nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2022‒03‒28
fifty papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Soluciones basadas en la naturaleza: el potencial de la restauración y conservación de bosques para la adaptación al cambio climático en Centroamérica By Samaniego, Joseluis; Alatorre, José Eduardo; Van Der Borght, Rafael
  2. Asymmetric effects of Eco-innovation and Human Capital development in realizing Environmental Sustainability in China: Evidence from Quantile ARDL framework By Jin, Cheng; Razzaq, Asif; Saleem, Faiza; Sinha, Avik
  3. Soluciones basadas en la naturaleza para la sostenibilidad de la agricultura en la República de Corea: marcos de política habilitantes y casos de estudio de interés para América Latina y el Caribe By Udaeta, Karen Y.; Rodríguez, Adrián G.
  4. ICT and education as determinants of environmental quality: The role of financial development in selected Asian countries By Zafar, Muhammad Wasif; Zaidi, Syed Anees Haider; Mansoor, Sadia; Sinha, Avik; Qin, Quande
  5. EU in Search of a WTO-Compatible Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism By Cecilia Bellora; Lionel Fontagné
  6. Environmental Awareness and Green Business Practices in the Small Business Sector: Empirical Evidence Using a Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Survey in Japan By Masahiko Shibamoto
  7. How personality traits affect the way Gen Z faces economic and environmental sustainability: an econometric investigation By Canova, Luciano; Paladino, Giovanna
  8. Impact of Energy Efficiency on CO2 Emissions: Empirical Evidence from Developing Countries By Mirza, Faisal Mehmood; Sinha, Avik; Khan, Javeria Rehman; Kalugina, Olga A.; Zafar, Muhammad Wasif
  9. What is Driving the EU ETS Carbon Price? By Angela Köppl; Stefan Schleicher; Jean-Yves Caneill
  10. The Political Consequences of Green Policies: Evidence from Italy By Italo Colantone; Livio Di Lonardo; Yotam Margalit; Marco Percoco
  11. La dimensión de género en el gran impulso para la sostenibilidad en el Brasil: las mujeres en el contexto de la transformación social y ecológica de la economía brasileña By Olivera, Margarita; Podcameni, Maria Gabriela; Lustosa, Maria Cecília; Graça, Letícia
  12. Green financing of Eco-innovations: Is the Gender Inclusivity taken care of? By Saha, Tanaya; Sinha, Avik; Abbas, Shujaat
  13. The Green Paths route planning software for exposure-optimised travel By Helle, Joose; Poom, Age; Willberg, Elias S; Toivonen, Tuuli
  14. Climate Change and the Evolving Mix of Grape Varieties in Australia’s Wine Regions: Are They Related? By German Puga; Kym Anderson; Gregory Jones; Richard Smart
  15. The economics of immense risk, urgent action and radical change: towards new approaches to the economics of climate change By Stern, Nicholas; Stiglitz, Joseph; Taylor, Charlotte
  16. Creation and Application of the 2015 Input-Output Table for Analysis of Next-generation Energy Systems:Analysis of the Effects of Introducing Carbon Tax By Satoshi Nakano; Ayu Washizu
  17. Environmental Productivity Analysis : an Illustration with the Ecuadorian Oil Industry By Arnaud Abad; Michell Arias
  18. Covid-19 and a Green Recovery? By Aditya Goenka; Lin Liu; Manh-Hung Nguyen
  19. Green office buildings and sustainability: Does green human resource management elicit green behaviors? By Subhadarsini Parida; Subramaniam Ananthram; Christopher Chan; Kerry Brown
  20. Análisis económico de las cadenas globales de valor y suministro del cobre refinado en países de América Latina By Lagos, Gustavo; Peters, David; Salas, Juan Carlos; Parra, Roberto; Pérez, Víctor
  21. Integrating Sustainable Trade Principles in Uzbekistan By Rahmetov, Anvar; Rakhmetova, Malika
  22. Quantifying supply-side climate policies By Lassi Ahlvik; Jørgen Juel Andersen; Jonas Hveding Hamang; Torfinn Harding
  23. Ecological Fiscal Transfers and State-level Budgetary Spending in India: Analysing The Flypaper Effects By Kaur, Amandeep; Mohanty, Ranjan; Chakraborty, Lekha S; Rangan, Divy
  24. Soluciones basadas en la naturaleza para la sostenibilidad de la agricultura: ruta para la sinergia entre las convenciones de Río y la recuperación pos-Covid-19 By Meza, Laura E.; Rodríguez, Adrián G.
  25. Facultades jurídicas de los gobiernos nacionales y subnacionales para fijar un precio social del carbono: estudio de cinco países de América Latina By Moraga, Pilar; Durán, Valentina
  26. Economic freedom and natural disasters’ losses: Evidence from Asia By Huynh, Cong Minh; Hoang, Hong Hiep
  27. Charting the Development of a Global Market for Low-Carbon Hydrogen By Schönfisch, Max
  28. CO2 Emissions and Corporate Performance: Japan's Evidence with Double Machine Learning By Ryo Aruga; Keiichi Goshima; Takashi Chiba
  29. A Model for Efficiently Allocating Resources to Mitigate Wildfire Risk along California Roadways By Whitney, Jason P.; Hollander, Allan D.; Boynton, Ryan M.; Shapiro, Kristen D.; Thorne, James H.; Worthington, Lisa Ann
  30. Environment, public debt and epidemics * By Marion Davin; Mouez Fodha; Thomas Seegmuller
  31. Energy use inefficiency and policy governance: the case of Central Asian countries By Taguchi, Hiroyuki
  32. Buying a Blind Eye: Campaign Donations, Regulatory Enforcement, and Deforestation in Colombia By Harding, Robin; Prem, Mounu; Ruiz, Nelson A.; Vargas, David L.
  33. Informe nacional de conectividad del Paraguay, 2020 By Rodríguez Laconich, Mical; Lupano, Jorge A.
  35. Speciation in CO2-loaded aqueous solutions of sixteen triacetoneamine-derivates (EvAs) and elucidation of structure-property relationships By Kessler, Elmar; Ninni, Luciana; Breug-Nissen, Tanja; Willy, Benjamin; Schneider, Rolf; Irfan, Muhammad; Rolker, Jörn; Thiel, Werner R.; von Harbou, Erik; Hasse, Hans
  36. 탄소국경조정제도(CBAM)에 대한 중소기업 대응방안 연구 (A Study on Korean Smes Policies for the Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM)) By Park, Hyeri; Park, Ji Hyun
  37. Estudio comparativo de la gobernanza de los conflictos asociados a la minería del cobre en Chile, el Ecuador y el Perú By Poveda Bonilla, Rafael
  38. The Impact of Technical Barriers to Trade and Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures on Trade in the Forest-Wood-Paper Sector. By Bossoma Doriane N'Doua
  39. Knowing brown and inventing green? Incremental and radical innovative activities in the automotive sector By Julia Mazzei; Tommaso Rughi; Maria Enrica Virgillito
  40. A grandes transformaciones agrarias, grandes impactos hídricos: un análisis histórico del consumo agrario de agua en España By Ana Serrano; Vicente Pinilla; Rosa Duarte
  41. Extensions of the Energy PUblic Policy Model for Austria and other European countries E-(PuMA) By Berger, Johannes; Strohner, Ludwig
  42. Definiciones del sector eléctrico para la incorporación de las energías renovables variables y la integración regional en América Latina y el Caribe By Levy, Antonio; Messina, Diego; Contreras Lisperguer, Rubén
  43. ESG and Systemic Risk By George-Marian Aevoae; Alin Marius Andries; Steven Ongena; Nicu Sprincean
  44. Stark steigende Energiepreise – Optionen für eine Entlastung von Haushalten und Unternehmen By Josef Baumgartner; Gabriel Felbermayr; Claudia Kettner; Angela Köppl; Daniela Kletzan-Slamanig; Simon Loretz; Margit Schratzenstaller
  45. Fablabs & Objectifs de Développement Durable By Cédric Gossart; Beyza Coskun
  46. What is the full cost of energy for shared e-scooters? By Fabien Leurent
  47. Economic Planning in India: Did We Throw the Baby Out with the Bathwater? By Ajay Chhibber
  48. Trade and Environment Policies: Synergies and Rivalries By Santeramo, Fabio
  49. Numérique et éducation au développement durable : le cas des associations françaises By Cédric Gossart
  50. Industrie et déchets : sur la voie de l'économie circulaire By Franck Aggeri; Helen Micheaux; Joel Ntsonde

  1. By: Samaniego, Joseluis; Alatorre, José Eduardo; Van Der Borght, Rafael
    Abstract: En este estudio se evalúa empíricamente cómo la cobertura boscosa puede reducir el impacto de las lluvias extremas en la actividad económica de Centroamérica. Para esos fines, se construyó un panel de datos usando observaciones de la tierra provenientes de imágenes satelitales. Se midió la actividad económica a través de las luces nocturnas y se caracterizaron las lluvias extremas usando series de lluvias diarias con alta resolución espacial. Finalmente, se evaluó y mapeó la cobertura boscosa y vegetal usando el índice de vegetación de diferencia normalizada (NDVI).
    Date: 2021–12–31
  2. By: Jin, Cheng; Razzaq, Asif; Saleem, Faiza; Sinha, Avik
    Abstract: The present study investigates the dynamic and asymmetric impacts of eco-innovation and human capital development on ambient pollution by validating the Environment Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis in China from 1988Q1 to 2018Q4. The findings confirm non-normality and structural breaks in data. Thus, Quantile Autoregressive Distributive Lag (QARDL) model and Granger Causality-in-Quantiles are applied to address non-linearity and structural breaks. The long-run results exhibit that eco-innovation and human capital have a significant negative relationship with carbon emissions, mainly from lower (0.05) to medium (0.5) quantiles and medium (0.50) to higher (0.95) emissions quantile. Moreover, economic growth contributes to higher emissions across all quantiles. In contrast, the square of economic growth has a significant negative association with emissions, confirming the validity of EKC from medium (0.40) to higher (0.95) quantiles. Lastly, Granger causality confirms a two-way causality between eco-innovation, human capital, and carbon emissions, and a one-way causality from human capital, economic growth to carbon emissions. These findings offer valuable policy recommendations.
    Keywords: Eco-innovation; Human capital; Environmental sustainability; Carbon emissions; Quantile ARDL
    JEL: Q5
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Udaeta, Karen Y.; Rodríguez, Adrián G.
    Abstract: En el presente documento se caracteriza el marco normativo y de políticas que habilita el desarrollo de iniciativas relacionadas con el concepto de soluciones basadas en la naturaleza en la agricultura en la República de Corea y se analizan casos relevantes para América Latina y el Caribe. Tomando como punto de partida un conjunto de más de 65 leyes vinculadas a los Ministerios de Agricultura, Alimentación y Asuntos Rurales, y de Medio Ambiente y a la Presidencia de ese país, se analizan 13 marcos legales habilitantes que evidencian el aporte y los avance en ámbitos relacionados con las soluciones basadas en la naturaleza, tales como el desarrollo sostenible, el fomento de nuevas tecnologías (incluidas aquellas respetuosas con la naturaleza), la conservación de la biodiversidad y el cambio climático.
    Date: 2021–12–15
  4. By: Zafar, Muhammad Wasif; Zaidi, Syed Anees Haider; Mansoor, Sadia; Sinha, Avik; Qin, Quande
    Abstract: Rising environmental concerns due to extensive energy consumption and carbon emission in the process of developing information communication and technology (ICT) cannot be overshadowed by its significant contribution in economic growth. This study is an attempt to explore long run influences of ICT and education on environmental quality. By incorporating the role of financial development, energy consumption and income into the function of carbon emissions, the results obtained by the continuously updated and fully modified (Cup-FM) test indicate that economic growth, education and energy consumption stimulates carbon emissions intensity in Asian countries (1990-2018). The second-generation unit root tests and Lagrange Multiplier (LM) bootstrap cointegration method investigate stationary properties and cointegration. Our findings suggest that investment in technology and financial markets require policymakers' attention as we have empirically established long-run inverse impacts of financial development and ICT on carbon emissions. Furthermore, the study suggests a focus on clean energy policy as the rising pollution levels due to fossil fuel hampers long-run productivity. This paper contributes to the existing literature by proposing that ICT-led economic policies may help solve environmental quality and economic growth issues.
    Keywords: Environmental Quality; ICT; Education; Financial development; Economic growth
    JEL: Q5
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Cecilia Bellora; Lionel Fontagné
    Abstract: To meet the targets of the EU’s ”Fit for 55” package, the European Commission proposes to implement a Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM). The CBAM is firstly intended to avoid carbon leakages, but it also deals with the thorny issue of the compliance by European producers in carbon-intensive industries. In addition, its design, as voted by the European Council on March 15, 2022, questions the compatibility of the CBAM with World Trade Organization (WTO) rules. The CBAM puts a price on carbon contained in imported products whose production-related emissions have not been taxed (or not at the same level as in the European Union) by the exporter country, in order to offset the difference in carbon prices at the border. This paper aims to quantify the economic and environmental impacts of different CBAM design choices with the aim of complying with WTO rules. Different from the previous literature, we evaluate the various options with a dynamic general equilibrium model featuring imperfect competition, global value chains, green-house gas emissions and endogenous price of emission quotas. We show that CBAM is effective in reducing carbon leakages. But its design leads to an increase in the price of carbon quotas in the European Emission Trading System (ETS) market. Losses in competitiveness on export markets are expected, also for downstream sectors not covered by the EU ETS nor the CBAM. Eventually, offsetting the difference in carbon prices at the border comes at a cost to the enforcing jurisdiction, suggesting that the CBAM was not designed as a beggar-thy-neighbour policy.
    Keywords: Carbon Border Adjustment;International Trade;Climate Change
    JEL: F14 F13 F17 Q56
    Date: 2022–03
  6. By: Masahiko Shibamoto (Research Institute for Economics and Business Administration and Center for Computational Social Science, Kobe University, JAPAN)
    Abstract: This study argues that the heterogeneity in environmental awareness among business owners is a pivotal component in characterizing the implementation of green business practices in the small business sector. Specifically, using a large-scale survey of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) throughout Japan, we show a gap between environmental awareness and green business practices in the small business sector; that is, SMEs are aware of environmental issues, but they do not practice green business to a large extent. Further, we quantitatively show that the environmental awareness of SMEs already practicing or attempting to practice green business tends to be greater than that of SMEs not practicing green business. Our empirical results support the link between environmental awareness as a business opportunity and green business practices. However, there is less evidence that environmental awareness divorced from management, such as the need to pass on a sustainable society to future generations, would be involved with green business practices in the small business sector. Our findings advocate that policymakers looking to strengthen environmental initiatives in the small business sector need to direct SMEs to build awareness of environmental issues related to their businesses.
    Keywords: Green business practices; Environmental awareness; Small business sector; Survey data; Japan
    JEL: L21 Q56
    Date: 2022–03
  7. By: Canova, Luciano; Paladino, Giovanna
    Abstract: Before the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, awareness of the relevance of sustainability issues and climate change had increased significantly, especially among the younger generation. The COVID-19 pandemic and the related shutdown of many economic activities raised concerns about the conservation of biodiversity and the environment and about the state of personal economic well-being. Theoretically, at least two associations between sustainability and personal financial habits are relevant: a) they concern the decision-making process regarding the use of scarce resources, and b) they need a medium/long-term horizon as they exert their impacts over time. In this study, we examined how Generation Z deals with issues of sustainability and money management. By using the technique of the principal components, two synthetic indexes were derived on the basis of a set of multivariate information from a questionnaire that investigated the approach to the issue of sustainability by a representative sample of 400 girls aged between 13 and 18 years. The GREEN INDEX represents environmental practices, and the MONEY INDEX represents habits in money management. They are used as dependent variables to detect how socio-demographic factors and personality elements influence the degree of awareness. Our results show the importance of character traits at both levels of awareness and the strong association between attention to money management and a sense of responsibility toward the environment, highlighting the possibility that financial education can set in motion a virtuous circle.
    Keywords: Sustainability, Environment, Financial Education, Gen Z
    JEL: G10 J53 Q50
    Date: 2022–01
  8. By: Mirza, Faisal Mehmood; Sinha, Avik; Khan, Javeria Rehman; Kalugina, Olga A.; Zafar, Muhammad Wasif
    Abstract: Attaining higher level of the energy efficiency is being considered as a preferred and cost-effective policy option to achieve economic propensity, environmental sustainability and improved energy security in recent years. This drive to achieve higher energy efficiency levels is mainly motivated by higher international oil prices during last two decades, the concerns regarding energy supply security and rising CO2 emissions globally. In this background, this study decomposes energy intensity into structural and activity effects, and empirically examines their impact on CO2 emissions in environmental Kuznets curve framework for the developing economies. Second generation methodological approach is adopted. The decomposed indices reflect that energy efficiency has played a key role in decreasing energy intensity, while structural shifts have caused only a minor reduction in energy intensity. The findings suggest that energy efficiency improvements have largest influence on CO2 emissions mitigation. In developing countries as a whole, energy efficiency has positive while structural shifts have negative relation with CO2 emissions in long run. The findings presented that energy efficiency is major contributor of CO2 emissions reduction. While structural shifts in developing countries tend to increase CO2 emissions because these countries are moving towards the sectors that are producing more pollution. However, the income is one of the major contributors of CO2 emissions. While renewable energy consumption has negative and industrialization has positive impact on CO2 emissions in developing countries. The study outcomes are utilized to develop a policy framework for attaining the SDG 7 and SDG 13 in the chosen countries.
    Keywords: Energy Efficiency; Structural Shifts; Energy Intensity; Developing Economies; CO2 emissions; EKC; SDG
    JEL: Q5
    Date: 2022
  9. By: Angela Köppl; Stefan Schleicher (Austrian Institute of Economic Research); Jean-Yves Caneill (European Roundtable on Climate Change and Sustainable Transition)
    Abstract: The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is intended to be the flagship instrument of EU climate policy. Key aspects in this cap-and-trade scheme are the target path as well as the market price for emission allowances which results from supply and demand for these allowances. The recent pronounced price movements on the market for emission allowances raise the question what causes these fluctuations and what could be the carbon price's role for stimulating and guiding the transformation of the EU economy towards the 2030 emission target, which aims at a reduction of greenhouse gases of at least 55 percent compared to 1990 levels. This research brief collects evidence about the market stringencies that result from demand and supply and that prevailed in the third trading period between 2013 and 2020 and discusses potential drivers for the carbon price in the current trading period up to 2030. We conclude that aligning the EU ETS with the "Fit for 55" framework, the expected radical innovation efforts needed in particular for the hard-to-abate industries together with changing market behaviour due to hedging and speculative trading will likely keep the EU ETS carbon price volatile.
    Date: 2022–03–16
  10. By: Italo Colantone; Livio Di Lonardo; Yotam Margalit; Marco Percoco
    Abstract: For many governments enacting green policies is a priority, but these often entail substantial and uneven costs on citizens. How does the introduction of green policies affect voting? We study this question in the context of a major ban on polluting cars introduced in Milan. The policy was strongly opposed by the right-wing populist party Lega, portraying it as a “radical-chic-leftist†initiative penalizing common people. We show that owners of banned vehicles—who incurred a median loss of €3,750—were significantly more likely to vote for Lega in the subsequent elections. This electoral shift does not stem from increased environmental skepticism, but rather from the perceived unfairness of the policy and its pocketbook implications. In fact, recipients of compensation from the local government were not more likely to switch to Lega. The findings underscore that addressing the distributive consequences is key for advancing green policies that are politically sustainable.
    Keywords: environmental politics; green policies; distributional consequences; compensation mechanisms
    Date: 2022
  11. By: Olivera, Margarita; Podcameni, Maria Gabriela; Lustosa, Maria Cecília; Graça, Letícia
    Abstract: La situación actual en el Brasil y otros países del mundo está marcada por las acciones frente a la crisis provocada por la pandemia de COVID-19 y en pos de la recuperación de la actividad económica, el empleo y la calidad de vida de las personas. En este contexto, la CEPAL ha promovido un gran impulso para la sostenibilidad, un enfoque renovado para apoyar a los países de la región en la construcción de estilos de desarrollo más sostenibles sobre la base de una recuperación transformadora con sostenibilidad e igualdad. La oficina de la CEPAL en Brasilia y la representación en el Brasil de la Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, con la participación de varios expertos y colaboradores, han desarrollado el proyecto “A dimensão de gênero no Big Push para a Sustentabilidade no Brasil: as mulheres no contexto da transformação social e ecológica da economia brasileira” (la dimensión de género en el gran impulso para la sostenibilidad enel Brasil: las mujeres en el contexto de la transformación social y ecológica de la economía brasileña), que busca contribuir al debate crítico sobre políticas y medidas frente al cambio climático que permitan alcanzar la igualdad de género en el país. La lectura de esta publicación ofrece una comprensión más amplia de la dimensión de género y sus intersecciones raciales, étnicas y económicas en el contexto de la adaptación al cambio climático y su mitigación.
    Date: 2021–12–27
  12. By: Saha, Tanaya; Sinha, Avik; Abbas, Shujaat
    Abstract: The OECD countries are in pursuit of the betterment of environmental quality based on their capability of Eco-innovation. This progression might pave their ways in attaining the Sustainable Developmental Goals (SDGs). Developing a green financing channel for funding is necessary for the sustenance of these projects. However, the potential impact of this project financing mechanism is conditional on the social balance in the economic system. Gender inequality being a major social issue in the OECD countries, it might pose a predicament in attaining the full potential of the green financing of eco-innovations. It is anticipated that the eco-innovation endeavors in the OECD countries are not gender-inclusive, and hence, gender inequality might limit the cognitive aptitude of these endeavors. The present study intends to assess the moderating role of gender inequality on the impact of green financing of eco-innovations for the OECD countries. Using the dynamic elasticity modeling approach, the study finds that the presence of gender inequality dampens the potential of green financing mechanisms to boost eco-innovations. The social imbalance caused by gender inequality also weakens the impacts of the structural and institutional environment to foster innovations. Based on the findings of the study, an SDG-oriented policy framework has been suggested.
    Keywords: Green finance; Eco-innovation; Gender; SDG; OECD
    JEL: Q5
    Date: 2022
  13. By: Helle, Joose; Poom, Age; Willberg, Elias S; Toivonen, Tuuli
    Abstract: Green Paths is a prototype of route planning software for finding exposure-optimised routes for active travel. It incorporates external data on environmental exposures, including traffic noise levels, air quality, and street-level greenery into the street and paths network produced by the OpenStreetMap project. Written in the Python programming language, the software applies a novel environmental impedance function in the least cost path routing to find exposure-optimised routes. Routes for externally defined origin-destination pairs can be queried via a RESTful API. The API returns alternative routes equipped with rich exposure data. The published version of the software has been applied in population level environmental exposure assessment and in an end-user-oriented web-based route planner application designed for use in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area.
    Date: 2021–10–24
  14. By: German Puga (Centre for Global Food and Resources, Wine Economics Research Centre, School of Economics and Public Policy, University of Adelaide, Australia); Kym Anderson (Wine Economics Research Centre, School of Economics and Public Policy, University of Adelaide, Australia, and Arndt-Corden Dept of Economics, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia); Gregory Jones (Abacela Vineyards and Winery, Roseburg OR 97471, USA); Richard Smart (Smart Viticulture, Greenvale Vic 3046, Australia)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to assess how well suited is the mix of winegrape varieties in Australia in the light of key climate indicators and climate change projections. We use two datasets with climate data. The first one is based on locations representative to each wine region and allows us to compare the climate of the Australian wine regions and their mix of winegrape varieties with those of the rest of the world. The second dataset provides spatial climate data and climate projections for Australia’s wine regions. We report five climatic classifications: three based on growing season average temperature, and two on multiple variables. These classifications show that, while Australia’s wine regions cover a wide range of climates, most regions are warm, sunny, and dry. Since the start of this century, the share of hot regions in the national vineyard bearing area has declined and the mostwidely planted varieties have a higher share under more-appropriate climates for high-quality winegrape production. However, these adjustments have been relatively small and lower than in other New World countries. Climate change projections suggest that Australian winegrowers will need to change their mix of winegrape varieties and/or plant vineyards in more-appropriate cooler climates in order to maintain current wine styles and/or quality. The question raised in the sub-title remains. While the mix of winegrape varieties has changed recently it is mainly towards ‘international’ varieties that are better suited to cool regions and only to a small extent towards heat-tolerant varieties in response to climate change adaptation needs.
    Keywords: Adaptation, Australia’s viticulture, climate change, growing season average temperature, mix of winegrape varieties, wine regions’ climate
    JEL: Q10 Q54
    Date: 2022–02
  15. By: Stern, Nicholas; Stiglitz, Joseph; Taylor, Charlotte
    Abstract: Designing policy for climate change requires analyses which integrate the interrelationship between the economy and the environment. We argue that, despite their dominance in the economics literature and influence in public discussion and policymaking, the methodology employed by Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) rests on flawed foundations, which become particularly relevant in relation to the realities of the immense risks and challenges of climate change, and the radical changes in our economies that a sound and effective response require. We identify a set of critical methodological problems with the IAMs which limit their usefulness and discuss the analytic foundations of an alternative approach that is more capable of providing insights into how best to manage the transition to net-zero emissions.
    Keywords: climate change; extreme risk; market imperfections; climate policy; integrated assessment; social welfare; innovation; Grantham Institute; CCCEP; T&F deal
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2022–02–24
  16. By: Satoshi Nakano (Faculty of Economics, Nihon-Fukushi University, Japan.); Ayu Washizu (Faculty of Social Sciences, Waseda University, 1-6-1 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050, Japan.)
    Abstract: The Institute for Economic Analysis of Next-Generation Science and Technology, Waseda University, has prepared the Input-Output Table for Analysis of Next-generation Energy Systems (IONGES) and has included the renewable energy sectors in the Input-Output Table of Japan’s Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC). To date, we have prepared tables for 2005 and 2011 (hereafter 2005 Table and 2011 Table, respectively) and associated reports have been prepared. We prepared an interregional table and a table with the hydrogen-related sector added to the 2005 Table. Following these tables, the 2015 IONGES was developed and summarized in this study. Carbon pricing (CP), such as a carbon tax, leads to the development of a sustainable low-carbon society, and a precise analysis of the impact of the system on each sector of the economy is essential for the design of the CP system. As an applied analysis using the 2015 IONGES, the introduction of a carbon tax as a global warming countermeasure (GWC) tax based on existing energy-related tax systems was considered, and the effect of the use of renewable energy on the new tax burden was estimated.
    Keywords: Input-Output analysis, Renewable energy, Carbon pricing, Energy-related taxes, Input- Output Table for Analysis of Next-generation Energy Systems (IONGES)
    Date: 2022–03
  17. By: Arnaud Abad (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Michell Arias (UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia)
    Abstract: In this paper, environmental productivity variation is analysed through the pollution-adjusted Malmquist and Hicks-Moorsteen productivity indices. These productivity indices are defined as combination of multiplicative pollution-adjusted distance functions. Non convex pollution-generating technology is assumed to estimate the pollution-adjusted Malmquist and Hicks-Moorsteen productivity measures. The main sources of the pollution-adjusted productivity change are displayed. An empirical illustration is provided by considering a sample of 20 Ecuadorian oil companies over the period 2012-2018. The results are estimated through a non parametric analytic framework.
    Keywords: Non Convexity,Ecuadorian Oil industry,Environmental Efficiency and Productivity Indices,Pollution-generating Technology
    Date: 2022–02–15
  18. By: Aditya Goenka (University of Birmingham [Birmingham]); Lin Liu (University of Liverpool); Manh-Hung Nguyen (TSE - Toulouse School of Economics - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Preliminary evidence indicates that pollution increases the severity and likelihood of COVID-19 infections similar to many other infectious diseases. This paper models the inter-action of pollution and disease preventive actions, either pharmaceutical or non-pharmaceutical interventions, on transmission of infectious diseases in a neoclassical growth framework. There are two externalities – households do not take into account how their actions affect disease transmission, and productive activity results in pollution which increases the likelihood of in-fections. The disease dynamics are modeled to be of SIS type. We study the difference in health and economic outcomes between the decentralized economy, where households do not internalize externalities, and socially optimal outcomes, and characterize the taxes and subsi-dies that decentralize the latter. Thus, we examine the question whether there are sufficient incentives to reduce pollution, at both private and public levels, once its effects on disease transmission is considered. In competitive outcomes, pollution increases with increased pro-ductivity. The socially efficient outcome has higher pollution than a competitive outcome, despite increase in abatement, as the effect of higher productivity and larger labor supply dom-inates. The results question the hopes of a Green Recovery.
    Keywords: Dynamic Pigovian taxes,Green Recovery,Infectious disease,Pollution: environmental policy,Covid-19
    Date: 2021–11
  19. By: Subhadarsini Parida (Curtin University [Perth] - PATREC - Planning and Transport Research Centre, University of South Australia [Adelaide]); Subramaniam Ananthram (Curtin University [Perth] - PATREC - Planning and Transport Research Centre); Christopher Chan (York University [Toronto], ACU - Australian Catholic University, UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes, IGR-IAE Rennes - Institut de Gestion de Rennes - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises - Rennes - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes); Kerry Brown (ECU - Edith Cowan University)
    Abstract: Green buildings are synonymous with environmental sustainability; however, it is unclear what role its occupants, specifically employees, play in promoting sustainability in green office buildings. This paper proposes that Green Human Resource Management (HRM), underpinned by Social Identity Theory (SIT), can maximize the potential of green behaviors to improve employees' outcomes (e.g., job satisfaction and work-related flow) in green office buildings by creating positive workplace behaviors (i.e., green behaviors). We collected multisource data from 549 employees and 91 managers working in 17 organizations in green office buildings across Australia. We confirm the double mediation effects of Green HRM, green behaviors and organizational identification on the relationships between organizational readiness, job satisfaction and work-related flow. The paper makes theoretical contributions by advancing the concept of Green HRM and green behaviors within the realm of SIT, thus taking a multidisciplinary stance in the built environment and sustainability literatures.
    Keywords: Green HRM,Green behaviors,Sustainability,Organizational identification,Job satisfaction and work-related flow
    Date: 2021–12–20
  20. By: Lagos, Gustavo; Peters, David; Salas, Juan Carlos; Parra, Roberto; Pérez, Víctor
    Abstract: En el presente estudio se evalúan las cadenas globales de valor y suministro del cobre refinado de los países latinoamericanos. El cobre de mina producido por América Latina aumentó del 24,1% del total mundial en 1990 al 43,8% en 2020, pero al mismo tiempo la capacidad de fusión y refinación se redujo del 21,9% al 11,2%, lo que significa que la mayor parte del cobre producido se exporta actualmente en concentrados. La migración de la capacidad de fusión y refinación hacia China y otros países de Asia trajo consigo consecuencias que representan vulnerabilidades y a la vez oportunidades para los países latinoamericanos. El estudio concluye que la construcción de nueva capacidad de fusión y refinación en América Latina aborda estas vulnerabilidades y es viable económica y tecnológicamente.
    Date: 2021–11–19
  21. By: Rahmetov, Anvar; Rakhmetova, Malika
    Abstract: This article is an assessment of the current state of affairs in Uzbekistan’s SDG policies. It is based on an analysis of UN compiled data on SDGs, as well as an overview of Uzbekistan’s key SDG-related strategies, as well as unstructured interviews with a dozen respondents. Desk research suggests that Government’s key SDG priorities remain in export promotion, job creation and increased economic competitiveness. Interviews suggest that sustainability is understood as political and economic stability, economic growth, environmental conservation and rule of law. From the SDG issues, respondents identified SME and female entrepreneur support, employment generation and e-commerce as the ones with the highest priority, while concurring that corruption, monopolies and market distortions, low policy implementation capacity and limited public awareness of sustainability were the greatest obstacles. The greatest strength of Uzbekistan in integrating international trade into SDGs is the current reform momentum. Significantly improved relations with neighbors is another strength, with a window of opportunity to improve on regional trade, transit, connectivity, as well as water management and water-energy nexus. The greatest challenge, on the other hand, remains the government’s focus on exports, FDI, job creation and GDP growth, even if at the expense of the other SDGs. The other significant challenge is the insistence on import substitution and local production, and economic mercantilism in general, at the expense of the free-trade, value-chain-integration-based development model. Agriculture and food production, energy and e-commerce will be the sectors with highest potential in scaling up sustainable trade principles.
    Keywords: sustainable trade, SDGs, international trade, Uzbekistan, sustainability, energy, economy, agriculture, e-commerce
    JEL: O19 O24 O53
    Date: 2022–01–15
  22. By: Lassi Ahlvik; Jørgen Juel Andersen; Jonas Hveding Hamang; Torfinn Harding
    Abstract: What are the effects of supply-side climate policies? We use global firm-level data to estimate the impact of 130 oil-tax reforms between 2000 and 2019 on oil production, exploration and discoveries. Higher taxes are found to reduce firms’ exploration expenditures and oil discoveries. We quantify the oil market implications and show that the existing productionbased taxes, averaging at 21%, reduce the long-term emissions by 1.3-2.7 GtCO2 annually. Increasing the global tax rate would reduce emissions almost linearly, by 0.16 GtCO2 per percentage point, while further shifting the distribution of rents from consumers to producers and governments.
    Keywords: oil taxation, climate change, supply-side climate policies
    Date: 2022–02
  23. By: Kaur, Amandeep; Mohanty, Ranjan; Chakraborty, Lekha S; Rangan, Divy
    Abstract: This paper examines the empirical evidence of flypaper effects in the ecological fiscal spending in India. Using the panel data models, we analyse whether the intergovernmental fiscal transfers, or the states’ own income determine the expenditure commitments on ecology at the State level. The econometric results show that the intergovernmental fiscal transfers rather than the states’ own income determines ecological expenditure at subnational levels in India. The results hold, when the models are controlled for ecological outcomes and demographic variables.
    Keywords: Intergovernmental Transfers, Flypaper effect, Environmental Economics, Macroeconomic Policy, National Government Expenditures
    JEL: E6 H5 H7 Q5
    Date: 2021
  24. By: Meza, Laura E.; Rodríguez, Adrián G.
    Abstract: En este documento se identifican y analizan distintas soluciones basadas en la naturaleza (SBN) que generan sinergias entre los objetivos ambientales de las convenciones de Río y que pueden favorecer la recuperación posterior a la pandemia de enfermedad por coronavirus (COVID-19) y el desarrollo de la bioeconomía en América Latina y el Caribe. En primer lugar, se analizan las convenciones de Río y sus sinergias, y se abordan temas relacionados con la recuperación pospandemia como oportunidad para la transformación. A continuación, se evalúan algunas SBN aplicadas al ámbito de la agricultura con potencial para impulsar la recuperación y se presentan casos de estudio específicos de la región. Por último, se incluyen recomendaciones para ampliar la implementación de las SBN utilizadas en la agricultura que sean capaces de generar sinergias entre las convenciones de Río y, a la vez, contribuyan al desarrollo de la bioeconomía y a la recuperación pospandemia.
    Date: 2021–12–16
  25. By: Moraga, Pilar; Durán, Valentina
    Abstract: En este estudio se presenta un análisis normativo de los sistemas nacionales de inversión pública y su ámbito de aplicación para la definición del precio social del carbono, así como su posible aporte a las contribuciones determinadas a nivel nacional, en cinco países seleccionados: Chile, Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua y Panamá. Se revisan las competencias de los órganos responsables del sistema nacional de inversión pública a nivel nacional y subnacional. A partir del análisis realizado se concluye que, en todos los casos, los órdenes jurídicos consideran un marco legal de presupuesto público e inversión pública, en términos normativos e institucionales muy claros a nivel nacional y subnacional. Sin embargo, en lo referente a evaluación social de proyectos de inversión pública e incorporación de precios sociales y, en particular, del precio social del carbono, es posible observar distintos niveles de desarrollo entre los países. En materia de incorporación del precio social del carbono en la evaluación de la inversión pública, se identificaron desafíos que guardan relación con el marco legal, el marco institucional y la transparencia.
    Date: 2021–10–22
  26. By: Huynh, Cong Minh; Hoang, Hong Hiep
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of economic freedom on losses of natural disasters in 35 Asian countries over the period 2000 – 2018. Results from various estimation methods show that economic freedom reduces natural disasters – proxied by both of total number of deaths and total economic losses from natural disasters, and this beneficial impact is intensified with the improvement of property rights and government integrity. Our findings assert the important role of economic freedom, property rights and government integrity in mitigating the losses of natural disasters.
    Keywords: Economic freedom; Natural disasters’ losses; Property right; Government integrity
    JEL: A11 B12 D23 Q54
    Date: 2022–01–15
  27. By: Schönfisch, Max (Energiewirtschaftliches Institut an der Universitaet zu Koeln (EWI))
    Abstract: This paper analyses the impact of supply technology choices and costs on structures and prices on the emerging low-carbon hydrogen market using a novel, integrated natural gas and hydrogen market model. It shows that natural gas-based low-carbon hydrogen production pathways predominate in technology-neutral scenarios in 2050. In scenarios where hydrogen production is gas-based, hydrogen is produced close to the point of consumption. Natural gas prices determine local hydrogen prices. In scenarios characterised by high shares of RES-based low-carbon hydrogen production, long-distance, cross-border trade in pure hydrogen becomes an economically viable proposition due to the heterogeneous distribution of low-cost RES potentials and significant hydrogen price spreads between countries with high hydrogen demand but poor RES potentials, and countries that are well endowed with cost-competitive RES. Trade is conducted almost exclusively via pipeline. The analysis finds the most significant potential for cross-border trade in and around Europe. It suggests that it would be economical for Europe to import substantial quantities of low-carbon hydrogen from North Africa.
    Keywords: Hydrogen
    JEL: Q40 Q42 Q49
    Date: 2022–03–23
  28. By: Ryo Aruga (Associate Director and Economist, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan (E-mail:; Keiichi Goshima (Assistant Professor, School of Commerce, Waseda University, and Economist, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan (currently, UTokyo Economic Consulting and Adjunct Researcher, Research Institute of Business Administration, Waseda University, E-mail:; Takashi Chiba (Economist, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan (currently, Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation, E-mail:
    Abstract: This paper empirically examines the relationship between CO2 emissions and corporate performance in terms of long-term performance, short-term performance, and cost of capital, using available firm-level data in the First Section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange from FY2011 to FY2019. To address potential biases in previous empirical studies, we employ double machine learning, which is one of the semiparametric models introduced by Chernozhukov et al. [2018], for our empirical analysis. We find that corporations with lower CO2 emissions have (i) better long-term corporate performance and (ii) lower cost of equity. These results suggest that investors estimate that corporations with lower CO2 emissions have lower business risks, setting their risk premium to be low, which results in higher market value of such corporations. In addition, our analysis indicates that corporations with lower CO2 emissions have higher short-term performance and lower cost of debt, but also shows that the results of previous studies of these relationships may contain biases and should be evaluated with caution.
    Keywords: CO2 Emissions, Corporate Performance, Double Machine Learning
    JEL: G30 M14 Q54
    Date: 2022–02
  29. By: Whitney, Jason P.; Hollander, Allan D.; Boynton, Ryan M.; Shapiro, Kristen D.; Thorne, James H.; Worthington, Lisa Ann
    Abstract: A key function of a highway network is to maintain access during normal and emergency operations. During wildfire evacuations, first-responders and firefighters depend on highways and local roads for transporting heavy equipment to communities in need. The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) is expanding vegetation management to begin establishing defensible space zones along California’s nearly 16,000 miles of state highways and in about 230,000 acres of highway right-ofway. However, extended drought, a longer fire season, and higher temperatures brought on by climate change, along with the spread of invasive weeds and dense, dry vegetation, have created new challenges. The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection produced a Community Wildfire Prevention and Mitigation Report in 2019 with a methodology to assess wildfire risk. Caltrans and researchers at the University of California, Davis applied these methods to develop a highway-segment-specific prioritization model for vegetation management within highway rights-of-way. The researchers also interviewed Caltrans staff about opportunities for and obstacles to increasing the pace and scale of vegetation treatments. This policy brief summarizes the findings from that research and provides policy implications. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Engineering, Right of way (Land), Risk assessment, Vegetation, Wildfires
    Date: 2022–03–01
  30. By: Marion Davin (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - UMR 5211 - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Mouez Fodha (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Thomas Seegmuller (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: We study whether fiscal policies, especially public debt, can help to curb the macroeconomic and health consequences of epidemics. Our approach is based on three main features: we introduce the dynamics of epidemics in an overlapping generations model to take into account that old people are more vulnerable; people are more easily infected when pollution is high; public spending in health care and public debt can be used to tackle the effects of epidemics. We show that fiscal policies can promote convergence to a stable disease-free steady state. When public policies are not able to permanently eradicate the epidemic, public debt, and income transfers could reduce the number of infected people and increase capital and GDP per capita. As a prerequisite, pollution intensity should not be too high. Finally, we define a household subsidy policy that eliminates income and welfare inequalities between healthy and infected individuals.
    Keywords: public debt,overlapping generations,pollution,Epidemics
    Date: 2021–12–06
  31. By: Taguchi, Hiroyuki
    Abstract: This study aims to examine the energy-use inefficiency in the Central Asian (CA) countries by using the analytical framework of the energy-environmental Kuznets curve (EEKC). This study’s contribution to the literature is to explicitly target the CA countries in the EEKC analysis in the first place. The empirical analyses identified the energy-use inefficiency of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan, and could show the contributions of the weak policy governance as well as the natural resource abundance to their energy-use inefficiency. This analytical result could also be endorsed by the Uzbekistan case. Thus, the policy implication is that there would be much room for these countries to improve their energy-use efficiency by enhancing their performances of energy policies.
    Keywords: energy-use inefficiency, policy governance, Central Asia, energy-environmental Kuznets curve, and Uzbekistan
    JEL: O53 Q43
    Date: 2022–02
  32. By: Harding, Robin; Prem, Mounu; Ruiz, Nelson A.; Vargas, David L.
    Abstract: While existing work has demonstrated that campaign donations can buy access to benets such as favorable legislation and preferential contracting, we highlight another use of campaign contributions: buying reductions in regulatory enforcement. Specically, we argue that in return for campaign contributions, Colombian mayors who rely on donor-funding (compared to those who do not) choose not to enforce sanctions against illegal deforestation activities. Using a regression discontinuity design, we show that deforestation is signicantly higher in municipalities that elect donor-funded as opposed to self-funded politicians. Further analysis shows that only part of this eect can be explained by dierences in contracting practices by donor-funded mayors. Instead, evidence of heterogeneity in the eects according to the presence of alternative formal and informal enforcement institutions, and analysis of re clearance, support the interpretation that campaign contributions buy reductions in the enforcement of environmental regulations.
    Keywords: Campaign donations; Deforestation; Regulatory enforcement
    Date: 2022–03–21
  33. By: Rodríguez Laconich, Mical; Lupano, Jorge A.
    Abstract: En este informe nacional de conectividad, se evalúa el desempeño del transporte ferroviario, por carretera y por vías navegables interiores del Paraguay. El informe se basa en la implementación de los Indicadores de Conectividad de Transporte Interior Sostenible (SITCIN) desarrollados en el marco del proyecto de la Cuenta de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo “Conectividad del transporte sostenible e implementación de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible relacionados con el transporte en países sin litoral y de tránsito/puente seleccionados”. Se evalúan 161 indicadores referidos a la estructura institucional y legal relacionada con diferentes modos de transporte, como el entorno regulatorio y administrativo de los pasos fronterizos, los procedimientos aduaneros, la calidad de la infraestructura de transporte, la solidez del sistema de gestión del tráfico, la calidad del marco regulatorio del transporte de mercancías peligrosas y alimentos perecederos, y los esfuerzos encaminados a reducir los gases de efecto invernadero, los contaminantes atmosféricos y las emisiones sonoras.
    Date: 2021–12–30
  34. By: Ho, Tung Manh; Le, Ngoc-Thang B.
    Abstract: This paper reviews studies on sustainable supply chain management in Vietnam during the 2008-2020 period.
    Date: 2021–10–02
  35. By: Kessler, Elmar; Ninni, Luciana; Breug-Nissen, Tanja; Willy, Benjamin; Schneider, Rolf; Irfan, Muhammad; Rolker, Jörn; Thiel, Werner R.; von Harbou, Erik; Hasse, Hans
    Abstract: The speciation in CO2-loaded aqueous solutions of 16 different derivates of triacetoneamine (EvAs) was investigated in a comprehensive NMR-spectroscopic study. About 350 experiments were carried out for CO2-loadings up to 3 moles CO2 per mole amine, temperatures between 20 °C and 100 °C, and a mass fraction of EvA in the unloaded solvent of 0.1 g/g. The observed CO2-containing species were primary and secondary carbamates, alkylcarbonate, (bi)carbonate, and molecular CO2. Some EvAs can form zwitterions with a ring structure, which have an important influence on the speciation. From the comprehensive set of data, relationships between the chemical structure of the EvAs and the observed speciation in aqueous solution were established. These results were related to application properties of the EvAs that were taken from previous work. Based on the findings, some general guidelines for the design of new amines were derived and applied for proposing new amines for CO2-absorption.
    Date: 2021–10–26
    Abstract: Korean Abstract: 이 보고서는 탄소국경조정제도(CBAM)의 영향을 중소기업 측면에서 분석하여 CBAM에 대한 중소기업의 대응방안과 정책지원 방향을 제시한다. CBAM 대상품목의 수출 현황과 국내 기업분포를 통해 CBAM으로 인한 국내 중소기업의 영향범위를 측정하고, CBAM에 대한 산업별 취약성을 평가하며, 중소기업 수출에 내재된 탄소배출량을 추산하였다. 아울러 최근의 해외 중소기업 탄소중립정책 사례 분석을 통해 참고할 만한 유용한 사례를 발굴하여 제시한다. English Abstract: In July 2021, the EU announced the Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM), which obligates importers to purchase certificates corresponding to the emissions embedded in imported products. Implementation of the CBAM will have a negative effect on the Korean economy, which is highly dependent on trade and carbon-intensive industries. Another point of particular concern lies in that domestic SMEs will also be affected by the CBAM directly or indirectly. Therefore, this study examines the impact of the CBAM on SMEs in Korea, and evaluates different industries for their vulnerability to the CBAM. Implications for government policies and strategies for SMEs to effectively respond to CBAM are drawn. This study differs from previous studies in that it analyzes the impact of the CBAM from the perspective of SMEs. Few domestic studies have analyzed the impact of the CBAM on SMEs. This study examines various aspects of the CBAM, including statistical analysis of vulnerabilities to the CBAM in the area of SMEs, and case studies of carbon neutrality support policies for SMEs in major countries. Various analysis methods are attempted, such as measuring the export status of SMEs’ CBAM target items and domestic SMEs' distribution of CBAM target industries, evaluating the SMEs’ vulnerability to the CBAM by sectors, and measuring carbon emissions embedded in SMEs’ exports. Moreover, overseas carbon neutrality support policies for SMEs are investigated to identify recent policy trends in major countries and learn from benchmarking cases. (the rest omitted)
    Keywords: Korea; SMEs; CBAM
    Date: 2021–12–30
  37. By: Poveda Bonilla, Rafael
    Abstract: En este documento se analiza la gobernanza de los conflictos sociales asociados a las actividades de exploración y explotación a gran escala del cobre en Chile, el Ecuador y el Perú. Los objetivos del análisis son los siguientes: i) identificar los mecanismos de respuesta del Estado en la gestión de los conflictos mineros, ii) determinar cuáles son las estrategias de actuación de los ciudadanos y las comunidades en los conflictos, iii) analizar qué tipo de acciones han utilizado las empresas mineras frente a los conflictos y iv) comprender de qué forma los conflictos pueden ser fuente de innovación social en los países andinos. Se observa que los conflictos sociales asociados a la minería han aumentado en las últimas dos décadas en los países estudiados y en la actualidad constituyen uno de los principales retos de la política minera. Frente a un posible nuevo auge en los precios de las materias primas, que incentivará una mayor presión sobre la extracción y exportación de minerales, y tenderá a activar viejos y nuevos conflictos asociados a la minería, es importante identificar los desafíos de gobernanza que deberán enfrentar los gobiernos de los países andinos en este sector.
    Date: 2021–12–15
  38. By: Bossoma Doriane N'Doua (BSE - Bordeaux Sciences Economiques - UB - Université de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures and technical barriers to trade (TBTs) govern trade in several sectors, including the forest-wood-paper sector. Using a gravity model, we analyze the impact of SPS and TBT measures on trade flows in the forest-wood-paper sector by distinguishing between technical regulations and conformity assessment procedures. Our results show that SPS and TBT conformity assessment procedures and TBT technical regulations increase trade flows. We also find that the impact of these measures differs depending on the level of development of imposing countries when imports come from developing countries. In particular, SPS and TBT conformity assessment procedures and SPS technical regulations imposed by developed countries tend to restrict trade with developing country exporters, while TBT technical regulations tend to increase it. In contrast, SPS and TBT conformity assessment procedures imposed by developing countries contribute to increasing such trade. In analyzing the differences or similarities in regulatory patterns between these countries, we find that, on average, developing countries exhibit less regulatory intensity than developed countries. This result suggests that it will require more technical and financial resources for developing countries to comply with measures imposed by developed countries that adopt more stringent technical measures than they do.
    Keywords: Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Measures,Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT),Gravity Model,Forest-Wood-Paper Sector
    Date: 2022–02–14
  39. By: Julia Mazzei; Tommaso Rughi; Maria Enrica Virgillito
    Abstract: The development of low emission vehicles (LEVs) in the automotive sector stands out in the literature as a typical case of technological competition between a dominant design and a set of alternative green technologies. The incremental trajectory of green technologies aimed at improving the efficiency of the internal combustion engine (ICEG) is competing with a radical trajectory targeted to the development of hybrid, electric and fuel cell vehicles (HEF). Exploiting a novel dataset of firm- and patent-level information retrieved from ORBIS-IP and containing USPTO patent applications between 2001 and 2018 in the automotive sector, we first cluster firms according to their relative patent share and degree of specialization in each trajectory, identifying a technological landscape in which they locate with distinct strategies. We then investigate the extent to which different stocks and combinations of knowledge might explain such heterogeneity in innovative efforts and positioning in the landscape. Our results suggest that a stock of ''brown'' knowledge closely related to ''green'' knowledge proves to be valuable for firm's success in each trajectory. Moreover, firms with a broad array of different knowledge sources are capable of reaching a leadership position in the technological landscape.
    Keywords: Low emission vehicles; relatedness; diversification; knowledge.
    Date: 2022–03–18
  40. By: Ana Serrano; Vicente Pinilla; Rosa Duarte
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the main transformations that have taken place in the Spanish agricultural sector since the mid-19th century and their interrelation with water resources. After analyzing the most important structural changes in agriculture in the long term, the text places special emphasis on the role of the expansion of irrigation as a driver of agricultural development in Spain, and as a motor of the growing pressures on water requirements. This is followed by a study of the large-scale construction of hydraulic projects since the end of the 19th century, which was consolidated during the Franco dictatorship, as well as the recent modernization of irrigation infrastructures. Subsequently, the main indicators that show the impact that this successful (in economic terms) agricultural process has had on the volume of water used are summarized, paying attention both to the main national milestones and to the integration of Spanish agriculture and livestock farming into international markets.In short, this paper aims to offer a state of the art of the historical water-agriculture dynamics for Spain.
    Keywords: Spanish agricultural history, environmental history, virtual water, irrigation, water footprint
    JEL: N53 N54 Q25 Q56
    Date: 2022–02
  41. By: Berger, Johannes; Strohner, Ludwig
    Abstract: This Research Paper contains a documentation of extensions of the dynamic computable general equilibrium model PuMA to implement energy and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). The documentation of the PuMA model is published in EcoAustria Research Paper No. 11. Up to now, the model was applied to analyse economic, labour market and public finance effects of different policy reforms, structural changes and other important policy questions. PuMA is similar to the EU Labour Market Model (EU-LMM), which was also developed by the authors and is used by the Directorate General Employment, Social Affairs & Inclusion of the European Commission.1 E-PuMA extends the model by implementing important channels of energy demand of private households and firms as well as GHG emissions. E-PuMA implements additional demand nests for private households. This allows to model the impact of energy price changes on demand and various policy reforms like CO2 related prices. In addition to final goods and investment goods firms additional types of firms are implemented. Electricity firms produce electricity by different kinds of energy inputs and corresponding capital stock and provide electricity to private households and the energy firms. Energy firms combine different energy inputs together with capital and electricity to produce energy provided to final goods firms. Final goods firms demand energy and decide about abatement effort with respect to non-energy-related emissions. Section 2 describes extensions related to private households, Section 3 extensions related to firms, Section 4 describes changes related to functional forms, and Section 5 discusses relevant literature for the calibration of the model.
    Date: 2022
  42. By: Levy, Antonio; Messina, Diego; Contreras Lisperguer, Rubén
    Abstract: Este estudio forma parte de las actividades realizadas en el marco del Foro Técnico Regional de Planificadores Energéticos de la Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL). Su objetivo es proporcionar a los países de la región las definiciones claves para poder avanzar en la adopción de las energías renovables y el necesario proceso de cooperación e integración eléctrica de la región. Asimismo, se incluyen ejemplos de la aplicación de dichas definiciones a nivel institucional en ocho países de la región.
    Date: 2021–12–31
  43. By: George-Marian Aevoae (Alexandru Ioan Cuza University - Faculty of Economics and Business Administration); Alin Marius Andries (Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi; Romanian Academy - Institute for Economic Forecasting); Steven Ongena (University of Zurich - Department of Banking and Finance; Swiss Finance Institute; KU Leuven; NTNU Business School; Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR)); Nicu Sprincean (Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi)
    Abstract: How do changes in Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) scores influence banks’ systemic risk contribution? We document a beneficial impact of the ESG Combined Score and Governance pillar on banks’ contribution to system-wide distress analysing a panel of 367 publicly listed banks from 47 countries over the period 2007-2020. Stakeholder theory and theory relating social performance to expected returns in which enhanced investments in corporate social responsibility mitigate bank specific risks explain our findings. However, only better corporate governance represents a tool in reducing bank interconnectedness and maintaining financial stability. A similar relationship for banks’ exposure to systemic risk is also found. Our findings stress the importance of integrating banks’ ESG disclosure into regulatory authorities’ supervisory mechanisms as qualitative information.
    Keywords: Systemic Risk; Financial Stability, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) Scores
    JEL: G01 G21 M14
    Date: 2022–03
  44. By: Josef Baumgartner; Gabriel Felbermayr (WIFO); Claudia Kettner; Angela Köppl; Daniela Kletzan-Slamanig (WIFO); Simon Loretz; Margit Schratzenstaller
    Abstract: Die Energiepreise sind bereits 2021 im Zuge der wirtschaftlichen Erholung nach dem COVID-19-bedingten Wirtschaftseinbruch deutlich angestiegen. Angesichts der Kriegshandlungen in der Ukraine gewinnen weitere über die bereits in den letzten Wochen hinaus beschlossenen Maßnahmen zur Entlastung der Konsumentinnen und Konsumenten sowie der Unternehmen an Dringlichkeit. Wie in vielen anderen Ländern werden derzeit auch in Österreich eine Reihe von Entlastungsoptionen diskutiert. Besonders intensiv wurden in der jüngsten öffentlichen Debatte zwei Maßnahmen gefordert: die Verschiebung der für Juli 2022 geplanten Einführung einer CO 2 -Bepreisung sowie die Reduktion des Mehrwertsteuersatzes für Energie. Diese beiden Optionen stellen sich aber aus mehreren Gründen als wenig tauglich dar. Wesentlich geeigneter sind gezieltere und treffsicherere Maßnahmen zur Abfederung des Kaufkraftverlustes.
    Keywords: Energiepreise, Inflation, Entlastungsmaßnahmen, Mehrwertsteuer, CO2-Bepreisung
    Date: 2022–03–15
  45. By: Cédric Gossart (LITEM - Laboratoire en Innovation, Technologies, Economie et Management (EA 7363) - UEVE - Université d'Évry-Val-d'Essonne - Université Paris-Saclay - IMT-BS - Institut Mines-Télécom Business School - IMT - Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris], DEFI - Département Droit, Economie et Finances - TEM - Télécom Ecole de Management - IMT - Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris] - IMT-BS - Institut Mines-Télécom Business School - IMT - Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris]); Beyza Coskun
    Date: 2021–05–27
  46. By: Fabien Leurent (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Nous considérons un service de mobilité partagée par trottinettes électriques, en self-service et free-floating, en postulant de plus que les batteries sont amovibles et que la recharge en énergie procède par des tournées de "juicers" pour échanger les batteries. Nous formulons analytiquement le coût de production d'un tel service et nous l'optimisons en jouant sur la production des tournées de recharge, sur la profondeur de décharge et la capacité de la batterie, ainsi que le modèle de trottinette (parcours de vie, taux de consommation). Une étude numérique permet de situer l'ordre de grandeur des différents postes de coût.
    Keywords: trottinettes partagées,consommation d'énergie,batteries amovibles,tournées de recharge,cycle de vie,coût de production,modèle mathématique
    Date: 2022–01–18
  47. By: Ajay Chhibber (George Washington University)
    Abstract: India has a long and a somewhat checkered history of planning - with some success but also many failures. Despite India's federal structure India's approach to planning has been top-down with the union government controlling many levers - financial and otherwise to determine the direction of the economy and social programs. India has tried 3 different types of planning - "directed planning", "indicative planning" and now just a "strategy but no planning". India needed to replace the Planning Commission but not give up on planning altogether. Just as the rest of the world was going back to a "new planning" surge to handle climate change and the desire to meet the SDG's India abolished planning altogether. The successor to the planning commission - the Niti Aayog needs to get back to "new planning", that is now being adopted by many countries with stronger leadership, a legitimized authorizing environment and effective use to plan for helping India achieve the SDGs by 2030 and become a prosperous country by 2047.
    Keywords: Economic Planning; Niti Aayog; Planning Commission; SDG's
    JEL: O1 O2
    Date: 2022–03
  48. By: Santeramo, Fabio
    Abstract: This IATRC Policy Brief summarizes outcomes of the Annual Meeting Theme Day presentations, held December 12 -14, 2021, in San Diego, CA and via virtual platform. The Annual Meeting program and presentations are available at:‐iatrc‐annual‐ meeting/
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2022–02–23
  49. By: Cédric Gossart (LITEM - Laboratoire en Innovation, Technologies, Economie et Management (EA 7363) - UEVE - Université d'Évry-Val-d'Essonne - Université Paris-Saclay - IMT-BS - Institut Mines-Télécom Business School - IMT - Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris], DEFI - Département Droit, Economie et Finances - TEM - Télécom Ecole de Management - IMT - Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris] - IMT-BS - Institut Mines-Télécom Business School - IMT - Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris])
    Abstract: Cette proposition porte sur les pratiques numériques des associations françaises d'éducation à l'environnement et au développement durable.
    Date: 2021–10–19
  50. By: Franck Aggeri (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Helen Micheaux (SADAPT - Sciences pour l'Action et le Développement : Activités, Produits, Territoires - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Joel Ntsonde (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Keywords: business models,innovation,déchets,mines urbaines,économie circulaire
    Date: 2021–11

This nep-env issue is ©2022 by Francisco S. Ramos. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.