nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2022‒03‒07
97 papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Digital finance, development and climate change By Sébastien GALANTI; Ҫiğdem Yilmaz ӦZSOY
  2. CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY SECURITY By Duong, Cong Thuy; Duong, Nguyen Cam; Dung, Nguyen Tan; Chuc, Hoang Thi Hong; Chi, Nguyen Hoang; Dung, Doan Thu; Chi, Vu Quynh; Chi, Hoang Thi Linh; , Le Thi Thanh Diem; Dương, Phan Thùy
  3. Unilateral CO2 Reduction Policy with More Than One Carbon Energy Source By Julien Daubanes; Fanny Henriet; Katheline Schubert
  4. Perspectives on most plausible climate futures, and recommendations for using scenarios in fisheries and aquatic conservation research By Burgess, Matthew G.; Becker, Sarah L.; Fredston, Alexa; Brooks, Cassandra M.
  5. Exploring the contribution of energy price to carbon emissions in African countries By Bamanga Umar; Md. Mahmudul Alam; Abul Quasem Al-Amin
  6. Are economists getting climate dynamics right and does it matter? By Dietz, Simon; van der Ploeg, Frederick; Rezai, Armon; Venmans, Frank
  7. Minimax-Regret Climate Policy with Deep Uncertainty in Climate Modeling and Intergenerational Discounting By Stephen J. DeCanio; Charles F. Manski; Alan H. Sanstad
  8. The effect of climate policy on innovation and economic performance along the supply chain: A firm- and sector-level analysis By Antoine Dechezleprêtre; Tobias Kruse
  9. The Future of Wood - towards circular bioeconomy By Hetemäki, Lauri; Nasi, Robert; Palahi, Marc; Cerutti, Paolo; Mausch, Kai
  10. Border carbon adjustment in agriculture: theoretical thoughts By Spiegel, Alisa; Fournier Gabela, Julio G.; Heidecke, Claudia; Söder, Mareike; Freund, Florian; Gocht, Alexander; Banse, Martin
  11. Environmental News Emotion and Air Pollution in China By Sébastien Marchand; Damien Cubizol; Elda Nasho Ah-Pine; Huanxiu Guo
  12. Air Quality and Suicide By Persico, Claudia L; Marcotte, Dave E.
  13. On the allocation of environmental aid : strategy beyond environmental considerations? By Mohamed Boly
  14. Whose climate intervention? Solar geoengineering, fractions of capital, and hegemonic strategy By Surprise, Kevin; Sapinski, Jean Philippe
  16. The Environment, Life Expectancy and Growth in Overlapping Generations Models: A Survey By Dugan, Anna; Prskawetz, Alexia; Raffin, Natacha
  17. Exploring air pollution and its solutions in developing countries By Hanh, Ha Thi Hong
  18. Land and Water Systems: Looking to the future and a more resilient and sustainable society and environment By Gotor, Elisabetta; Nedumaran, Swamikannu; Cenacchi, Nicola; Tran, Nhuong; Dunston, Shahnila; Dermawan, Ahmad; Valera, Harold Glenn; Wiberg, David; Tesfaye, Kindie; Mausch, Kai
  19. Economía circular y valorización de metales: residuos de aparatos eléctricos y electrónicos By Clerc, Jacques; Pereira, Ana María; Alfaro, Constanza; Yunis, Constanza
  20. People-centric Emission Reduction in Buildings: A Data-driven and Network Topology-based Investigation By Ramit Debnath; Ronita Bardhan; Kamiar Mohaddes; Darshil U Shah; Michael H. Ramage
  21. How to distinguish climate sceptics, antivaxxers, and persistent sceptics: Evidence from a multi-country survey of public attitudes By Zeynep Clulow; David Reiner
  22. The Future of Climate Resilience in Wheat By Lewis, Janet M; Reynolds, Matthew
  23. Climate Change and Fiscal Sustainability: Risks and Opportunities By Agarwala, M.; Burke, M.; Klusak, P.; Mohaddes, K.; Volz, U.; Zenghelis, D.
  24. The financial behavior of households with climate change By Nandrasa Tiava
  25. Einstellungen und Verhalten mittelständischer Unternehmen angesichts des Klimawandels By Dienes, Christian; Butkowski, Olivier K.; Holz, Michael; Korus, Arthur; Wolter, Hans-Jürgen
  26. Innovation and industrial policies for green hydrogen By Emile Cammeraat; Antoine Dechezleprêtre; Guy Lalanne
  27. A Review of economic analysis of climate change impacts and adaptation in fisheries and aquaculture By Tran, Nhuong; Shikuku, Kelvin Mashisia; Peart, Jeffrey; Chan, Chin Yee; Chu, Long; Bailey, Conner; Valdivia, Roberto
  28. Common‐pool Resources and Governance in Sustainability Transitions By Nogueira, Leticia; Wigger, Karin; Jolly, Suyash
  29. Environmental services and market power By Damien Sans; Sonia Schwartz; Hubert Stahn
  30. Incentive regulation, productivity growth and environmental effects: the case of electricity networks in Great Britain By Victor Ajayi; Karim Anaya; Michael Pollitt
  31. Staving Ecological Regime Shift: Is the Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program Working? By Srinivasan, Jaishri; Holway, Joseph; Sabo, John
  32. A dynamic analysis of international environmental agreements under partial cooperation By Luca Colombo; Paola Labrecciosa; Ngo Van Long
  33. A view of what pandemic itself tells us in terms of climate change and what it made complex By Ondin, Bekir Sitki
  34. Climate change adaptation: the case of temperate public forests By Bielinis, Ernest; Rutkowski, Dariusz; Słupska, Alicja; Janeczko, Emilia; Bielinis, Lidia
  35. Global economic crisis, energy use, CO2 emissions, and policy roadmap amid COVID-19 By Most Asikha Aktar; Md. Mahmudul Alam; Abul Al-Amin
  36. Forest carbon offsets over a smart ledger By Kuralbayeva, Karlygash
  37. Prospects and contradictions of the electrification of the European automotive industry: the role of European Union policy By Tommaso Pardi
  38. Forest carbon offsets over a smart ledger By Kotsialou, Grammateia; Kuralbayeva, Karlygash; Laing, Timothy
  39. Fair Debts Management for Sustainable Development By Most Asikha Aktar; Mu’ath Al-Azzam; Md. Mahmudul Alam
  40. How to foster climate innovation in the European Union: Insights from the EIB Online Survey on Climate Innovation By Delanote, Julie; Rückert, Désirée
  41. Population Externalities and Optimal Social Policy By Lawson, Nicholas; Spears, Dean
  42. Decarbonized energies and the wealth of three European nations: a comparative nexus study using Granger and Toda-Yamamoto approaches By Simionescu, Mihaela; Schneider, Nicolas; Gavurova, Beata
  43. The Future of Sustainable Intensification of Rice-Potato Agri-Food Systems in Asia By Gatto, Marcel; Balie, Jean; Hareau, Guy
  44. Modeling poultry and maize sector interactions in Southern Africa under a changing climate By Mensah, Charles; Enahoro, Dolapo
  45. Impacts of health and economic costs on street children working as waste collectors in Dhaka City By Md. Mahmudul Alam; Mohammad Saeed Hossain; Nurul Islam; Md Wahid Murad; Niaz Ahmed Khan
  46. Estimation of losses and damages caused by flash floods in the commercial area of Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia By Md Azizul Bari; Lubna Alam; Md. Mahmudul Alam; Labonnah Farzana Rahman; Joy Jacqueline Pereira
  47. Fear of pesticide residues and preference for domestically produced strawberries By Anna Birgitte Milford; Nina Trandem; Armando José Garcia Pires
  48. Optimising VRE plant capacity in Renewable Energy Zones By Paul Simshauser; Farhad Billimoria; Craig Rogers
  49. Societal acceptability of using insects for manure valorisation and animal feed in the context of a sustainability-oriented bioeconomy By Bunker, Ingrid; Zscheischler, Jana
  50. Global Economic Change and Inequality By Md Nazmus Sadekin; Md Muhibbullah; Md. Mahmudul Alam
  51. Mitigating the Macroeconomic Impact of Severe Natural Disasters in Africa: Policy Synergies By Diop, Samba; Asongu, Simplice; Tchamyou, Vanessa
  52. Evidence for effective conservation fundraising: Comparing social media with traditional mailshot field experiments By KUBO, Takahiro; Yokoo, Hide-Fumi; Veríssimo, Diogo
  53. El reto de la sostenibilidad ambiental en Colombia By Eduardo Uribe-Botero
  54. Wind, water and wires: evaluating joint wind and interconnector capacity expansions in hydro-rich regions By Newbery, D.
  55. Social Vulnerability Assessment for Landslide Hazards in Malaysia: A Systematic Review Study By Mohd Nor Diana; Nurfashareena Muhamad; Mohd Taha; Ashraf Osman; Md. Mahmudul Alam
  56. Estimation of the Farm-Level Yield-Weather-Relation Using Machine Learning By Schmidt, Lorenz; Odening, Martin; Schlanstein, Johann; Ritter, Matthias
  57. Agroecology as an ontology to guide agricultural and food systems? By Domptail, Stephanie; Hirsch, Jennifer; Ume, Chukwuma
  58. Keep Off the Grass : Grassland Scarcity and the Security Implications of Cross-Border Transhumance Between Niger and Nigeria By Camille Laville
  59. Sustainable Finance: Eine Chance für Mitbestimmung? By Leuchters, Maxi
  60. Future scenarios of fish supply and demand for food and nutrition security in Bangladesh: An analysis with the AsiaFish model By Tran, Nhuong; Rodriguez, U-Primo; Chan, Chin Yee; Aung, Yee Mon; Chu, Long; , Abu Hayat Md.Saiful Islam; Barman, Benoy Kumar; Phillips, Michael John
  61. A hybrid deep learning approach for purchasing strategy of carbon emission rights -- Based on Shanghai pilot market By Jiayue Xu
  62. Biodiversity loss and its solutions By Hanh, Ha Thi Hong; Giang, Hoàng Trường; Hà, Chu Nguyệt; Hằng, Hà Minh; Hang, Duong Minh; Toan, Nguyen Khanh; Dan, Tran Thi Linh; Ha, Nguyen Thi Thu; Hang, Nguyen Thi; Ha, Nguyen Mai
  63. Risk transmission between green markets and commodities By Muhammad Abubakr Naeem; Sitara Karim; Tooraj Jamasb; Rabindra Nepal
  64. Risk analysis in the management of a green supply chain By Zhiqin Zou; Arash Farnoosh; Tom Mcnamara
  65. Gender differences in research focused on the Sustainable Development Goal of Gender Equality By Shang, Yuanyuan; Sivertsen, Gunnar; Cao, Zhe; Zhang, Lin
  66. Income and expenditure elasticity of household carbon footprints. Some methodological considerations By Petra Zsuzsa Lévay; Tim Goedemé; Gerlinde Verbist
  67. Legal hunting for conservation of highly threatened species: The case of African rhinos By ’t Sas-Rolfes, Michael; Emslie, Richard; Adcock, Keryn; Knight, Michael
  68. Who Gives a Dam? Capitalization of Flood Protection in Fukuoka, Japan By David Wolf; Kenji Takeuchi
  69. From social interactions to private environmental behaviours: The case of consumer food waste By Piras, Simone; Righi, Simone; Setti, Marco; Koseoglu, Nazli; Grainger, Matthew; stewart, Gavin; Vittuari, Matteo
  70. Prospects of fish supply-demand and its implications for food and nutrition security in Egypt By Tran, Nhuong; Chu, Long; Chan, Chin Yee; Peart, Jeffrey; Nasr-Allah, Ahmed M.; Charo-Karisa, Harrison
  71. Institutioneller Rahmen für modulare bio-basierte Produktionssysteme im urbanen Raum. Hemmnisse und Förderfaktoren für die Entwicklung und Implementierung. By Dietze, Victoria; Feindt, Peter
  72. The Future of Food Security, Nutrition and Health for Agri-food Systems Transformation By Chan, Chin Yee; Prager, Steven; Balie, Jean; Kozicka, Marta; Hareau, Guy; Valera, Harold Glenn; Tran, Nhuong; Wiebe, Keith; Diagne, Mandiaye; Alene, Arega
  73. Gouvernance des pesticides et pratiques phytosanitaires en agriculture urbaine By Wadjamsse Djezou; Vincent Koffi; Eric Aba; Martine Audibert
  74. Protection or Peril of Following the Crowd in a Pandemic-Concurrent Flood Evacuation By Elisa Borowski; Amanda Stathopoulos
  75. Splitting up Dhaka city: rationales, challenges and prospects as a sustainable city By Md Murad; Md. Mahmudul Alam; Shawon Shahriar
  76. Contribution of Fair Trade in Sustainable Development By Md Nazmus Sadekin; Most Asikha Aktar; Md. Mahmudul Alam
  77. Employment and income implications of transitions towards more sustainable global diets By Komarek, Adam M.; Cenacchi, Nicola; Dunston, Shahnila; Sulser, Timothy B; Wiebe, Keith; Willenbockel, Dirk
  78. When digital mass participation meets citizen deliberation: Combining mini-publics and maxi-publics in climate policy-making By Itten, Anatol; Mouter, Niek
  79. The China Trade Shock and the ESG Performances of US firms By Hui Xu; Yue Wu
  80. Economic and political inequality in the management of socio-environmental problems By Bogliacino, Francesco; Mantilla, Cesar; Niño Eslava, Daniel
  81. Forecasting Environmental Data: An example to ground-level ozone concentration surfaces By Alexander Gleim; Nazarii Salish
  82. Scaling Up CSP: How Long Will It Take? By Lilliestam, Johan; Du, Fengli; Gilmanova, Alina; Mehos, Mark; Wang, Zhifeng; Thonig, Richard
  83. The Future of Sustainable Development and Agrobiodiversity in Tanzania and Uganda By Kozicka, Marta; Enahoro, Dolapo; Groot, Jeroen C.J.; Rich, Karl M.; Gotor, Elisabetta
  84. ESG activity and bank lending during financial crises By Gamze Danisman; Amine Tarazi
  85. Value of cultural worldviews and message framing for the acceptability of sustainable land use zoning policies in post-conflict Somalia By Diriye, Abdishakur W.; Jama, Osman M.; Chong, Ren; Abdi, Abdulhakim M
  86. Double trouble: concurrently targeting water and electricity using normative messages in the Middle East By Ramli, Ukasha; Laffan, Kate
  87. Are EU Climate and Energy Package 20-20-20 targets achievable and compatible? Evidence from the impact of renewables on electricity prices By Juan Ignacio Pe\~na; Rosa Rodriguez
  88. Les modèles intégrés économie-climat : quels usages pour quelles décisions ? By Jean-Charles Hourcade; Peter Tankov; Stéphane Voisin; F. Ghersi; Julien Lefèvre
  89. Are We Sure We Fully Understand What an Infodemic Is? A Global Perspective on Infodemiological Problems By Rovetta, Alessandro; Castaldo, Lucia
  90. The future of climate-smart dryland cereals and legumes in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa By Dofonsou Gbegbelegbe, Sika; Nedumaran, Swamikannu; Frija, Aymen; Alene, Arega
  91. IMPACT OF URBANIZATION ON ENVIRONMENT By Thu, Phạm Minh; Thư, Nguyễn Phúc; Thương, Nguyễn Thị; Thao, Nguyen Thi Phuong; Thanh, Nguyen Duc; Thuy, Hoang Bich; Thúy, Trịnh Minh; Thao, Nguyen Thu; Tâm, Ngô Mỹ; Quyen, Luu Thi Truc
  92. Fuel consumption elasticities, rebound effect and feebate effectiveness in the Indian and Chinese new car markets By Prateek Bansal; Rubal Dua
  93. Freshwater is threated By Linh, Hoang Phuong; Linh, Nguyen Khanh; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Linh, Phung Thi Nhat; Linh, Truong Khanh; Mai, Tran Thi Ngoc; Manh, Nguyen Duc; Minh, Nguyen Trong; , Le Hong Thao My; Nam, Dang Vinh
  94. Investor capitalism, sustainable investment and the role of tax relief By Katelouzou, Dionysia; Micheler, Eva
  95. Return and volatility spillovers between Chinese and US clean energy related stocks By Karel Janda; Ladislav Kristoufek; Binyi Zhang
  96. Renewable entry costs, project finance and the role of revenue quality in Australia’s National Electricity Market By Nicholas Gohdes; Paul Simshauser
  97. Contesting Bioeconomic Imaginations of “Manure Futures”: Preservation, Modernization, and Transformation By Friedrich, Jonathan; Zscheischler, Jana

  1. By: Sébastien GALANTI; Ҫiğdem Yilmaz ӦZSOY
    Keywords: , , CO2, climate change, economic development, growth, Africa, energy, digital finance, mobile money, cryptocurrency
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Duong, Cong Thuy; Duong, Nguyen Cam; Dung, Nguyen Tan; Chuc, Hoang Thi Hong; Chi, Nguyen Hoang; Dung, Doan Thu; Chi, Vu Quynh; Chi, Hoang Thi Linh; , Le Thi Thanh Diem; Dương, Phan Thùy
    Abstract: Protecting the green - clean - beautiful living environment is a matter of concern for the whole world. There are many global or regional conferences held to discuss and find a way to solve that problem. In which, climate change, energy depletion and greenhouse effect are hot issues, this is one of the great challenges for all mankind because they are directly affecting ecology. environment and human life.
    Date: 2022–01–19
  3. By: Julien Daubanes (UNIGE - Université de Genève); Fanny Henriet (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Katheline Schubert (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: We examine an open economy's strategy to reduce its carbon emissions by replacing its consumption of coal—very carbon intensive—with gas—less so. Unlike the standard theoretical approach to carbon leakage, we show that unilateral CO2 reduction policies generate a higher leakage rate in the presence of more than one carbon energy source and may turn counterproductive, ultimately increasing world emissions. We establish testable conditions as to whether a unilateral tax on domestic CO2 emissions increases the domestic exploitation of gas and whether such a strategy increases global emissions. We also characterize this strategy's implications for climate policy in the rest of the world. Finally, we present an illustrative application of our results to the United States.
    Keywords: unilateral climate policy,carbon emission reduction,shale gas,gas-coal substitution,coal exports,carbon leakage,US policy,counter-productive policy
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Burgess, Matthew G.; Becker, Sarah L.; Fredston, Alexa; Brooks, Cassandra M.
    Abstract: Climate change projections are central to fisheries and aquatic conservation research, and to planning for a warming world. Such projections include assumptions about future emissions pathways and climate-system sensitivity to emissions. Fisheries and aquatic conservation research typically uses emissions scenarios created for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). However, recent climate research and global development trends have significantly changed our understanding of the ranges of plausible emissions pathways to 2100 and climate sensitivities. Here, we provide a concise review of these updates to our understanding of climate futures, and we make recommendations for best-practice use of climate change scenarios in fisheries and aquatic conservation research. Although emissions pathways are subject to deep uncertainty, recent research suggests that emissions scenarios producing a range of approximately 3.4-4.5W/m2 radiative forcing by 2100 might be most plausible. With median climate sensitivities, this corresponds to approximately 2-3 degrees C global warming by 2100. Climate-sensitivity uncertainties expand this range to approximately 1.5-4 degrees C. In terms of the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) and Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), radiative forcing outcomes mostly fall between SSP2-3.4 and SSP2-4.5/RCP4.5, though higher and lower emissions scenarios (e.g., RCP2.6 and RCP6.0) might be plausible and should be explored in research. However, we argue that uses of the highest-emission scenarios (RCP8.5/SSP5-8.5, SSP3-7.0)—which currently predominate the literature—should come with clearly articulated rationales and appropriate caveats to ensure results are not misinterpreted by scholars, policymakers, and media.
    Date: 2022–01–26
  5. By: Bamanga Umar (Modibbo Adama University of Technology); Md. Mahmudul Alam (UUM - Universiti Utara Malaysia); Abul Quasem Al-Amin (University of Waterloo [Waterloo])
    Abstract: The increasing level of greenhouse gas carbon emission currently exacerbates the devastating effect of global warming on the Earth's ecosystem. Energy usage is one of the most important determinants that is increasing the amount of carbon gases being released. Simultaneously, the level of energy usage is derived by the price and therefore, this study examines the contribution of energy price to carbon gas emissions in thirteen African nations for the period spanning 1990 to 2017. It does this by utilizing the Cross-sectional Dependence (CD), Augmented Mean Group (AMG) and Pooled Mean Group (PMG) panel modelling methods. The findings of the AMG model suggest that a 1% increase in energy price leads to a 0.02% decerease in carbon emission. The results further reveal that a 1% increase in energy intensity and technological innovation lead to 0.04% and 3.65% increase in carbon emission, respectively, in the selected African countries. Findings will help policymakers to implement effective energy price policies to reduce carbon emissions and achieve sustainable development goals especially in the emerging economies of Africa.
    Keywords: Africa,Energy price,Carbon emissions,Augmented mean group,Pooled Mean Group (PMG),Cross-sectional Dependence (CD),Sustainable development
    Date: 2021–01
  6. By: Dietz, Simon; van der Ploeg, Frederick; Rezai, Armon; Venmans, Frank
    Abstract: We show that economic models of climate change produce climate dynamics inconsistent with current climate science models: (i) the delay between CO2 emissions and warming is much too long and (ii) positive carbon cycle feedbacks are mostly absent. These inconsistencies lead to biased economic policy advice. Controlling for how the economy is represented, different climate models result in significantly different optimal CO2 emissions. A long delay between emissions and warming leads to optimal carbon prices that are too low and attaches too much importance to the discount rate. Similarly we find that omitting positive carbon cycle feedbacks leads to optimal carbon prices that are too low. We conclude it is important for policy purposes to bring economic models in line with the state of the art in climate science and we make practical suggestions for how to do so.
    Keywords: carbon cycle; carbon price; climate change; integrated assessment modelling; positive feedbacks; social cost of carbon
    JEL: Q54
    Date: 2021–09–01
  7. By: Stephen J. DeCanio; Charles F. Manski; Alan H. Sanstad
    Abstract: Integrated assessment models have become the primary tools for comparing climate policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Policy comparisons have often been performed by considering a planner who seeks to make optimal trade-offs between the costs of carbon abatement and the economic damages from climate change. The planning problem has been formalized as one of optimal control, the objective being to minimize the total costs of abatement and damages over a time horizon. Studying climate policy as a control problem presumes that a planner knows enough to make optimization feasible, but physical and economic uncertainties abound. Earlier, Manski, Sanstad, and DeCanio proposed and studied use of the minimax-regret (MMR) decision criterion to account for deep uncertainty in climate modeling. Here we study choice of climate policy that minimizes maximum regret with deep uncertainty regarding both the correct climate model and the appropriate time discount rate to use in intergenerational assessment of policy consequences. The analysis specifies a range of discount rates to express both empirical and normative uncertainty about the appropriate rate. The findings regarding climate policy are novel and informative. The MMR analysis points to use of a relatively low discount rate of 0.02 for climate policy. The MMR decision rule keeps the maximum future temperature increase below 2C above the 1900-10 level for most of the parameter values used to weight costs and damages.
    Date: 2022–01
  8. By: Antoine Dechezleprêtre (OECD); Tobias Kruse (OECD)
    Abstract: The paper empirically assesses the effect of climate policy stringency on innovation and economic performance, both directly on regulated sectors and indirectly through supply chain relationships. The analysis is based on a combination of firm- and sector-level data, covering 19 countries and the period from 1990 to 2015. The paper shows that climate policies are effective at inducing innovation in low-carbon technologies in directly regulated sectors. It does not find evidence that climate policies induce significant innovation along the supply chain. In addition, there is no evidence that climate policies – through the channel of clean innovation – either harm or improve the economic performance of regulated firms. This supports the evidence that past climate policies have not been major burdens on firms’ competitiveness, and that clean innovation may enable firms to compensate for the potential costs implied by new environmental regulations.
    Keywords: Firm performance, Low carbon innovation, Policy evaluation, Porter Hypothesis
    JEL: Q55 Q58 O38 L25
    Date: 2022–02–15
  9. By: Hetemäki, Lauri; Nasi, Robert; Palahi, Marc; Cerutti, Paolo; Mausch, Kai (World Agroforestry (ICRAF))
    Abstract: In summary, there are great opportunities to better use wood as a non-fossil fuel-based raw materials and tackle climate change, as well as to achieve Sustainable Development Goals. However, there is an urgent need to invest in more research on how this could be best implemented in a sustainable way and in different regions, especially in the global South.
    Date: 2021–12–20
  10. By: Spiegel, Alisa; Fournier Gabela, Julio G.; Heidecke, Claudia; Söder, Mareike; Freund, Florian; Gocht, Alexander; Banse, Martin
    Abstract: Many national climate policies are already using or planning to implement different carbon pricing schemes aiming to reach climate mitigation target efficiently. Inadequate international cooperation, however, can lead to emission leakage. To prevent this, several concepts of border carbon adjustment (BCA) have been developed for the energy sector. Despite the significant role of agriculture in global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and ongoing debates on agri-food carbon pricing, to date, there is no concrete BCA proposal for the agricultural sector. Our qualitative research aims to derive alternative agri-food BCA designs discussing on potential bottlenecks and suggesting solutions, while hypothesizing on potential effects of a BCA on GHG emission, trade balance, land use, and welfare. We conclude with outlining quantitative model-based research required to assess alternative agri-food BCA designs and to test the derived hypotheses.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2021–11–18
  11. By: Sébastien Marchand (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Damien Cubizol (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Elda Nasho Ah-Pine (CleRMa - Clermont Recherche Management - ESC Clermont-Ferrand - École Supérieure de Commerce (ESC) - Clermont-Ferrand - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Huanxiu Guo (The Institute of Economics and Finance - Nanjing Audit University)
    Abstract: In 2013, the Chinese central government launched a war on air pollution. As a new and major source of information, the Internet plays an important role in diffusing environmental news emotion and shaping people's perceptions and emotions regarding the pollution. How could the government make use of the environmental news emotion as an informal regulation of pollution? The paper investigates the causal relationship between web news emotion (defined by the emotional tone of web news) and air pollution (SO2, NO2, PM2.5 and PM10) by exploiting the central government's war on air pollution. We combine daily monitoring data of air pollution at different levels (cities and counties, respectively the second and third administrative levels in China) with the GDELT database that allows us to have information on Chinese web news media (e.g. emotional tone of web news on air pollution). We find that a decrease of the emotional tone in web news (i.e. more negative emotions in the articles) can help to reduce air pollution at both city and county level. We attribute this effect to the context of China's war on air pollution in which the government makes use of the environmental news emotion as an informal regulation of pollution.
    Keywords: News emotion,Air pollution,Mass media,The internet,Government,China
    Date: 2021–11
  12. By: Persico, Claudia L (American University); Marcotte, Dave E. (American University)
    Abstract: Though there is clinical evidence linking pollution induced inflammatory factors and major depression and suicide, no definitive study of risk in the community exists. In this study, we provide the first population-based estimates of the relationship between air pollution and suicide in the United States. Using detailed cause of death data from all death certificates in the U.S. between 2003 and 2010, we estimate the relationship between daily variation in air quality measured using NASA satellite data, and suicide rates. Using wind direction as an instrument for reducing potentially endogeneity and measurement error in daily pollution exposure, we find that a 1 μg/m3 increase in daily PM2.5 is associated with a 0.49 percent increase in daily suicides (a 19.3 percent increase). We also estimate the impact of days with high air pollution on contemporaneous suicide rates compared to other days in the same state-month, month-year, day of the week and county with lower air pollution, conditional on the same weather and total population. Estimates using 2SLS are larger and more robust, suggesting a bias towards zero arising from measurement error. Event study estimates further illustrate that contemporaneous pollution exposure matters more than exposure to pollution in previous weeks.
    Keywords: air pollution, suicide, health
    JEL: I10 Q52 Q53
    Date: 2022–02
  13. By: Mohamed Boly (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne)
    Abstract: The objective of the present paper is to study the factors associated with environmental bilateral aid to recipient countries over the 1990-2013 period, to assess whether it is motivated by non-environmental factors such as donors' self-interest. Environmental ODA is measured using the AidData's Core Research Release, Version 3.1. Three kinds of variables that might influence environmental aid allocation are considered: the environmental and non-environmental needs and merits of recipient countries, and the economic and political interests of donors. Environmental needs and merits variables include vulnerability to extreme climate events and the stringency of climate policy. The Poisson and Fractional regressions find that while vulnerability to climate change seems to be a key determinant of environmental aid, its allocation is poorly linked to recipients' climate mitigation policies. We also find weak evidence of association between donors' interest variables and environmental aid on average, exception made for trade. But a donor-by-donor analysis allows to get deep dive into all the relations above and unveils that some donors are more sensitive to environmental variables, while others rather seem focused on their economic and political interests.
    Keywords: Bilateral aid,Environmental aid,Aid allocation
    Date: 2021–03
  14. By: Surprise, Kevin; Sapinski, Jean Philippe (Université de Moncton)
    Abstract: Proposals for slowing climate change by reflecting sunlight back to space, known as solar geoengineering (SG), are gaining traction in climate policy. Given SG’s capacity to slow warming without reducing carbon emissions, prominent criticism suggests that it will enable fossil fueled business-as-usual. This assessment is not without merit, yet the primary funders of SG research do not emanate from fossil capital. We analyze sources of funding for SG research, finding close ties to financial and technological capital as well as a number of billionaire philanthropists. These corporate sectors and associated philanthropies comprise part of “climate capital” – the fraction of the capitalist class aligned with climate action. We argue that SG is being positioned as a tactic for enabling incremental, market-driven decarbonization, explore key institutions advocating this approach in US climate policy, and conclude that SG is poised to serve as a tool for class compromise between fossil and climate capital.
    Date: 2021–12–16
  15. By: Arnita Rishanty (Bank Indonesia Institute, Bank Indonesia); Sekar Utami Setiastuti (Department of Economics, Universitas Gadjah Mada.); Nur M. Adhi Purwanto (Bank Indonesia)
    Abstract: This study aims to develop an environmental dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (E-DSGE) model with heterogeneous production sectors and evaluate possible central bank and fiscal policies towards green and sustainable production. We estimate the model for the Indonesian economy and assess the effects of macroeconomic uncertainty in terms of productivity, monetary, macroprudential, fiscal policy, and financial shocks in a setup that includes policies supporting green firms. We find that aggregate output, consumption, and investment react negatively to a positive monetary policy and government spending shock. Further, we show that emission tax may dampen the contraction of green output due to contractionary monetary and fiscal policy. The effect of green financing subsidy, however, looks trivial
    Keywords: DSGE model, Bayesian estimation, Monetary policy, Fiscal policy, Environ- mental policy
    JEL: E32 E50 Q58
  16. By: Dugan, Anna; Prskawetz, Alexia; Raffin, Natacha
    Abstract: It is widely accepted that environmental and demographic changes will significantly influence the future of our society. In recent years, an increasing number of studies has analyzed the interlinkages among economic growth, environmental factors and a specific demographic variable, namely life expectancy, applying an overlapping generations framework. The aim of this survey is threefold. First, we review the role of life expectancy and pollution for sustainable growth. Second, we discuss the role of intervening factors like health investment and technological progress as well as institutional settings including government expenditures, tax structures and inequality. Finally, we summarize policy implications obtained in different models and compare them to each other.
    Keywords: Environmental quality,Pollution,Longevity,Endogenous growth,Government policy
    JEL: O11 O44 Q56 Q58 J10
    Date: 2022
  17. By: Hanh, Ha Thi Hong
    Abstract: Exploring air pollution and its solutions in developing countries
    Date: 2022–01–17
  18. By: Gotor, Elisabetta; Nedumaran, Swamikannu; Cenacchi, Nicola; Tran, Nhuong; Dunston, Shahnila; Dermawan, Ahmad; Valera, Harold Glenn; Wiberg, David; Tesfaye, Kindie; Mausch, Kai (World Agroforestry (ICRAF))
    Abstract: Food, land, and water systems are facing unprecedented change. The world’s population is projected to grow to approximately 10 billion people by 2050, while aging and declining in some regions. Global average incomes are expected to keep increasing at a slow but steady pace. With increasing incomes and the ability of consumers to purchase more and better food in combination with population growth, food demand is projected to grow substantially over the next three decades. Meanwhile, demographic changes and economic development also drive urbanization, migration, and structural transformation of rural communities. At the same time changes to precipitation and temperature as well as the occurrence of extreme events driven by climate change are becoming more prevalent and impacting society and the environment. Currently, humanity is approaching or exceeding planetary boundaries in some areas, with over-use of limited productive natural resources such as water and phosphate, net emissions of greenhouse gases, and decreases in biodiversity Much is published about food and agriculture and the supporting/underpinning land and water systems, but no single source focuses regularly and systematically on the future of agriculture and food systems, particularly on the challenges and opportunities faced by developing countries. This working paper is part of an effort by the CGIAR foresight team to help fill that gap. The effort recognizes that there is much to learn from past experience, and there are clearly many urgent and immediate challenges, but given the pace and complexity of change we are currently experiencing, there is also an increasing need to look carefully into the future of food, land, and water systems to inform decision making today.
    Date: 2021–12–21
  19. By: Clerc, Jacques; Pereira, Ana María; Alfaro, Constanza; Yunis, Constanza
    Abstract: Dentro de los residuos de aparatos eléctricos y electrónicos (RAEE) es posible encontrar componentes que incluyen metales como cobre, oro y plata, que pueden ser reutilizados como materia prima y minimizar la extracción de materiales provenientes de la minería tradicional. El tratamiento y la valorización de los RAEE en cada país está directamente relacionado al tipo de tecnología disponible. Por ello, es relevante asegurar mínimos viables que garanticen la adquisición de tecnologías que permitan su valorización. En este estudio se analiza la situación relativa al tratamiento de los RAEE a nivel mundial y en algunos países de la región (Chile, Colombia y Perú).
    Date: 2021–11–12
  20. By: Ramit Debnath (Department of Architecture, University of Cambridge); Ronita Bardhan (Department of Architecture, University of Cambridge); Kamiar Mohaddes (EPRG, CJBS, University of Cambridge); Darshil U Shah (Department of Architecture, University of Cambridge); Michael H. Ramage (Department of Architecture, University of Cambridge)
    Keywords: Emission, climate change, building, computational social science, people-centric transition, Twitter
    JEL: C63 Q54
    Date: 2022–01
  21. By: Zeynep Clulow (EPRG, CJBS, University of Cambridge); David Reiner (EPRG, CJBS, University of Cambridge)
    Keywords: climate scepticism, anti-vaccine, public perceptions, trust, COVID-19
    JEL: I12 I18 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2022–01
  22. By: Lewis, Janet M; Reynolds, Matthew
    Abstract: As the most widely cultivated crop globally - providing 20% of all human calories and protein - there is an urgent need to increase wheat’s resilience to harsher climates [1]. The risk of simultaneous crop failures due to heat and/or drought in global “breadbaskets” has risen and is projected to rise further [2-4]. Severe water scarcity events are predicted for up to 60% of the world’s wheat-growing areas by the end of this century [5]. Furthermore, for each 1°C increase in average seasonal temperature, it is predicted that wheat yields will decrease by 6% on average globally, and much more in some already marginal environments where wheat is a traditional staple food [6,7]. At the current rate of yield gain, wheat production is predicted to fall well short of future demand due to population growth alone. Emerging environmental threats only make the challenge harder. On top of this, demand by consumers, farmers and the food industry is predicted to increase due to wheat’s high grain-protein content relative to other cereals, wide growing range and adaptability to most environmental stresses. Since farmer adoption of improved cultivars is a critical part of adaptation [8], new and more targeted breeding efforts are needed to ensure that wheat's climate resilience is maximized [9-11]. This article briefly outlines research that has been conducted and current research needs to develop climate resilient wheat.
    Date: 2022–01–07
  23. By: Agarwala, M.; Burke, M.; Klusak, P.; Mohaddes, K.; Volz, U.; Zenghelis, D.
    Abstract: Both the physical and transition-related impacts of climate change pose substantial macroeconomic risks. Yet, markets still lack credible estimates of how climate change will affect debt sustainability, sovereign creditworthiness, and the public finances of major economies. We present a taxonomy for tracing the physical and transition impacts of climate change through to impacts on sovereign risk. We then apply the taxonomy to the UK's potential transition to net zero. Meeting internationally agreed climate targets will require an unprecedented structural transformation of the global economy over the next two or three decades. The changing landscape of risks warrants new risk management and hedging strategies to contain climate risk and minimise the impact of asset stranding and asset devaluation. Yet, conditional on action being taken early, the opportunities from managing a net zero transition would substantially outweigh the costs.
    Keywords: Sovereign debt, climate change, net zero, transition risk, productivity
    Date: 2021–09–06
  24. By: Nandrasa Tiava (Université de Toliara)
    Abstract: Climate change brings changes in financial behavior. Households that are the most impacted by climate disruption adopt a strategy of financial behavior change to improve their resilience. Tontine, access to MFIs and VOAMAMI are the preferred ways for vulnerable households to cope. This paper first outlines the resilience capacity of households and provides an analysis of household behavior change to mitigate the effect of climate change.
    Abstract: Le changement climatique apporte de changement de comportement au niveau de la finance. Les ménages qui sont les plus impactés par le dérèglement climatique adopte une stratégie de changement de comportement financier pour améliorer leur capacité de résilience. La Tontine, l'accès au IMF et le VOAMAMI sont les pistes privilégiées par les ménages vulnérables pour y faire face. Cet article expose d'abord la capacité de résilience des ménages et apporte une analyse sur le changement de comportement des ménages pour atténuer e l'effet du changement climatique.
    Keywords: VOAMAMI,Tontine,Behavior,Climate change,Comportement,Changement climatique
    Date: 2022–02–02
  25. By: Dienes, Christian; Butkowski, Olivier K.; Holz, Michael; Korus, Arthur; Wolter, Hans-Jürgen
    Abstract: Unabhängig von ihrer Größe engagieren sich viele Unternehmen aufgrund ihrer eigenen Werthaltung gegen den Klimawandel. Zusätzliche Marktchancen bringen jedoch nur wenige Unternehmen mit dem Klimawandel in Verbindung. Stattdessen nehmen insbesondere kleine Unternehmen die zusätzliche Kostenbelastung wahr. Die 'klimafreundliche" Grundeinstellung vieler Mittelständler manifestiert sich auch in konkreten Handlungen: Mehr als die Hälfte aller Unternehmen haben in der Vergangenheit bereits umweltrelevante Innovationen durchgeführt. Während die Großunternehmen aufgrund ihrer Ressourcenvorteile mehr innovieren als KMU, erleichtert die Einheit von Eigentum und Leitung im Mittelstand die Umsetzung von Umweltaktivitäten. Eine spezifische Förderung von Umweltinnovationen ist aufgrund von den zu erwartenden Mitnahmeeffekten problematisch. Sinnvoll wäre es stattdessen, auf flexible umweltpolitische Instrumente zu setzen. Neben marktwirtschaftlichen Lösungen wie Emissionshandels-systemen oder einer CO2-Bepreisung bieten sich hierfür informelle Instrumente an.
    Keywords: Klimawandel-Einstellung,Umweltinnovation,Ressourceneffizienz,Climate change attitude,Environmental innovation,Resource efficiency
    JEL: Q55 L21
    Date: 2021
  26. By: Emile Cammeraat (OECD); Antoine Dechezleprêtre (OECD); Guy Lalanne (OECD)
    Abstract: This paper examines the current development of hydrogen technology in the manufacturing sector and the industrial policies enacted to support it across countries. In addition to continued R&D efforts, governments can already lay the ground for the deployment of green hydrogen by implementing five types of policies: 1) supporting R&D and demonstration for green hydrogen to bring down the cost of electrolysers and make them competitive; 2) increasing the supply of renewable electricity; 3) reducing the cost gap between green hydrogen and brown technologies through a comprehensive policy package, such as carbon pricing and the phasing out of inefficient fossil fuel subsidies; 4) reducing uncertainty, for instance by promoting international standardisation, hydrogen infrastructure, and sound regulatory standards; and 5) considering blue hydrogen as a short-term option to facilitate the transition to green hydrogen.
    Date: 2022–02–23
  27. By: Tran, Nhuong; Shikuku, Kelvin Mashisia; Peart, Jeffrey; Chan, Chin Yee; Chu, Long; Bailey, Conner; Valdivia, Roberto
    Abstract: Focusing on economic methods, this study provides a comprehensive review of the current research in fisheries and aquaculture within the context of climate change. We find there has been remarkable progress in evaluating the biophysical impacts of climate change on fish. However, the effect those impacts have on future fish stocks, yields, and dynamics are less understood. Climate change adaptation strategies in fisheries and aquaculture lack quantitative assessment, while current vulnerability indices rely heavily on subjective weighting schemes. Economic studies involving fisheries and aquaculture have seen some recent advancements but can be improved through incorporating methods from other disciplines, notably agricultural economics. Relative to its increasingly large role in global fish supply, the aquaculture sector is found to be under-represented in the economic literature. We suggest that future research in fisheries and aquaculture should further incorporate methods from agricultural economics, focus on the economics of aquaculture, and refine interdisciplinary research methods such as bioeconomic modelling.
    Date: 2022–01–12
  28. By: Nogueira, Leticia; Wigger, Karin; Jolly, Suyash
    Abstract: Common-pool resources (CPRs) are critical in sustainability transitions. They are often important means for environmental and societal innovation, and object of unsustainable extraction and governance practices. We argue why CPRs and their governance matter in transitions and point to issues for further research: (i) conceptualization of sustainability and transitions in light of common-pool resources and governance; (ii) the roles, potentials, and challenges of commoning practices, beyond the market–state dichotomy; (iii) interactions between CPRs and commons with markets/firms and the state/governments in processes of sustainability transitions. These overarching issues bring fresh perspectives to transitions literature: (i) CPRs/commons help advance the integration between ecological and socio-technical systems (ii) non-excludable resources affect entrepreneurial activity and innovation processes in the dynamics of socio-technical system; (iii) CPRs/commons add new viewpoints to the question of directionality of transitions. We conclude by advocating for building bridges with new institutional and environmental economics, and social practice theory.
    Keywords: Common-pool resources, CPR, commons, collective action, polycentric governance, sustainability transitions
    JEL: D02 D21 L70 M21 O30 Q57 Q59
    Date: 2021–12–01
  29. By: Damien Sans; Sonia Schwartz (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Hubert Stahn
    Abstract: The market for environmental goods and services is booming. It enables firms to reduce their polluting emissions and comply with environmental policies. However, this sector is highly concentrated. While the economic literature has established the optimal environmental policy in this context, it considers environmental goods and not environmental services. Considering this point, it is shown that a first-best environmental policy can be implemented by public authorities despite the market power in the eco-industry.
    Abstract: Le marché des biens et services environnementaux est en plein essor. Il permet aux entreprises de réduire leurs émissions polluantes et de se mettre en conformité vis-à-vis des politiques environnementales. Toutefois, ce secteur est fortement concentré. Si la littérature économique a établi la politique environnementale optimale dans ce contexte, elle considère les biens et non pas les services environnementaux. Considérant ce point, il est montré qu'une politique environnementale de premier rang peut être mise en œuvre par les pouvoirs publics malgré le pouvoir de marché dans l'éco-industrie.
    Keywords: Politique environnementale,Environnement
    Date: 2020–03
  30. By: Victor Ajayi (EPRG, CJBS, University of Cambridge); Karim Anaya (EPRG, CJBS, University of Cambridge); Michael Pollitt (EPRG, CJBS, University of Cambridge)
    Keywords: Total factor productivity, incentive regulation, electricity networks, emissions
    JEL: D24 H23 L43 L94
    Date: 2021–11
  31. By: Srinivasan, Jaishri; Holway, Joseph; Sabo, John
    Abstract: This study analyzes a pioneering program in river basin recovery at large sub-basin scale – the Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program (UCREFRP). The program seeks to mitigate for and balance use on the river system with preservation of critically endangered fish species using adaptive management approaches. The study assesses the effectiveness of the program actions first and the adaptive management paradigm in this context second using mixed qualitative and quantitative approaches. Assessment of program effectiveness utilizes annual flow regime variability, and year-by-year summation of categories (hydrological, technological, ecological) of management interventions as predictive variables of abundance-based beta diversity indices of fish communities in six key Upper Basin sites. Assessment of the program actions against the adaptive management paradigm uses a Resistance-Resilience-Transformation (RRT) scale. Results show that fish community beta diversity metrics are most responsive to hydrological and technological interventions, though overall effectiveness is predicated on long-term ecological interventions designed to provide favorable biotic environments for endangered species. Assessment of the effectiveness of the adaptive management paradigm shows that program policies and actions need to account more for compounded effects of multiple environmental and anthropogenic stressors to maintain the ecological health of the river into the future.
    Date: 2022–02–15
  32. By: Luca Colombo; Paola Labrecciosa; Ngo Van Long
    Abstract: We study the dynamics of equilibrium membership of an international environmental agreement aimed at increasing the stock of a global public good such as climate change mitigation. In contrast with previous studies, we assume partial cooperation among signatories, and show that the coalition size can be large and increasing over time even when the initial coalition size is small. We highlight a novel trade-off between agreements that are narrow but deep and long-lived versus those that are broad and shallow but short-lived. We show that loose cooperative agreements, which are broad but shallow and short-lived, are both welfare superior and Pareto superior to tight cooperative agreements, which are narrow but deep and long-lived. We also show that conditions exist under which the equilibrium coalition size is efficient. Nous étudions la dynamique d'adhésion à l'équilibre à un accord environnemental international visant à accroître le stock d'un bien public mondial tel que l'atténuation du changement climatique. Contrairement aux études précédentes, nous supposons une coopération partielle entre les signataires et montrons que la taille de la coalition peut être importante et augmenter au fil du temps même lorsque la taille initiale de la coalition est petite. Nous mettons en évidence un nouveau compromis entre les accords qui sont étroits mais profonds et de longue durée et ceux qui sont larges et superficiels mais de courte durée. Nous montrons que les accords de coopération partielle, qui sont larges mais superficiels et de courte durée, sont à la fois supérieurs en termes de bien-être aux accords de coopération serrés, qui sont étroits mais profonds et de longue durée. Nous montrons également qu'il existe des conditions dans lesquelles la taille de la coalition d'équilibre est efficace.
    Keywords: differential games,climate change mitigation,stable coalitions,coefficient of cooperation,social welfare, jeux différentiels,atténuation du changement climatique,coalitions stables,coefficient de coopération,bien-être social
    JEL: C73 D60 H41 Q54
    Date: 2022–01–07
  33. By: Ondin, Bekir Sitki
    Abstract: Sooner after the pandemic was declared and nowadays, some scientists, researchers and media have tended to associate Covid 19 with the results of climate change and give insights about how it needs to be interpreted in economic, social, political, communicational dimensions for combat against climate change, as well as what has been learnt/can be learnt from it, and what else can be carried out by being followed what has been learnt, etc. The essay relies on a view of what we learnt from the pandemic on the matter of climate change, and whether some approaches might be derived from what we experienced and learnt from the pandemic, and, most importantly, those would be applicable to combating the climate change as well as the current approaches related to the subject.
    Date: 2021–12–08
  34. By: Bielinis, Ernest; Rutkowski, Dariusz; Słupska, Alicja; Janeczko, Emilia; Bielinis, Lidia
    Abstract: Global changes cause many problems which directly impact forests and the foresters who manage them. One of the effects of global climate change may be an increased number of trees dying out or emerging threats to forest sustainability from pathogens. There are two possible ways to act in these situations: coping or adapting. The first type of response is anticipated, needed and indicating a profound change and behavior adjustment. The other type of action involves merely reacting without introducing in-depth changes. The current study sought to determine whether the response of foresters managing temperate zone state forests is appropriate to the occurring global changes. For this purpose, questionnaire interviews were conducted with selected foresters employed by the State Forests. Foresters were given an opportunity to describe their methods of counteracting negative changes in the forest environment caused (in their opinion) by global changes. Subsequently, these statements were classified by researchers as being either coping or adapting to change. The results of a qualitative analysis indicate that foresters in the State Forests are engaged in activities that may be classified as adapting to global changes rather than coping with them. The implications of this analysis for forest policy and management are also discussed.
    Date: 2021–10–14
  35. By: Most Asikha Aktar (Comilla University); Md. Mahmudul Alam (UUM - Universiti Utara Malaysia); Abul Al-Amin (University of Waterloo [Waterloo])
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has emerged as one of the deadliest infectious diseases on the planet. Millions of people and businesses have been placed in lockdown where the main aim is to stop the spread of the virus. As an extreme phenomenon, the lockdown has triggered a global economic shock at an alarming pace, conveying sharp recessions for many countries. In the meantime, the lockdowns caused by the COVID-19 pandemic have drastically changed energy consumption patterns and reduced CO2 emissions throughout the world. Recent data released by the International Monetary Fund and International Energy Agency for 2020 further forecast that emissions will rebound in 2021. Still, the full impact of COVID-19 in terms of how long the crisis will be and how the consumption pattern of energy and the associated levels of CO2 emissions will be affected are unclear. This review aims to steer policymakers and governments of nations toward a better direction by providing a broad and convincing overview on the observed and likely impacts of the pandemic of COVID-19 on the world economy, world energy demand, and world energy-related CO2 emissions that may well emerge in the next few years. Indeed, given that immediate policy responses are required with equal urgency to address three things—pandemic, economic downturn, and climate crisis. This study outlines policy suggestions that can be used during these uncertain times as a guide
    Keywords: Economic Crisis,Energy Use,CO2 Emissions,Climate Change,Policy,COVID19
    Date: 2021
  36. By: Kuralbayeva, Karlygash
    Abstract: 2021 has seen increasing climate policy action and net-zero commitments by individuals, companies and governments. A crucial aspect for the transition to net-zero is the voluntary offset market, with projects relating to REDD+ amongst the most popular. Policy-makers are grappling to make such markets efficient and scalable, however, many issues undermine these efforts pertaining to additionality, permanence, leakage and property and community rights. Digitisation has also accelerated, with technologies, notably blockchain, starting to enter the climate change space. Its use is becoming increasingly common within the voluntary market and, in particular, REDD+, although such projects, are generally in proposal or pilot stages. Given the emergence of other technologies such as AI and machine learning, the technologisation of REDD+ is only likely to increase. Thus modern technologies are being seen by developers as a potential solution to issues hindering REDD+. Potential benefits arising from technology use are unlikely to fully accrue without a wider focus on what has undermined REDD+ to date. As such, there is an urgency to establish an understanding of how projects can utilise these technologies to reduce long-standing issues. To do this, we discuss these issues together with technologies’ capacity to address drawbacks of REDD+ projects
    Date: 2021–10–21
  37. By: Tommaso Pardi (IDHES - Institutions et Dynamiques Historiques de l'Économie et de la Société - ENS Paris Saclay - Ecole Normale Supérieure Paris-Saclay - UEVE - Université d'Évry-Val-d'Essonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - UP8 - Université Paris 8 Vincennes-Saint-Denis - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne)
    Abstract: The article analyses the role that the EU regulatory framework for the reduction of CO2 emissions in the transport sector has played during the last twenty years in moving the industry away from what it was supposed to do: reduce weight, mass and size of the cars sold to make them less polluting. It shows that the current race towards electrification can be seen as the result of this paradox. It argues that under the ongoing upmarket drift in new car sales the social, economic and political costs of electrification increase, while its environmental benefits decrease.
    Keywords: Automotive engineering,CO2 emissions,Electric utilities,Environmental benefits,European Union policy,management,Regulatory frameworks,Transport sectors
    Date: 2021
  38. By: Kotsialou, Grammateia; Kuralbayeva, Karlygash; Laing, Timothy
    Abstract: 2021 has seen increasing climate policy action and net-zero commitments by individuals, companies and governments. A crucial aspect for the transition to net-zero is the voluntary offset market, with projects relating to REDD+ amongst the most popular. Policy-makers are grappling to make such markets efficient and scalable, however, many issues undermine these efforts pertaining to additionality, permanence, leakage and property and community rights. Digitisation has also accelerated, with technologies, notably blockchain, starting to enter the climate change space. Its use is becoming increasingly common within the voluntary market and, in particular, REDD+, although such projects, are generally in proposal or pilot stages. Given the emergence of other technologies such as AI and machine learning, the technologisation of REDD+ is only likely to increase. Thus modern technologies are being seen by developers as a potential solution to issues hindering REDD+. Potential benefits arising from technology use are unlikely to fully accrue without a wider focus on what has undermined REDD+ to date. As such, there is an urgency to establish an understanding of how projects can utilise these technologies to reduce long-standing issues. To do this, we discuss these issues together with technologies’ capacity to address drawbacks of REDD+ projects.
    Date: 2021–10–21
  39. By: Most Asikha Aktar (Comilla University); Mu’ath Al-Azzam (UUM - Universiti Utara Malaysia); Md. Mahmudul Alam (UUM - Universiti Utara Malaysia)
    Date: 2021
  40. By: Delanote, Julie; Rückert, Désirée
    Abstract: Using survey data on climate innovation, we map climate innovation patterns across different regions and technologies, and study the cooperation, protection and reach of climate innovation. Our analysis confirms that there is a strong link between climate innovation and firm performance. We nevertheless observe that European firms seem to suffer from the availability of finance. If European policymakers want to create more successful firms in the climate sector, they should strengthen policies that aim to reduce regulatory uncertainty and work actively to improve access-to finance conditions, in particular for start-ups.
    Keywords: Climate action and environment,Economics
    Date: 2022
  41. By: Lawson, Nicholas; Spears, Dean
    Abstract: If fertility is not chosen in a socially optimal way, and if policies to directly target fertility are ineffective or politically infeasible, then public policies that affect fertility could have important welfare consequences through the fertility channel. We refer to these effects as population externalities, and in this paper we focus on one important variable that may have a causal impact on fertility: the education of potential parents. If increased education causes families to have fewer children, then a government would want to increase college tuition subsidies in the presence of environmental externalities such as climate change, to indirectly discourage families from having children who will generate future environmental costs. Alternatively, if fertility is inefficiently low, due to imperfect parental altruism for example, governments will want to lower tuition subsidies to encourage child-bearing. We present a simple model of the college enrollment decision and its fertility impacts, and show that such population externalities are quantitatively important: the optimal subsidy increases by about $5000 per year with climate change, and decreases by over $7000 per year with imperfect parental altruism. Our paper demonstrates how public economics can incorporate population externalities, and that such externalities can have significant impacts on optimal policy.
    Date: 2021–05–03
  42. By: Simionescu, Mihaela; Schneider, Nicolas; Gavurova, Beata
    Abstract: Considering the actual debate nuclear vs renewable that divides the green transition of the EU member states, this paper investigates the dynamic interactions between two sources of decarbonized energy (renewables and nuclear) and economic growth for three distinct economies: France, Spain, and Germany, all differing in their respective long-run nuclear planning. A complex methodological framework is employed to consider stationary (Augmented Dickey-Fuller test, Phillips-Perron test, Dickey-Fuller test, Elliott-Rothenberg-Stock test, Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test, Zivot and Andrews test with structural break), cointegration (Johansen and Juselius test of cointegration, Gregory and Hansen cointegration test with breaks based on regime-trend shifts), long-run convergence (Vector Error Correction Model), causality (Granger causality test, Toda-Yamamoto non-causality test, and variance analysis (Impulse Response Functions) Empirical results for the period 1983–2019 fail to support the existence of statistical causality between renewable energy use and economic growth in France and Spain, which is congruent with the “neutral hypothesis”. Besides, while a weak one-way link is revealed from renewable energy use to GDP in Germany only, economic growth is found to substantially trigger nuclear energy consumption in Spain but not vice versa, thus corroborating the “growth hypothesis”. Accordingly, country-specific insights are provided to deploy low-carbon sectoral facilities in Spain, enhance the channels of radioactive waste treatment in France, and secure the nuclear phase-out in Germany.
    Keywords: cointegration; economic growth; Granger causality; nuclear energy consumption; Toda-Yamamoto causality
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2022–01–17
  43. By: Gatto, Marcel; Balie, Jean; Hareau, Guy
    Abstract: Agricultural production needs to increase to feed a rapidly growing population, arable land is shrinking due to urbanization and the adverse effects of climate change. This calls for an intensification of agricultural production which cannot be achieved in a sustainable way with conventional agricultural practices. Here, we are discussing the future of sustainable intensification of rice-potato agri-food systems in Asia. This document is part of a series of short papers on “The Future of X”, produced as part of foresight-related research supported by the CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM).
    Date: 2021–12–21
  44. By: Mensah, Charles; Enahoro, Dolapo
    Abstract: • This study explores how regional-level interactions of livestock and crop sectors influence the capacity of a southern Africa sub-region to meet its future demand for livestock-derived foods. • It uses a spatial equilibrium modeling framework to simulate regional trade in poultry and maize products in Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, and Zambia. • Model outputs on the demand, production, and trade of poultry products and maize are compared for a baseline and an alternative future scenario representing drought conditions. • The study’s abstraction of a regional approach to livestock and feed sector interactions in the selected region highlights the role of markets in addressing cross-boundary challenges related to food demand expansion and resource management. • Results imply that the study countries could benefit from addressing their growing demands for livestock-derived foods using a harmonized approach. Further, regional livestock markets may offer cushioning effects to the impacts of climate change in at least one of the countries. • However, improved quality data and an enhanced specification of the analytical model to better account for the nuances of livestock and feed trade in the region and for varied scenarios of future climate change will be needed, to extend the current study to practical policy application.
    Date: 2022–01–07
  45. By: Md. Mahmudul Alam (UUM - Universiti Utara Malaysia); Mohammad Saeed Hossain (East West University); Nurul Islam (Delta Medical College & Hospital); Md Wahid Murad (University of South Australia [Adelaide]); Niaz Ahmed Khan (University of Dhaka)
    Abstract: This research investigates the health impacts and access to health services by children who are engaged in waste collection in Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh. The relevant qualitative data were collected through expert interviews and personal observations, while quantitative data were gathered through a face-to-face questionnaire survey given to 50 street children who collected waste at the landfill site located in Dhaka city's Matuail area. The results indicate that 94% of these children have suffered from many health problems, such as fever and fatigue due to tiredness, dizziness, and vomiting. Consequently, a significant portion of their daily income is spent on medical treatment. This study suggests that the waste collection system must integrate modern technological, health and environmental resources so that: firstly, they do not harm waste collectors; and secondly, rehabilitate the street children and give them better access to acceptable basic amenities. This is a priority the city authorities.
    Keywords: Street Children,Landfill,Waste collection,Waste management,Health services,Health cost,Dhaka City
    Date: 2021
  46. By: Md Azizul Bari (UKM - Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia); Lubna Alam (UKM - Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia); Md. Mahmudul Alam (UUM - Universiti Utara Malaysia); Labonnah Farzana Rahman (UKM - Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia); Joy Jacqueline Pereira (UKM - Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia)
    Abstract: Flash flood is the most devastating natural disaster experienced in Malaysia. It can be defined as any high water flow caused by various factors such as rainstorms, slow water runoff , and broken dams. In Malaysia, the most typical and disruptive hydro-meteorological occurrences are flash floods, which are mostly faced by Malaysian cities including Kuala Lumpur and Kajang. However, flash floods may occur at any time of the year rather than during monsoon and can result in devastating losses and damages. Thus, several mitigation steps and estimations are warranted to handle flash floods, especially at the city level. Hence, this paper estimated the amount of direct loss and damage due to flash floods on the basis of the commercial area of Kajang City. This empirical study used primary data collected through direct face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 41 businessmen in the study area. The average estimated overall losses and damages per shop was RM4,510.07 due to flash floods at Kajang City in 2014, wherein the significant contribution comes from the economic side. This study's findings can serve as the baseline information for future studies on flash flood losses and damages. Furthermore, the present study suggests extensive institutional research for estimating losses and damages due to flash floods at the country level as an adaptation strategy.
    Keywords: Flash Flood,Loss and Damage,Disaster,Climate Change,Kajang,Malaysia
    Date: 2021
  47. By: Anna Birgitte Milford (NIBIO - Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research); Nina Trandem (NIBIO - Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research); Armando José Garcia Pires
    Abstract: Due to an EU directive making integrated pest management (IPM) mandatory, European farmers are expected to reduce their use of chemical pesticides, which may potentially increase production costs and risk of harvest loss. Less pesticide use is appreciated by many consumers and may generate a higher willingness to pay (WTP). However, IPM is a wide concept and it is difficult for consumers to distinguish between products with high and low risk of pesticide residues. As a result, consumers might use other characteristics, such as country of origin, for the identification of safer products. In this study, we investigate if a higher WTP for Norwegian strawberries is associated with a belief that they contain less pesticide residues than imported berries. We use regression analysis to estimate to what extent the difference in WTP for Norwegian and imported strawberries is correlated with various perceptions about strawberries. The analyses reveal that the stronger the belief that Norwegian strawberries have less pesticide risk than imported ones, the higher the WTP for Norwegian strawberries. This means that if consumers believe domestic farmers use little pesticides, domestic products might be able to sell at considerably higher prices than imports. Hence, it may be economically beneficial for farmers to keep pesticide use at a minimum. Furthermore, we find that consumers have a higher WTP for strawberries produced with less use of pesticides, although not pesticide-free, indicating that IPM is appreciated.
    Keywords: Strawberries,Country of origin,Pesticides,Norway,Willingness to pay (WTP),Integrated pest management (IPM)
    Date: 2021
  48. By: Paul Simshauser (Griffith Business School, Griffith University); Farhad Billimoria (Energy & Power Group); Craig Rogers (King & Wood Mallesons)
    Keywords: Renewable Energy Zones, renewable generation, transmission investment
    JEL: D25 D80 G32 L51 Q41
    Date: 2021–09
  49. By: Bunker, Ingrid; Zscheischler, Jana
    Abstract: The use of insect protein for livestock feed may provide a more sustainable alternative to fishmeal and imported protein-rich feed. Little is known about societal acceptability between and within different actor groups on a European level. To gain an understanding of reasons and arguments for acceptance or rejection of this innovation, a qualitative content analysis was carried out on feedback from stakeholders and citizens given during an EU public consultation. Value-based arguments were analysed in order to determine the degree of acceptability decisions and factors influencing acceptability. This will give insight into attitudes from different perspectives, where conflict lines may arise amongst actor groups and whether or not the innovation is considered acceptable for a development towards a sustainable bioeconomy.
    Keywords: Research and Development / Technical Change / Emerging Technologies, Livestock Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2021–11–18
  50. By: Md Nazmus Sadekin (Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University); Md Muhibbullah (International Islamic University Malaysia [Kuala Lumpur]); Md. Mahmudul Alam (UUM - Universiti Utara Malaysia)
    Date: 2021
  51. By: Diop, Samba; Asongu, Simplice; Tchamyou, Vanessa
    Abstract: This study evaluates the economic impact of severe natural disasters in Africa using the generalized synthetic control method. In other words, it assesses how gross domestic product (GDP) would have been affected if severe natural disasters did not occur. Moreover, it explores the determinants of the destructiveness of the impact, focusing on the role played by capital. We find that severe natural disasters induce a significant and continuous reduction of GDP many years after the event. Indeed, economic losses caused by disasters depend on the level of capital (human capital, employment and capital stock) and aspects of governance quality (political stability and absence of violence). In other words, negative synergies are apparent because while capital stock, employment and human capital unconditionally reduce the macroeconomic impact of natural disasters, the corresponding conditional or interactive effects with political stability are also negative. Policy implications are discussed.
    Keywords: natural disasters; economic growth; Africa
    JEL: O17 O55 P10 Q54
    Date: 2021–09
  52. By: KUBO, Takahiro; Yokoo, Hide-Fumi; Veríssimo, Diogo
    Abstract: Funding shortage limits conservation impact, making it vital to find effective fundraising methods. To explore how traditional and digital conservation fundraising methods perform, we conducted real-world field experiments by using mailshot and Facebook advertisements. We compare three types of message frames (Simple, Seed money, and Ecological) and found that the Seed money frame, which emphasizes the amount already donated, increased the number of donors, whereas the Ecological frame, which focuses on the fact that the fundraiser benefits threatened species, led to a relative reduction in this number. We also found that while on Facebook advertising costs were higher than donations, the opposite was true for the traditional mailshot experiment. Our findings illustrate some of the challenges associated with online fundraising, and importance of behavioral evidence to enhance effective fundraising in conservation.
    Date: 2021–10–19
  53. By: Eduardo Uribe-Botero
    Abstract: En este texto se presenta inicialmente alguna información cuantitativa sobre la contribución del país y sus actividades económicas al cambio climático global, y su relación con los retos ambientales locales de mayor relevancia. Se procura abordarlos con visión territorial, destacando sus consecuencias para el bienestar social. En una segunda sección se muestra cómo varios de los principales procesos de deterioro ambiental tienen causas comunes y, también, consecuencias comunes sobre los entornos local, regional y global. En la tercera sección se argumenta que el tratamiento y la gestión de esos procesos de deterioro requieren de la intervención coordinada y de la responsabilidad compartida entre distintas agencias estatales y del sector privado. Se hace énfasis en la necesidad de gestionar los diferentes retos ambientales reconociendo las relaciones que existen entre ellos, y mediante enfoques territoriales, económicos, ecosistémicos, intersectoriales y de largo plazo. Se discuten las implicaciones, desafíos y oportunidades del advenimiento del covid-19, y se argumenta finalmente que la conservación de los ecosistemas, el desarrollo tecnológico, la sostenibilidad de los procesos productivos, el mejoramiento equitativo de los niveles de bienestar social y la protección de la salud son asuntos inseparables.
    Keywords: Medio Ambiente, Cambio Climático, Deterioro Ambiental, Colombia
    JEL: O44 Q54 Q56 O54
    Date: 2021–04–01
  54. By: Newbery, D.
    Abstract: Countries or regions with a high share of storage hydro and good renewables resources may be able to interconnect to less well-endowed neighbours. To maximise joint benefits, coordinating interconnector and renewables investment is desirable. Suitable long-term contracts ensure that beneficiaries pay and jointly cover the highly dispersed costs and benefits. The article develops a simple model calibrated for Tasmania that demonstrates how this can be quantified and various counterfactuals tested. The key to the simplification is that the value of water is both stable over time and the key driver of outcomes. The economic attraction of proposed wind and interconnector investment depends sensitively on the value placed on CO2 reductions.
    Keywords: Hydro-storage, wind, interconnectors, carbon benefits
    JEL: D47 D61 F18 H23 Q25 Q42
    Date: 2022–02–17
  55. By: Mohd Nor Diana (UKM - National University of Malaysia [Bandar Baru Bangi]); Nurfashareena Muhamad (UKM - National University of Malaysia [Bandar Baru Bangi]); Mohd Taha (UUM - Universiti Utara Malaysia); Ashraf Osman (Durham University); Md. Mahmudul Alam (UUM - Universiti Utara Malaysia)
    Abstract: Landslides represent one of the world's most dangerous and widespread risks, annually causing thousands of deaths and billions of dollars worth of damage. Building on and around hilly areas in many regions has increased, and it poses a severe threat to the physical infrastructure and people living within such zones. Quantitative assessment of social vulnerability in Malaysia is worrying because it has been given less attention than hazard-related studies. Therefore, this study's objective is to find out the indicators used for social vulnerability assessment in the context of a landslide in Malaysia. The analysis is critical for understanding the measures of social vulnerability, given that the incorporation of climate change and disaster risk mitigation issues in urban planning and management are considered priorities in ensuring a stable population growth and avoiding economic disruption. A systematic study on the Scopus and Web of Science repositories was conducted based on the PRISMA Report analysis method. This article concluded that there are six important indicators of social vulnerability in the context of landslide in Malaysia.
    Keywords: social vulnerability assessment,landslide,social indicator,disaster risk reduction,Malaysia
    Date: 2021
  56. By: Schmidt, Lorenz; Odening, Martin; Schlanstein, Johann; Ritter, Matthias
    Abstract: Weather is a pivotal factor for crop production as it is highly volatile and can hardly be controlled by farm management practices. Since there is a tendency towards increased weather extremes in the future, understanding the weather-related yield factors becomes increasingly important not only for yield prediction, but also for the design of insurance products that mitigate financial losses for farmers. In this study, an artificial neural network is set up and calibrated to a rich set of farm-level wheat yield data in Germany covering the period from 2003 to 2018. A nonlinear regression model, which uses rainfall, temperature, and soil moisture as explanatory variables for yield deviations, serves as a benchmark. The empirical application reveals that the gain in estimation precision by using machine learning techniques compared with traditional estimation approaches is quite substantial and that the use of regionalized models and high-resolution weather data improve the performance of ANN.
    Keywords: Production Economics, Research Methods / Statistical Methods
    Date: 2021–11–18
  57. By: Domptail, Stephanie; Hirsch, Jennifer; Ume, Chukwuma
    Abstract: Current agriculture and food systems worldwide are facing major sustainability challenges, which jeopardize the ability of future generations to live a good life: soil fertility and biodiversity loss, climate change, malnutrition and inequalities. These problems are, in part, related to how agricultural and food systems have developed. The IPES 2016 report on food systems calls for a shift from low input traditional and industrial agricultural systems to diversified agroecological systems. We claim that this shift requires more than a change in practice. Rather it implies a redefinition of the conception of agricultural and food systems and their evaluation. The talk discusses those facets of agricultural and food systems which can gain visibility though a reading of agroecology from the ecological and feminist economics perspective. For instance, the analysis of the worldview of agroecological farmers in Germany reveals the role of reproductive and egalitarian principles and values in designing the farming systems and of community-supported agricultural schemes. Politically, these principles can be interpreted a struggle to maintain sovereignty and act upon own values. We finally reflect on what it implies for food security that agroecological systems nurture their reproductive capacity. The rise of agroecology raises questions about the values that shape agricultural and food systems and engenders a “new” target: the reproduction capacity of our societies.
    Keywords: Food Consumption / Nutrition / Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2021–11–18
  58. By: Camille Laville (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne)
    Abstract: In 2018, 1,300 people were killed and 300,000 displaced as a result of herder-farmer conflicts in Nigeria. These tensions threaten the already weakened security, economic development and food security in Western Africa. Indeed, cross-border transhumance of herders during the dry season is an important economic activity recognized by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). This practice is also an important adaptation strategy to climate change for Sahelian States that have developed a comparative advantage in producing and exporting livestock. However, the establishment of a harmonized legal framework surrounding this practice is hampered by coordination failures between Coastal States (primary receivers of livestock flows) and the Sahelian States (primary providers of livestock flows). The growth of the Nigerian agricultural sector through the expansion of agricultural land threatens the last open pastures and transhumance corridors. Indeed, Nigeria faces a scarcity of arable land for a growing rural population. Is competition for the remaining Nigerian grassland a factor of violence between nomadic herders from Niger and Nigerian farmers? Recent empirical evidence suggests that climate-induced migration of herders to nearby agricultural areas (short transhumance) is associated with a higher risk of herder-farmer conflict for the remaining pastoral resources. However, no analysis has been made on the case of lengthy and costly transhumance. This article analyses the security implications of cross-border transhumance between Niger and Nigeria at the scale of 0.5x0.5 degree cells between 2006 and 2016. Using spatial panel techniques and satellite data on land cover, it questions the importance of grassland grabbing strategies as a cause of the recent herder-farmer conflicts in Nigeria. The obtained results hardly coincide with the idea that transhumant herders from Niger enter into conflict with Nigerian farmers over the grabbing of the last grazing resources. Ultimately, the economy of Sahelian countries, which depends on livestock trade, is threatened by a political instrumentalization of herder-farmer conflicts through the rhetoric of "invaders against farmers."
    Abstract: Pour l'année 2018, le bilan estimé des affrontements entre éleveurs et agriculteurs au Nigéria est de 1 300 victimes et 300 000 personnes déplacées. Ces tensions menacent la stabilité, le développement économique et la sécurité alimentaire déjà affaiblis en Afrique de l'Ouest. En effet, la transhumance transfrontalière des éleveurs pendant la saison sèche est une activité économique dont l'importance régionale est reconnue par la Communauté économique des États de l'Afrique de l'Ouest (CEDEAO). Cette pratique relève également d'une stratégie d'adaptation au changement climatique essentielle pour les États sahéliens qui ont développé un avantage comparatif dans la production et l'exportation de bétail avec leurs voisins. Cependant, la mise en place d'un cadre juridique harmonisé autour de cette pratique est entravée par des problèmes de coordination entre les États côtiers (principaux destinataires des flux de bétail) et les États sahéliens (principaux fournisseurs de flux de bétail). La croissance du secteur agricole nigérian par l'expansion des terres agricoles menace les derniers pâturages ouverts et les couloirs de transhumance. En effet, le Nigéria est confronté à une pénurie de terres arables pour une population rurale croissante. La concurrence pour les derniers pâturages nigérians est-elle un facteur de violence entre les éleveurs nomades du Niger et les agriculteurs nigérians ? Des preuves empiriques récentes suggèrent que la migration des éleveurs induite par le climat dans les zones agricoles voisines (courte transhumance) est associée à un risque plus élevé de conflit éleveur-agriculteur pour les ressources pastorales restantes. Cependant, aucune analyse n'a été faite sur la question de l'accès aux pâturages lors de transhumances longues et coûteuses. Cet article analyse les implications sécuritaires de la transhumance transfrontalière entre le Niger et le Nigéria à l'échelle de cellules de 0,5x0,5 degrés entre 2006 et 2016. En utilisant des techniques de panel spatial et des données satellitaires sur la couverture terrestre, il questionne l'importance des stratégies d'accaparement des prairies comme une cause des récents conflits éleveurs-agriculteurs au Nigéria. Les résultats obtenus coïncident peu avec l'idée que les éleveurs transhumants depuis le Niger entrent en conflits avec les agriculteurs Nigérian pour l'accaparement des dernières ressources en pâturage. In fine, l'économie des pays sahéliens liée au commerce du bétail est menacée par l'instrumentalisation politique du conflit entre éleveurs et agriculteurs passant par l'utilisation de la rhétorique "envahisseurs versus agriculteurs".
    Keywords: Niger,Nigeria,Climate change,Agriculture,Migration
    Date: 2021–09
  59. By: Leuchters, Maxi
    Abstract: Die EU-Kommission hat die Umsetzung des Green Deal und damit das Erreichen der Klimaneutralität als ein zentrales Projekt für die EU definiert.- Die Umstellung der Wirtschaft bedarf hoher Inves-titionen, die allein aus öffentlichen Mitteln nicht zu stemmen sind. Eine Umsteuerung von privaten und öffentlichen Kapitalströmen hin zu nachhaltiger Wirtschaftstätigkeit ist das Ziel.- Die europäische Taxonomie-Verordnung soll bei der Akquirierung der benötigten Investitionen für die Umstellung der Wirtschaft eine entscheidende Rolle spielen. So sollen wirtschaftliche Tätigkeiten anhand von sechs Umweltzielen bewertet sowie klassifiziert werden.- Wirtschaftliche Tätigkeiten von Unternehmen können demnach dann als nachhaltig bezeichnet werden, wenn sie zu einem der sechs Umweltziele einen wesentlichen Beitrag leisten, die anderen Ziele nicht erheblich beeinträchtigen (Do-No-Significant-Harm Kriterien) sowie soziale Mindest-standards eingehalten werden.- Unternehmen, die eine nicht-finanzielle Erklärung abgeben müssen, werden für das Finanzjahr 2021 den taxonomiekonformen Anteil des Umsatz-erlöses, der Investitions- und Betriebsausgaben angeben.- Soziale Standards spielen in der bereits geltenden Verordnung nur eine untergeordnete Rolle. Es wird aktuell diskutiert, ob eine ergänzende soziale Taxonomie eingeführt wird. Diese muss aus gewerk-schaftlicher Sicht zwingend den Schutz von Men-schen- und Arbeitnehmer:innenrechten beinhalten.
    Date: 2022
  60. By: Tran, Nhuong; Rodriguez, U-Primo; Chan, Chin Yee; Aung, Yee Mon; Chu, Long; , Abu Hayat Md.Saiful Islam; Barman, Benoy Kumar; Phillips, Michael John
    Abstract: Bangladesh has made significant progress in social and economic development in recent years, but micronutrient deficiencies and poor dietary diversity remain a significant challenge. This paper developed eight scenarios to explore fish supply-demand futures in Bangladesh using the AsiaFish model, with special emphasis on the role of fish in micronutrient supply to address the nation’s malnutrition and nutrition security challenges. A business-as-usual (BAU) scenario followed historical trends for exogenous variables used in the model. The seven alternative scenarios explored were: the implications of increase productivity of farmed tilapia, pangasius and rohu carp (AS1); productivity changes in hilsa production (AS2); improvements in the quality of feeds (AS3); reduction in the price of plant-based feeds (AS4); disease outbreak in farmed shrimps and prawns (AS5); and climate change impact (AS6) and stagnant capture fisheries (AS7). The BAU scenario indicates that aquaculture growth will be a prominent contribution to increasing total fish supply and demand and fish exports to 2040. Apart from the scenarios that are favourable to aquaculture sector development, other alternative scenarios highlighted the lower growth rate of capture fisheries and aquaculture compared to BAU, resulting in declining in per capita fish consumption, fish exports and nutrient supply from fish as a consequence. Increased availability of aquaculture fish can slightly compensate for the lower growth of capture fisheries in term of their nutrition quality and dietary diversity, particularly for poor consumers. Policies towards sustaining fisheries and a nutrition-sensitive approach to aquaculture is recommended as both capture fisheries and aquaculture are essential for sustaining healthy and nutritious diets in Bangladesh.
    Date: 2022–01–12
  61. By: Jiayue Xu
    Abstract: The price of carbon emission rights play a crucial role in carbon trading markets. Therefore, accurate prediction of the price is critical. Taking the Shanghai pilot market as an example, this paper attempted to design a carbon emission purchasing strategy for enterprises, and establish a carbon emission price prediction model to help them reduce the purchasing cost. To make predictions more precise, we built a hybrid deep learning model by embedding Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedastic (GARCH) into the Gate Recurrent Unit (GRU) model, and compared the performance with those of other models. Then, based on the Iceberg Order Theory and the predicted price, we proposed the purchasing strategy of carbon emission rights. As a result, the prediction errors of the GARCH-GRU model with a 5-day sliding time window were the minimum values of all six models. And in the simulation, the purchasing strategy based on the GARCH-GRU model was executed with the least cost as well. The carbon emission purchasing strategy constructed by the hybrid deep learning method can accurately send out timing signals, and help enterprises reduce the purchasing cost of carbon emission permits.
    Date: 2022–01
  62. By: Hanh, Ha Thi Hong; Giang, Hoàng Trường; Hà, Chu Nguyệt; Hằng, Hà Minh; Hang, Duong Minh; Toan, Nguyen Khanh; Dan, Tran Thi Linh; Ha, Nguyen Thi Thu; Hang, Nguyen Thi; Ha, Nguyen Mai
    Abstract: Biodiversity loss and its solutions
    Date: 2022–01–15
  63. By: Muhammad Abubakr Naeem; Sitara Karim; Tooraj Jamasb; Rabindra Nepal
    Abstract: The current study examines the risk transmission between green markets and commodities spanning 3 January 2011 to 20 June 2021. We use two novel methodologies of volatility transmission using dynamic conditional correlation (DCC-GARCH) and the other time-varying parameters vector autoregression (TVP-VAR) technique of connectedness. We found parallel results of risk transmission between green markets and commodities using these measures of connectedness. Results demonstrate that green markets and commodities form a weakly knitted sphere of connectedness where intra-group clustering dominates the inter-group connectedness. Clean energy markets and precious metals form two distinct groups of connectedness for respective markets. However, crude oil, natural gas and wheat remained indifferent to the shocks highlighting their potential to serve as diversifiers due to their low risk bearing features. Further, time-varying dynamics emphasize the occurrence of sizable events that disrupted the operations of green and commodity markets, accentuating the attention of investors, portfolio managers, and financial market participants. Intense spillovers shaped the overall connectedness of the network where green markets (commodities) are fashioned in positive (negative) risk spillovers. Finally, we propose recommendations for policymakers, regulators, investors, portfolio managers, and market participants to devise policies and investment goals to shield their investments from unexpected circumstances.
    Keywords: Green markets, Commodities, DCC-GARCH, TVP-VAR, Volatility transmission
    JEL: G10 G11 G19 Q01
    Date: 2022–02
  64. By: Zhiqin Zou (China University of Petroleum); Arash Farnoosh (IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles - IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles); Tom Mcnamara (Rennes School of Business)
    Abstract: In order to implement or maintain a green supply chain (GSC) that produces goods and services responsibly and sustainably, supply chain managers should use tools that allow for the efficient identification, quantification, and mitigation of the ever‐present risks. The objective of the present research is to identify the risk factors associated with the processes involved in GSC management. Based on an analysis of the characteristics of GSC risk, the authors put forward a list of risk design principles and a risk criteria evaluation system for a GSC. Gray relation analysis method was then used to clarify the degree of connection between certain supply chain risk factors and select key risk factors. Finally, Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network (BP‐ANN) method was used to determine the risk level associated with a GSC. The determination of risk level will help companies to develop effective strategic management initiatives in a GSC environment.
    Date: 2021
  65. By: Shang, Yuanyuan; Sivertsen, Gunnar; Cao, Zhe; Zhang, Lin
    Abstract: In 2016, the United Nations officially launched the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to address urgent global challenges over the next 15 years. Among the seventeen SDGs, Gender Equality (SDG5) is recognized as important for the achievement of the other sixteen goals because gender inequality exists across education, employment opportunities, healthcare facilities, life expectancy, family life, and political participation, thereby holding back the capacity of half of the world’s population to contribute to solutions to the global challenges. This bibliometric study explores gender balance and differences within SDG5 oriented research during the first five years after the implementation of SDG5 in 2016. Unlike most research oriented at other SDGs, this field of research has low activity and a dominance of female researchers. Within the field, male and female researchers focus on partly different topics. Publications by male researchers tend to be more cited while potential readers show more interest in publications by female researchers. This investigation highlights the importance of increasing gender diversity in SDG5-related studies, which is helpful for the achievement of sustainable development.
    Date: 2021–11–01
  66. By: Petra Zsuzsa Lévay; Tim Goedemé; Gerlinde Verbist
    Date: 2022–02
  67. By: ’t Sas-Rolfes, Michael; Emslie, Richard; Adcock, Keryn; Knight, Michael
    Abstract: Legal hunting of highly threatened species – and especially the recreational practice of ‘trophy hunting’ – is controversial with selected ethical objections being increasingly voiced. Less attention has been paid to how hunting (even of threatened species) can be useful as a conservation tool, and likely outcomes if this was stopped. As case studies, we examine the regulated legal hunting in South Africa and Namibia of two African rhino species. Counter-intuitively, removing a small number of specific males can enhance population demography and genetic diversity, encourage range expansion, and generate meaningful socio-economic benefits to help fund effective conservation (facilitated by appropriate local institutional arrangements). Legal hunting of these species has been sustainable, as very small proportions of the populations of both species are hunted each year, and numbers of both today are higher in these countries than when controlled recreational hunting began. Terminating this management option and funding source could have negative consequences at a time when rhinos are being increasingly viewed as liabilities and COVID-19 has significantly impacted revenue generation for wildlife areas. Provided that there is appropriate governance and management, conservation of certain highly threatened species can be supported by cautiously selective and limited legal hunting.
    Date: 2021–09–21
  68. By: David Wolf (Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University); Kenji Takeuchi (Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University)
    Abstract: Large-scale flooding is becoming increasingly common due to prolonged and intensive rainfall caused by climate change. Communities have mitigated this risk by building flood protection, though it is unclear whether residents are aware of these public works or the protection they confer. We provide insight on this matter by examining whether apartment rental prices (2015 – 2019) responded to the completion of the Gokayama Dam in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. We find apartments protected by the Gokayama Dam experienced a 1.8% price increase relative to apartments in other floodplains after Typhoon Prapiroon hit western Japan and tested the dam. Renters used the natural disaster as a learning experience to update their perceptions of flood risk as opposed to the completion of the dam, suggesting a possible disconnect between perceptions of flood risk and objective risk. In addition, we find the benefits from flood protection were unevenly distributed with higher premiums observed in first floor units, units closer to rivers, and in areas where floodwaters are expected to exceed two meters, while rental units designed as temporary housing received no premium. Homeowners and commercial renters also benefited from the added flood protection but to an even greater extent than apartment renters. In aggregate, the Gokayama Dam provides $11.3 million in benefits to downstream apartment renters each year which offsets more than one-third the annualized cost of the dam.
    Date: 2022–02
  69. By: Piras, Simone; Righi, Simone; Setti, Marco; Koseoglu, Nazli; Grainger, Matthew (NINA); stewart, Gavin; Vittuari, Matteo
    Abstract: Consumer food waste, like many environmental behaviours, takes place in private, and is not directly subject to social monitoring. Nevertheless, social interactions can affect private opinions and behaviours. This paper builds an agent-based model of interactions between consumers heterogeneous in their sociability, initial opinions and behaviours related to food waste and willingness to consider different opinions, in order to assess how social interactions can affect private behaviours. Compared to existing models of opinion dynamics, we innovate by including a range of ``cognitive dissonance'' between stated opinions and actual behaviours that consumers are willing to accept before changing one of the two. We calibrate the model using questionnaire data on household food waste in Italy. We find that a limited degree of mixing between different socio-demographic groups, namely adult and young consumers, is enough to trigger change, but a certain openness of mind is required from more wasteful individuals. Equally, a small group of environmentally committed consumers can attract a sizeable share of the population towards low-waste behaviours if they show a certain variability of opinions and are willing to compromise with individuals in their close neighbourhood in terms of opinions. These findings can help design effective interventions to promote pro-environmental behaviours, taking advantage of the beneficial network effects while anticipating negative externalities.
    Date: 2021–09–22
  70. By: Tran, Nhuong; Chu, Long; Chan, Chin Yee; Peart, Jeffrey; Nasr-Allah, Ahmed M.; Charo-Karisa, Harrison
    Abstract: Aquaculture plays an increasingly important role in meeting the rising global demand for fish fuelled by economic and demographic growth. However, in many middle income countries, the growth of aquaculture is constrained by rising labor costs, limited input supply, environmental concerns, and infectious diseases. In this paper, we developed a multi species, multi sector equilibrium model and applied it to the fishery sector of Egypt, a leading aquaculture producer in Africa, to examine these barriers. Projection results show that rising wage rates would slow down the growth of labour-intensive aquaculture compared to those that use relatively less labour. The demand for feed, seed inputs and water use for aquaculture would substantially increase. The results also show that disease outbreaks would possibly affect production sectors via output reduction and also consumers via increases in fish price. Our findings suggest that stabilising the prices of feed and seed, investments in disease control and input use efficiency improvement technologies, including water use, are important while the overall effectiveness of tax instruments is modest. Though calibrated to Egypt, our approach can be applied to other middle size national aquaculture industries.
    Date: 2022–01–12
  71. By: Dietze, Victoria; Feindt, Peter
    Abstract: Die Ernährung einer wachsenden Weltbevölkerung, die daraus resultierende Ressourcenbeanspruchung und Umweltbelastung sowie die zunehmende Flächenkonkurrenz stellen die Nahrungsmittelproduktion vor großen Herausforderungen. Für eine nachhaltige, ressourcen-effiziente und anpassungsfähige Nahrungsmittelproduktion stellen modulare bio-basierte Produktionssysteme (MBBP) im urbanen Raum einen neuen Ansatz dar. Daher existieren weder eine einheitliche Rahmengesetzgebung noch etablierte Genehmigungsverfahren für solche Produktionssysteme, woraus sich erhebliche Hürden für deren Entwicklung und Implementierung ergeben könnten. Das vorliegende Paper untersucht den institutionellen Rahmen für die Entwicklung und Implementierung von MBBP im urbanen Raum auf Basis einer Literaturstudie und Interviews mit Expertinnen und Experten. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass eine Vielzahl von formellen und informellen Institutionen die Entwicklung und Implementierung von MBBP beeinflussen und damit einen entscheidenden Einfluss auf die Realisierung und Akzeptanz solcher Produktionssysteme in der Gesellschaft haben und zu Unsicherheiten innerhalb des Innovationsprozesses führen können. Der vorliegende Beitrag zeigt auf, dass es neue Lebensmittelregularien benötigt, welche die Art der Produktion, die Produkte und den Ort und den Kontext von MBBP berücksichtigt.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Research and Development / Technical Change / Emerging Technologies, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2021–11–18
  72. By: Chan, Chin Yee; Prager, Steven; Balie, Jean; Kozicka, Marta; Hareau, Guy; Valera, Harold Glenn; Tran, Nhuong; Wiebe, Keith; Diagne, Mandiaye; Alene, Arega
    Abstract: Global progress towards food security and nutrition has been slow in many places and even reversing in others. Against the background of changes in population, income, technology, climate, and other drivers, the pressures on food systems are daunting. When designing and rolling out future interventions towards these goals it is of vital importance to utilize foresight knowledge to anticipate, shape, and prepare for alternative possible futures. Overcoming current and emerging challenges but also seizing opportunities as they present themselves requires continued efforts to provide robust analysis to inform decision making. Here we collated the latest insights from foresight studies around three central aspects within the food system. First, consumer demand and the changes this is undergoing is a key aspect shaping the food system itself as well as nutritional and environmental outcomes. Second, distributional inequalities and trade-offs within the food system have further been identified as key challenges to tackling adverse health outcomes of the current food system. And third, amplified by the COVID crisis, enhancing the resilience of the food system that is increasingly under threat from multiple risks has risen to the top of the agenda.
    Date: 2021–12–17
  73. By: Wadjamsse Djezou; Vincent Koffi; Eric Aba; Martine Audibert (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne)
    Abstract: Cet article a pour objectif d'analyser l'effet de la gouvernance des pesticides sur les pratiques phytosanitaires dans le maraîchage urbain en Côte d'Ivoire. Deux approches sont mobilisées. Une approche documentaire qui recense la législation, la réglementation et les acteurs en présence et une approche empirique basée sur l'économétrie des variables qualitatives. Un modèle, logit binaire, a été appliqué aux données recueillies auprès de 421 producteurs dans la ville de Bouaké. Il ressort des analyses que la plupart des maraîchers ne sont pas associés à la gestion des pesticides. Par conséquent, leur faible niveau de connaissance, à la fois en matière de réglementation des pesticides et de pesticides homologués, a un impact significatif et négatif sur leurs pratiques agricoles. Toutefois, l'encadrement de ces producteurs améliore les pratiques en matière d'usage des produits homologués et d'épandage rationnel des pesticides. Ainsi, une politique d'encadrement et d'implication effective des maraîchers à la gestion des pesticides constitue un premier pas pour une bonne utilisation des pesticides en Côte d'Ivoire.
    Keywords: Gouvernance,Pratiques phytosanitaires,Pesticides homologués,Maraichage,Cote d'ivoire
    Date: 2021–11
  74. By: Elisa Borowski; Amanda Stathopoulos
    Abstract: The decisions of whether and how to evacuate during a climate disaster are influenced by a wide range of factors, including sociodemographics, emergency messaging, and social influence. Further complexity is introduced when multiple hazards occur simultaneously, such as a flood evacuation taking place amid a viral pandemic that requires physical distancing. Such multi-hazard events can necessitate a nuanced navigation of competing decision-making strategies wherein a desire to follow peers is weighed against contagion risks. To better understand these nuances, we distributed an online survey during a pandemic surge in July 2020 to 600 individuals in three midwestern and three southern states in the United States with high risk of flooding. In this paper, we estimate a random parameter logit model in both preference space and willingness-to-pay space. Our results show that the directionality and magnitude of the influence of peers' choices of whether and how to evacuate vary widely across respondents. Overall, the decision of whether to evacuate is positively impacted by peer behavior, while the decision of how to evacuate is negatively impacted by peers. Furthermore, an increase in flood threat level lessens the magnitude of these impacts. These findings have important implications for the design of tailored emergency messaging strategies. Specifically, emphasizing or deemphasizing the severity of each threat in a multi-hazard scenario may assist in: (1) encouraging a reprioritization of competing risk perceptions and (2) magnifying or neutralizing the impacts of social influence, thereby (3) nudging evacuation decision-making toward a desired outcome.
    Date: 2022–02
  75. By: Md Murad (University of South Australia [Adelaide]); Md. Mahmudul Alam (UUM - Universiti Utara Malaysia); Shawon Shahriar (UKM - Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia)
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to analyse the rationales, challenges and prospects of Dhaka City being split up, for the purposes of creating a sustainable city grounded in relevant theories and widely used and accepted standards. An assessment of Dhaka being divided in accordance with the concept of City Development Strategies reveals considerable deficiencies in most aspects of public goods and services provisions. Whilst splitting Dhaka into separate sections supports the "World City Hypothesis" it is not without criticisms, for instance those raised by urban planners, experts and politicians. The lack of resources and oversight to address those deficiencies and problems and the administrative, allocative, economic and social inefficiencies makes it very difficult for Dhaka's authorities to achieve sustainable urbanisation. Therefore, appropriate strategies must be implemented by government to resolve these problems, inefficiencies and mismanagement in order for the city to be liveable sustainable.
    Keywords: Dhaka city,Sustainable city,City split,City development strategies,Sustainable urbanization,World City Hypothesis
    Date: 2021
  76. By: Md Nazmus Sadekin (Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University); Most Asikha Aktar (Comilla University); Md. Mahmudul Alam (UUM - Universiti Utara Malaysia)
    Abstract: This is a pre-publication copy. The published article is copyrighted by the publisher. Contribution of Fair Trade in Sustainable Development Definition "Fair trade is a model for alleviating global poverty. Many companies and markets are investing, impacting developing communities. From building sustainable businesses to providing education, the movement is life-changing for those living in poor communities around the world".-Brandi Gomez Fair Trade (FT) is a societal movement that aims to support poor and vulnerable producers in developing nations to attain improved trading conditions with direct link to consumers and excluding mediators in the trading chain (Young and Utting 2005). Therefore FT allows poor producers to be part of a trading organization that make sure a fair and steady price for their products. It also provides them and their systems different level of backing facilities and stimulates sustainable environment.
    Date: 2021
  77. By: Komarek, Adam M.; Cenacchi, Nicola; Dunston, Shahnila; Sulser, Timothy B; Wiebe, Keith; Willenbockel, Dirk
    Abstract: The effect of global diet shifts on human health, the natural environment, and the financial cost of obtaining food has been extensively quantified. The current study complements these quantifications by examining the economy-wide consequences of global diet shifts. We used a computable general equilibrium model to quantify the changes in employment and income in all geographic regions of the globe in the year 2050 under a global shift towards more sustainable human diets. These more sustainable diets are lower in livestock-derived foods, higher in fruit and vegetables, and lower in refined sugar than diets under the current trajectory for food demand out to the year 2050. Our results show that transitioning towards more sustainable diets at the global scale in sub-Saharan Africa will decrease employment in the livestock sector and increase employment in the crop sector, with an overall reallocation of labor from the industry and services sectors to the agriculture sector. West Africa was the region of the globe that encountered the greatest decline in income of 14% as a result of the global diet shift, driven by the reallocation of labor into the lower value-added agriculture sector and driven by West Africa’s high share of total household expenditure spent on food. These findings have important implications for understanding trade-offs and developing strategies to equitably improve livelihoods within the broader context of food system transformation.
    Date: 2021–12–21
  78. By: Itten, Anatol; Mouter, Niek
    Abstract: Notwithstanding the rationale and the demand for public participation in climate policies, aggregated perspectives of maxi-publics are often belittled as uninformed, self-interested and short-term focused. The upcoming vogue of climate assemblies, citizen parliaments and other forms of mini-publics is to give citizens a central role in climate policy-making and in some cases to break political impasse. Yet climate mini-publics face challenges in political environments too, such as co-option, favoring expert-opinions and losing touch with the broader public. To remedy such pitfalls, recent papers have argued to combine synchronous deliberations of small groups of citizens with online participation procedures for the larger public. In this article, we report the results of a three-step combination model, where first a mini-public in the region of Súdwest-Fryslân (NL) were given a ‘carte blanche’ to draft the content and the parameters of several related policy alternatives. Second, their proposals were fed into a digital participation tool, the Participatory Value Evaluation (PVE) to consult the wider public. A total of 1,376 (approx. 2% of the inhabitants) expressed their preferences and explained why they favour a dominant role for the municipality and the residents but are reticent about giving the market too big a role. Third, a citizen forum translated the outcomes of the maxi-public into policy recommendations, which were unanimously approved by the municipal council. In this paper, we report our findings of combining mini-and maxi-publics and how actors involved evaluated the strengths and weaknesses of the combination of these two participatory approaches.
    Date: 2022–01–04
  79. By: Hui Xu; Yue Wu
    Abstract: How does import competition from China affect engagement on ESG initiatives by US corporates? On the one hand, reduced profitability due to import competition and lagging ESG performance of Chinese exporters can disincentivize US firms to put more resources to ESG initiatives. On the other hand, the shift from labor-intensive production to capital/technology-intensive production along with offshoring may improve the US company's ESG performance. Moreover, US companies have incentives to actively pursue more ESG engagement to differentiate from Chinese imports. Exploiting a trade policy in which US congress granted China the Permanent Normal Trade Relations and the resulting change in expected tariff rates on Chinese imports, we find that greater import competition from China leads to an increase in the US company's ESG performance. The improvement primarily stems from "doing more positives" and from more involvement on environmental initiatives. Indirect and direct evidence shows that the improvement is not driven by the change in production process or offshoring, but is consistent with product differentiation. Our results suggest that the trade shock from China has significant impact on the US company's ESG performance.
    Date: 2022–01
  80. By: Bogliacino, Francesco (Universidad Nacional de Colombia); Mantilla, Cesar; Niño Eslava, Daniel
    Abstract: We designed and conducted an experiment of common-pool resource management involving economic and political inequality. Participants are assigned to different types differing in their endowments-Poor, Middle and Rich-and play an appropriation dilemma, with and without a voting procedure to select a quota limiting maximum extraction. Political inequality is introduced by allocating a higher likelihood to select the voted quota of a given player type: in the Ptochocracy treatment, the "Poor" type has a higher chance of setting her choice as quota; whereas in the Demarchy and Plutocracy treatments, this is true for the "Middle" and "Rich" types, respectively. These are contrasted with Democracy, where the votes of all three types are equally likely to be selected. Theoretically, each player type selfishly prefers the quota closer (i.e., one unit below) their endowment, although the lower quota would be socially desirable. We find that participants voted for the selfishly preferred quota between half and two-thirds of the time, and the introduction of these quotas decreased the absolute extraction in about 17.5%, even though participants were more likely to choose extraction levels closer to their maximum capacity (now set by the quota). Nonetheless, we do not find systematic differences in extraction patterns between treatments.
    Date: 2021–11–03
  81. By: Alexander Gleim; Nazarii Salish
    Abstract: Environmental problems are receiving increasing attention in socio-economic and health studies. This in turn fosters advances in recording and data collection of many related real-life processes. Available tools for data processing are often found too restrictive as they do not account for the rich nature of such data sets. In this paper, we propose a new statistical perspective on forecasting spatial environmental data collected sequentially over time. We treat this data set as a surface (functional) time series with a possibly complicated geographical domain. By employing novel techniques from functional data analysis we develop a new forecasting methodology. Our approach consists of two steps. In the first step, time series of surfaces are reconstructed from measurements sampled over some spatial domain using a finite element spline smoother. In the second step, we adapt the dynamic functional factor model to forecast a surface time series. The advantage of this approach is that we can account for and explore simultaneously spatial as well as temporal dependencies in the data. A forecasting study of ground-level ozone concentration over the geographical domain of Germany demonstrates the practical value of this new perspective, where we compare our approach with standard functional benchmark models.
    Date: 2022–02
  82. By: Lilliestam, Johan; Du, Fengli; Gilmanova, Alina; Mehos, Mark; Wang, Zhifeng; Thonig, Richard
    Abstract: Concentrating solar power (CSP) is one of the few scalable technologies capable of delivering dispatchable renewable power and, as such, many expect it to shoulder a significant share of system balancing in a renewable electricity future power by cheap, intermittent PV and wind power: the IEA, for example, projects 73 GW CSP by 2030 and several hundred GW by 2050 in its Net-Zero by 2050 pathway. In this paper, we assess how fast CSP can be expected to scale up and how long time it would take to get new, high-efficiency CSP technologies to market, based on observed trends and historical patterns. We find that to meaningfully contribute to net-zero pathways the CSP sector needs to reach and exceed the maximum historical annual growth rate of 30%/year last seen between 2010-2014 and maintain it for at least two decades. Any CSP deployment in the 2020s will rely mostly on mature existing technologies, namely parabolic trough and molten-salt towers, but likely with adapted business models such as hybrid CSP-PV stations, combining the advantages of higher-cost dispatchability and low-cost intermittency. New third-generation CSP designs are unlikely to play a role in markets during the 2020s, as they are still at or before the pilot stage and, judging from past pilot-to-market cycles for CSP, they will likely not be ready for market deployment before 2030. CSP can contribute to low-cost zero-emission energy systems by 2050, but to make that happen, at the scale foreseen in current energy models, ambitious technology-specific policy support is necessary, as soon as possible and in several countries.
    Date: 2021–10–28
  83. By: Kozicka, Marta; Enahoro, Dolapo; Groot, Jeroen C.J.; Rich, Karl M.; Gotor, Elisabetta
    Abstract: This document is part of a series of short papers on “The Future of X”, produced as part of foresight-related research supported by the CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets, and edited by Keith Wiebe (IFPRI) and Steven Prager (Alliance of Bioversity and CIAT). These short papers are intended to provide a focused, forward-looking perspective on key issues to support discussion on food, land, and water systems transformation. We thank two anonymous reviewers for their comments on an earlier draft. This is an accepted version presented as a pre-print. It is currently undergoing final revision, editing, and production. A final version will be made available at
    Date: 2021–12–20
  84. By: Gamze Danisman (Faculty of Economics, Administrative and Social Sciences, Kadir Has University, Turkey); Amine Tarazi (LAPE - Laboratoire d'Analyse et de Prospective Economique - GIO - Gouvernance des Institutions et des Organisations - UNILIM - Université de Limoges)
    Abstract: This paper explores how banks' environmental, social, and governance (ESG) activities affect their lending during financial crises. We use a sample of 83 listed banks from 20 European countries for the 2002-2020 period and consider the global financial crisis of 2007-2009 and the European sovereign debt crisis of 2010-2012. We implement two-step system GMM dynamic panel data estimation techniques. We also address potential endogeneity issues using instrumental variables (IV) and two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimations by instrumenting ESG activity with board gender diversity. We find that lending falls to a lesser extent for banks with higher ESG scores during crisis times. Looking at the different potential channels shows that, during crises, banks more engaged in ESG activities are less affected in terms of credit and asset risk, and profitability. They also face a lower reduction in market funding, allowing them to downsize to a lesser extent during crises, and their deposit rates do not increase as much as in less ESG-engaged banks. Going deeper reveals that our findings are mainly driven by the environmental pillar component of ESG scores.
    Keywords: Environmental Social Governance (ESG) scores,Bank Lending,Bank Risk,Environmental pillar,Financial Crisis,European banks
    Date: 2022–01–28
  85. By: Diriye, Abdishakur W.; Jama, Osman M.; Chong, Ren; Abdi, Abdulhakim M
    Abstract: Public acceptability is important for sustainable land use zoning policy to be successfully implemented. This study examined the effectiveness of tailoring messages with cultural worldviews to induce positive attitudes and improve public acceptability of sustainable land use zoning policy in a post-conflict setting. A total of 538 participants were randomly divided into three groups. Two were treatment groups and received promotional information about a hypothetical land-use zoning policy, and one group was the control group and received no promotional information. The results indicate that information provision results in positive attitudes and higher public acceptability of land use zoning policy. Arguments that correspond to participants' cultural worldviews generated more positive attitudes and higher acceptability than arguments that conflict with their cultural worldviews. This study recommends targeting messages with peoples’ cultural worldviews as an effective strategy in inducing positive attitudes and higher acceptability for sustainable land use zoning policy in Somalia.
    Date: 2021–12–14
  86. By: Ramli, Ukasha; Laffan, Kate
    Abstract: Personalised normative messages have been shown to be effective at encouraging both electricity and separately water savings. As use of this approach to promote resource savings becomes increasingly widespread, an important question is whether providing such feedback on consumption of the two resources together can yield reductions in both areas. In a field experiment with over 200,000 households in the Middle East, we send households personalised normative messages regarding both their water and electricity consumption on a monthly basis. This intervention saw a statistically significant reduction of around 1.2% for electricity but not for water consumption. Furthermore, we test different ways of concurrently presenting normative messages of both water and energy, including presenting it as a combined eco score. Local treatment effects of these were around 1.2% reduction. Our findings contribute towards nexus thinking around how (not) to concurrently achieve energy and water savings using normative feedback.
    Keywords: eco-feedback; energy usage; pro-environmental; social norms; water usage
    JEL: L81
    Date: 2022–06–01
  87. By: Juan Ignacio Pe\~na; Rosa Rodriguez
    Abstract: This paper studies the realizability and compatibility of the three CEP2020 targets, focusing on electricity prices. We study the impact of renewables and other fundamental determinants on wholesale and household retail electricity prices in ten EU countries from 2008 to 2016. Increases in production from renewables decrease wholesale electricity prices in all countries. As decreases in prices should promote consumption, an apparent contradiction emerges between the target of an increase in renewables and the target of a reduction in consumption. However, the impact of renewables on the non-energy part of household wholesale electricity prices is positive in six countries. Therefore, decreases in wholesale prices, that may compromise the CEP2020 target of decrease in consumption, do not necessarily translate into lower household retail prices.
    Date: 2022–02
  88. By: Jean-Charles Hourcade; Peter Tankov; Stéphane Voisin; F. Ghersi (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Julien Lefèvre
    Date: 2021
  89. By: Rovetta, Alessandro (Mensana srls); Castaldo, Lucia
    Abstract: As stated by Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO's director-general, we have fought not only the COVID-19 pandemic but also an equally severe infodemic. Although the most striking manifestations of the latter occurred on social networks, some studies show that dismisinformation is significantly influenced by numerous additional factors, both online and offline (i.e., disjoined from the internet). These include social context, age, education, personal knowledge and beliefs, mood, psychological defense mechanisms, media resonance, and how news and information are presented to the public. However, following the evidence in the literature, we also discuss how various incorrect scientific practices related to disclosure, publication, and training can fuel such a phenomenon. In particular, we stress the importance of considering that, in every complex system, all components influence each other. Therefore, if we want to bring down novel infodemics due to future severe crises such as pollution and climate change, we will have to act immediately on all levels. In conclusion, we believe that the construction of resilience to dismisinformation must start with children in schools since the current countermeasures are insufficient to combat a phenomenon that has its roots in personal and collective psychology. Furthermore, we believe that themes such as scientific method and evidence should be at the heart of the university education of a future scientist. Finally, the principle of authority and the obsessive pursuit of prestige must be drastically limited as they undermine the credibility of science.
    Date: 2022–01–18
  90. By: Dofonsou Gbegbelegbe, Sika; Nedumaran, Swamikannu; Frija, Aymen; Alene, Arega
    Abstract: This document is part of a series of short papers on “The Future of X”, produced as part of foresight-related research supported by the CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets, and edited by Keith Wiebe (IFPRI) and Steven Prager (Alliance of Bioversity and CIAT). This short paper is intended to provide a focused, forward-looking perspective on the future of grain legumes and dryland cereals in the drylands of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.
    Date: 2021–12–23
  91. By: Thu, Phạm Minh; Thư, Nguyễn Phúc; Thương, Nguyễn Thị; Thao, Nguyen Thi Phuong; Thanh, Nguyen Duc; Thuy, Hoang Bich; Thúy, Trịnh Minh; Thao, Nguyen Thu; Tâm, Ngô Mỹ; Quyen, Luu Thi Truc
    Abstract: Vấn đề đô thị hóa tự phát đang diễn biến phức tạp
    Date: 2022–01–09
  92. By: Prateek Bansal; Rubal Dua
    Abstract: China and India, the world's two most populous developing economies, are also among the world's largest automotive markets and carbon emitters. To reduce carbon emissions from the passenger car sector, both countries have considered various policy levers affecting fuel prices, car prices and fuel economy. This study estimates the responsiveness of new car buyers in China and India to such policy levers and drivers including income. Furthermore, we estimate the potential for rebound effect and the effectiveness of a feebate policy. To accomplish this, we developed a joint discrete-continuous model of car choice and usage based on revealed preference survey data from approximately 8000 new car buyers from India and China who purchased cars in 2016-17. Conditional on buying a new car, the fuel consumption in both markets is found to be relatively unresponsive to fuel price and income, with magnitudes of elasticity estimates ranging from 0.12 to 0.15. For both markets, the mean segment-level direct elasticities of fuel consumption relative to car price and fuel economy range from 0.57 to 0.65. The rebound effect on fuel savings due to cost-free fuel economy improvement is found to be 17.1% for India and 18.8% for China. A revenue-neutral feebate policy, with average rebates and fees of up to around 15% of the retail price, resulted in fuel savings of around 0.7% for both markets. While the feebate policy's rebound effect is low - 7.3% for India and 1.6% for China - it does not appear to be an effective fuel conservation policy.
    Date: 2022–01
  93. By: Linh, Hoang Phuong; Linh, Nguyen Khanh; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Linh, Phung Thi Nhat; Linh, Truong Khanh; Mai, Tran Thi Ngoc; Manh, Nguyen Duc; Minh, Nguyen Trong; , Le Hong Thao My; Nam, Dang Vinh
    Abstract: Providing enough water for citizens is important concern in Viet Nam as freshwater is threated.
    Date: 2022–01–13
  94. By: Katelouzou, Dionysia; Micheler, Eva
    Abstract: This contribution examines the connection between investor capitalism and sustainable investment. It will be observed in this article that investor capitalism has gone through a structural change. Individual investors have been replaced by funds. Financial service providers have emerged that assist investors in managing and holding investments. This development coincided and was arguably facilitated by the growth in workplace and personal pensions. Pensions are subsidised by the government through tax relief. This financial contribution of the government is justified on social policy grounds. But it has the effect that pension savers, who receive substantial return by saving tax, are deprived of a reason to take an interest in how their money is invested. This not only deprives the service providers assisting pension savers from oversight from their ultimate customers. It also can help to explain why pension savers do not actively select investment products but rely on the default settings suggested by their employers. If the government is serious about encouraging investor capitalism to bring about sustainable business it should start with its own financial contribution, which has coincided with the emergence of the current model of investor capitalism, and connect pension tax relief to sustainable investment practices.
    Keywords: sustainable investment; green investment; social investment; pension tax relief; ESG; stewardship; sovereign wealth funds; retail investors; workplace pensions; personal pensions; pension trustees; independent governance committees; auto-enrolment; NEST; disclosure; kay review; Springer deal
    JEL: F3 G3 J1
    Date: 2022–01–31
  95. By: Karel Janda; Ladislav Kristoufek; Binyi Zhang
    Abstract: This paper aims to empirically investigate the dynamic connectedness between oil prices and stock returns of clean energy-related and technology companies in China and U.S. financial markets. We apply three multivariate GARCH model specifications (CCC, DCC and ADCC) to investigate the return and volatility spillovers among price and return series. We use rolling window analysis to forecast out-of-sample one-step-ahead dynamic conditional correlations and time-varying optimal hedge ratios. Our results suggest that Invesco China Technology ETF (CQQQ) is the best asset to hedge Chinese clean energy stocks followed by WTI, ECO, and PSE. Our results are reasonably robust to the choice of different model refits and forecast length of rolling window analysis. Our empirical findings provide investors and policymakers with the systematic understanding of return and volatility connectedness between China and U.S. clean energy stock markets.
    Keywords: Clean energy, Hedge effectiveness, Rolling window analysis
    JEL: C22 G11 Q41
    Date: 2022–02
  96. By: Nicholas Gohdes (Queensland University of Technology); Paul Simshauser (Griffith Business School, Griffith University)
    Keywords: Renewable Energy, PPAs, Project Finance, Counterparty Credit, Cost of Capital
    JEL: D25 D80 G32 L51 Q41
    Date: 2022–01
  97. By: Friedrich, Jonathan; Zscheischler, Jana
    Abstract: The current agricultural production systems with their multiple negative impacts on socio-ecological systems have led to crises, resulting in the demand for change. The German livestock production is one exemplary sector that heavily contributes to these negative effects by amongst others producing a surplus of manure that can lead to the eutrophication of water bodies. Thus, actors are seeking for innovative solutions to this issue, which differ in terms of their underlying conceptualizations and involved imaginations of a desirable future. Based on semi-structured interviews with twelve different actors, this study explores the imaginations of the future that shape contesting ideas out of the nitrous surplus. Results show three different development trajectories, namely “preservation”, “modernization” and, “transformation”, including different and often antagonistic imaginations that need to be discussed and harmonized in society.
    Keywords: Community / Rural / Urban Development, Resource /Energy economics and Policy, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2021–11–18

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