nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2022‒04‒18
67 papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Do PTAs with environmental provisions reduce GHG emissions? Distinguishing the effectiveness of climate-related provisions By Sorgho, Zakaria; Tharakan, Joe
  2. Operationalizing and Empirically Identifying Populations Trapped in Place by Climate and Environmental Stressors in Mexico By Jack DeWaard; Lori M. Hunter; Mason C. Mathews; Esteban J. Quiñones; Fernando Riosmena; Daniel H. Simon
  3. Does gender diversity in the workplace mitigate climate change? By Altunbas, Yener; Gambacorta, Leonardo; Reghezza, Alessio; Velliscig, Giulio
  4. The low-carbon transition, climate commitments and firm credit risk By Carbone, Sante; Giuzio, Margherita; Kapadia, Sujit; Krämer, Johannes Sebastian; Nyholm, Ken; Vozian, Katia
  5. The impact of carbon pricing in a multi-region production network model and an application to climate scenarios By Frankovic, Ivan
  6. Climate change and individual behavior By Bernard, René; Tzamourani, Panagiota; Weber, Michael
  7. Towards net zero emissions in Denmark By Andrew Barker; Hélène Blake; Filippo Maria D’Arcangelo; Patrick Lenain
  8. Economic complexity and environmental pollution: Evidence from the former socialist transition countries By Bucher, Florian; Scheu, Lucas; Schröpf, Benedikt
  9. Climate Change in Sub-Saharan Africa Fragile States: Evidence from Panel Estimations By Mr. Rodolfo Maino; Drilona Emrullahu
  10. Euro Area banks' sensitivity to changes in carbon price By Belloni, Marco; Kuik, Friderike; Mingarelli, Luca
  11. Access to Financial Resources and Environmental Migration of the Poor By Aizhamal Rakhmetova; Roman Hoffmann; Mariola Pytlikova
  12. No need to worry? Estimating the exposure of the German banking sector to climate-related transition risks By D'Orazio, Paola; Hertel, Tobias; Kasbrink, Fynn
  13. An unified framework for measuring pollution-adjusted productivity change By Arnaud Abad
  14. Effects of Green Human Resource Management practices on environmental performance: Evidence from Textile Sector of Emerging Country By Khan, Sidra
  15. Progress towards sustainable agriculture – Drivers of change By Ignaciuk, Ada; Ilicic, Joanna; Asprooth, Lauren; Sitko, Nicholas J.; Bernard, Angela; Maggio, Giuseppe; Tubiello, Francesco N.; Mueller, Marc
  16. Cutting Russia’s Fossil Fuel Exports: Short-Term Pain for Long-Term Gain By Chepeliev, Maksym; Thomas Hertel; Dominique van der Mensbrugghe
  17. Economic geography and the efficiency of environmental regulation By Hollingsworth, Alex; Jaworski, Taylor; Kitchens, Carl; Rudik, Ivan
  18. Proxy-led accountability for natural resource extraction in rentier states By Kramarz, Teresa; Mason, Michael; Partzsch, Lena
  19. Exposure to Climate Shocks, Poverty and Happiness: The ”Three Little Pigs” Effect By Leonardo Becchetti; Sara Mancini; Sara Savastano
  20. Climate Change and Financial Stability: The Weather Channel By Kristian S. Blickle; Donald P. Morgan
  21. Environmental impacts of enlarging electric vehicles market share By De Wolf, Daniel; Diop, Ngagne; Kilani, Moez
  22. La gestion des paysages nécessite le soutien de droits sécurisés et d’une gouvernance adéquate By Barrow, Edmund
  23. Environmental Plans and Freight Movement at the San Pedro Bay Ports: A Quick Strike Analysis By Matsumoto, Deanna; Mace, Caitlin; Reeb, Tyler; O'Brien, Thomas
  24. La gestión medioambiental necesita el respaldo de unos derechos garantizados y una gobernanza adecuada By Barrow, Edmund
  25. Seguridad de la tenencia, gobernanza del paisaje y cambio climático: Un programa de investigación By McCarthy, Nancy
  26. Peat replacement in horticultural growing media : availability of bio-based alternative materials By Hirschler, Olivier; Osterburg, Bernhard; Weimar, Holger; Glasenapp, Sebastian; Ohmes, Marie-Friederike
  27. Interested but Uncertain: Carbon markets and data sharing among US row crop farmers By Niles, Meredith; Han, Guang
  28. The Competitiveness Outlook of the European Agriculture with the new Green Deal Policy By Ivo Horák
  29. To mitigate or to adapt: how to deal with optimism, pessimism and strategic ambiguity? By Nahed Eddai; Ani Guerdjikova
  30. Cities and the sea level By Michaels, Guy; Lin, Yatang; McDermott, Thomas K. J.
  31. Macroeconomic Effects of Green Recovery Programmes. Conceptual Framing and a Review of the Empirical Literature By Angela Köppl; Margit Schratzenstaller
  32. Future Connected and Automated Vehicle Adoption Will Likely Increase Car Dependence and Reduce Transit Use without Policy Intervention By Circella, Giovanni; Jaller, Miguel; Sun, Ran; Qian, Xiaodong; Alemi, Farzad
  33. Sécurité foncière, gouvernance des paysages et changement climatique: Un programme de recherche By McCarthy, Nancy
  34. How Much Do Local Climate Action Plans in California Consider Emissions, Cost, and Equity? By Lozano, Mark T.; Kendall, Alissa; Arnold, Gwen; Harvey, John T.; Butt, Ali A.
  35. Sub-Saharan Africa: Building Resilience to Climate-Related Disasters By Ms. Pritha Mitra; Eric M. Pondi Endengle; Seung Mo Choi
  36. Exposure or Income? The Unequal Effects of Pollution on Daily Labor Supply By Bridget Hoffmann; Juan Pablo Rud
  37. O ESTADO DA ARTE DA TEORIA DE NUDGE E O ESTÍMULO DE COMPORTAMENTOS TURÍSTICOS PRÓ-AMBIENTAIS: Uma revisão sistemática da literatura internacional By Souza-Neto, Valério
  38. Women's parliamentary representation and environmental quality in Africa: Effects and transmission channels By Edmond Noubissi; Loudi Njoya
  39. Klimaschonend Fliegen mit Green Nudging? By Enste, Dominik; Potthoff, Jennifer
  40. The forgotten coal: Charcoal demand in Sub-Saharan Africa By Rose, Julian; Bensch, Gunther; Munyehirwe, Anicet; Peters, Jörg
  41. Weather and crime: Cautious evidence from South Africa By Brüderle, Mirjam Anna; Peters, Jörg; Roberts, Gareth
  42. Mitigating the Macroeconomic Impact of Severe Natural Disasters in Africa: Policy Synergies By Samba Diop; Simplice A. Asongu; Vanessa S. Tchamyou
  43. Impacts of CBAM on EU trade partners: consequences for developing countries By Guilherme MAGACHO; Etienne ESPAGNE; Antoine GODIN
  44. Adaptive business arrangements and the creation of social capital: Towards small‐scale fisheries resilience in different European geographical areas By Paolo Prosperi; James Kirwan; Damian Maye; Emi Tsakalou; George Vlahos; Fabio Bartolini; Daniele Vergamini; Gianluca Brunori
  45. 2021 Zero Emission Vehicle Market Study: Volume 2: Intra-California Regions Defined by Air Districts By Kurani, Kenneth S
  46. “Farm To Fork” Strategy and Its Implications for the Development of the Beef Production Sector in Poland By Krzyżanowski, Julian
  47. Welfare Implications of Electric-Bike Subsidies: Evidence from Sweden By Anderson, Anders; Hong, Harrison
  48. Welfare Effects of Fuel Tax and Feebate Policies in the Japanese New Car Market By Tatsuya Abe
  49. Disparities in Social Development of Rural Areas in the Context of Sustainable Development of Polish Voivodeships By Wyrwa, Joanna; Barska, Anetta
  50. Political and Socioeconomic Factors That Determine the Financial Outcome of Successful Green Innovation By Riehl, Kevin; Kiesel, Florian; Schiereck, Dirk
  51. By-product valorization strategies implemented by small Mediterranean olive oil farmers By Judit Manuel-I-Martin; Mechthild Donner; Ivana Radic; Yamna Erraach; Fatima El Hadad-Gauthier; Taoufik Yatribi; Feliu López-I-Gelats
  52. Greenwashing in the US metal industry? A novel approach combining SO2 concentrations from satellite data, a plant-level firm database and web text mining By Schmidt, Sebastian; Kinne, Jan; Lautenbach, Sven; Blaschke, Thomas; Lenz, David; Resch, Bernd
  53. Does it pay to invest in dirty industries? New insights on the shunned-stock hypothesis By Bauckloh, Michael Tobias; Beyer, Victor; Klein, Christian
  54. Investigation of the Effect of Pavement Deflection on Vehicle Fuel Consumption: Field Testing and Empirical Analysis By Butt, Ali Azhar; Harvey, John; Fitch, Dillon; Kedarisetty, Sampat; Lea, Jeremy D.; Lea, Jon; Reger, Darren
  55. The socio-economic and environmental impact of a large infrastructure project: The case of the Konkan Railway in India By Jaiswal, Sreeja; Bensch, Gunther; Navalkar, Aniket; Jayaraman, T.
  56. Seguridad de la tenencia: Por qué es importante By Swallow, Brent M.
  57. Régime foncier et gouvernance des ressources naturelles pour la nutrition et la santé humaines: Liens et priorités pour la recherche et le développement agricoles By Johnson, Nancy L.
  58. Les banques publiques de développement (BPD) nationales : des acteurs clés dans le financement de l’eau et de l’assainissement By Olivier Crespi Reghizzi (AFD),; Catarina Fonseca (IRC),; Goufrane Mansour (Aguaconsult),; Stef Smits (IRC).
  59. Eventos Climáticos Extremos no Brasil e Impactos Econômicos Provenientes de Mudanças na Produtividade Agrícola By Catelan, Davi; Carvalho, Terciane; Vale, Vinicius
  60. La tenencia y gobernanza de los recursos para la nutrición y la salud: Vínculos y prioridades para la investigación y el desarrollo agrícolas By Johnson, Nancy L.
  61. Climate protection potentials of digitalized production processes: Microeconometric evidence? By Axenbeck, Janna; Niebel, Thomas
  62. Integrating Zero Emission Vehicles into the Caltrans Fleet By Todd, Mike; Scora, George; Luo, Jill
  63. Lasting Impact on Health from Natural Disasters, Potential Mechanisms and Mitigating Effects By Gaurav Dhamija; Gitanjali Sen
  64. Robust Policy Selection and Harvest Risk Quantification for Natural Resources Management under Model Uncertainty By Georgios I. Papayiannis
  65. Sécurité foncière: Pourquoi est-elle si importante? By Swallow, Brent M.
  66. La finance verte : mirage ou révolution ? By Jade Adler; Maxence Péan
  67. A tribute to Thierry Bréchet, an economist of the environment and of the public interest By Tulkens, Henry; Borissov, Kirill; Eyckmans, Johan; Lambrecht, Stéphane; Picard, Pierre M.; Tsachev, Tsvetomir; Veliov, Vladimir

  1. By: Sorgho, Zakaria; Tharakan, Joe (Université catholique de Louvain, LIDAM/CORE, Belgium)
    Abstract: This paper assesses the effectiveness on climate change mitigation of the environmental-related commitments contained in preferential trade agreements (PTAs). The starting question is does any PTA with environmental provisions reduce emissions? Because of a lack of detailed data on PTAs, the academic literature on the role of PTAs with environmental provisions (PTAwEP) in global climate governance remains limited. A novel and detailed database identifying nearly 300 different types of environmental provisions from more than 680 PTAs since 1947 allows us to distinguish the PTAs with climate-related provisions (PTAwCP) from those with provisions related to other environmental issues. Using panel data covering 165 countries over the period 1995 to 2012, controlling for endogeneity issues, our main result shows that PTAwCP statistically reduce the emissions while the effect of PTAs with provisions related to other environmental issues remains a negative but not significant on emissions. Our results suggest that it is rather the specific climaterelated provisions in PTAwEP that positively affect the environmental quality. Thus, to be effective in terms of mitigating climate change, PTAwEP should contain climate-related commitments.
    Keywords: Preferential trade agreements ; Climate-related provisions ; Environmental policy ; Greenhouse gases ; Global warming ; Climate change
    JEL: F13 F18 Q51 Q54
    Date: 2022–01–01
  2. By: Jack DeWaard; Lori M. Hunter; Mason C. Mathews; Esteban J. Quiñones; Fernando Riosmena; Daniel H. Simon
    Abstract: A 2011 Foresight report by the UK Government Office for Science introduced and raised questions and concerns about trapped populations.
    Keywords: climate, environmental stressors, Mexico, international
  3. By: Altunbas, Yener; Gambacorta, Leonardo; Reghezza, Alessio; Velliscig, Giulio
    Abstract: We match firm-corporate governance characteristics with firm-level carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the period 2009-2019 to study the relationship between gender diversity in the workplace and firm carbon emissions. We find that a 1 percentage point increase in the percentage of female managers within the firm leads to a 0.5% decrease in CO2 emissions. We document that this effect is statically significant, also when controlling for institutional differences caused by more patriarchal and hierarchical cultures and religions. At the same time, we show that gender diversity at the managerial level has stronger mitigating effects on climate change if females are also well-represented outside the organization, e.g. in political institutions and civil society organizations. Finally, we find that, after the Paris Agreement, firms with greater gender diversity reduced their CO2 emissions by about 5% more than firms with more male managers. JEL Classification: G12, G23, G30, D62, Q54
    Keywords: carbon emissions, female managers, global warming, green economics, Paris agreement
    Date: 2022–02
  4. By: Carbone, Sante (Financial Stability Department, Central Bank of Sweden); Giuzio, Margherita (European Central Bank); Kapadia, Sujit (European Central Bank); Krämer, Johannes Sebastian (European Central Bank); Nyholm, Ken (European Central Bank); Vozian, Katia (European Central Bank, Helsinki Graduate School of Economics, Hanken School of Economics, Leibniz Institute for Financial Research SAFE)
    Abstract: This paper explores how the need to transition to a low-carbon economy influences credit risk. It develops a novel dataset covering firms’ greenhouse gas emissions over time alongside information on strategies for managing transition risk, includ ing climate disclosure practices and forward-looking emission reduction targets. It assesses how such metrics influence firms’ credit ratings and their market-implied distance-to-default. High emissions tend to be associated with higher credit risk. But disclosing emissions and setting emission reduction targets are associated with lower credit risk, with the effect somewhat stronger for more ambitious climate commitments. After the Paris agreement, firms most exposed to transition risk also saw their ratings deteriorate relative to otherwise comparable firms, with the effect larger for European than US firms, probably reflecting differential climate policy expectations. These results have policy implications for corporate disclosures and strategies around climate change, and the treatment of climate-related transition risk in the financial sector.
    Keywords: climate change; transition risk; disclosure; net zero; green finance; credit risk
    JEL: C58 E58 G11 G32 Q51 Q56
    Date: 2022–01–01
  5. By: Frankovic, Ivan
    Abstract: This paper builds on existing production network models to study the impact of global and sub-global carbon pricing. It uses the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to calibrate intersectoral trade between seven regions and 56 economic sectors per region as well as EXIOBASE's sectoral accounts of greenhouse gas emissions to calibrate emission costs per sector for a given carbon price. The latter taxes emissions associated with the intermediate and final demand of fossil fuels as well as other emissions inherent to production. The global setup of the model allows the international propagation of carbon prices to be analyzed along worldwide value chains. The simulated sectoral impacts of carbon taxes are highly heterogeneous across sectors and regions, with the agricultural, mining, fossil fuel processing and transport sector exhibiting the largest impacts across all regions. For several sectors in Germany and Europe, particularly manufacturing sectors, international spillovers from carbon pricing outside of Europe can be substantial and increase value added losses by up to 100% relative to the impact of European-only carbon prices. The paper furthermore outlines a simple approach for applying the sectorally disaggregated results to global climate scenarios.
    Keywords: climate scenarios,carbon pricing,input-output data,production network models
    JEL: D57 E23 H23 Q54
    Date: 2022
  6. By: Bernard, René; Tzamourani, Panagiota; Weber, Michael
    Abstract: This paper studies the causal effect of providing information about climate changeon individuals' willingness to pay to offset carbon emissions in a randomizedcontrol trial. Receiving truthful information about ways to reduce CO2 emis-sions increases individuals' willingness to pay for CO2 offsetting relative to thecontrol group. Individuals receiving information about the behavior of peersreact similarly to those receiving information about scientific research. Individ-uals' responses vary depending on their socio-demographic characteristics andalso along a rich set of prior beliefs and concerns regarding climate change. Ina follow-up survey, we study the endogenous information acquisition of surveyparticipants and show that individuals choose information that aligns with theirviews. Individuals who choose to receive information about climate changehave a higher willingness to pay for CO2 offsets.
    Keywords: Climate change,information treatment,willingness to pay,CO2 compensation,information acquisition
    JEL: D10 D83 D91 Q54
    Date: 2022
  7. By: Andrew Barker; Hélène Blake; Filippo Maria D’Arcangelo; Patrick Lenain
    Abstract: Denmark has been a frontrunner in policies that reduce greenhouse gas emissions and now plans to cut emissions by 70% by 2030 from 1990 levels and to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050. Such ambition induces halving emissions from 2019 levels and making the same emission abatement effort in ten years than the past thirty years. Cutting emissions at such fast pace will be challenging with substantial disruptions and macroeconomic consequences. A balanced mix of pricing policies, public investment, regulation and enabling policies should allow smoothing the potential economic and social shocks and accompanying the reallocation of resources.This paper investigates further sectoral climate strategies in Denmark. In the energy sector (electricity and district heating), past progress made to ramp up clean technologies provides a good blueprint to achieve further decarbonisation, but the focus will need to be put soon on lowering reliance on woody biomass. In the transport sector, emissions have continued to increase despite the shift to more fuel-efficient vehicles, highlighting the need for more transformative policies to expand alternatives to individual car uses. In agriculture, little has been done so far to cut emissions, especially from livestock. The sector is subject to leakage risks, but nonetheless should be encouraged to transform its practices. Helping farmers to monitor their GHG emissions should be combined with more stringent regulation.
    Keywords: Agriculture, Climate change adaptation, Climate change mitigation, Climate strategy, Denmark, Energy, Environmental taxation, Public policy, Transport
    JEL: H21 H23 H50 H54 Q52 Q53 Q54 Q55 Q56 Q15 Q42 Q43 Q48 R48
    Date: 2022–04–04
  8. By: Bucher, Florian; Scheu, Lucas; Schröpf, Benedikt
    Abstract: This study examines the link between economic complexity and environmental quality by exploiting the similar starting points of the former socialist transition countries after the fall of the iron curtain. We refer to the extended theories of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), stating that environmental pollution follows an inverted u-shaped course with respect to economic complexity. Using comprehensive data of 27 countries for the period 1995-2017, our results show that the EKC can be found for countries whose complexity rose over time. Additionally, since the results for production-based and consumption-based CO2 emissions are similar, we can discard emissions offshoring as a major explaining factor. Consequently, our findings suggest that more complex products are the drivers of the EKC. However, as the turning point is associated with high levels of pollution, our estimates imply that complexity may even exacerbate environmental issues in the short and middle run in less developed countries.
    Keywords: Economic Complexity,Environmental Kuznets Curve,Former Socialist States
    JEL: O44 P28
    Date: 2022
  9. By: Mr. Rodolfo Maino; Drilona Emrullahu
    Abstract: Fragile states in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) face challenges to respond to the effects of climate shocks and rising temperatures. Fragility is linked to structural weaknesses, government failure, and lack of institutional basic functions. Against this setup, climate change could add to risks. A panel fixed effects model (1980 to 2019) found that the effect of a 1◦C rise in temperature decreases income per capita growth in fragile states in SSA by 1.8 percentage points. Panel quantile regression models that account for unobserved individual heterogeneity and distributional heterogeneity, corroborate that the effects of higher temperature on income per capita growth are negative while the impact of income per capita growth on carbon emissions growth is heterogeneous, indicating that higher income per capita growth could help reduce carbon emissions growth for high-emitter countries. These findings tend to support the hypothesis behind the Environmental Kuznets Curve and the energy consumption growth literature, which postulates that as income increases, emissions increase pari passu until a threshold level of income where emissions start to decline.
    Keywords: climate change, fragile states, climate risk
    Date: 2022–03–18
  10. By: Belloni, Marco; Kuik, Friderike; Mingarelli, Luca
    Abstract: In recent years there has been growing attention on the risks posed by climate change. One relevant question for financial stability is to which extent the materialisation of transition risks emerging from the sudden implementation of climate change mitigation policies would impact the financial system. In this paper we analyze the effects of changes in carbon price on the European banking system. We assess this climate change transition risk through a banking sector contagion model where firms are negatively impacted by an increase in carbon prices. Using a unique granular dataset we evaluate the consequences of a combination of different increases in carbon prices and firm emission reduction strategies. We find that taking early policy action, implying more gradual changes in carbon prices, is not expected to lead to adverse impacts on the banking system, especially if firms reduce their emissions efficiently. Conversely, a disorderly, abrupt transition to a low carbon economy requiring very high sudden changes in carbon prices might have disruptive effects on the financial system, especially if firms fail to reduce their emissions. JEL Classification: Q48, Q54, Q58
    Keywords: climate change, empirical banking, financial networks, transition risk
    Date: 2022–03
  11. By: Aizhamal Rakhmetova; Roman Hoffmann; Mariola Pytlikova
    Abstract: Despite an increasing number of studies, there is no scientific consensus on the extent and conditions under which environmental factors influence migration. In particular, little is known about the role played by financial resources that may facilitate or hinder migration under environmental stress. Empirical evidence shows that some households migrate in response to environmental hazards while others remain in place, potentially being trapped due to lack of resources, i.e. poverty constraints. However, little is known about how access to financial resources influences the decision of a household to stay or migrate. On one hand, financial resources can help to alleviate poverty constraints and to cover migration costs, thereby increasing migration (climate-driver mechanism); on the other hand, financial resources can also improve the adaptation capacities of households at the place they reside, and thus reduce migration responses to environmental changes (climate-inhibitor mechanism). To shed light on households’ migration decisions in response to climate shocks depending on their access to financial resources, we utilize rich micro-data from Indonesia and exploit two sources of variation in climate and cash transfers. Our results suggest that better access to financial resources facilitates the climateinhibitor mechanism for short-term rainfall shocks and natural disasters. At the same time, better accessibility to financial resources enhances the climate-driver mechanism for accumulated rainfall shocks and temperature anomalies.
    Keywords: climate change; migration; financial resources; adaptation;
    Date: 2022–03
  12. By: D'Orazio, Paola; Hertel, Tobias; Kasbrink, Fynn
    Abstract: Climate change poses several risks to the value of financial assets and financial stability. The study conducted in this paper focuses on the German banking sector and estimates its exposure to climate risks arising from a transition to a carbon-neutral economy. Our analysis identifies the energy, transportation, and manufacturing sectors as the most sensitive to transition risks and shows that the German banking sector's direct exposure to climate transition risks is non-negligible. Moreover, it points out that an amplified exposure to transition risks characterizes large private banks. These findings are comparable to other countries' exposures and relevant to financial supervision and regulation, calling for increased engagement to assess, measure, and manage climate-related financial risks.
    Keywords: Climate-related financial risks,transition risks,banking sector,climate policy,climate neutrality,climate-related prudential regulation
    JEL: E58 G21 Q53 Q54
    Date: 2022
  13. By: Arnaud Abad (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: This paper aims to define an unified framework to analyse pollution-adjusted productivity change. Equivalence conditions for the additive and the multiplicative pollutionadjusted productivity measures (Abad and Ravelojaona, 2022, 2021) are established.
    Keywords: Environmental Distance Functions,Pollution-generating Technology,Non Convexity,Pollution-adjusted Productivity Indices
    Date: 2022–03–01
  14. By: Khan, Sidra
    Abstract: This research study explores the impact of Green Human Resource Management practices such as Green Recruitment & Selection, Green Training & Development, Green Employee Empowerment, Green Rewards & Compensation and Green Performance Management on Environmental Performance in context with textile sector. In today’s fast moving world where manufacturing and production industries are in vogue, so there is a huge requirement to follow these Green HRM practices to minimize the usage of electricity and power, for the proper utilization of resources and for the sustainability of environment. The data was analyzed by using partial Least Square (PLS) and structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and the discrepancies in relationships were reported. The outcomes of this research study will not only help employees but also help students to study and explore more about Green Human Resource Management activities and their applications in organization for the sustainability of environment. This research will also helpful for the managers or supervisors who can initiates GHRM practices in their firms or workplaces to make the environment green.
    Keywords: Green HRM, Environment, Sustainability, Textile sector, developing country, PLS-SEM
    JEL: L8 L88 M1
    Date: 2022
  15. By: Ignaciuk, Ada; Ilicic, Joanna; Asprooth, Lauren; Sitko, Nicholas J.; Bernard, Angela; Maggio, Giuseppe; Tubiello, Francesco N.; Mueller, Marc
    Abstract: The Progress towards Sustainable Agriculture initiative (PROSA) is a framework that seeks to complement ongoing efforts on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and particularly indicator 2.4.1, to support country-level assessments using data already available at the national level. Making agriculture more sustainable – productive, environmentally friendly, resilient and profitable is fundamental, as agriculture remains the main source of livelihood for the majority of the world’s poor and hungry. The pathway towards sustainable agriculture must ensure increasing output, but also make more efficient use of increasingly scarce global resources, be resilient to and help mitigate climate change, and improve human well-being. This technical study examines the key factors driving changes in trends in the indicators of sustainable agriculture and provides decision-makers with insights into viable options for achieving this goal. The study identifies five key groups of drivers that most influence these indicators globally. The ways in which each driver affects the multiple dimensions of sustainability highlights the interconnections, synergies and trade-offs that must be managed in different global contexts to achieve agricultural sustainability. The analysis can help decision-makers operating in different country contexts to identify practical solutions to ensure that their interventions contribute positively to a more sustainable agriculture.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy
  16. By: Chepeliev, Maksym; Thomas Hertel; Dominique van der Mensbrugghe
    Abstract: In response to the invasion of Ukraine, most OECD countries have announced punishing sanctions against Russia. In addition to targeting financial markets and service sectors, some countries have begun to impose restrictions on exports of Russia’s fossil fuels. In this paper, we analyze a scenario whereby most OECD countries put major restrictions on Russia’s energy exports. Results suggest that the short-term implications are likely to be non-trivial for EU – Russia’s largest energy export destination. Households’ real income could drop by 0.7-1.7 percent (relative to the reference case) with energy prices growing by as much as 11 percent. But after the initial adjustment period, the cost of such restrictions for the EU is expected to be more modest over the longer run (0.04 percent slowdown in the annual growth rate of real income over the 2022-2030 period), even as they lead to substantial environmental co-benefits through reductions in CO2 (6.6 percent in 2030) and air pollutant emissions (2.8-5.9 percent in 2030). Such emission reductions would take the EU more than halfway to its Green Deal mitigation target, reducing the necessary carbon price by around 40 EUR per tCO2. Adverse impacts on the Russian economy would be overwhelming and, in relative terms, 10 time larger than that for EU. By 2030 the cumulative reduction in Russian real income would exceed 1.1 trillion USD, while lost revenue from fossil fuel exports would be almost 1.4 trillion USD.
    Date: 2022
  17. By: Hollingsworth, Alex; Jaworski, Taylor; Kitchens, Carl; Rudik, Ivan (Cornell University)
    Abstract: We develop a spatial equilibrium model to evaluate the efficiency and distributional impacts of the leading air quality regulation in the United States: the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). We link our economic model to an integrated assessment model for air pollutants which allows us to capture endogenous changes in emissions, amenities, labor, and production. Our results show that the NAAQS generate over $23 billion of annual welfare gains. This is roughly 80 percent of welfare gains of the second-best NAAQS design, but only 25 percent of the first-best emission pricing policy. The NAAQS benefits are concentrated in a small set of cities, impose substantial costs on manufacturing workers, improve amenities in counties in compliance with the NAAQS, and reduce emissions in compliance counties through general equilibrium channels. These findings highlight the importance of accounting for geographic reallocation and equilibrium responses when quantifying the effects of environmental regulation.
    Date: 2022–03–11
  18. By: Kramarz, Teresa; Mason, Michael; Partzsch, Lena
    Abstract: The resource curse literature suggests that, in fragile states dependent on natural resource rents, structures of public accountability are weak because of an elite-controlled political economy indifferent to social and ecological interests. We examine accountability claims made by non-domestic proxy actors, holding governments and corporations accountable on behalf of communities adversely affected by natural resources extraction. This conceptualization is suggested by proxy-led transnational mobilization against mining-related damage in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. We identify an ‘hourglass’ structure of proxy actor engagement with affected communities: In a first phase, proxies rely on public mechanisms to define standards remotely. In a second phase, proxies ‘narrow’ the gap by seeking compliance information from affected communities. However, in a third phase this gap ‘widens’ again when proxies remotely seek sanctions against responsible actors. We discuss the applicability of this heuristic framework to proxy-led accountability practices in other natural resource-dependent rentier states.
    Keywords: proxy accountability; resource extraction; rentier states; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Taylor & Francis deal
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2022–02–23
  19. By: Leonardo Becchetti (CEIS & DEF, University of Rome "Tor Vergata"); Sara Mancini (University of Rome "Tor Vergata"); Sara Savastano (CEIS & DEF, University of Rome "Tor Vergata" and IFAD)
    Abstract: We evaluate the impact of climate shocks on household subjective wellbeing on a sample of farmers in a Small Island Developing State (SIDS) of the Pacific (the Solomon Islands). We find that both subjective (self-assessed exposure to climate shocks) and objective (past cumulative extended dry spells) environmental stress indicators significantly reduce respondent’s subjective wellbeing. Using the compensating surplus approach we calculate that this loss requires several years of crop income to be compensated. Subjective wellbeing is more severely impacted for farmers with poor dwellings (ie. with thatch walls, consistently with the well known Disney tale), below median income or durable asset and for farmers living more isolated and not being members of formal agricultural associations. Farmers hit by climate shocks experienced in significantly higher proportion nutrition problems in their households. These findings support the hypothesis of the strong interdependence between environmental and social shocks.
    Keywords: climate shock, subjective wellbeing, compensating surplus, small scale Pacific islands.
    JEL: I31 Q01 Q20
    Date: 2022–04–02
  20. By: Kristian S. Blickle; Donald P. Morgan
    Abstract: Climate change could affect banks and the financial systems they anchor through various channels: increasingly extreme weather is one (Financial Stability Board, Basel Committee on Bank Supervision). In our recent staff report, we size up this channel by studying how U.S. banks, large and small, fared against disasters past. We find even the most destructive disasters had insignificant or small effects on bank stability and small and positive effects on bank income. We conjecture that recovery lending after disasters helps stabilize larger banks while smaller, local banks’ knowledge of “unmarked” (flood) hazards may help them navigate disaster risk. Federal disaster aid seems not to act as a bank stabilizer.
    Keywords: climate change; financial stability
    JEL: G21
    Date: 2022–04–04
  21. By: De Wolf, Daniel; Diop, Ngagne; Kilani, Moez
    Abstract: We extend a transport model to simulate an increase of the market share of electric vehicles. The main results of our model is that the increase in the share of electric cars in the network must then be accompanied by the implementation of charging stations in sufficient quantity and optimal location, to reduce, note only the waiting times for charging the electrical vehicles, but also to reduce the polluting gas emission of other vehicles. The simulation framework we use is based on the model developed.
    Keywords: Transport modeling and simulation ; Electric vehicles ; Deployment of charging stations ; Local pollution ; North of France
    JEL: H23 Q5 R4
    Date: 2022–02–01
  22. By: Barrow, Edmund
    Abstract: D’ici 2050, 95 % des terres de la planète subiront une dégradation. Déjà , 24 milliards de tonnes de terres ont été érodées par l’agriculture intensive (Labordière et coll. 2020). En 2020 seulement, plus de 4 millions d’hectares de forêt primaire ont été défrichés, à hauteur de 12 % depuis 2019. Le commerce mondial, la consommation, la croissance démographique et l’urbanisation sont en partie responsables des transformations qui entraînent en partie la destruction de la nature. L’indice mondial Planète vivante de 2020 enregistre un déclin moyen de 68 % des populations d’espèces suivies de 1970 à 2016. Ces tendances sont un indicateur de la santé déclinante des écosystèmes (WWF 2020) et le Forum économique mondial classe la perte de biodiversité parmi les cinq premiers risques pour l’économie mondiale. Il est évident que notre environnement doit figurer au sommet des agendas politique et stratégique – cependant, la gouvernance environnementale est beaucoup trop faible et la mise en oeuvre des politiques est négligée.
    Keywords: WORLD, environmental management, governance, biodiversity, landscape conservation, climate-smart agriculture, tenure
    Date: 2021
  23. By: Matsumoto, Deanna; Mace, Caitlin; Reeb, Tyler; O'Brien, Thomas
    Abstract: Critical to freight movement in Southern California are environmental plans at the Port of Los Angeles (POLA) and Port of Long Beach (POLB). The combined port complex is the single largest fixed source of air pollution in the South Coast Air Basin. This white paper presents three case studies from the San Pedro Bay Ports Clean Air Action Plan (CAAP), including brief analyses of their effects on freight movement in the region. This research also includes a case study of a private-sector, yet-to-be-built infrastructure project designed to support the faster movement of freight out of the San Pedro Bay Ports called the Southern California International Gateway (SCIG). The case studies are provided to elucidate how self-regulating agreements and operator-led programs contribute to regional environmental goals for freight operations. The findings indicate in part that stakeholder power relationships influence the ability to both develop environmental strategies and determine their outcomes. They also indicate that port-focused plans are more effective when their impact on the entire supply chain is considered. The research also helps to illustrate examples of unintended consequences of freight-related environmental measures which will prove useful to policymakers and operators alike. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Business, Law, Ports, Clean Air Action Plan, Emissions, Drayage, Ocean Going Vessels, Vessel Speed Reduction, Air Quality Action Plans, global supply chain, intermodal rail, freight, cargo handling equipment, ZE trucks
    Date: 2022–03–01
  24. By: Barrow, Edmund
    Abstract: En 2050, el 95 % de la superficie terrestre estará degradada. Ya se han erosionado 24 000 millones de toneladas de suelo a causa de la agricultura insostenible (Larbodière et al. 2020). Solo en 2020, se talaron más de 4 millones de hectáreas de bosque primario, un 12 % más que en 2019. El comercio mundial, el consumo, el crecimiento de la población y la urbanización están impulsando transformaciones que, en parte, propician la destrucción de la naturaleza. El à ndice Global del Planeta Vivo 2020 muestra una caída del 68 por ciento en las poblaciones de especies monitoreadas desde 1970 hasta 2016. Estas tendencias son una medida del deterioro de la salud de los ecosistemas (WWF et al. 2020), y el Foro Económico Mundial considera que la pérdida de biodiversidad es uno de los cinco principales riesgos para la economía mundial. Está claro que nuestro medio ambiente debe ocupar un lugar destacado en las agendas políticas y normativas, pero con demasiada frecuencia la gobernanza medioambiental es débil y se descuida la aplicación de las políticas ambientales.
    Keywords: WORLD, environmental management, governance, biodiversity, landscape conservation, climate-smart agriculture, tenure
    Date: 2021
  25. By: McCarthy, Nancy
    Abstract: Los efectos del cambio climático ya se están produciendo en todo el mundo, desde sequías hasta inundaciones, pasando por temperaturas perjudiciales y la subida del nivel del mar. Muchos pequeños agricultores ya eran vulnerables a los fenómenos meteorológicos extremos y, en ausencia de medidas de adaptación eficaces, esta vulnerabilidad no hará más que aumentar con el tiempo. Mientras que ciertos patrones meteorológicos asociados al cambio climático se están produciendo incluso ahora, los cambios futuros siguen siendo inciertos. La investigación de relevancia política debe evaluar los beneficios de las respuestas flexibles a los futuros cambios climáticos, reconociendo al mismo tiempo los costes de la flexibilidad.
    Keywords: WORLD, tenure security, land tenure, governance, land governance, landscape, climate change, climate, research, natural resources, shock
    Date: 2021
  26. By: Hirschler, Olivier; Osterburg, Bernhard; Weimar, Holger; Glasenapp, Sebastian; Ohmes, Marie-Friederike
    Abstract: Peat is a fossil material and is since decades the major growing media constituent for horticulture in Europe. Because of its climate impacts, some European countries developed national strategies to reduce peat use. A coordinated European action would bring fairer and more effective impacts than isolated national strategies. The replacement of peat is possible using alternative growing media constituents based on biomass. Potential limitations of the resource availability for the production of alternative growing media constituents is one of the major concerns of the growing media industry. Although this paper does not constitute a final evaluation, it aims to initiate further discussions and investigations on this aspect of peat reduction. We compare potential amounts for the supply and demand of raw materials for the production of wood fibres, composted bark, green compost and coir pith in European countries. Moreover, we discuss the economic and legal conditions for the availability of alternatives. Our findings suggest that the resource supply does not generally indicate a limitation to an extended use of alternative growing media constituents in Europe. In a maximal demand scenario, the amounts considered would also be sufficient to completely replace peat. However, in this scenario, the current supply for nationally sourced alternative materials could be scarce for some countries like the Netherlands or the Baltic States. Competition for wood resources, e.g., with the energy sector, could limit their use in the growing media sector. Moreover, the conditions set by the EU Fertilising Products Regulation (EU) 2019/1009 might hamper a large use of wood fibres as growing media constituent. For bark, green waste and coir by-products, an increased demand from the growing media sector may support mobilization of additional resources. For coir by-products, a future rise of the international demand might lead to a strong competition and an exhaustion of the world’s potential. Transportation costs play an important role for the access to biomass potentials. They could be reduced with the development of the infrastructure for processing available resources. Other growing media constituents like Sphagnum are not significantly used today but could represent additional potentials for the replacement of peat in future. In order to avoid displacement effects, the focus of peat substitution should be set on potential amounts of biomass that are currently not or not fully used, or the creation of new potentials.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management, Land Economics/Use, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2022–04–07
  27. By: Niles, Meredith; Han, Guang
    Abstract: The potential for farmers and agriculture to sequester carbon and contribute to global climate change goals is widely discussed, including more recently, through voluntary carbon markets operated through private or public entities. Despite growing interest, there is currently low participation in agricultural carbon markets and limited understanding of farmer perceptions and willingness to participate. Furthermore, farmer concern for data privacy may complicate participation in agricultural carbon markets that necessitates farmer data sharing with multiple entities. Here we address these current gaps through a farmer survey of row crop farmers in 27 U.S. states and use multinomial logit models to predict drivers for participating in a carbon market. We find that the majority of farmers are aware of carbon markets and would like to sell carbon credits, but express high uncertainty about carbon market information, policies, markets and cost impacts. Just over half of farmers indicated they would share their data for education (57%), developing tools and models (54%) and improving market and supply chains (51%). However, only a minority of respondents were willing to share their data with public organizations (45%), private organizations (38%), and government organizations (29%). Farmers that wanted to participate in carbon markets (as compared to those that did not), were more likely to have higher farm revenues, identify as Black, Indigenous, People of Color (BIPOC) farmers, be more likely to share their data with private organizations, more likely to change farming practices, and have more positive perceptions of the impact of carbon markets on farm profitability. These results suggest a general interest in carbon market participation, but identify clear need for increasing technical information for farmers, and addressing farmer concerns around data privacy and sharing to facilitate greater participation in carbon markets.
    Date: 2022–03–02
  28. By: Ivo Horák (Department of Finance, Faculty of Business and Economics, Mendel University in Brno, ZemÄ›dÄ›lská 1, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic)
    Abstract: The working paper inquires into the topic of competitiveness of the European agricultural sector with regard on the new Green Deal Policy within the framework of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) that has been promoted as a core guidance to what agriculture in the European Union should look like in the up-coming years, providing a more thorough compliance with new environmental demands. The objective is to find a suitable methodology to analyze the possible impacts on the competitiveness of the European agriculture by implementing the new Green Deal standards.
    Keywords: Agriculture, International Competitiveness, Green Deal, Agricultural Economics
    JEL: Q10 Q17 Q18 Q57
    Date: 2022–04
  29. By: Nahed Eddai (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Ani Guerdjikova (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes)
    Abstract: We analyze the effect of strategic ambiguity and heterogeneous attitudes towards such ambiguity on optimal mitigation and adaptation. Pessimistic players tend to invest more in mitigation, while optimists favor adaptation. When adaptation is more expensive than mitigation, three types of equilibria can obtain depending on the level and distribution of ambiguity aversion: (i) a mitigation equilibrium, (ii) an adaptation equilibrium and (iii) a mixed equilibrium with both adaptation and mitigation. The interaction between ambiguity attitudes and wealth distribution plays a crucial role for the aggregate environmental policy: a wealth transfer from pessimistic to optimistic agents increases total mitigation. A similar result applies to the choice of an optimal tax on consumption, which is shown to increase in optimism, but decrease following a transfer of income towards the more optimistic players. Finally, we show that under strategic ambiguity, the introduction of a non-binding standard can impact agents' beliefs about their opponents' behavior and as a result lower total equilibrium mitigation. Our results highlight the necessity to consider attitudes towards strategic ambiguity in the design of economic policies targeting climate change. They might also shed some light on the slow rate of convergence of environmental policies across countries.
    Keywords: Climate policy,Ambiguity,Heterogeneity,Choquet expected utility
    Date: 2021–06–01
  30. By: Michaels, Guy; Lin, Yatang; McDermott, Thomas K. J.
    Abstract: Construction on low elevation coastal zones is risky for both residents and taxpayers who bail them out, especially when sea levels are rising. We study this construction using spatially disaggregated data on the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts. We document nine stylized facts, including a sizeable rise in the share of coastal housing built on flood-prone land from 1990-2010, which concentrated particularly in densely populated areas. To explain our findings, we develop a model of a monocentric coastal city, which we then use to explore the consequences of sea level rise and government policies.
    Keywords: cities; climate change; sea level rise
    JEL: R11 Q54 R14
    Date: 2021–04–13
  31. By: Angela Köppl; Margit Schratzenstaller
    Abstract: As governments spend unprecedented sums of public money on pandemic related rescue and recovery measures, while humankind is facing mounting long-term challenges – and above all the climate crisis –, the question whether and to what extent COVID-19 recovery programmes contribute to countries' commitments to a sustainability oriented recovery is gaining increasing urgency. We argue that overcoming the economic and social impacts of the pandemic require deeper structural changes than a return to a more or less business as usual scenario to limit the impacts of climate change. Recovery packages should therefore be designed in such a way as to avoid fossil lock-in effects and take into account that the social and technological actions taken today will unfold their effects in the climate system with a time lag only. An interesting question in this context is the effectiveness of green recovery measures not only with regard to environmental objectives, but also concerning conventional economic indicators, which are traditionally summarised under the heading "multiplier effects". Evaluations of the economic effects of green recovery measures, e.g. those implemented during the global financial crisis, are in short supply. Most of the existing empirical analyses have an ex ante focus, while ex post evaluations are scarce. This paper aims at contributing to this research gap by providing a review of the empirical evidence of the macroeconomic effects of green recovery measures.
    Keywords: Green recovery, COVID-19 crisis, multipliers, green multipliers, transformative change
    Date: 2022–04–07
  32. By: Circella, Giovanni; Jaller, Miguel; Sun, Ran; Qian, Xiaodong; Alemi, Farzad
    Abstract: California sits at the epicenter of self-driving vehicle technology development, with numerous companies testing connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) in the state. CAVs have the potential to improve safety and increase mobility for children, the elderly, and people with disabilities. These vehicles will operate more efficiently, use less space on the roadway, and cause fewer crashes, all of which are expected to relieve traffic congestion. However, CAVs will also likely bring about complex changes to travel demand, urban design, and land use. The degree to which these changes will affect vehicle miles traveled, energy use, and air pollution in California is unknown and could have wideranging implications for the state’s ability to meet its climate goals. Researchers at the University of California, Davis investigated the range of potential impacts that rapid adoption of CAVs in California might have on vehicle miles traveled and emissions. The researchers estimated the vehicle miles traveled and emissions of each scenario using a statewide travel demand model, emissions factors from California agencies, and assumptions derived from the scientific literature and expert input. This policy brief summarizes the findings from that research and provides policy implications. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Engineering, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Autonomous vehicles, Connected vehicles, Energy consumption, Forecasting, Impact, Modal split, Pollutants, Pricing, Simulation, Travel demand, Vehicle miles of travel, Zero emission vehicles
    Date: 2022–04–01
  33. By: McCarthy, Nancy
    Abstract: Les impacts du changement climatique se manifestent déjà sur toute la planète – sécheresses, inondations, canicules aux conséquences délétères, et élévation du niveau de la mer. Alors qu’un grand nombre de petits exploitants sont déjà vulnérables aux phénomènes météorologiques extrêmes, cette vulnérabilité ne fera qu’augmenter en l’absence de mesures d’adaptation efficaces. Par ailleurs, les changements climatiques futurs restent imprévisibles. Des recherches pertinentes pour les politiques doivent évaluer les avantages tirés de réponses flexibles aux futurs changements climatiques tout en reconnaissant les coûts de cette flexibilité.
    Keywords: WORLD, tenure security, land tenure, governance, land governance, landscape, climate change, climate, research, natural resources, shock
    Date: 2021
  34. By: Lozano, Mark T.; Kendall, Alissa; Arnold, Gwen; Harvey, John T.; Butt, Ali A.
    Abstract: Spurred in part by state-level climate policies, California cities and counties have released climate action plans (CAPs) over the last decade to set emissions reduction targets and outline actions that will help meet those goals. However, the state provides little guidance to jurisdictions on how to produce these plans. The range of information included in CAPs varies dramatically across jurisdictions. Additionally, little is known about how jurisdictions transition from the planning to the implementation phase of climate action, or what major factors influence their decision-making process. Other state laws promote emissions reductions in disadvantaged communities, highlighting the importance of making equity a key consideration in CAPs. Researchers at the University of California, Davis assessed and scored over 30 CAPs released between 2009 and 2020 based on the degree to which they addressed three themes: emissions reductions, cost, and equity. The researchers also surveyed local agency staff from 25 California jurisdictions with published CAPs about the importance of different factors during climate action planning and implementation, the inclusion of equity impacts in CAPs, sources of funding, and more. Finally, the researchers developed a set of guiding questions to assist jurisdictions in developing CAPs that include equity considerations both broadly and by specific sector. This policy brief summarizes the findings from that research and provides policy implications. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, Climate change, Costs, Equity (Justice), Local government, Pollutants, Strategic planning
    Date: 2022–03–01
  35. By: Ms. Pritha Mitra; Eric M. Pondi Endengle; Seung Mo Choi
    Abstract: This paper assesses the impact of climate-related disasters on medium-term growth and analyzes key structural areas that could substantially improve disaster-resilience. Results show that (i) climaterelated disasters have a significant negative impact on medium-term growth, especially for sub-Saharan Africa; and (ii) a disaster’s intensity matters much more than its frequency, given the non-linear cumulative effects of disasters. In sub-Saharan Africa, electrification (facilitating irrigation) is found to be most effective for reducing damage from droughts while improved health care and education outcomes are critical for raising resilience to floods and storms. Better access to finance, telecommunications, and use of machines in agriculture also have a significant impact.
    Keywords: Climate change, Growth, Resilience building, Sub-Saharan Africa
    Date: 2022–02–25
  36. By: Bridget Hoffmann (Inter-American Development Bank); Juan Pablo Rud ((Royal Holloway, University of London/IFS)
    Abstract: We use high-frequency data on fine particulate matter air pollution (PM 2.5) at the locality level to study the effects of high pollution on labor supply decisions and hospitalizations for respiratory disease in the metropolitan area of Mexico City. We document a negative, non-linear relationship between PM 2.5 and same-day labor supply, with strong effects on days with extremely high pollution levels. On these days, the average worker experiences a reduction of around 7.5% of working hours. Workers partially compensate for lost hours by increasing their labor supply on days that follow high-pollution days. Informal workers reduce their labor supply less than formal workers on high-pollution days and also compensate less on the following days. This suggests that informal workers may experience greater exposure to high pollution and greater reductions in labor supply and income. We provide evidence that reductions in labor supply due to high pollution are consistent with avoidance behavior and that income constraints may play an important role in workers’ labor supply decisions.
    Date: 2022–01
  37. By: Souza-Neto, Valério
    Abstract: Tourists can harm the environment of the destination they visit in many different ways, such as using disposable products, consuming excess water and energy, not reusing towels in accommodation facilities, avoiding recycling, among other ways. The urgent need to protect destination environments from tourist misbehaviour has led academic experts and public and private managers to implement initiatives that help change human behaviour. Behavioural Economics (BE) contributes to the formulation of public and private policies that reduce these environmental damages, given that they increase explanatory power by applying psychological foundations to policies, and therefore, its use is increasing in the tourism industry. The nudging agenda. i.e., behavioural interventions that aim to improve decision-making without curbing other options are converging with tourism managers and legislators as they realise that the implementation of nudges leads to cost reductions and greater effectiveness behavioural changes, thus reducing the environmental damage produced by tourists. However, little effort has been made to understand the relationship between nudges and tourism sustainability. To fill this gap, this article systematises the literature on nudge interventions in tourism and sustainability studies, through the following steps: (1) definition of the research question; (2) formulation of review protocols; (3) literature search; (4) extraction of relevant publications; and (5) synthesize the results. For analysis, we used the support of VOSViewer, R (with the Bibliometrix package) and NVivo software, having adopted a descriptive analysis and a thematic analysis of the data. The results of this investigation present the main disciplinary background used in these investigations, with Anglo-Saxon countries leading research on green nudges. The methodological approach adopted by the nudge studies is limited and causal evidence is lacking. Thematic analysis categorizes interventions and supports the idea that nudges target unconscious and conscious behaviours. The preferred interventions are those with low-cost applications, such as bed linen reuse. Social norms are the main trigger for developing hypotheses and designing nudges. This investigation also introduces mediators and moderators of pro-environmental behaviours (PEB) and develops a model for designing nudges in the tourism industry. This research contributes to the literature by offering a systematic review of studies on nudges and a conceptual model of nudge to reduce the environmental damage produced by tourist activities. The present dissertation provides a comprehensive analysis of the relationships, perspectives, methods, and context of the studies, thus tracking consistent aspects related to tourism. Furthermore, in the absence of a consolidated framework, this research will serve as a reference to support future research when planning incentive interventions in the tourism sector. This review does not aim to solve the problem of sustainability as a whole but rather to contribute to reducing the damage of tourism activities, analysing how nudge can make concrete, objective, and measurable changes.
    Date: 2022–02–17
  38. By: Edmond Noubissi (University of Dschang, Cameroon); Loudi Njoya (University of Dschang, Cameroon)
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the literature on the relationship between gender and the environment. There are indeed very few studies on this topic, and existing studies have not yet investigated the channels through which women's presence in parliaments affects the environment. We use a stochastic impact model extended to the population, wealth and technology regression model to estimate both the effect and transmission of women parliamentarians on the environment in 25 African countries from 2000 to 2016. The empirical results show that the presence of women in parliament contributes to the improvement of environmental quality in Africa. In addition, the mediation analysis reveals that women parliamentarians not only have a direct positive effect on the environment but also a positive indirect effect through their impact on per capita income, corruption and development assistance. To enhance the positive effects of women parliamentarians on the environment, governments should design policies to encourage women to participate in economic activities, integrate anti-corruption programmes and participate in the management of development assistance.
    Keywords: Women's parliamentary, environmental quality, African countries
    JEL: F63 F64 J16
    Date: 2021–01
  39. By: Enste, Dominik; Potthoff, Jennifer
    Abstract: Fliegen gilt als besonders klimaschädliche Art des Reisens. Vor allem die junge Generation engagiert sich beim Klimaschutz - wie zum Beispiel bei 'Fridays for Future'. Zugleich wollen junge Menschen kaum auf Flugreisen verzichten. Wie kann dieser Zielkonflikt überwunden werden? Um Stakeholder zu ökologischeren Flugreisen zu motivieren, analysierte die Verhaltensökonomie u. a. diese Lösungsansätze: Gezielte Informationsbereitstellung über den CO2-Verbrauch von Flügen während der Online-Flugsuche von Konsumenten und Feedback über den Kerosinverbrauch und konkrete Treibstoffeinsparungsziele für Piloten.
    Date: 2022
  40. By: Rose, Julian; Bensch, Gunther; Munyehirwe, Anicet; Peters, Jörg
    Abstract: Charcoal is an important cooking fuel in urban Africa. In this paper, we estimate the current number of charcoal users and project trends for the coming decades. Charcoal production is often not effectively regulated, and it hence contributes to forest degradation. Moreover, charcoal has adverse health effects for its users. At the same time, charcoal constitutes an important income source in deprived rural areas, while the current alternative, gas, is a mostly imported fossil fuel. We find that 195 million people in sub-Saharan Africa rely on charcoal as their primary cooking fuel and gauge that another 200 million use charcoal as secondary fuel. Our scenarios suggest that clean cooking initiatives are outweighed by strong urban population growth and hence charcoal usage is expected to remain high over the coming decades. Policies should therefore target end-users, forest management, and regulation of charcoal production to enable sustainable production and use of charcoal.
    Keywords: Energy consumption,charcoal,Africa
    JEL: Q56 Q58 Q40 Q41 Q20 R11 O10
    Date: 2022
  41. By: Brüderle, Mirjam Anna; Peters, Jörg; Roberts, Gareth
    Abstract: South Africa has one of the highest crime rates in the world. This paper examines the effect of weather shocks on various types of crime. Using a 12-year panel data set at monthly resolution on the police ward level, we observe a short-term effect of temperatures on violent crime, supporting the heat-aggression link suggested by psychological research. Furthermore, we find evidence for a subtle medium-term effect of weather on crime via droughts and agricultural income, which is in line with the economic theory of crime. Yet, we also emphasize often neglected but well-documented limitations to the interpretability of weather data and weather-induced mechanisms. Recognizing these limitations, we conclude with a cautious interpretation of our findings to inform police deployment strategies.
    Keywords: South Africa,weather,crime,income shocks
    JEL: C33 O55 Q54 R11
    Date: 2022
  42. By: Samba Diop (Alioune Diop University, Bambey, Senegal); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon); Vanessa S. Tchamyou (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: This study evaluates the economic impact of severe natural disasters in Africa using the generalized synthetic control method. In other words, it assesses how gross domestic product (GDP) would have been affected if severe natural disasters did not occur. Moreover, it explores the determinants of the destructiveness of the impact, focusing on the role played by capital. We find that severe natural disasters induce a significant and continuous reduction of GDP many years after the event. Indeed, economic losses caused by disasters depend on the level of capital (human capital, employment and capital stock) and aspects of governance quality (political stability and absence of violence). In other words, negative synergies are apparent because while capital stock, employment and human capital unconditionally reduce the macroeconomic impact of natural disasters, the corresponding conditional or interactive effects with political stability are also negative. Policy implications are discussed.
    Keywords: natural disasters; economic growth; Africa
    JEL: Q54 O17 O55 P1
    Date: 2021–09
  43. By: Guilherme MAGACHO; Etienne ESPAGNE; Antoine GODIN
    Abstract: This article analyses the impact of the introduction of the Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) on the European Union (EU) trade partners, focusing especially on its potential socio-economic and external consequences for developing and emerging economies. It uses trade data and Multi-regional Input-Output (MRIO) matrices to investigate the geographically and sectorally uneven distribution of CBAM’s impacts. The introduction of CBAM by the EU is under discussion, and most of the literature on the topic has analysed the consequences for the EU economies. However, this carbon adjustment mechanism, which seeks to reduce the incentives for firms to outsource their carbon emissions and promote a more generalized low-carbon transition, might disproportionally impact some non EU economies. Despite most carbon revenues would be generated by Russia, China and Ukraine, the degree of exposure of economies that export the CBAM products to Europe varies substantially, with many developing economies having more than 2% of their exports, and 1% of their production impacted by this measure. East European economies, mainly in the Balkans, as well as Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Cameroon, in Africa, are those where exports are the most exposed. In socioeconomic terms, we can also include Morocco and Tajikistan in the group of most exposed economies. CBAM is certainly an important step towards a European pricing carbon dynamics. Its implementation conditions may also promote a global (rather than local) lowcarbon transition if the carbon revenues generated by this mechanism are used to support the most impacted developing countries outside the EU.
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2022–03–10
  44. By: Paolo Prosperi (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro - Montpellier SupAgro, University of Pisa - Università di Pisa , CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes); James Kirwan (Countryside and Community Research Institute, University of Gloucestershire, Francis Close Hall Campus, Swindon Road, Cheltenham GL50 4AZ, UK); Damian Maye (Countryside and Community Research Institute, University of Gloucestershire, Francis Close Hall Campus, Swindon Road, Cheltenham GL50 4AZ, UK); Emi Tsakalou (Agricultural University of Athens); George Vlahos (Agricultural University of Athens); Fabio Bartolini (University of Pisa - Università di Pisa , DOCPAS - Department of Chemical, Pharmaceutical and Agricultural Sciences, University of Ferrara); Daniele Vergamini (University of Pisa - Università di Pisa); Gianluca Brunori (University of Pisa - Università di Pisa)
    Abstract: European small-scale fisheries are confronted with several challenges, notably a decrease in the number of people engaged in capture fishing, growing competition from less expensive extra-EU markets, rising operational costs, strict regulations and the depletion of fishing stocks. Many small-scale fishers must adapt to change to maintain or increase their income using different business strategies. In this respect, we argue that new and diversified institutional arrangements combined with building social capital can help reach long-term economic sustainability for small-scale fisheries businesses, as well as the social-ecological resilience of coastal areas. In order to understand and analyse the multiplicity of strategies applied by small-scale fishers – including expansion towards non–productivist activities – this paper examines the role of new institutional arrangements based on small-scale, traditional, quality-orientated, multifunctional business strategies, as well as non-fishing activities. Using a case study approach, we analyse – in three different European fishery contexts (Greece, Italy, and the UK respectively) – how the interplay between building adaptive arrangements and the creation of social capital in selected small-scale fisheries provides relevant prerequisites for resilience.
    Keywords: Institutional arrangement,Non- productivism,Sustainable management,Primary producer,Small-scale fisheries resilience,Social capital,New business model,ACCORD COMMERCIAL,CAPITAL SOCIAL,RESILIENCE,PECHE ARTISANALE,INSTITUTION,DURABILITE,GRECE,ROYAUME UNI,ITALIE,EUROPE
    Date: 2022
  45. By: Kurani, Kenneth S
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, zero emission vehicles, purchasing decisions, consumer behavior
    Date: 2022–04–14
  46. By: Krzyżanowski, Julian
    Abstract: The article deals with the “Farm to Fork” Strategy, which is the European Union document significant for the future of the Common Agricultural Policy and the effects of its implementation for the beef sector in Poland, as well as an important element of agri-food exports. The analysis uses a “desk research” study to consider the EU legal acts and strategic documents (including CAP Strategic Plan), as well as documents of Eurostat, international organizations (FAO, OECD), and industry organizations. The analysis was performed using an expert method. The study was limited to four groups of issues: greenhouse gas emissions, eco-schemes, antibiotics, and animal welfare. It was concluded that the actions specified in the strategy aimed at considering external costs of food production (particularly health and environmental) would inevitably result in an increase in its prices, because, according to the analyses, the costs even exceed the market value of food. So far, they have been covered by taxpayers, consumers, and other entities. In this situation, according to the Commission, it seems justified to gradually abandon the cheap food policy, which is justified in poorer countries.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2021–12–23
  47. By: Anderson, Anders (Mistra Center for Sustainable Markets (Misum)); Hong, Harrison (Columbia University)
    Abstract: Electric bikes are a potentially important tool to address global warming since they can be a viable alternative to cars in urban areas. Governments are using subsidies to promote household adoption. Welfare analyses are challenging, requiring pass-through estimates from transactions, incidence of non-additionality (i.e. those who would have bought even without the subsidy), and resulting substitution from driving. We combine administrative, insurance and survey data from a large-scale Swedish subsidy program in 2018, which is similar to other programs around world, to evaluate these implications. We find (1) complete pass through of the average $500 subsidy to consumers, (2) a near doubling of E-bikes sold but one-third of adopters are non-additional; and (3) a savings of 1.3 tons of carbon emissions during the life of the E-bike. Combining these estimates, an E-bike subsidy program can only be justified with a social cost of carbon that is several hundred dollars higher than what is typically used.
    Keywords: Sustainability; household behavior; subsidies; carbon emissions; welfare analysis
    JEL: G50 H20
    Date: 2022–03–09
  48. By: Tatsuya Abe
    Abstract: This paper examines the efficiency and distributional effects of the fuel tax and feebate policies. I employ a model with households' two-stage decisions on car ownership and utilization and estimate model parameters by combining micro-level data from a household survey and macro-level aggregate data for the Japanese new car markets from 2006 through 2013, with a car price endogeneity being dealt with. Counterfactual analyses show that the Japanese feebate results in a significant increase in social welfare while augmenting environmental externalities. In particular, the rebound effect induced by the feebate cancels out about 7% of the reduction in CO2 emissions that would originally have been attained by the fuel economy improvement. In addition, I find that the fuel tax at the current tax rate in Japan is 1.7 times less costly than the product tax, an alternative feebate scheme considered in the counterfactuals, in all income classes to reduce environmental externalities by the same amount, with no difference between the regressivity of the two policies.
    Date: 2022–03
  49. By: Wyrwa, Joanna; Barska, Anetta
    Abstract: The aim of the paper is to assess disparities in social development of rural areas in Poland in the context of sustainable development. Social development is a multidimensional process; therefore, it requires a two-stage research procedure. The first stage consists in the analysis of the regional differentiation of the indicators for social development of rural areas in Poland in the context of implementing the concept of sustainable development, which is further divided into five social components. The second stage is a multidimensional assessment of disparities in social development of rural areas in Poland, carried out using a taxonomic measure of development. This measure enabled both classifying voivodeships in terms of the achieved level of social development of rural areas and identifying voivodeships with similar characteristics. The time scope of the analysis covered 2008 and 2018 , while the territorial scope covered 16 Polish voivodeships. The study has found a large regional differentiation in terms of social development of rural areas, which confirms the thesis on regional polarization discussed in the literature. It turns out that none of the regions can be regarded as a model example of social development. The results indicate the need for taking measures to reduce development disparities at the social level in rural areas between better and less developed voivodeships. This is necessary to counteract the exclusion of underdeveloped regions.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2021–12–23
  50. By: Riehl, Kevin; Kiesel, Florian; Schiereck, Dirk
    Abstract: Green innovation and technology diffusion must be financially and commercially attractive to convince corporate decision makers. This paper focuses on the factors that determine the financial outcome of successful green innovation activities conducted by large, listed companies. We employ a cross-industry dataset including more than 97,954 reports on corporate environmentalism from 286 international listed companies. Our results indicate that economic, political, cultural, firm-specific, investor-related, and governance factors significantly determine the financial performance of green innovation, measured by abnormal returns. Moreover, we can show that factors that reduce the competition in green innovation markets benefit the financial success of firms operating via them. Finally, we find an opposing influence for several factors that benefit earlier stages of innovation (e.g., research output) while harming the later stages (e.g., market introduction and financial performance). These findings imply that a spatial separation strategy for different stages of innovation supports corporate environmentalism activities. Moreover, physical property rights, the governments’ willingness to support green technologies, and economic framework conditions such as oil price, GDP, or public R&D budget need to be balanced by policymakers to address and stimulate green innovation.
    Date: 2022
  51. By: Judit Manuel-I-Martin (UVic-UCC - Fundació Universitària Balmes); Mechthild Donner (INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro - Montpellier SupAgro); Ivana Radic (INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro - Montpellier SupAgro); Yamna Erraach (INAT - Institut National Agronomique de Tunisie); Fatima El Hadad-Gauthier (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro - Montpellier SupAgro, CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes); Taoufik Yatribi (ENA - Ecole Nationale d'Agriculture de Meknès); Feliu López-I-Gelats (UVic-UCC - Fundació Universitària Balmes)
    Keywords: olive sector,agricultural waste valorisation,Mediterranean region,Value chain,Circular economy,Business model,Circular business model,Innovation,By-product valorisation,HUILE D'OLIVE,SOUS PRODUIT D'HUILERIE,STRATEGIE,UTILISATION DES DECHETS,VALORISATION,PETITE EXPLOITATION AGRICOLE,ECONOMIE CIRCULAIRE,BIOECONOMIE,CATALUNA,ESPAGNE
    Date: 2021–07–06
  52. By: Schmidt, Sebastian; Kinne, Jan; Lautenbach, Sven; Blaschke, Thomas; Lenz, David; Resch, Bernd
    Abstract: This Discussion Paper deals with the issue of greenwashing, i.e. the false portrayal of companies as environmentally friendly. The analysis focuses on the US metal industry, which is a major emission source of sulfur dioxide (SO2), one of the most harmful air pollutants. One way to monitor the distribution of atmospheric SO2 concentrations is through satellite data from the Sentinel-5P programme, which represents a major advance due to its unprecedented spatial resolution. In this paper, Sentinel-5P remote sensing data was combined with a plant-level firm database to investigate the relationship between the US metal industry and SO2 concentrations using a spatial regression analysis. Additionally, this study considered web text data, classifying companies based on their websites in order to depict their self-portrayal on the topic of sustainability. In doing so, we investigated the topic of greenwashing, i.e. whether or not a positive self-portrayal regarding sustainability is related to lower local SO2 concentrations. Our results indicated a general, positive correlation between the number of employees in the metal industry and local SO2 concentrations. The web-based analysis showed that only 8% of companies in the metal industry could be classified as engaged in sustainability based on their websites. The regression analyses indicated that these self-reported 'sustainable' companies had a weaker effect on local SO2 concentrations compared to their 'non-sustainable' counterparts, which we interpreted as an indication of the absence of general greenwashing in the US metal industry. However, the large share of firms without a website and lack of specificity of the text classification model were limitations to our methodology.
    Keywords: Sentinel-5P,air pollution,natural language processing,spatial regression
    JEL: Q53 Q56 R11
    Date: 2022
  53. By: Bauckloh, Michael Tobias; Beyer, Victor; Klein, Christian
    Abstract: This research examines whether stocks of firms operating in highly polluting industries ('dirty stocks') are treated like sin stocks. We assume that investors shun dirty stocks based on non-pecuniary preferences and employ screening approaches that lead to the exclusion of entire industries. Using emission data of the U.S. Toxics Release Inventory, we show that dirty stocks are held in lower proportions by institutional investors and are followed by fewer financial analysts than other stocks. The shunning leads to an outperformance of dirty stocks in cross-sectional and time-series return analyses. These observations affect all firms within a dirty industry, regardless of whether they have high or low TRI emissions. This means that comparatively clean firms are shunned by capital market participants simply because of their industry affiliation, which can result in financing disadvantages and low incentives to improve sustainability performance. Thus, our findings contribute to the understanding of environmental preferences of investors and their consequences for asset pricing.
    Date: 2022
  54. By: Butt, Ali Azhar; Harvey, John; Fitch, Dillon; Kedarisetty, Sampat; Lea, Jeremy D.; Lea, Jon; Reger, Darren
    Abstract: The results presented in this report are part of Phase II of a two-phase study. Based on the results from mechanistic models of additional fuel consumption in vehicles due to the structural response of the pavement structure, Phase I of this study concluded that pavement has a small but important enough effect on vehicle fuel consumption to warrant field investigation. The goal of the Phase II study was to measure vehicle fuel consumption in the field on different pavement types in winter and summer and at different speeds, and to use the data collected to develop empirical models for this fuel-consumption effect. The field investigation presented in this report included 21 California pavement sections with different pavement types: flexible, semi-rigid, jointed plain concrete, continuously reinforced concrete, and composite structures. The vehicles selected and instrumented for the fuel economy measurements included a five-axle semi-trailer tractor, a diesel truck, a sports utility vehicle (SUV), a gasoline-fueled car, and a diesel-fueled car. Vehicles were run on cruise control and data were recorded at 45 and 55 mph on state roads and at 35 and 45 mph on local roads. The data from the field investigation were analyzed and used to develop an empirical modeling framework considering road geometry, wind, temperature, and pavement structural and surface (roughness and texture) effects on vehicle fuel consumption. Based on the final framework, a final empirical model was developed for each section. The report presents results of a factorial analysis of the effects of each variable using the final model for each vehicle type on each pavement type and in different California climate regions. The within-section variability is almost always greater than the variability between sections for a given pavement type and efficiency condition (tailwind, speed, and climate region) and the within-section variability is also usually larger than the variability between pavement types. Only the data for the heavy heavy-duty truck (HHDT) showed any meaningful difference in results between sections, but that variability is not tied to pavement type and is only present under certain conditions of speed, tailwind, and air temperature (tied to climate region). These results indicate that missing variables (or errors in the existing variables) need to be reduced in further experiments to observe measurable effects of pavements on fuel consumption in real-world driving. While air temperature interacted with cruise control speed for the HHDT, there was a lack of clear evidence that asphalt roads cause more fuel consumption for the HHDT even under the conditions where the most possible effect of pavement type was found. This suggests that pavement type is not the correct explanation for that variation. Instead, the variation in the effect of air temperature by cruise control speed for the HHDT likely has to do with differences in engine efficiency under different conditions.
    Keywords: Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Pavement deflection, deflection energy, excess fuel consumption, fuel economy, field testing, mechanistic-empirical analysis, energy models, forward modeling
    Date: 2022–01–01
  55. By: Jaiswal, Sreeja; Bensch, Gunther; Navalkar, Aniket; Jayaraman, T.
    Abstract: Railways are a key infrastructure that facilitates trade and regional integration with potential consequences on local development and the environment in hitherto backward regions. In this article, we study the medium- to long-term socio-economic and environmental infrastructure impacts for the case of the Konkan Railway, which is one of the biggest railway construction endeavours in independent India. We employ a quasi-experimental mixed-methods design to explore the impact of the Konkan Railway on population, workforce composition and land cover types using census and satellite data. We find that the Konkan Railway led to an increase in the female-to-male sex ratio and a negative effect on the share of male workers among the working population. In combination with qualitative evidence, this suggests that the railway access has reinforced the pre-existing pattern of high levels of male migration. We also find an increase in population and the workforce participation rate without disparate workforce effects across sectors suggesting that the railway had moderate effects across the local economies. In terms of land use, the analysis could not substantiate concerns regarding substantive loss of forest cover induced by the railways. The findings encourage policy makers - in assessing the effects of transport infrastructure - to take into consideration the impact on migration, labour mobility and labour market outcomes in sending and receiving regions.
    Keywords: Infrastructure,railway access,migration,impact evaluation,mixed methods,India
    JEL: N75 O18 O40 R11 R41
    Date: 2022
  56. By: Swallow, Brent M.
    Abstract: La investigación internacional sobre la tenencia de la tierra se remonta al menos a principios de los años 1960, cuando se creó el Centro de Tenencia de la Tierra en la Universidad de Wisconsin-Madison y se realizaron algunos estudios en colaboración con los científicos sociales del Grupo Consultivo Internacional para la Investigación Agrícola (CGIAR). El interés del CGIAR por la tenencia aumentó a principios de la década de 1990, cuando se reforzó la gestión de los recursos naturales como componente de la agenda del CGIAR y se incorporaron al sistema los centros sobre bosques, agrosilvicultura y agua (Centro para la Investigación Forestal Internacional (CIFOR), Centro Mundial de Agrosilvicultura (ICRAF) e Instituto Internacional de Gestión del Agua (IWMI)). El Programa para todo el sistema del CGIAR sobre acción colectiva y derechos de propiedad (CAPRi) comenzó a funcionar como un programa de investigación de todo el sistema sobre la tenencia y la acción colectiva a mediados de la década de 1990, y se convirtió en la iniciativa insignia 5 del programa del CGIAR de Investigación sobre Políticas, Instituciones y Mercados (PIM) sobre la gobernanza de los recursos naturales en 2011. A partir de 2021, es esencial contar con un programa de investigación renovado sobre la tenencia para avanzar en la misión del CGIAR: aportar «ciencia e innovación que fomenten la transformación de los sistemas alimentarios, agrarios e hídricos en una crisis climática».
    Keywords: WORLD, tenure security, land tenure, sustainable development, investment, research
    Date: 2021
  57. By: Johnson, Nancy L.
    Abstract: Les systèmes alimentaires se transforment rapidement dans le monde entier, engendrant des répercussions économiques, sanitaires et environnementales considérables. Face à ces évolutions, il convient d’opérer une transition dans la production agricole en privilégiant la qualité des régimes alimentaires plutôt que la quantité de production alimentaire. Cette note présente un résumé des données probantes issues de l’agriculture sensible à la nutrition, et explique comment les problèmes de propriété et de gouvernance des ressources sont liés à la production d’aliments riches en nutriments. Elle examine ensuite l’importance de ces problèmes pour les régimes alimentaires et la santé dans le contexte de la transformation du système alimentaire, en mettant l’accent sur le soutien à des régimes alimentaires sains dans les systèmes alimentaires traditionnels, la satisfaction de la demande mondiale d’aliments riches en nutriments, et la gestion et l’atténuation des risques de maladies liés à l’intensification des paysages agricoles.1
    Keywords: WORLD, natural resources, tenure, governance, nutrition, health, agricultural research, development, food systems, sustainability
    Date: 2021
  58. By: Olivier Crespi Reghizzi (AFD),; Catarina Fonseca (IRC),; Goufrane Mansour (Aguaconsult),; Stef Smits (IRC).
    Abstract: Aujourd’hui, plus de 2 milliards de personnes n’ont toujours pas accès à l’eau potable et plus de 3,6 milliards n’ont pas accès à l’assainissement. Dans de nombreux pays, le changement climatique accroît les risques sur le cycle de l’eau ; parallèlement, la pression quantitative et qualitative exercée sur les ressources en eau est une menace pour les personnes et les écosystèmes. Le manque d’accès aux services d’eau et d’assainissement et les défaillances dans la gestion durable des ressources en eau ont des conséquences dramatiques en termes de santé, d’égalité de genre, d’économie et d’environnement.
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2022–03–04
  59. By: Catelan, Davi (NEDUR, UFPR); Carvalho, Terciane (NEDUR, UFPR); Vale, Vinicius (NEDUR, UFPR)
    Abstract: Após quatro anos de crescimento, a produção brasileira de grãos caiu em 2021 devido à redução na produtividade agrícola, induzida pela falta de chuvas, baixas temperaturas e geadas nas principais regiões produtoras do país. Nesse contexto, este estudo tem como objetivo projetar os impactos econômicos da redução na produtividade agrícola, associada à ocorrência de eventos climáticos extremos em 2021, no Brasil e nas Unidades da Federação. Para isso, foi utilizado um modelo inter-regional dinâmico de Equilíbrio Geral Computável (EGC), denominado TERM-UF-AGRO. Os resultados mostram que a queda na produtividade teria contribuído para a redução do PIB do Brasil em cerca de 0,30% em 2021 o equivalente a R$26,1 bilhões de reais. Consequentemente, o consumo das famílias, o investimento, as exportações, o emprego e o estoque de capital também seriam negativamente afetados. Mesmo com uma normalização sazonal em 2022, os impactos de longo prazo permaneceriam negativos para as variáveis macroeconômicas analisadas, com redução acumulada de 0,14% do PIB em 2035.
    Keywords: Mudança climáticas; Impactos econômicos; Equilíbrio Geral Computável.
    JEL: C68 Q10 Q51 Q54
    Date: 2022–04–13
  60. By: Johnson, Nancy L.
    Abstract: Se están produciendo rápidas transformaciones en los sistemas alimentarios de todo el mundo, lo que está teniendo importantes consecuencias económicas, sanitarias y medioambientales. Como parte de este cambio, el enfoque de la producción agrícola debe pasar de la cantidad de producción de alimentos a la calidad de las dietas. Este informe comienza con el resumen de las pruebas (evidence) de la agricultura sensible a la nutrición (nutritionsensitive agriculture) y explica cómo la tenencia de recursos y las cuestiones de gobernanza se relacionan con la producción de alimentos ricos en nutrientes. A continuación, el informe investiga la importancia de la tenencia de los recursos y las cuestiones de gobernanza para las dietas y la salud en el contexto de la transformación del sistema alimentario: esta sección se centra en el apoyo a las dietas saludables dentro de los sistemas alimentarios tradicionales, la satisfacción de la demanda mundial de alimentos ricos en nutrientes, y la gestión y mitigación de los riesgos de enfermedades a causa de la intensificación de los paisajes agrícolas.1
    Keywords: WORLD, natural resources, tenure, governance, nutrition, health, agricultural research, development, food systems, sustainability
    Date: 2021
  61. By: Axenbeck, Janna; Niebel, Thomas
    Abstract: Although information and communication technologies (ICT) consume energy themselves, they are considered to have the potential to reduce overall energy intensity within economic sectors. While previous empirical evidence is based on aggregated data, this is the first large-scale empirical study on the relationship between ICT and energy intensity at the firm level. For this purpose, we employ administrative panel data on 28,600 manufacturing firms from German Statistical Offices collected between 2009 and 2017. Our results confirm a statistically significant and robust negative link between software capital as an indicator for the firm-level degree of digitalization and energy intensity, but the effect size is rather small. Hence, we conclude that energy intensity reductions related to the use of digital technologies are lower than expected.
    Keywords: ICT,Firm-level panel data,Energy intensity improvements
    JEL: D22 D24 L60 O12 O14 O33 Q40
    Date: 2021
  62. By: Todd, Mike; Scora, George; Luo, Jill
    Abstract: This report details the development and application of a spreadsheet tool which enables the evaluation and use of electric and hydrogen Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEVs) within the Caltrans fleet. The spreadsheet tool assists with both the placement of ZEVs and determining placement of new fueling stations to obtain the maximum benefit. The ZEV tool created as a result of this project allows Caltrans to maximize the usage of ZEVs that will be procured within Caltrans. The ZEV tool enables a strategic adoption of ZEVs within the Caltrans fleet by analyzing: fleet parameters, vehicle technology, vehicle usage, refueling infrastructure development, and operational needs. This report summarizes how available information, trip activity, and EVSE have been integrated within a database tool to analyze ZEV integration possibilities. The ZEV tool development provides Caltrans an architecture to integrate evolving data and fleet characteristics while optimizing ZEV placement and utilization into the future. Caltrans staff will be able to utilize the ZEV tool to strategically select vehicles as ZEV capable based on vehicle specifications, refueling infrastructure, and prior vehicle activity. The ZEV tool provides evaluation techniques by vehicle classification, region or refueling/charging capabilities. Utilization of the tool will assist California in the transition to ZEV platforms that are either battery electric or hydrogen fuel cell. The report serves as a guide to utilize the ZEV tool for deployment of ZEVs in the Caltrans fleet while maintaining or improving the effectiveness of operations. The optimized deployment strategy includes the operational and performance criteria of ZEVs while considering the location of refueling/recharging stations for EVSE (electric vehicle supply equipment) and hydrogen ZEVs. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Business, Engineering, Zero Emission Vehicles, ZEV analysis, ZEV compatibility, ZEV utilization, database tool, trip activity analysis, EVSE utilization, hydrogen refueling, hydrogen refueling utilization, vehicle range analysis, vehicle utilization
    Date: 2022–04–01
  63. By: Gaurav Dhamija (Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad); Gitanjali Sen (Department Of Economics, Shiv Nadar University)
    Abstract: Exposure to extreme shocks in early life is found to have lasting impact in adulthood. Exploiting the variation in exposure measured by age and intensity of earthquake, we evaluate the impact of a 7.7 MW earthquake in Gujarat, India, on the health stock of children who were in utero or below three years. Using the India Human Development Survey (IHDS-1) data (2004-05) and earthquake intensity data, we find, an affected girl child to be shorter by at least 2.5 cm at the age of 3-6 years. The earthquake seems to have destroyed the household infrastructures and health facilities, affecting the expecting mothers and newborn children. The households using services to meet nutritional needs of children and pregnant women seem to be least affected. Our findings recommend faster reconstruction activities and highlight the importance of universal healthcare and nutritional delivery services to mitigate the impacts of early-life shocks.
    Keywords: Earthquake, child health, height, ZHFA, Shock, India.
    JEL: I1 I3 J1 O2
    Date: 2022–03–28
  64. By: Georgios I. Papayiannis
    Abstract: In this work the problem of optimal harvesting policy selection for natural resources management under model uncertainty is investigated. Under the framework of the neoclassical growth model dynamics, the associated optimal control problem is investigated by introducing the concept of model uncertainty on the initial conditions of the operational procedure. At this stage, the notion of convex risk measures, and in particular the class of Fr\'echet risk measures, is employed in order to quantify the total operational and marginal risk, whereas simultaneously obtaining robust to model uncertainty harvesting strategies.
    Date: 2022–02
  65. By: Swallow, Brent M.
    Abstract: La recherche internationale collaborative sur les régimes fonciers remonte au début des années 1960, durant lesquelles a été créé à l’Université du Wisconsin-Madison le « Land Tenure Center », qui a mené par la suite plusieurs études avec des spécialistes des sciences sociales du CGIAR. L’intérêt du CGIAR pour les droits fonciers s’est intensifié au début des années 1990 lorsque la gestion des ressources naturelles est devenue partie intégrante du programme du CGIAR et que les Centres de gestion des forêts, de l’agroforesterie et de l’eau (CIFOR, ICRAF et IWMI) ont rejoint le système. Au milieu des années 1990, CAPRi a été lancé en tant que programme de recherche et d’action collective sur l’occupation des sols à l’échelle du système, devenant en 2011 le projet phare PIM 5 sur la gouvernance des ressources naturelles. Depuis 2021, un nouveau programme de recherche sur les droits fonciers est au coeur de la promotion de la mission One CGIAR : « La science et l’innovation pour promouvoir la transformation des systèmes alimentaires, terrestres et aquatiques, pendant une crise climatique. »
    Keywords: WORLD, tenure security, land tenure, sustainable development, investment, research
    Date: 2021
  66. By: Jade Adler (IEP Aix-en-Provence - Sciences Po Aix - Institut d'études politiques d'Aix-en-Provence); Maxence Péan (IEP Aix-en-Provence - Sciences Po Aix - Institut d'études politiques d'Aix-en-Provence)
    Abstract: En 2015, les États du monde entier réunis lors de la conférence de Paris s'engageait à diminuer de manière significative leurs émissions polluantes et à se tourner leur économie vers la transition écologique. L'accord de Paris visait principalement à limiter de 2°C la température à l'aide de multiples mesures. Parmi ces dernières, on retrouve la volonté de créer un système financier plus vert qui accompagnerait et rendrait les flux financiers compatibles avec la lutte contre le changement climatique. Ce Rue de la Banque propose une évaluation des mesures de « finance verte » qui ont vu le jour ces dernières années sur les marchés.
    Date: 2022–03–02
  67. By: Tulkens, Henry (Université catholique de Louvain, LIDAM/CORE, Belgium); Borissov, Kirill (European University at St. Petersburg); Eyckmans, Johan (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven); Lambrecht, Stéphane (Université Polytechnique des Hauts de France); Picard, Pierre M. (University of Luxembourg); Tsachev, Tsvetomir (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences); Veliov, Vladimir (Technische Universität Wien)
    Abstract: In this obituary we evoke a few of the many areas in which he worked, focusing on results and his personal contributions. In the last section we review the main stages of his career.
    Date: 2022–01–01

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