risks and with their distrust in the central bank. Overall, our results suggest that climate change perceptions matter for inflation expectations.
    Keywords: climate change,inflation expectations,physical risk,transition risk,central bank distrust,household surveys
    JEL: E31 E50 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2022
  10. By: Daan DB Bijwaard; Teodora TG Gyupchanova; Allison AD Dunne; Julien Gosse; Charles Hoffreumon; Nicolas van Zeebroeck
    Date: 2021–10–07
  11. By: Sarangi, Gopal Krishna (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: Environmental, social, and governance (ESG) investments have attracted wider attention from both investors and customers worldwide. These investments largely follow a triple-bottom-line approach that combines financial returns with environmental and social norms. We conduct a detailed assessment of the ESG development and evolution trajectory in India, map the legal and regulatory landscape governing ESG investments, and conduct a sustainability evaluation of a set of corporate entities. We use a mixed-method approach for its assessment. The findings suggest that ESG integrated assets have outperformed their counterparts. In addition, it emerges from the analysis that companies have performed relatively better in policy disclosure and governance parameters of ESG integration than in environmental and social factors. The mapping of ESG policies and regulations reveals that there has been a gradual widening of scope of ESG policies and that the ESG policy environment is moving away from a voluntary regime to a mandatory one. Finally, the sustainability assessment of a select set of corporate entities indicates that, in terms of both ambitions and practices, they place disproportionate emphasis on environmental aspects of sustainability and neglect social dimensions, both in their declarations and in their implementations.
    Keywords: ESG investments; ESG policies and regulation; sustainability assessment of corporate entities; India
    JEL: M14 Q01 Q56
    Date: 2021–08
  12. By: Schneider, Julia M.; Zabel, Florian; Schünemann, Franziska; Delzeit, Ruth; Mauser, Wolfram
    Abstract: The pressure on land resources continuously increases not only with the rising demand for agricultural commodities, but also with the growing need for action on global challenges, such as biodiversity loss or climate change, where land plays a crucial role. Land saving as a strategy, where agricultural productivity is increased to allow a reduction of required cropland while sustaining production volumes and meeting demand, could address this trade-off. With our interdisciplinary model-based study, we globally assess regional potentials of land saving and analyze resulting effects on agricultural production, prices and trade. Thereby, different land saving strategies are investigated that (1) minimize required cropland (2) minimize spatial marginalization induced by land saving and (3) maximize the attainable profit. We find that current cropland requirements could be reduced between 37% and 48%, depending on the applied land saving strategy. The generally more efficient use of land would cause crop prices to fall in all regions, but also trigger an increase in global agricultural production of 2.8%. While largest land saving potentials occur in regions with high yield gaps, the impacts on prices and production are strongest in highly populated regions with already high pressure on land. Global crop prices and trade affect regional impacts of land saving on agricultural markets and can displace effects to spatially distant regions. Our results point out the importance of investigating the potentials and effects of land saving in the context of global markets within an integrative, global framework. The resulting land saving potentials can moreover reframe debates on global potentials for afforestation and carbon sequestration, as well as on how to reconcile agricultural production and biodiversity conservation and thus contribute to approaching central goals of the 21st century, addressed for example in the Sustainable Development Goals, the Paris Agreement or the post-2020 global biodiversity framework.
    Date: 2022
  13. By: Seema Jayachandran
    Abstract: Conservation programs in low-income countries often have dual goals of protecting the environment and reducing poverty. This article discusses the tension between these two goals in payments for ecosystem services (PES) programs. Participants who undertake a pro-environment behavior receive a payment, which can be decomposed into two parts: the amount that compensates them for the cost of changing their behavior and the extra amount that is a "pure transfer" to them. To maximize the program's environmental benefits, a policy maker would like to set the pure transfer component to zero, but the pure transfer is the only part of the payment that increases participants' economic well-being. In practice, PES programs pay out some pure transfers, and the extent of the anti-poverty benefits depends on whether the pure transfers are de facto targeted to the poor. I lay out these points and then illustrate them with data from a randomized trial of payments for forest protection in Uganda. I provide evidence that the economic gains from participation in PES are indeed larger for those with low costs to fulfill the program's conservation requirements. I also show that, in this context, poorer eligible households enjoyed more improvement in their economic well-being than richer ones did.
    JEL: H23 Q56 Q57
    Date: 2022–04
  14. By: Salvatore Di Falco; Anna B. Kis; Martina Viarengo
    Abstract: We re-examine the effects of negative weather anomalies during the growing season on the decision to migrate in rural households in five sub-Saharan African countries. To this end we combine a multi-country household panel dataset with high-resolution gridded precipitation data. We find that while the effect of recent adverse weather shocks is on average modest, the cumulative effect of a persistent exposure to droughts over several years leads to a significant increase in the probability to migrate. The results show that more frequent adverse shocks can have more significant and long-lasting consequences in challenging economic environments.
    Keywords: climate shocks, rural-urban migration, economic development
    JEL: O15 O13 Q54
    Date: 2022
  15. By: Birzhan Batkeyev (International School of Economics, Kazakh-British Technical University); David R. DeRemer (Nazarbayev University, Graduate School of Business)
    Abstract: This is the first study to assess that air pollution increases criminal activity in a city with air pollution regularly exceeding international safety standards. For winter in Almaty, Kazakhstan, we collect data on crime and PM2.5 pollution across city districts over 8-hour intervals. Our identification strategy employs distinctive features of Almaty's geography: the proximity of some districts to mountain winds and the high frequency of temperature inversions. Using a PPML control function approach, we estimate a PM2.5 elasticity of the expected crime rate equal to 0.38, more than four times as large as elasticity estimates from studies of cleaner cities. Our data and empirical setting also facilitate our identification of air pollution effects on particular crime types. We find that air pollution increases robbery and high-stakes property crime more than low-stakes property crime. These new results support the theory that air pollution induces disregard for criminal consequences and bring further evidence that air pollution induces aggression.
    Keywords: Abnormal Air Pollution, PM2.5, Criminal Activity
    JEL: K42 Q50 Q53
    Date: 2022–04
  16. By: Mark Borgschulte; David Molitor; Eric Zou
    Abstract: We study how air pollution impacts the U.S. labor market by analyzing effects of drifting wildfire smoke that can affect populations far from the fires themselves. We link satellite smoke plumes with labor market outcomes to estimate that an additional day of smoke exposure reduces quarterly earnings by about 0.1 percent. Extensive margin responses, including employment reductions and labor force exits, can explain 13 percent of the overall earnings losses. The implied welfare cost of lost earnings due to air pollution exposure is on par with standard valuations of the mortality burden. The findings suggest that labor market channels warrant greater consideration in policy responses to air pollution.
    JEL: J21 Q51 Q52 Q53 Q54
    Date: 2022–04
  17. By: Simola, Heli
    Abstract: With the EU adopting more ambitious emission reduction targets this year, the European Commission in July published a proposal on measures for adjusting EU climate policy. Measures include a carbon border adjustment mechanism (CBAM) that imposes a price on emissions embodied in products imported to the EU. In this policy note, we review the main lines of the CBAM proposal and discuss its potential economic effects on China, India, Russia, Turkey and Ukraine – the EU's largest import sources for products subject to CBAM. We calculate illustrative estimates for the potential cost effectsof several specifications of the CBAM for these countries and compare them against earlier estimates. We also discuss the potential aggregate economic effects of the CBAM for these economies based on earlier literature. Despite considerable variation across countries and sectors, our analysis suggests that the aggregate economic effects of the CBAM would be limited for most exporting countries.
    Keywords: carbon border adjustment mechanism,climate policy,international trade,emerging economies
    Date: 2021
  18. By: Patrick Valéau (UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes, CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université); Pascal Paille (NEOMA - Neoma Business School)
    Abstract: Previous research has shown the influence of perceived organizational and supervisor support for environmental initiatives (environmental support) on employees' organizational citizenship behavior for the environment (environmental citizenship behavior). Extending this construct to co-workers, the present research aims to understand how these three sources of perceived support for environmental initiatives combine into united action. Drawing on a target similarity framework and research on corporate social responsibility programs, we examine the mediating role of employees' affective commitment to organization, supervisor and co-workers in the above relationships. The results indicate that organizational environmental support, supervisor environmental support and co-worker environmental support each have a distinct and complementary effect on environmental citizenship behavior; that employee commitment to the source of environmental support mediates this effect; and that organizational commitment mediates the effect of commitment to supervisor and co-workers on environmental citizenship behavior. We discuss the implications of these findings for the development of uniting and united action for the environment involving all actors and groups within the organization.
    Abstract: Des recherches antérieures ont montré l'influence du soutien perçu de l'organisation et des superviseurs aux initiatives environnementales (soutien environnemental) sur le comportement de citoyenneté environnementale des employés au sein de leur entreprise. Elargissant ce construit aux collaborateurs, la présente recherche vise à comprendre comment ces trois sources de soutien perçu aux initiatives environnementales se combinent en une action solidaire. En nous appuyant sur un cadre de similarité de cible et sur des recherches sur les programmes de responsabilité sociale des entreprises, nous examinons le rôle médiateur de l'engagement affectif des employés envers l'organisation, le superviseur et les collègues. Les résultats indiquent que les soutiens environnementaux de l'organisation, du superviseur et des collègues ont chacun un effet distinct et complémentaire sur le comportement de citoyenneté environnementale ; que l'engagement des employés envers la source de soutien environnemental médie cet effet ; et que l'engagement organisationnel médie l'effet de l'engagement envers le superviseur et les collègues sur le comportement de citoyenneté environnementale. Nous discutons les implications de ces résultats pour le développement d'une action solidaire en faveur de l'environnement impliquant l'ensemble des acteurs et groupes au sein de l'organisation.
    Date: 2021
  19. By: Kaaresvirta, Juuso; Kerola, Eeva; Nuutilainen, Riikka; Parviainen, Seija; Solanko, Laura
    Abstract: China is by far the world's largest consumer of primary energy. Its vast energy demands are a leading issue for global energy use, driving pollution trends and prices on commodity markets. Despite huge increases in non-fossil capacity from nuclear and renewables, China still burns tremendous amounts of coal to meet its primary energy needs. Domestic energy consumption has risen faster than energy production, and thereby increased China's dependence on energy imports. China is the world's largest polluter, so any effort on the country's part towards cleaner energy has major implications for global decarbonisation efforts. This overview comprises ten briefs on China's energy sector. They cover recent developments in energy use and the shifting dynamics in primary power generation aimed at meeting China's energy needs.
    Keywords: China,energy,oil,natural gas,coal,electricity,renewable energy,production,investment,foreign trade,emissions
    Date: 2021
  20. By: Bartkowski, Bartosz; Massenberg, Julian Richard; Lienhoop, Nele
    Abstract: Soils provide multiple benefits for human well-being, which are largely invisible to most beneficiaries. Here, we present the results of a discrete choice experiment into the preferences of Germans for soil-based ecosystem services. To tackle complexity and unfamiliarity of soils, we express soil-based ecosystem service attributes relative to the site-specific potential of soils to provide them. We investigate how knowledge about soils, awareness of their contributions to human well-being and experience with droughts and floods affect the preferences. We find substantial yet heterogeneous preferences for soil-based ecosystem services. Only some measures of familiarity exhibit significant effects on preferences.
    Keywords: Agriculture,Discrete choice experiment,Ecosystem services,Nonmarket valuation,Stated preferences,Soil functions,Willingness to pay
    JEL: Q15 Q24 Q51 Q57
    Date: 2022
  21. By: Chai, Yuan; Pannell, David J.; Pardey, Philip G.
    Abstract: Nitrogen sourced from agricultural fertilizers is a major contributor to water pollution. Despite policies targeting a range of farming practice changes, the goal of substantially reducing nitrogen losses from farms remains elusive. We highlight three empirical results from production economics that appear to provide untapped opportunities for policies to reduce nitrogen rates. First, many farmers apply more nitrogen than required to maximize expected profits or utility. Second, contrary to the perceptions of some farmers and farm advisers, nitrogen fertilizer is a risk- increasing input. Third, over wide ranges of nitrogen fertilizer rates, the relationship between rate and profit is remarkably flat, meaning that farmers can reduce fertilizer usage substantially at minimal private cost. We discuss a variety of policy options for efficiently exploiting these insights.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2022–04
  22. By: Don Fullerton; Chi L. Ta
    Abstract: Our new analytical general equilibrium model is used to study effects of tightening state Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) on electricity price, CO2 emissions, fossil fuel electricity generation, and two kinds of renewable generation. We show how those outcomes depend on key state characteristics such as endowments of potential intermittent and non-intermittent (“dispatchable”) renewable sources and the degree of intermittency. Our three extensions investigate key assumptions. We prove theorems and derive empirical hypotheses about what state characteristics makes RPS programs more effective. Using U.S. state-level data from 1990 to 2015, we find the data are consistent with these hypotheses.
    Keywords: renewable portfolio standards, emissions, electricity generation, renewable power
    JEL: H21 H23 Q58
    Date: 2022
  23. By: Lukas Block (Paderborn University); Bastian Westbrock (Hamburg University)
    Abstract: We study the abilities of competitive markets to produce sufficient energy capacities to meet a fixed energy demand. Renewable energy producers with stochastic outputs and no variable costs compete against conventional energy producers with deterministic, pollutant outputs and increasing marginal costs. We find that either market forces are strong enough to serve the entire demand, or they are too weak such that the market fails and nothing is produced. This crucially depends on the relative cost of renewable energy investments, such that relatively cheap renewable energy causes the market to fail. Welfare analyses show that with increasing levels of conventional energy pollution the ability of the market to produce an efficient outcome further declines. As a policy implication, our findings refute the use of a strategic reserve as a blackout backstop solution. Instead, a capacity mechanism consisting of a tax-and-subsidy scheme can align the market outcome with the efficient solution for all pollution levels and relative costs of renewable energy capacities.
    Keywords: Renewable versus conventional energy, capacity mechanisms, strategic reserves, capacity payments
    JEL: D41 L11 Q48
    Date: 2022–04
  24. By: Olivier Damette (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Claude Diebolt (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Stephane Goutte (Cemotev - Centre d'études sur la mondialisation, les conflits, les territoires et les vulnérabilités - UVSQ - Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines); Umberto Triacca (UNIVAQ - University of L'Aquila [Italy])
    Abstract: This paper presents the findings of climate change impact on a widespread human crisis due to a natural occurrence, focusing on the so-called Little Ice Age period. The study is based on new non-linear econometrics tools. First, we reassessed the existence of a significant cooling period using outliers and structural break tests and a nonlinear Markov Switching with Levy process (MS Levy) methodology. We found evidence of the existence of such a period between 1560-1660 and 1675-1700. In addition, we showed that NAO teleconnection was probably one of the causes of this climate change. We then performed nonlinear econometrics and causality tests to reassess the links between climate shock and macroeconomic indicators. While the causal relationship between temperature and agricultural output (yields, production, price) is strongly robust, the association between climate and GDP identified by the MS Levy model does not reveal a clear causality link. Although the MS Levy approach is not relevant in this case, the causality tests indicate that social disturbance might also have been triggered by climate change, confirming the view of Parker (2013). These findings should inform current public policies, especially with regard to the strong capacity of climate to disrupt social and economic stability.
    Keywords: Economic cycles,Causality,Markov Switching Levy,Non-linear econometrics,Climate change,Little Ice Age,Social crisis
    Date: 2020–04–16
  25. By: Juan Casado-Asensio; Dominique Blaquier; Jens Sedemund
    Abstract: Despite years of donor country engagement, developing countries’ efforts to fight climate change and its consequences remain stifled by important capacity gaps. This paper reviews the experience of development co-operation partners in strengthening capacities in this area. It provides an in-depth analysis of official development assistance trends and flows, as well as an overview of the enabling factors, obstacles and good practices. Finally, it suggests ways to overcome a number of technical, political and organisational challenges, and to accelerate capacity development for more effective climate action in partner countries.
    Keywords: Capacity building, capacity development, climate, climate change, climate change mitigation, climate finance, development co-operation, learning, official development assistance, technical assistance, technical co-operation, training
    Date: 2022–05–03
  26. By: Chai, Yuan; Pardey, Philip G.; Silverstein, Kevin A.T.
    Abstract: A prevalent and persistent biodiversity concern is that modern cropping systems lead to an erosion in crop genetic diversity. Although certain trait uniformity provides advantages in crop management and marketing, farmers are also incentivized to use diverse genetics to reduce risks from change in climate, pests and markets. These risk factors have spurred increased turnover in varietal use to address complex and spatially variable genetics, environment, and crop management (GxExM) interactions to optimize crop performance. Contrary to commonly held perceptions, phylogenetically blind and phylogenetically informed diversity metrics reveal that the intensive use of scientifically selected varieties has led to significant increases in both the spatial and temporal diversity of the U.S. wheat crop over the past century.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2022–04
  27. By: Wen Wang (Division of Social Science, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology)
    Abstract: Policies that are designed to reduce environmental damages have the goal of protecting the environment while promoting efficiency and pursuing equity in their distribution of benefits and costs. This paper measures the differential welfare impacts of environmental policies across household groups. To account for property market responses and re-optimization of residential housing decisions, a dynamic model of housing decisions with endogenous tenure status (renting vs. owning) and forward-looking residents is used. The model extends the distributional analysis in four previously overlooked dimensions: differential impacts of property market appreciation on renters and owners, preference heterogeneity over public amenities, wealth accumulation corresponding to property market changes, and expectations in dynamic housing decisions. The model is estimated taking advantage of an exogenous and unexpected environmental shock and employing a unique data set (L.A.FANS Data) tracking residents locations and tenure choices in Los Angeles County from 2000 to 2007. The results show that environmental improvements have regressive welfare impacts and favor owners more than renters. Welfare impacts can be reduced for renters and can be changed from positive to negative for low-income renters incorporating housing market responses and residential sorting. In contrast, owners of all incomes benefit more due to the capitalization of environmental improvements incorporating housing market responses. Provided that renters are more likely to be low-income earners and people of color, the differential welfare results in this paper raise the concern of environmental justice in policy design and evaluations.
    Keywords: Gentrification, Residential Sorting, Tenure, Welfare Analysis
    Date: 2021–02
  28. By: Fatoumata Nankoto Cissé (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, I&P - Investisseurs et Partenaires)
    Abstract: This study analyzes the effect of impact evaluation methodologies on the positive and negative outcomes of decentralized solar nano projects in developing countries. Data originate from the Collaborative Smart Mapping of Mini-grid Actions (CoSMMA) developed by the Foundation for Studies and Research on International Development (FERDI). This study is based on a total of 727 tested effects from 10 decentralized solar nano projects which have been measured by experimental and quasi-experimental approaches. Using a multinomial-logit regression shown that randomized and non-randomized evaluation methods have a similar probability of generating a proven favorable outcome on the sustainable development of decentralized solar nano projects. By estimating a complementary log-log model, projects are most often evaluated as successful when effects on education are tested. In addition, a discrepancy of impacts is found between randomized control trials and difference-indifference strategies in proven-unfavorable outcomes of projects. This analysis also highlights the convergence of impacts between randomization and matching techniques on projects implemented in Africa. Findings from this paper provide strong evidence for development practitioners to choose the appropriate impact assessment method.
    Keywords: Matching,Difference-in-difference,Quasi-experimental methods,Randomized control trials,Experimental methods,Meta-analysis,Impact evaluation,Decentralized electrification,Sustainable development
    Date: 2022–03
  29. By: Murphy, Colin; Kleeman, Michael J.; Wang, Guihua; Li, Yiting
    Keywords: Engineering
    Date: 2022–04–27
  30. By: Murphy, Colin; Kleeman, Michael J.; Wang, Guihua; Li, Yiting
    Keywords: Engineering
    Date: 2022–04–27
  31. By: Frédéric Dobruszkes; Jean-Michel Decroly; Pere Suau-Sanchez
    Abstract: Aviation seasonality has been acknowledged for a long time, but no global picture is available. Our paper fills this gap by conducting a worldwide analysis of monthly passenger air services at the airport level, and discussing factors that shape this temporality. Our study found that 36% of airports worldwide (accounting for less than 12% of seats) experience a significant degree of seasonality, and that larger airports are less affected. On the one hand, diverse travel purposes related to larger cities, hubbing, physical geography, remoteness and appropriate weather throughout the year induce stable seat capacity. On the other hand, climate profiles and institutional factors are key factors of peaks. Aviation seasonality has impacts for airport funders and managers, regional development and scholars.
    Date: 2022–03–01
  32. By: Mr. Chris Papageorgiou; Mr. Giovanni Melina; Mr. Alessandro Cantelmo; Nikos Fatouros
    Abstract: This paper analyzes monetary policy regimes in emerging and developing economies where climate-related natural disasters are major macroeconomic shocks. A narrative analysis of IMF reports published around the occurrence of natural disasters documents their impact on important macroeconomic variables and monetary policy responses. While countries with at least some degree of monetary policy independence typically react by tightening the monetary policy stance, in a sizable number of cases monetary policy was accommodated. Given the lack of consensus on best practices in these circumstances, a small-open-economy New-Keynesian model with disaster shocks is leveraged to evaluate welfare under alternative monetary policy rules. Results suggest that responding to inflation while allowing temporary deviations from its target is the welfare maximizing policy. Alternative regimes such as strict inflation targeting, exchange rate pegs, or Taylor rules explicitly responding to economic activity or the exchange rate would be welfare-detrimental. With climate change projected to expand the list of disaster-prone countries, these findings are likely to be soon relevant also for richer or larger economies.
    Keywords: Natural Disasters, Climate Change, DSGE, Monetary Policy, Exchange Rate Regimes.
    Date: 2022–04–01
    Abstract: The GCC oil exporters including Saudi Arabia and the UAE are under strong pressure to prepare for decreasing global oil demand in the era of energy transition and carbon neutrality. To overcome these challenges, they need to diversify their industrial structure and develop low carbon technologies such as green hydrogen and CCUS (Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage). This research is aimed to examine various mid-to-long term plans, industrial policies, and business cooperation cases to promote diversification in the Middle Eastern petroleum industry, suggesting policy proposals for cooperation between Korea and the Middle East and business opportunities in the region.
    Keywords: Middle East; Petroleum Industry; Korea; Energy Transition
    Date: 2022–04–06
  34. By: Ortiz-Riomalo, Juan Felipe; Koessler, Ann-Kathrin; Engel, Stefanie
    Abstract: Solving humanity’s social-environmental challenges calls for co-operation by the relevant actors. Hence, involving them in the policy process has been deemed both necessary and promising. But how and to what extent can participatory policy interventions effectively foster co-operation for sustainable natural resource management? Research on collective action and research on participatory governance offer insights on this question but have hitherto remained largely unconnected. In particular, results of field and lab experiments on collective action can complement those of case studies on participatory governance to shed further light on the potential (institutional and behavioural) impacts and mechanisms of participatory interventions. This article reviews and integrates key insights of these strands of research using the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework. Our review shows that participatory interventions can foster co-operation (a) by helping the relevant actors craft adequate institutional arrangements, and (b) by addressing and/or influencing relevant actors’ attributes (i.e. their individual and shared understandings, beliefs, trust and preferences). However, to fulfil their potential, organisers of participatory interventions need to soundly design and implement them, adequately embedding them in the broader context. They must be complemented with proper follow-up, enforcement and conflict-resolution mechanisms to nurture, reassure and sustain trust and co-operation.
    Keywords: cooperation,collective action,social dilemmas,participatory governance,natural resource management,environmental policy,natural resource policy
    JEL: D72 D79 P32 P48
    Date: 2022
  35. By: Simola, Heli; Solanko, Laura
    Abstract: The past two decades have witnessed a major transformation of global energy markets. While growth in energy demand now comes from emerging economies, and technologies critical to oil and natural gas production have seen dramatic advances, the biggest changes in global energy markets lie ahead. For countries to meet their ambitious climate goals, demand for conventional energy sources must fall significantly and be accompanied by a massive shift in investment to renewable energy sources. Such changes can have major implications for the Russian economy, which depends heavily on oil and gas. This brief provides an overview of the latest trends in Russia's oil & gas sector in the context of evolving global energy markets.
    Keywords: Russia,oil,natural gas,energy transition
    Date: 2021
  36. By: Matthias van den Heuvel; David Popp
    Abstract: After a boom and bust cycle in the early 2010s, venture capital (VC) investments are, once again, flowing towards green businesses. In this paper, we use Crunchbase data on 150,000 US startups founded between 2000 and 2020 to better understand why VC initially did not prove successful in funding new clean energy technologies. Both lackluster demand and a lower potential for outsized returns make clean energy firms less attractive to VC than startups in ICT or biotech. However, we find no clear evidence that characteristics such as high-capital intensity or long development timeframe are behind the lack of success of VC in clean energy. In addition, our results show that while public sector investments can help attract VC investment, the ultimate success rate of firms receiving public funding remains small. Thus, stimulating demand will have a greater impact on clean energy innovation than investing in startups that will then struggle through the “valley of death”. Only with demand-side policies in place should governments try to plug funding gaps by targeting clean energy startups with low potential for outsized returns that will continue to find it hard to attract private capital.
    Keywords: venture capital, renewable energy, start-up firms
    JEL: G24 Q40 Q48 Q55
    Date: 2022
  37. By: Azhgaliyeva, Dina (Asian Development Bank Institute); Mishra, Ranjeeta (Asian Development Bank Institute); Kapsalyamova, Zhanna (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: We investigate the impacts of crude oil price shocks on financial markets by examining the effect of oil price shocks on green bond issuance. Green bond issuance has been growing fast over the past several years; despite this, the share of green bonds in the total bonds remains small. Using the multilevel longitudinal random intercept and random coefficient models, we investigate the effect of disentangled crude oil price shocks on green bond issuance in the private sector. Unlike the general bond market, our empirical analysis finds that oil supply shocks affect green bond issuance positively. We also find that the public issuance of sovereign green bonds tends to promote the private issuance of green bonds. Our results are robust and hold when using alternative models; they also survive a range of robustness tests.
    Keywords: green bonds; sovereign bonds; green finance; oil shock; policy support; crude oil price
    JEL: G23 Q28 Q42 Q48
    Date: 2021–07
  38. By: Beyer, Robert C. M. (World Bank); Narayanan, Abhinav (Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank); Thakur, Gogol Mitra (Centre for Development Studies)
    Abstract: Exceptionally high rainfall in the Indian state of Kerala caused major flooding in 2018. This paper estimates the short-run causal impact of the disaster on the economy, using a difference-in-difference approach. Monthly nighttime light intensity, a proxy for aggregate economic activity, suggests that activity declined for three months during the disaster but boomed subsequently. Automated teller machine transactions, a proxy for consumer demand, declined and credit disbursal increased, with households borrowing more for housing and less for consumption. In line with other results, both household income and expenditure declined during the floods. Despite a strong wage recovery after the floods, spending remained lower relative to the unaffected districts. The paper argues that increased labor demand due to reconstruction efforts increased wages after the floods and provides corroborating evidence: (i) rural labor markets tightened, (ii) poorer households benefited more, and (iii) wages increased most where government relief was strongest. The findings confirm the presence of interesting economic dynamics during and right after natural disasters that remain in the shadow when analyzed with annual data.
    Keywords: natural disasters ; aggregate activity ; household behavior ; spatial analysis
    JEL: Q54 R22 D12 O44
    Date: 2022–04
  39. By: Matthias van den Heuvel; David Popp
    Abstract: After a boom and bust cycle in the early 2010s, venture capital (VC) investments are, once again, flowing towards green businesses. In this paper, we use Crunchbase data on 150,000 US startups founded between 2000 and 2020 to better understand why VC initially did not prove successful in funding new clean energy technologies. Both lackluster demand and a lower potential for outsized returns make clean energy firms less attractive to VC than startups in ICT or biotech. However, we find no clear evidence that characteristics such as high-capital intensity or long development timeframe are behind the lack of success of VC in clean energy. In addition, our results show that while public sector investments can help attract VC investment, the ultimate success rate of firms receiving public funding remains small. Thus, stimulating demand will have a greater impact on clean energy innovation than investing in startups that will then struggle through the “valley of death”. Rather than investing themselves in startups bound to struggle through the valleys of death, governments wishing to support clean energy startups can first implement demand-side policies that make investing in clean energy more viable.
    JEL: G24 Q40 Q48 Q55
    Date: 2022–04
  40. By: Ezzedine Ghlamallah (CERGAM - Centre d'Études et de Recherche en Gestion d'Aix-Marseille - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - UTLN - Université de Toulon)
    Keywords: Economie islamique,Développement durable
    Date: 2021–01–28
  41. By: Emmanuelle Fromont (CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université); Thi Le Hoa Vo (CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université); Gulliver Lux (CINBIOSE - UQUAM - UQAM - Université du Québec à Montréal = University of Québec in Montréal, UQAM - Université du Québec à Montréal = University of Québec in Montréal, ESG - Ecole des Sciences de la Gestion - UQAM - Université du Québec à Montréal = University of Québec in Montréal)
    Abstract: This article studies the impact of the quality of mandatory corporate reporting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on investors' valuations in a context of increasing legislative constraints and stakeholders' growing information requirements. Using a GHG reporting score estimated from disclosures provided by French companies listed on the SBF 120 from 2016 to 2019, we show that the quality of mandatory GHG reporting improved over the study period despite lack of enforcement measures and appears to be higher among firms in polluting sectors. Our results also suggest that while financial markets are sensitive to the quality of GHG information required under French legislation, they tend to calibrate their valuations of this extra-financial information to the type of sector in which firm operates.
    Abstract: Cet article étudie l'impact de la qualité de la communication réglementée des entreprises en matière d'émissions de Gaz à Effet de Serre (GES) sur la valorisation des investisseurs et ceci dans un contexte de renforcement des contraintes législatives et de croissance des exigences informationnelles des parties prenantes. En utilisant un score de communication GES estimé à partir des publications réalisées entre 2016 et 2019 par les entreprises françaises du SBF 120, nous montrons que la qualité des communications GES réglementées s'est améliorée sur la période d'étude malgré l'absence de mesures coercitives et apparaît particulièrement plus élevée chez les entreprises des secteurs polluants. Nos résultats suggèrent également que si les marchés financiers sont sensibles à la qualité des informations GES exigée par le législateur français, ils tendent à valoriser différemment cette information extra-financière en fonction du secteur d'activité de l'entreprise.
    Keywords: Environmental reporting,quality of GHG information,regulation,investors’ valuations,sector,Reporting environnemental,qualité de l’information GES,réglementation,valorisation des investisseurs,secteur d’activité
    Date: 2022–01–13
  42. By: Vitor Vieira Vasconcelos (UFABC - Universidade Federal do ABC)
    Abstract: Considerations are presented on discourses and practices of public policies and public budget, regarding territorial development. The considerations are based on the author's experience in government institutions, at state and national level, in the executive and legislative powers in Brazil. This experience is compared to theoretical and applied studies on sustainable regional development, including agrarian reform, small-scale farming, ecological-economic zoning, transport infrastructure, city network hierarchies, and budgetary policies. The discussion shows how, behind discourses of regional development, there may be strategies for maintaining political power which may not always be the most appropriate for improving people's quality of life.
    Keywords: regional development,public policies,public budget,sustainable development,politics
    Date: 2021–03–30
  43. By: Zhang, Lisa; Hale, Joanna (UCL)
    Abstract: This research aims to explore the barriers and enablers of clothing repair and repurpose in UK citizens. Using the Behaviour Change Wheel approach, the study aims to develop am intervention to encourage repair and repurpose, which can ultimately contribute to slow and sustainable fashion consumption. This study also investigates the impact of Covid-19 on repair and repurpose behaviour.
    Date: 2022–04–15
  44. By: KOLOMA, YAYA
    Abstract: Since 2012, Mali has been in crisis, with significant socioeconomic damages over the past nine years. Despite several efforts by national, regional, and international partners, violence is on the rise and spreading, institutions are dysfunctional, and the military remains inefficient, leading to questions about whether Mali has become ungovernable and when the crisis will end. Following the African Development Bank conception of fragility analysis, this paper aims to expose some of the root causes of Mali's fragility and to recommend a few actions to address them. We conduct an in-depth literature review by emphasizing five main dimensions, such as political and institutional, economic, social, and climate-environmental, and geopolitical and geostrategic considered key drivers of fragility. It is clear that one of the main causes of Mali's fragility is the poor performance of institutions and therefore of governance. The spread of the insecurity from the North to the Central region of the country is making the crisis more complex. Particularly, its ramification into inter-communities’ conflicts challenge the way to address the whole crisis. Possible solutions may include reorganizing military institutions, strategies, and services, establishing more equitable and well-distributed justice, engaging in dialogue with various communities, including armed and jihadist groups, implementing integrative, conflict-sensitive, and climate-sensitive development projects and programs, strengthening the economy based on the policy of developing regional competitiveness clusters, and finding a better balance between various and conflicting geopolitical interests.
    Keywords: Fragility, Insecurity, Terrorism, Poverty, Competition, Geopolitics, Climate change, Mali
    JEL: F51 H41 Q34 Z13 Z18
    Date: 2022–04–21
  45. By: Nilabja Ghosh; M. Rajeshwor; Hrishabh Narayan (Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi)
    Abstract: Agriculture, known to be particularly sensitive to rainfall, helps determine GDP by its own performance and through its linkages with the industrial sector. Using Factor analysis to spatially disaggregate meteorological rainfall data based on commonality and employing an econometric simultaneous model the study finds determination of sectoral GDP performances in the economy to be a complex process. Although irrigation is making agriculture resilient to weather, irrigation itself depends on rainfall elsewhere and in past periods. Rainfall in different periods of the year and in the past and in disparate parts of the country together shape performance of the primary sector, especially its direction but the impact of rainfall on the secondary sector is relatively weak. Prices, policy variables, interest rates and exchange rates matter for both sectors but reactions may come with a delay especially in the secondary activities. Subsidized targeted credit for agriculture is found to help both sectors. For current agricultural performance, the criticality of good water management is implied by the highly influential role, not always favourable too, of rainfall in the previous year.
    Keywords: Spatial rainfall, Factor analysis, policy effect, price effect, Water management, sectoral GDP
    Date: 2021–08
  46. By: Lucile Rogissart (I4CE - Institut de l’Économie pour le Climat); Valentin Bellassen (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Claudine Foucherot (I4CE - Institut de l’Économie pour le Climat)
    Abstract: Consommer moins de produits animaux et gaspiller moins allègent le budget, mais augmenter sa consommation de produits bio l'alourdit. Au total, l'adoption d'un régime alimentaire durable augmente ou diminue-t-elle les dépenses des consommateurs ? Si certaines études apportent une réponse tranchée à cette question, celle-ci varie en réalité selon trois facteurs au moins : L'ambition du régime alimentaire durable visé : le niveau de substitution entre protéines animales et végétales, la part de produits issus de modes de production durables (qu'on assimile au bio par simplification), et le niveau de réduction des gaspillages ; Les conditions économiques, en particulier le prix des produits bio par rapport aux produits conventionnels ; L'assiette initiale des consommateurs et les prix auxquels ils achètent leurs produits, qui sont fortement corrélés aux revenus. I4CE a développé un calculateur pour mesurer les effets de chacun de ces facteurs sur le budget alimentaire des ménages. Selon le niveau de ces paramètres, la transition vers un régime alimentaire plus durable peut constituer un gain de 30 % comme représenter une dépense supplémentaire de 67% du budget alimentaire initial du consommateur. Les personnes aux revenus les plus faibles sont celles pour lesquelles les surcoûts potentiels sont les plus importants. Aux prix actuels, quelles que soient les réductions des produits animaux et de quantité de gaspillage, consommer majoritairement bio coûte plus cher, surtout pour les ménages les plus pauvres. Le surprix du bio par rapport au conventionnel devrait passer de 65% aujourd'hui à 10% pour que tous les ménages puissent adopter un régime moins carné 100% bio sans augmenter leur budget. Si une forte consommation de produits bio est visée, des politiques publiques doivent donc gérer la tension entre des prix rémunérateurs pour les pratiques durables des agriculteurs, et une augmentation des dépenses alimentaires acceptable pour les ménages.
    Keywords: Agriculture biologique,Consommation alimentaire,Coût de l'alimentation,Atténuation du changement climatique,Bilan carbone
    Date: 2021
  47. By: Hélène Bouscasse (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Sandrine Mathy (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Rim Rejeb (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Carole Treibich (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes)
    Date: 2022–03–20
  48. By: Satarupa Chakravarty; Sukanya Das; Saudamini Das (Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi)
    Abstract: India is reported to have the world’s highest inhabitants without access to safe drinking water.Even in the capital city Delhi, although around 81% of the households have access to piped water supply system, it does not indicate reliability in water supply in terms of quantity or quality. Households adopt various coping mechanisms such as collecting, purchasing, storing, and treating of water to cope with the unreliable and irregular water supply. In this study a household survey was conducted to examine the coping mechanisms and the costs incurred by some low-income households, residing in the command area of the Chandrawal water treatment plant in Delhi. There have been numerous occasions leading to irregularity or disruption in water supply due to planned works, plant operational problems, or high levels of ammonia in the Yamuna River, the source of raw water to this plant. The quantitative and qualitative problems related to unreliable water supply were investigated. The results indicate that, on an average, the annual coping cost to the households is INR 6487 (US$ 93), which is approximately 2.52% of their annual income. Income seems to play a strong role in the choice of coping activities adopted by the households.
    Keywords: Coping Cost, Household Production Function, Water Supply, Water Treatment Plant, Delhi
    Date: 2021–11
  49. By: Fabrice Roubelat (CEREGE - Centre de Recherche en Gestion - IAE Poitiers - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises (IAE) - Poitiers - Université de Poitiers - Université de Poitiers - ULR - La Rochelle Université - Excelia Group | La Rochelle Business School); Anne Marchais-Roubelat (LIRSA - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire de recherche en sciences de l'action - CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM] - HESAM - HESAM Université, CEREGE - Centre de Recherche en Gestion - IAE Poitiers - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises (IAE) - Poitiers - Université de Poitiers - Université de Poitiers - ULR - La Rochelle Université - Excelia Group | La Rochelle Business School)
    Date: 2022
  50. By: Mascherbauer, Philipp; Kranzl, Lukas; Yu, Songmin; Haupt, Thomas
    Abstract: This paper addresses the following question: How can smart energy management system (SEMS) influence the residential electricity consumption at both individual household and national level? First, we developed an hourly optimization model for individual households. The energy cost of an individual household is minimized under given assumptions on outside temperature, radiation, (dynamic) electricity price, and feed-in tariff. By comparing the optimization to the reference scenario, we show the impact of SEMS on grid-electricity consumption and photovoltaic (PV) selfconsumption at the individual household level. Second, to aggregate the results to the national level, we constructed a detailed building stock taking Austria as an example. By aggregating the results of 2112 representative households, we investigate the impact of SEMS in the residential building stock on the national electricity system. As a result, we found that for individual singlefamily-houses (SFHs) with PV (no battery) and heat pump adoption, SEMS can significantly reduce the grid-electricity consumption up to 40.7% for a well-insulated building. At the national level we found that, for the buildings with 5 kWp PV but without hot water tank or battery storage, SEMS can still reduce the grid-electricity consumption by 7.4% by using the building mass as thermal storage.
    Keywords: demand-side management,PV,heat pump,energy storage,optimization,building stock
    Date: 2022
  51. By: Lisa Becker (GWS - Institute of Economic Structures Research); Dr. Christian Lutz (GWS - Institute of Economic Structures Research)
    Abstract: Klima- und Umweltschutz spielen bereits heute eine wichtige Rolle auf dem Arbeitsmarkt. Durch den Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien, Investitionen in Energieeffizienzmaßnahmen sowie durch die Nachfrage nach umweltschutzorientierten Dienstleistungen und Umweltschutzgütern ergibt sich aktuell ein Beschäftigungseffekt von etwa 2,8 Mio. Personen. In Szenarienanalysen bis 2030 werden die Beschäftigungswirkungen einer umfassenden Wirtschaftswende oder einzelner Bereiche der Transformation für die Zukunft abgeschätzt. In dem überwiegenden Teil der Studien wird ein positiver Beschäftigungseffekt berechnet, der bei mehreren hunderttausend zusätzlichen Personen gegenüber einer Referenzentwicklung liegt. Insbesondere das Baugewerbe und die Elektroindustrie gehen als Gewinner hervor – außerdem können Wirtschaftsbereiche wie der Handel oder der Dienstleistungssektor von der gesamtwirtschaftlich besseren Lage profitieren. Negative Effekte auf die Beschäftigung werden für die fossile Energiewirtschaft und die Automobilbranche aufgrund des Übergangs zu erneuerbaren Energien und Elektromobilität erwartet, die im Vergleich zu den positiven Effekten jedoch gering sind. Allerdings wird die Wirtschaftswende Veränderungen auf dem Arbeitsmarkt, die durch die Digitalisierung und weitere Trends zu erwarten sind, zusätzlich beschleunigen. Über die Beschäftigung hinaus sind weitergehende ökonomische Effekte (z. B. auf das BIP) überwiegend positiv. Auf den Beschluss des Bundesverfassungsgerichts vom April 2021 hat die Bundesregierung mit einer Erhöhung des Emissionsreduktionsziels für Deutschland auf 65 % bis 2030 gegenüber 1990 reagiert. Bis 2020 gingen die THG-Emissionen ohne Berücksichtigung der Pandemieeffekte um etwa 38 % zurück. Die Wirtschaftswende muss also drastisch beschleunigt werden. Allein durch einen stärkeren Ausbau der erneuerbaren Energien im Strombereich, der mit einer 65%igen Emissionsreduktion vereinbar ist, ergeben sich knapp 60 000 zusätzliche Erwerbstätige im Jahr 2030 gegenüber dem bisherigen Zielpfad einer 55%igen Emissionsreduktion. Eine weitere Zielverschärfung wird von verschiedenen Seiten gefordert. Auch Greenpeace hält angesichts des verbleibenden CO2-Budgets eine Emissionsreduktion von mindestens 70 % bis 2030 und Klimaneutralität bereits vor 2040 für notwendig, was u. a. durch einen stärkeren Ausbau der Windenergie verwirklicht werden soll. Die genauen ökonomischen Effekte hierfür lassen sich ohne Modellrechnung nicht präzise quantifizieren. Vor dem Hintergrund der bestehenden Abschätzungen liegt es jedoch nahe, dass höhere Ausbauziele zu einem gesamtwirtschaftlich positiven Beschäftigungseffekt führen. Dabei müssen jedoch Grenzen der Umsetzbarkeit wie Restriktionen des Arbeitsmarktes, technologische Entwicklungen oder gesellschaftliche Akzeptanz berücksichtigt werden. Die Notwendigkeit einer Wirtschaftswende liegt in der Vermeidung einer hohen Erderwärmung begründet. Die Transformation wird nicht in erster Linie angestrebt, um damit Arbeitsplätze zu schaffen, sondern da sie zum Schutz von Mensch und Umwelt unumgänglich ist. Angesichts der positiven gesamtwirtschaftlichen Effekte und der hohen Unsicherheit über die Folgen des Klimawandels ist eine klimaneutrale Wirtschaftsweise auch aus ökonomischer Sicht der einzig vernünftige Weg.
    Keywords: Beschäftigung, Arbeitsmarkt, Klimaschutz
    JEL: J21 Q57 Q52
    Date: 2021
  52. By: Anjali P. Verma (The University of Texas at Austin); Imelda (IHEID, Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva)
    Abstract: Women bear a disproportionate share of the health and time burden associated with lack of access to modern energy. We study the impact of clean energy access on adult health and labour supply outcomes by exploiting a nationwide rollout of a clean cooking fuel program in Indonesia. We find that access to clean cooking fuel led to an improvement in women's health and an increase in their work hours. We also find an increase in men's work hours and in their propensity to have an additional job, primarily in those households where women accrued the largest program benefits.
    Keywords: gender inequality; energy access; health; labour supply; Indonesia
    JEL: H51 I15 I18 J22 O13 Q48 Q53
    Date: 2022–05–06
  53. By: Khalifany-Ash Shidiqi (Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta and University of Barcelona); Antonio Di Paolo (AQR-IREA, University of Barcelona); Álvaro Choi (University of Barcelona)
    Abstract: Natural disasters are a significant threat to human development. In this paper, we analyze the effects of being exposed to a strong earthquake during school age on schooling outcomes. We merge geolocated data about the intensity of the shock at the district level with individual information from the Indonesia Family Life Survey. The identification strategy exploits variation in exposure to the natural shock by birth cohort and district of residence, considering as the treated group individuals who were residing in affected districts while they were in school age. Earthquake exposure reduces years of schooling by somewhat less than one year and negatively affects the probability of completing compulsory education but does not alter the chances of enrolling into postcompulsory education. Falsification analysis and several robustness checks corroborate the causal interpretation of our findings. The analysis of the potential mechanisms indicates that induced migration and casualties occurring at the family level as a consequence of the earthquake do not seem to play a relevant role. However, damages in educational infrastructures do represent a relevant channel through which natural disasters harm human capital formation. Part of the overall impact of the earthquake represents a delay in schooling progression, but a substantial share of its effect consists in a permanent loss of human capital among affected individuals..
    Keywords: Natural disasters, Earthquake, Schooling, Educational infrastructures. JEL classification: I25, I24, O15, Q54
    Date: 2022–05
  54. By: Cornelius A. Rietveld; Pankaj C. Patel
    Abstract: Data collected through the National Expert Survey (NES) of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) are widely used to assess the quality and impact of national entrepreneurial ecosystems. By focusing on the measurement of the National Entrepreneurship Context Index (NECI), we argue and show that the subjective nature of the responses of the national experts precludes meaningful cross-country analyses and cross-country rankings. Moreover, we show that the limited precision of the NECI severely constraints the longitudinal assessment of within-country trends. We provide recommendations for the current use of NECI data and suggestions for future NES data collections.
    Date: 2022–04
  55. By: Damir Galaz-Mandakovic Fernández (Universidad de Tarapaca); Francisco Rivera Amaro (UdeM - Université de Montréal)
    Abstract: En este artículo se cuantifica, caracteriza y analiza la migración boliviana en la zona de Ollagüe y comunidades aledañas mediante el hallazgo de 335 expedientes migratorios que datan de 1879 a 1946. Se presentan los períodos de ingreso, los lugares de origen, el oficio y profesión, además del género, estado civil, edad y alfabetización de los migrantes bolivianos que se desenvolvieron en la minería del azufre y el bórax. La caracterización y análisis de los archivos da cuenta del papel central que tuvo la fuerza laboral boliviana para el desarrollo de la minería no metálica, concluyéndose que la expansión capitalista en la frontera chilena fue sustentada por una subsidiariedad étnica de una fuerza laboral internacional subordinada.
    Keywords: Migración,minería,azufre,bórax,subsidiaridad étnica,Ollagüe Migration,mining,sulphur,borax,ethnic subsidiarity,Ollagüe
    Date: 2021

This nep-env issue is ©2022 by Francisco S. Ramos. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.