nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2021‒04‒12
sixty-two papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Fiscal Policies to Address Climate Change in Asia and the Pacific; Opportunities and Challenges By Era Dabla-Norris; James Daniel; Masahiro Nozaki; Cristian Alonso; Vybhavi Balasundharam; Matthieu Bellon; Chuling Chen; David Corvino; Joey Kilpatrick
  2. Organic Agriculture By Klimczuk, Andrzej; Klimczuk-Kochańska, Magdalena
  3. Carbon Pricing and the Elasticity of CO2 Emissions By Ryan Rafaty; Geoffroy Dolphin; Felix Pretis
  4. De-carbonization of global energy use during the COVID-19 pandemic By Zhu Liu; Biqing Zhu; Philippe Ciais; Steven J. Davis; Chenxi Lu; Haiwang Zhong; Piyu Ke; Yanan Cui; Zhu Deng; Duo Cui; Taochun Sun; Xinyu Dou; Jianguang Tan; Rui Guo; Bo Zheng; Katsumasa Tanaka; Wenli Zhao; Pierre Gentine
  5. Does LEED Certification Save Energy? Evidence from Federal Buildings By Karen Clay; Edson R. Severnini; Xiaochen Sun
  6. Green communications through ISO 14 000 standards series and other voluntary initiatives By Vasileva, Elka; Hristova – Pesheva, Juliya
  7. Cost-effective conservation in the face of climate change: combining ecological-economic modelling and climate science for the cost-effective spatio-temporal allocation of conservation measures in agricultural landscapes By Gerling, Charlotte; Drechsler, Martin; Keuler, Klaus; Leins, Johannes A.; Radtke, Kai; Schulz, Björn; Sturm, Astrid; Wätzold, Frank
  8. How can green differentiated capital requirements affect climate risks? A dynamic macrofinancial analysis By Yannis Dafermos; Maria Nikolaidi
  9. Distributional Impacts of Carbon Pricing Policies under Paris Agreement: Inter and Intra-Regional Perspectives By Chepeliev, Maksym; Israel Osorio Rodarte; Dominique van der Mensbrugghe
  10. Common pool resource management and risk perceptions By Can Askan Mavi; Nicolas Quérou
  11. Емпирично изследване на управлението на услугите на агроекосистемите в България By Bachev, Hrabrin; Ivanov, Bojidar; Mitova, Dilyana; Boevski, Ivan; Marinov, Petar; Sarov, Angel; Zvetkova, Daniela; Kostenarov, Krasimir; Vanev, Dimitar
  12. Sustainability transition and digital trasformation: an agent-based perspective By Nieddu, Marcello; Bertani, Filippo; Ponta, Linda
  13. Convergence and club convergence of CO2 emissions at state levels: A nonlinear analysis of the USA By Tiwari, Aviral; Nasir, Muhammad Ali; shahbaz, Muhammad; Raheem, Ibrahim
  14. Emission Reduction and Foreign Direct Investment Nexus in China By Yuan Xu; Yanrui Wu; Yongli Shi
  15. The health consequences of excess emissions: Evidence from Texas By Hollingsworth, Alex; Konisky, David; Zirogiannis, Nikos
  16. Weather, Climate, and Migration in the United States By Jamie T. Mullins; Prashant Bharadwaj
  17. The propensity to adaptation under the new era of climate changes By Ary José A. de Souza-Jr.; Flávio Terto
  18. Perceptions of Food Retailers Regarding Climate Change and Greenhouse Gas Emissions By Ayanda Pamella Deliwe
  19. Carbon Policy and the Emissions Implications of Electric Vehicles By Kenneth Gillingham; Marten Ovaere; Stephanie M. Weber
  20. Welfare Consequences of Sustainable Finance By Harrison Hong; Neng Wang; Jinqiang Yang
  21. Introducing Environmental Ethics into Economic Analysis: Some insights from Hans Jonas’ Imperative of Responsibility By Sylvie Ferrari; Damien Bazin; Richard B. Howarth
  22. EIA-driven biodiversity mainstreaming in development cooperation: Confronting expectations and practice in the DR Congo By Jean Huge; Luc Janssens De Bisthoven; Mathilda Mushiete; Anne Julie Rochette; Soraya Candido; Hilde Keunen; Farid Dahdouh-Guebas; Nico Koedam; Maarten P M Vanhove
  23. The Biogas dilemma: an analysis on the Social Approval of large new plants By Massimiliano Mazzanti; Marco Modica; Andrea Rampa
  24. Debt-for-climate swaps in the COVID-19 era: killing two birds with one stone? By Essers, Dennis; Cassimon, Danny; Prowse, Martin
  25. Boosting Citizens Towards Reduced Energy Consumption: A Field Experiment in the Principality of Monaco By Mira Toumi; Nathalie Lazaric
  26. Insurance Business and Sustainable Development By Dietmar Pfeifer; Vivien Langen
  27. How do credit market frictions affect carbon cycles? an estimated DSGE model approach By Chan, Ying Tung; Zhao, Hong
  28. Environmental Culture and Economic Complexity By Athanasios Lapatinas; Anstasia Litina; Skerdilajda Zanaj
  29. Kegiatan Sitasi The Impact of Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Regulation Number 12 of 2020 on the Sustainability of Lobster in Indonesia By Cumala, Putri
  30. Kegiatan Sitasi Journal The Impact of Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Regulation Number 12 of 2020 on the Sustainability of Lobster in Indonesia By Cumala, Putri
  31. Catastrophic climate change, population ethics and intergenerational equity By Aurélie Méjean; Antonin Pottier; Marc Fleurbaey; Stéphane Zuber
  32. Financing Biodiversity and Ecosystems Conservation in India: Implications for Efforts and Outcomes. By Pandey, Rita; Gupta, Manish; Sachdeva, Paavani; Singh, Abhishek
  33. Regulation Number 12 of 2020 Must Be Abolished By Perdanasari, Puteri Riztin
  34. Exploring inner-city residents’ and foreigners’ commitment to improving air pollution: Evidence from a field survey in Hanoi, Vietnam By Khuc, Quy Van; Vuong, Quan-Hoang
  35. Embedding Sustainability in Complex Projects: A Pedagogic Practice Simulation Approach By Tite, Caroline N J; Pontin, David; Dacre, Nicholas
  36. Alisha Alawiyah_130218229_B By Alawiyah, Alisha
  37. La face cachée de la valeur de la tonne de CO2 By Yves Crozet
  38. Transformation von Gelsenkirchen zur Smart City – Die #vernetzteStadt als Weg der digitalen Modellkommune im Ruhrgebiet By Küffmann, Karin; Luhmann, Maik; vom Sondern, Manfred
  39. The Local Economic Competitiveness of Rural Hometowns for Overseas Remittances-Induced Investments: Two Case Studies from the Philippin By Alvin P. Ang; Jeremaiah M. Opiniano
  40. The role of ICT and financial development in CO2 emissions and economic growth By Raheem, Ibrahim; Tiwari, Aviral; Balsalobre-Lorente, Daniel
  41. Who Benefits When Firms Game Corrective Policies? By Mathias Reynaert; James M. Sallee
  42. Population and Climate Change: Consensus and Dissensus among Demographers By van Dalen, Hendrik Peter; Henkens, C.J.I.M.
  43. What Do Hedonic House Price Estimates Tell Us When CAP Rates Vary? By Paul E. Carrillo; Anthony Yezer
  44. Ecological Fiscal Transfers and State-level Budgetary Spending in India: Analysing The Flypaper Effects in India. By Kaur, Amandeep; Mohanty, Ranjan Kumar; Chakraborty, Lekha; Rangan, Divy
  45. Impact of Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Regulation on the Sustainability of Lobster in Indonesia Citation By Wanaputra, Frillian
  46. The coastal communities and the alternative income (Case study in Tomini Bay) By Yapanto, Lis M Universitas Negeri Gorontalo
  47. A hierarchical Bayesian approach for modeling changes in species composition By Dias, Filipe S.; Betancourt, Michael; Rodríguez-González, Patricia María; de Água, Luís Borda
  48. The Impact of Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Regulation Number 12 of 2020 on the Sustainability of Lobster in Indonesia By Hana, Mutiara
  49. Environmental assessment of a new generation battery: The magnesium-sulfur system By Claudia Tomasini Montenegro; Jens F. Peters; Manuel Baumann; Zhirong Zhao-Karger; Christopher Wolter; Marcel Weil
  50. Spatial analysis of early mangrove regeneration in the Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve, Peninsular Malaysia, using geomatics By Viviana Otero Fadul; Richard Lucas; Ruben Van De Kerchove; Behara Satyanarayana; Husain Mohd-Lokman; Farid Dahdouh-Guebas
  51. Information Diffusion and Spillover Dynamics in Renewable Energy Markets By Cedic, Samir; Mahmoud, Alwan; Manera, Matteo; Uddin, Gazi Salah
  52. The impact of renewable versus non-renewable natural capital on economic growth By Farid Gasmi; Laura Recuero Virto; Denis Couvet
  53. Designing waste management systems to meet circular economy goals: The Italian case By Di Foggia, Giacomo; Beccarello, Massimo
  54. Facilitando sistemas alimentarios sostenibles By Allison Loconto
  55. The Persistent Effect of Famine on Present-Day China By Pramod Kumar Sur; Masaru Sasaki
  56. The Effect of Customer Satisfaction on Customers Loyalty at the Green Mart Supermarket in Namrole City By Umanailo, M Chairul Basrun
  57. The effect of decentralisation on access to sanitation and water services: An empirical test using international data By Taiwo, Kayode
  58. Interdependence between research and development, climate variability and agricultural production: evidence from sub-Saharan Africa By Bannor, Frank; Dikgang, Johane; Kutela Gelo, Dambala
  59. The Disruption of Lobster Sustainability In Indonesia With The Existence Of Marine Affairs And Fisheries New Regulation By Handoyo, Anastasia
  60. Systèmes alimentaires durables By Allison Loconto
  61. Sharing the cost of cleaning up a polluted river By Wenzhong Li; Genjiu Xu; Rene van den Brink
  62. De la mobilité à l’immobilité, de l’urgence climatique à l’urgence économique By Yves Crozet

  1. By: Era Dabla-Norris; James Daniel; Masahiro Nozaki; Cristian Alonso; Vybhavi Balasundharam; Matthieu Bellon; Chuling Chen; David Corvino; Joey Kilpatrick
    Abstract: Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing policymakers worldwide, and the stakes are particularly high for Asia and the Pacific. This paper analyzes how fiscal policy can address challenges from climate change in Asia and the Pacific. It aims to answer how policymakers can best promote mitigation, adaptation, and the transition to a low-carbon economy, emphasizing the economic and social implications of reforms, potential policy trade-offs, and country circumstances. The recommendations are grounded in quantitative analysis using country-specific estimates, and granular household, industry, and firm-level data.
    Keywords: Climate change;Fiscal policy;Environmental taxes;Climate policy;Asia and Pacific;Fiscal policy;Climate change;Environmental taxes;Green economy;Climate change mitigation;Climate change adaptation;Asia and the Pacific
    Date: 2021–03–24
  2. By: Klimczuk, Andrzej; Klimczuk-Kochańska, Magdalena
    Abstract: Consumers are increasingly aware of the health- and safety-related implications of the food which they can buy in the market. At the same time, households have become more aware of their environmental responsibilities. Regarding the production of food, a crucial and multifunctional role is played by agriculture. The way vegetables, fruits, and other crops are grown and how livestock is raised has an impact on the environment and landscape. Operations performed by farmers, such as water management, can be dangerous for the soil and the whole ecosystem. Consequently, there is a search for natural ways of sustaining the impact of agriculture on the environment. In this context, one of the most popular ideas is organic agriculture. In the literature on the subject, there are many concepts that some authors consider to be synonymous even as others argue that these terms are not interchangeable. There is, for example, "organic agriculture," "alternative agriculture," "sustainable agriculture," "ecological agriculture," "biological agriculture," "niche farming," "community-supported agriculture," and "integrated pest management." Very often, techniques and products related to organic agriculture are described by marketing experts with the use of abbreviations such as "bio" and "eco." Products with such markings and labels are increasingly popular in stores that often give them separate shelves for their sale. Despite the higher price compared to conventional products, they are increasingly sought by consumers. The entry examines the various impacts of organic agriculture with a view to these trends.
    Keywords: Alternative agriculture; Biological agriculture; Ecological agriculture; Niche farming; Sustainable agriculture
    JEL: O13 Q01 Q18
    Date: 2020
  3. By: Ryan Rafaty (Nuffield College, University of Oxford); Geoffroy Dolphin (Judge Business School, University of Cambridge); Felix Pretis (Nuffield College, University of Oxford)
    Abstract: We study the impact of carbon pricing on CO2 emissions across five sectors for a panel of 39 countries over 1990-2016. Using newly constructed sector-level carbon price data, we implement a novel approach to estimate the changes in CO2 emissions associated with (i) the introduction of carbon pricing regardless of the price level; (ii) the implementation effect as a function of the price level; and (iii) post-implementation marginal changes in the CO2 price. We find that the introduction of carbon pricing has reduced growth in CO2 emissions by 1% to 2.5% on average relative to counterfactual emissions, with most abatement occurring in the electricity and heat sector. Exploiting variation in carbon pricing to explain heterogeneity in treatment effects, we find an imprecisely estimated semi-elasticity of a 0.05% reduction in emissions growth per average $1/metric ton (hereafter abbreviated as: ton) of CO2. After the carbon price has been implemented, each marginal price increase of $1/tCO2 has temporarily lowered the growth rate of CO2 emissions by around 0.01%. These are disappointingly small effects. Simulating potential future emissions reductions in response to carbon price paths, we conclude that – in the absence of complementary non-pricing policy interventions – carbon pricing alone is unlikely to be sufficient to achieve emission reductions consistent with the Paris climate agreement.
    Keywords: Carbon Pricing, CO2 Emissions, Decarbonization, Carbon Tax, Climate Change, Climate Policy.
    JEL: Q43 Q48 Q54 Q58 H23
    Date: 2020–10–21
  4. By: Zhu Liu; Biqing Zhu; Philippe Ciais; Steven J. Davis; Chenxi Lu; Haiwang Zhong; Piyu Ke; Yanan Cui; Zhu Deng; Duo Cui; Taochun Sun; Xinyu Dou; Jianguang Tan; Rui Guo; Bo Zheng; Katsumasa Tanaka; Wenli Zhao; Pierre Gentine
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted human activities, leading to unprecedented decreases in both global energy demand and GHG emissions. Yet a little known that there is also a low carbon shift of the global energy system in 2020. Here, using the near-real-time data on energy-related GHG emissions from 30 countries (about 70% of global power generation), we show that the pandemic caused an unprecedented de-carbonization of global power system, representing by a dramatic decrease in the carbon intensity of power sector that reached a historical low of 414.9 tCO2eq/GWh in 2020. Moreover, the share of energy derived from renewable and low-carbon sources (nuclear, hydro-energy, wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass) exceeded that from coal and oil for the first time in history in May of 2020. The decrease in global net energy demand (-1.3% in the first half of 2020 relative to the average of the period in 2016-2019) masks a large down-regulation of fossil-fuel-burning power plants supply (-6.1%) coincident with a surge of low-carbon sources (+6.2%). Concomitant changes in the diurnal cycle of electricity demand also favored low-carbon generators, including a flattening of the morning ramp, a lower midday peak, and delays in both the morning and midday load peaks in most countries. However, emission intensities in the power sector have since rebounded in many countries, and a key question for climate mitigation is thus to what extent countries can achieve and maintain lower, pandemic-level carbon intensities of electricity as part of a green recovery.
    Date: 2021–02
  5. By: Karen Clay; Edson R. Severnini; Xiaochen Sun
    Abstract: In the absence of first-best climate policy, energy efficiency has figured prominently among strategies to reduce carbon emissions. One of the most sought-after green certification in the building sector is the internationally recognized Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED). This paper examines the effects of LEED certification on energy efficiency in federally owned buildings. Using propensity score matching and difference in differences models, we find no effect of LEED certification on average energy consumption. This reflects the fact that energy use is one of a number of attributes that receives scores under the LEED program. Buildings with above average energy scores have greater energy efficiency post-certification. Some other attributes, notably higher water scores, decrease energy efficiency post-certification. Trade-offs across LEED attributes account for the absence of energy savings on average. If energy efficiency is the primary policy goal, LEED certification may not be the most effective means to reach that goal.
    JEL: O31 Q41 Q48 Q52
    Date: 2021–03
  6. By: Vasileva, Elka; Hristova – Pesheva, Juliya
    Abstract: Background/importance of research topic: Environmental communications have an important role to play in legitimizing business organizations to their stakeholders and in improving the green management in the context of green economy. In the last decade, scholars have shifted focus from general environmental risk to specific climate change and social problems. Purpose/hypothesis (thesis or statement of problem): The paper examines issues related to organizations’ communications of their green and social initiatives and achievements through ISO 14 000 standards series and other voluntary initiatives at international and national level. Procedures/Data/Observations: The discussion focuses on the communication with stakeholders (employees, customers, local community, municipal authorities, suppliers, etc.) of organizations that have implemented standardized quality management, environmental and social responsibility systems. Conclusions/Applications: Conclusions are drawn about the role of standards in the effectiveness of green communications covering both the environmental and social aspects of organizational management. Implications about improving the effectiveness of green communications through ISO 14063: 2006 environmental communication guidelines for case studies in Bulgarian context are discussed.
    Keywords: Keywords - Green communication; ISO 14063: 2006 environmental communication guidelines; environmental management standards; green management standards; Bulgaria
    JEL: M0 M10 Q5 Q59
    Date: 2019–10–24
  7. By: Gerling, Charlotte; Drechsler, Martin; Keuler, Klaus; Leins, Johannes A.; Radtke, Kai; Schulz, Björn; Sturm, Astrid; Wätzold, Frank
    Abstract: In agricultural landscapes, climate change has profound impacts on species that society aims to conserve. In response to climate change, species may adapt spatially (with range shifts) and temporally (with phenological adaptations), which may make formerly effective conservation sites and measures less effective. As climate change also has an impact on yields, opportunity costs of land use-based conservation measures may also change spatially and with respect to the timing of conservation measures. Due to these spatio-temporal modifications of the costs of conservation measures and their impacts on species, formerly cost-effective conservation sites and measures may no longer be so in a changing climate. We combine ecological-economic modelling with climate science to investigate climate change-induced modifications of the timing and spatial allocation of cost-effective conservation measures. We apply our model to the case study of conserving the large marsh grasshopper on agricultural grasslands in the German federal state of Schleswig-Holstein. Comparing the periods 2020-2039 and 2060-2079, our model indeed indicates that climate change induces modifications in the cost-effective spatial allocation of conservation measures and that measures which are adapted to phenological changes remain cost-effective under climate change.
    Keywords: climate ecological-economic model; conservation planning; large marsh grasshopper; cultural landscapes; biodiversity conservation
    JEL: Q15 Q54 Q57
    Date: 2021–01–27
  8. By: Yannis Dafermos; Maria Nikolaidi
    Abstract: Using an ecological macrofinancial model, we explore the potential impact of the ‘green supporting factor’ (GSF) and the ‘dirty penalising factor’ (DPF) on climate-related financial risks. We identify the transmission channels by which these green differentiated capital requirements (GDCRs) can affect credit provision and loan spreads, and we analyse these channels within a dynamic framework in which climate and macrofinancial feedback effects play a key role. Our main findings are as follows. First, GDCRs can reduce the pace of global warming and decrease thereby the physical financial risks. This reduction is quantitatively small, but is enhanced when the GSF and the DPF are implemented simultaneously or in combination with green fiscal policies. Second, the DPF reduces banks' credit provision and leverage, making them less fragile. Third, both the DPF and the GSF generate some transition risks: the GSF increases bank leverage because it boosts green credit and the DPF increases loan defaults since it reduces economic activity. These effects are small in quantitative terms and are attenuated when there is a simultaneous implementation of the DPF and the GSF. Fourth, fiscal policies that boost green investment amplify the transition risks of the GSF and reduce the transition risks of the DPF; the combination of green fiscal policy with the DPF is thereby a potentially effective climate policy mix from a financial stability point of view.
    Keywords: : stock-flow consistent modelling, climate change, financial stability, green financial regulation
    JEL: E12 E44 G18 Q54
    Date: 2021–03
  9. By: Chepeliev, Maksym; Israel Osorio Rodarte; Dominique van der Mensbrugghe
    Abstract: While bringing multiple benefits for the environment, achievement of the stringent global greenhouse gas emissions reduction target, like the one outlined in the Paris Climate Agreement, is associated with significant implementation costs and could impact different dimensions of human well-being, including welfare, poverty and distributional aspects. In this paper, we analyze the poverty and distributional impacts of different carbon pricing mechanisms consistent with reaching the Paris Agreement targets. We link a global recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium model ENVISAGE with the GIDD microsimulation model and explore three levels of mitigation effort and five carbon pricing options (trade coalitions). Results suggest that while there is a higher incidence of poverty in all scenarios, mainly driven by lower economic growth, Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) policies result in progressive income distribution at the global level. Such progressivity is caused not only by lower relative prices of food versus non-food commodities, but also by a general decline in skill wage premia.
    Date: 2021
  10. By: Can Askan Mavi (Department of Economics and Management, Université du Luxembourg); Nicolas Quérou (CEE-M, Université de Montpellier, FR)
    Abstract: Motivated by recent discussions about the issue of risk perceptions for climate change related events, we introduce a non-cooperative game setting where agents manage a common pool resource under a potential risk, and agents exhibit different risk perception biases. Focusing on the effect of the polarization level and other population features, we show that the type of bias (overestimation versus underestimation biases) and the resource quality level before and after the occurrence of the shift have first-order importance on the qualitative nature of behavioral adjustments and on the pattern of resource conservation. When there are non-uniform biases within the population, the intra-group structure of the population qualitatively affects the degree of resource conservation. Moreover, unbiased agents may react in nonmonotone ways to changes in the polarization level when faced with agents exhibiting different types of bias. The size of the unbiased agents’ sub-population does not qualitatively affect how an increase in the polarization level impacts individual behavioral adjustments, even though it affects the magnitude of this change. Finally, it is shown how perception biases affect the comparison between centralized and decentralized management.
    Keywords: Conservation, Perception bias, Environmental risk, Renewable resources, Dynamic games.
    JEL: Q20 Q54 D91 C72
    Date: 2020
  11. By: Bachev, Hrabrin; Ivanov, Bojidar; Mitova, Dilyana; Boevski, Ivan; Marinov, Petar; Sarov, Angel; Zvetkova, Daniela; Kostenarov, Krasimir; Vanev, Dimitar
    Abstract: The study is a report from the second stage of the research project "Management of agro-ecosystem services", funded by the Agricultural Academy - The approach developed during the first stage for analysis, evaluation and improvement of the management system of the agro-ecosystem services in the country has been tested. A survey with agricultural producers identified the size and type of "produced" services of agro-ecosystems of different types, and the dominant forms, factors and efficiency of management of agro-ecosystem services. Primary micro-information was collected from managers of 162 "typical" farms of different legal type, size, production specialization, ecological and geographical location. The main agro-regions and basic agroecosystems (plain, mountainous, protected areas, non-favored areas, etc.) are covered, as well as 12 main specific agroecosystems and their agro-ecosystems - Western Stara Planina, Central Balkans, Danube Plain, Stara Planina, Northeast Fore-Balkans, Struma River Valley, Rhodopes, Pernik Basin, Radomir Field, Sredna Gora, Sub-Balkans, Thracian Lowland and Southeastern Bulgaria. By grouping and summarizing the collected primary information, the structure and volume of agro-ecosystem services in the country and in the main types of agro-ecosystems are identified - geographical, basic and specific ecosystems, subsectors of agricultural production, size and legal type of farming organization. Share of participating producers and degree of participation in storage and supply were used as proxy indicators for production volume of the respective types of holdings. The connection between the main characteristics of farm managers (gender, age, education, farming experience, etc.) and their knowledge and application of the concept of agro-ecosystem services has been established. The main domestic, market, contractual, collective, tripartite, etc. are identified. forms of management of agro-ecosystem services of different types in general and depending on the type of agro-ecosystem and the agricultural producer. An in-depth study of the predominant forms of management of basic agro-ecosystem services such as providing external access to the farm, biodiversity conservation, plant pollination, bioproduction, etc. has been established, and a link with specialization, location, etc. has been established. characteristics of holdings. The effectiveness of the various forms of management of agro-ecosystem services has been established by assessing the direct and additional costs associated with the supply and management of agro-ecosystem services, as well as the direct, additional and indirect effects of their supply. The main behavioral, economic, institutional, natural, etc. are identified. factors that stimulate or limit the "production" of agro-ecosystem services by farmers. The intentions of the agricultural producers related to the protection of ecosystems and ecosystem services in the near future have also been determined. An in-depth analysis of the development and efficiency of organic production as one of the main forms of supply of agro-ecosystem services by Bulgarian farms. A multifaceted analysis of soils has been made as part of Bulgaria's agri-environmental resource, on the example of rural areas in the South Central region. The possibilities for using the sludge from the wastewater treatment plants as a form of agro-eco-service in support of agriculture have been assessed. The use of the customer value category in the management of agro-ecosystem services is analyzed. Summarized conclusions and proposals for improving the approach to scientific analysis and guidelines for improving public policies and forms of public intervention, and individual, business and collective strategies and actions for effective management of agro-ecosystems and services of agro-ecosystems of different types have been prepared.
    Keywords: ecosystem services, agriculture, amount, structure, governance, importance, Bulgaria
    JEL: Q1 Q12 Q13 Q15 Q16 Q2 Q3 Q5
    Date: 2021–01
  12. By: Nieddu, Marcello; Bertani, Filippo; Ponta, Linda
    Abstract: Digital transformation and sustainability transition are complex phenomena characterized by fun-damental uncertainty. The potential consequences deriving from these processes are the subject of open de-bates among economists and technologists. In this respect, adopting a modelling and simulation approachrepresents one of the best solution in order to forecast potential effects linked to these complex phenom-ena. Agent-based modelling represents an appropriate paradigm to address complexity. This research aimsat showing the potential of the large-scale macroeconomic agent-based model Eurace in order to investigatechallenges like sustainability transition and digital transformation. This paper discusses and compares resultsof previous works where the Eurace model was used to study the digital transformation, while it presents newresults concerning the framework on the sustainability transition, where a climate agent is introduced to ac-count the climate economy interaction. As regards the digital transformation, the Eurace model is able to cap-ture interesting business dynamics characterizing the so-called increasing returns world and, in case of highrates of digital technological progress, it shows a significant technological unemployment. As regard the sus-tainability transition, it displays a rebound effect on energy savings that compromises efforts to reduce greenhouse gases emissions via electricity efficiency improvements. Furthermore, it shows that a carbon tax couldbe not sufficient to decouple economy from carbon consumption, and that a feed-in tariff policy fosteringrenewable energy production growth may be more effective.
    Keywords: Sustainability; Climate change mitigation policies; Digital Transformation; Technologicalunemployment; Agent-Based Modelling
    JEL: C63 O33 Q43 Q54
    Date: 2021–04–01
  13. By: Tiwari, Aviral; Nasir, Muhammad Ali; shahbaz, Muhammad; Raheem, Ibrahim
    Abstract: This study analyses the convergence of CO2 emissions at state-level in the USA for the period from 1976 to 2014 in a nonlinear and novel empirical framework. In so doing, we have applied Pesaran’s (2007) test of pair-wise approach to testing convergence which gives in general what are the rejection frequencies and thus provides evidence of convergence. At the aggregate level, we also applied Chi-Young et al. (2006) half-life convergence test and the KPSS test with Fourier transformation which states are converging towards a cross-section average. Finally, we also adopted club convergence approach developed by Phillips and Sul (2007) to identify if the states are converging towards a club and last but not least, we applied Schnurbus et al., 2017 test to find if there is possible evidence if club merging. We make two contributions to the literature: (i) we conduct a country-specific analysis by focusing on the US; (ii) we consider both convergence and club convergence. Our overall results from the Pesaran’s (2007) pair-wise approach of convergence indicates that about 35% of the time the null of a unit root is rejected when ADF test is used and about 22% of the time null is rejected when ADF-GLS is used (irrespective of AIC or SBIC criterion). These results are also supported by KPSS stationary test which shows that null is rejected about 70e80% times. However, when Fourier function is incorporated in the KPSS test we find that the null hypothesis of stationarity is rejected only for Florida, Massachusetts, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Rhode Island, Texas indicating that only these states are non-convergent. Our overall results from club convergence (after club merging) show that USA states are forming 4 clubs. Our findings provide new insight into the convergence of CO2 emissions at the state level in the USA and thus have profound implications in terms of environmental policy setting and Per Capita Emission (PCE) allocations
    Keywords: CO2 emissions, Environmental management, Convergence Energy policy, Club convergence
    JEL: Q5 Q51 Q52 R11
    Date: 2020
  14. By: Yuan Xu (Nanjing University of Economics and Finance); Yanrui Wu (Business School, The University of Western Australia); Yongli Shi (Nanjing University of Economics and Finance)
    Abstract: This paper employs a difference-in-difference-in-difference approach to examine the emission reduction and foreign direct investment nexus in China. It combines a firm-level dataset with emission reduction target statistics at city-level. The findings indicate that stringent environmental regulation is associated with the fall of the output of foreign firms in general and the shrinking of pollution-intensive industries in cities with heavy emission reduction pressure in particular. It is also shown that the location choice of foreign investment changes as emission reduction targets at city-level vary. Finally it is found that environmental regulation helps improve the structure of foreign direct investment and hence contributes to industrial upgrading in the economy.
    Keywords: Emission reduction; foreign direct investment; environmental regulation; DDD method; China
    Date: 2021
  15. By: Hollingsworth, Alex; Konisky, David; Zirogiannis, Nikos
    Abstract: Excess emissions are air pollution releases that exceed permitted levels and occur during facility start-ups, shutdowns, or malfunctions. While they are violations of the federal Clean Air Act, states have historically granted violating facilities automatic exemptions; limiting enforcement and weakening existing regulation. Recent efforts to harmonize state and federal rules have ignited debate surrounding optimal excess emissions regulation. Using Texas data from 2002-2017, we show robust evidence on the costs of excess emissions. We find that excess emissions increase harmful nearby pollution and elderly mortality, and are responsible for an average of 35 annual deaths in Texas alone. Using excess emissions as an instrument for ozone concentrations, we find that a 10% increase in monthly average ozone increases elderly mortality by 3.9%, driven by increased deaths in the oldest age groups.
    Date: 2021–04–05
  16. By: Jamie T. Mullins; Prashant Bharadwaj
    Abstract: Do people move as a result of temperature shocks? Documenting weather as a push factor for migration is crucial for informing policy related to climate change and adaptation. This paper studies the impacts of high-temperature days on out-migration from counties in the US. We find that outmigration responds to long-term variation in temperatures, but not to the short-term temperature variations that are commonly leveraged in the literature. We provide evidence consistent with the idea that the effect of long-term variation in temperature is driven by changes in expectations regarding future conditions, and specifically climate change.
    JEL: Q0
    Date: 2021–03
  17. By: Ary José A. de Souza-Jr.; Flávio Terto
    Abstract: Decision utility or experienced utility: which one of them helps us better understand how it will occur the process to the adaptation of behavior’s consumer regarding the impact of climate change? This paper argues how each one of the aforementioned concepts most may affect the consumer’s routine as “decision-makers”, within the context that disturbances and scarcity must narrow their available options. For this, we use the individual’s choice reported in the 8th wave of European Social Survey, based on the choice-oriented perspective, which establishes a link between well-being and the propensity to adapt within this scenario. For this, an ordered logit model is applied upon environmental and socio-economic variables. In the end, our findings are consistent with a strong presence of rationality in the decision process towards adaptation.
    Date: 2021–03
  18. By: Ayanda Pamella Deliwe (Nelson Mandela University, University Way, Summerstrand, 6019, Port Elizabeth, South Africa Author-2-Name: Shelley Beryl Beck Author-2-Workplace-Name: Nelson Mandela University, Oxford Brookes University, Headington Campus, Oxford, OX3 0BP, UK Author-3-Name: Elroy Eugene Smith Author-3-Workplace-Name: Nelson Mandela University, University Way, Summerstrand, 6019, Port Elizabeth, South Africa Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective - This paper sets out to assess perceptions of food retailers regarding climate change, greenhouse gas emission and sustainability in the Nelson Mandela Bay region of South Africa. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the food retailers' greenhouse gas emissions strategies. Climate change catastrophic potential and the harmful effect that it has had on the community and businesses has led to it being given attention from social media and in literature. Methodology/Technique - This paper covered a literature review that provided the theoretical framework. The empirical study that was carried out included self-administered questionnaires which were distributed to 120 food retailers who were selected from the population using convenience sampling. Findings - The results revealed that most of the respondents were neutral towards the impact of operational factors regarding GHG emission in the food retail sector. Novelty - There is limited research that has been conducted among food retailers from the designated population. The study provided guidelines that will be of assistance to food retailers when dealing with climate change and greenhouse gas emissions impact in the food retail sector. Type of Paper - Empirical.
    Keywords: Climate Change; Food Retailers; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Perceptions; Strategies; Sustainability
    JEL: L66 Q54 Q59
    Date: 2021–03–31
  19. By: Kenneth Gillingham; Marten Ovaere; Stephanie M. Weber
    Abstract: Will a carbon tax improve the welfare consequences of policies to promote electric vehicles? This paper examines when a complementarity could exist between carbon pricing and high electric vehicle adoption. We analyze electricity generation in recent years to show that in several regions, carbon pricing interacts with electric vehicle adoption. Under moderate carbon prices like those in effect today, additional electric vehicles will be more likely to be charged with coal-fired generation than without carbon pricing. We confirm this finding using a detailed dynamic model that includes the transportation and power sectors. At much higher carbon prices, the effect reverses.
    JEL: H23 Q48 Q53 Q54 Q58 R48
    Date: 2021–03
  20. By: Harrison Hong; Neng Wang; Jinqiang Yang
    Abstract: In lieu of carbon taxes to address global warming, sustainable investment mandates are proposed to incentivize firms to achieve net-zero emissions. With underspending on mitigation due to externalities, we model the welfare consequences of these investments in firms that qualify by spending enough on decarbonization technologies. Our dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model generates several testable predictions. A cost-of- capital wedge between qualified and unqualified firms equals firm mitigation divided by its Tobin's q. Given projections of global warming and cost of decarbonization technologies, we calculate the mandate size and cost-of-capital wedge needed to meet net-zero targets.
    JEL: E20 G12 G30 H50
    Date: 2021–03
  21. By: Sylvie Ferrari (GREThA - Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée - UB - Université de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Damien Bazin (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (... - 2019) - COMUE UCA - COMUE Université Côte d'Azur (2015 - 2019) - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Côte d'Azur); Richard B. Howarth (Dartmouth College [Hanover])
    Abstract: This paper analyses how Hans Jonas' Imperative of Responsibility may provide useful insights into the analysis of sustainability issues. The challenges of environmental and social sustainability in terms of inter-generational fairness are analysed and involve a moral duty that is applicable to economic governance. To what extent responsibility is an alternative to utilitarianism and as a principle facilitating the coordination of the agents involved? Exploring this question may be a first step towards the long-term and sustainable conservation of Nature.
    Keywords: Environmental ethics,intergenerational fairness,responsibility principle,self-binding behaviour,sustainability
    Date: 2021–04–01
  22. By: Jean Huge; Luc Janssens De Bisthoven; Mathilda Mushiete; Anne Julie Rochette; Soraya Candido; Hilde Keunen; Farid Dahdouh-Guebas; Nico Koedam; Maarten P M Vanhove
    Abstract: Mainstreaming biodiversity in development cooperation activities is called for by scientists and policy-makers alike, as the current biodiversity crisis can only be mitigated if the linkages between biodiversity and human wellbeing are acknowledged. Reconciling biodiversity conservation and human development is a particularly topical challenge in highly biodiverse developing countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), where the population is highly dependent on natural resources for their livelihood. This study combines expert interviews with an evaluation of environmental impact assessment (EIA) reports, in order to determine the current motivations, obstacles and effectiveness of biodiversity mainstreaming in the DRC and to assess the framing, the representation and use of biodiversity in recently conducted EIAs in the DRC. Our findings indicate that biodiversity mainstreaming in the DRC is considered challenging due to enduring contextual (e.g. governance) factors; and that there is a strong support base for EIA among the interviewed experts. Turning to actual EIAs that were recently performed in the DRC, the diversity of framings motivating the uptake of biodiversity is remarkable. Instrumental reasons do not thwart intrinsic motivations –which is indicative of a support base for the non-instrumental value of biodiversity. The use of biodiversity baseline data in mitigation measures is low, and the taxonomic resolution of the biodiversity data in EIAs is uneven. Despite these challenges, the potential of EIA in the DRC is considered high, and linkages between project-driven EIA practice and biodiversity data collection and dissemination should be strengthened.
    Keywords: Biodiversity; Congo; Development; EIA; Environmental impact assessment; Mainstreaming
    Date: 2020–02–01
  23. By: Massimiliano Mazzanti (University of Ferrara; SEEDS, Italy); Marco Modica (Gran Sasso Science Institute, Italy.); Andrea Rampa (Ministry of Economy and Finance – Directorate of Economic and Fiscal Studies; SEEDS, Italy)
    Abstract: The degree of social acceptance of biogas as a renewable green energy source is still somewhat disregarded. Although many initiatives have focused on the construction of new biogas plants around the world, with Italy as a relevant actor in the field, local protests on the construction of new plants are frequent in some areas. This study aims to analyse the determinants of citizens’ perceptions regarding the construction of new biomass plants in their neighbouring areas. In particular, the focus is on prior knowledge of the production process of biogas as well as on other individual characteristics. The investigation is based on two repeated surveys administered to citizens living in proximity to two Italian local areas in which the construction of new large biogas plants is planned: the provinces of Oristano in Sardinia and Andria in Apulia. The first survey analyses the main variables correlated with the degree of biogas acceptability with a focus on the role played by biogas knowledge. The second set of surveys focuses on the role of participatory processes and information campaigns undertaken by policy makers and environmental associations to increase the social acceptance of communities regarding the construction of new biogas plants.
    Keywords: Biomass, Local Acceptance, Local public goods, waste management, renewable energy, Circularity
    JEL: Q42 H49
    Date: 2021–04
  24. By: Essers, Dennis; Cassimon, Danny; Prowse, Martin
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has further fuelled problems of debt sustainability in developing countries and has sapped the fiscal resources needed to finance climate mitigation and adaptation efforts. We examine whether “debt-for-climate” swaps, instruments whereby debtor countries are relieved from their contractual debt obligations in return for local climate-related spending commitments, may be helpful in tackling worrying debt levels and climate concerns simultaneously.
    Keywords: debt-for-climate swaps
    Date: 2021–03
  25. By: Mira Toumi (Université Côte d'Azur, France; GREDEG CNRS); Nathalie Lazaric (Université Côte d'Azur; GREDEG-CNRS)
    Abstract: We investigate the complementarity between diverse behavioral tools called "boosts" (through information provision) and "goal setting" (ambitious or modest goals) in a field experiment in the Principality of Monaco which ran from December 2018 to May 2019. We collected data from 77 households in four groups: ambitious energy reduction goal combined with information (treatment 1), modest energy reduction goal combined with information (treatment 2), information only (treatment 3) and a control group (treatment 4). Treatments 1 and 2 increase the chances towards reduced energy consumption. We show that a modest but more realistic energy saving goal generates better energy conservation performance when combined with “boosts” (treatment 2). We explore the link between behavioral strategies and the household’s environmental concern in the context of the new ecological paradigm (NEP). The efficiency of the treatments depends heavily on the NEP profile. Households with a high NEP profile are more likely to reduce their electricity consumption whereas as those with a low NEP profile will not respond to behavioral interventions.
    Keywords: Boost, nudges, goal setting, energy consumption, field experiment, environmental profile
    JEL: C93 D04 D83 D91
    Date: 2021–04
  26. By: Dietmar Pfeifer; Vivien Langen
    Abstract: In this study, we will discuss recent developments in risk management of the global financial and insurance business with respect to sustainable development. So far climate change aspects have been the dominant aspect in managing sustainability risks and opportunities, accompanied by the development of several legislative initiatives triggered by supervisory authorities. However, a sole concentration on these aspects misses out other important economic and social facets of sustainable development goals formulated by the UN. Such aspects have very recently come into the focus of the European Committee concerning the Solvency II project for the European insurance industry. Clearly the new legislative expectations can be better handled by larger insurance companies and holdings than by small- and medium-sized mutual insurance companies which are numerous in central Europe, due to their historic development starting in the late medieval ages and early modern times. We therefore also concentrate on strategies within the risk management of such small- and medium-sized enterprises that can be achieved without much effort, in particular those that are not directly related to climate change.
    Date: 2021–02
  27. By: Chan, Ying Tung; Zhao, Hong
    Abstract: Recessions associated with financial crises have become common in the US since 1990. This paper examines the importance of the financial frictions for US carbon emissions dynamics. Our empirical analysis reveals that financial market conditions have a substantial and nonlinear impact on carbon emissions dynamics. We build and estimate an environmental dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model that features financial frictions and a risk shock (a type of credit shock). The results show that: (i) the presence of financial frictions doubles the volatility of carbon emissions under positive TFP and government expenditure shocks; (ii) the risk shock generates counterfactual paths that can largely replicate the movements in emissions growth; (iii) the contribution share of the risk shock to emissions growth dynamics reaches a peak of around 50% after each recession; (iv) the optimal carbon tax rate response to shocks heavily depends on the Taylor rule specification.
    Keywords: Carbon tax; financial accelerator; business cycles
    JEL: E32 E44 Q51
    Date: 2019–08–16
  28. By: Athanasios Lapatinas (Joint Research Centre, EC, ISPRA, IT); Anstasia Litina (University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, GR); Skerdilajda Zanaj (Department of Economics and Management, Université du Luxembourg)
    Abstract: This paper establishes economic complexity as a powerful predictor of environmental attitudes. While the economic complexity index (ECI) has been associated with a series of economic outcomes, yet there has not been a link in the literature between ECI and environmental attitudes. This research pushes forward the hypothesis that economic complexity shapes cultural values and beliefs. We use a multilevel empirical analysis that associates aggregate values of the ECI, at the country level, with individual responses related to attitudes towards the environment. Our findings suggest that more complex economies are associated with: i) a higher likelihood to participate voluntarily in organizations targeting environmental protection; and ii) higher willingness to pay for the environment. To further reinforce our findings by ensuring identification we replicate the benchmark analysis using as a proxy of a country’s level of economic complexity, the average ECI of the neighbouring countries (weighted by population and/or volume of trade). With a similar intention, i.e., to mitigate endogeneity concerns as well as to further frame our findings as “the cultural implications of ECI” we replicate our analysis with a sample of second generation immigrants. The immigrant analysis, suggests that the level of economic complexity of the parents’ country of origin, has a long-lasting effect on second generation immigrants’ attitudes related to the environment. Because humankind’s attitudes and actions are of key importance for a sustainable future, a better understanding as to what drives environmental attitudes appears critical both for researchers and policy makers.
    Keywords: Economic Complexity Index; Environmental Attitudes; Multilevel analysis; Migration.
    Date: 2021
  29. By: Cumala, Putri
    Abstract: Indonesia is a maritime country in terms of economic life Many people work as fishermen because of the potential for fisheries high due to the confluence of ocean currents. Indonesia which is an archipelago country which has special marine resources and has always been the target of fishermen from various countries that are equipped with modern and successful tools capture with a large number of scales. With the fisherman playing the host there are still a number of restrictions related to fisheries. Ministry of Maritime Affairs and fisheries seeks to find solutions in the field of fishing with replace environmentally friendly equipment.
    Date: 2021–03–24
  30. By: Cumala, Putri
    Abstract: Indonesia is a maritime country in terms of economic life Many people work as fishermen because of the potential for fisheries high due to the confluence of ocean currents. Indonesia which is an archipelago country which has special marine resources and has always been the target of fishermen from various countries that are equipped with modern and successful tools capture with a large number of scales. With the fisherman playing the host there are still a number of restrictions related to fisheries. Ministry of Maritime Affairs and fisheries seeks to find solutions in the field of fishing with replace environmentally friendly equipment.
    Date: 2021–03–22
  31. By: Aurélie Méjean (CIRED - Centre international de recherche sur l'environnement et le développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Antonin Pottier (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Marc Fleurbaey (Princeton University); Stéphane Zuber (CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Climate change threatens irreversible and dangerous impacts, possibly leading to extinction. The most relevant trade-off then may not be between present and future consumption but between present consumption and the mere existence of future generations. To investigate this trade-off, we build an integrated assessment model that explicitly accounts for the risk of extinction of future generations. Using the class of number-dampened utilitarian social welfare functions, we compare different climate policies that change the probability of catastrophic outcomes yielding an early extinction. We analyse the role of inequality aversion and population ethics. Low inequality aversion and a preference for large populations favour the most ambitious climate policy, although there are cases where the effect of inequality aversion on the preferred policy is reversed. This is due to the fact that a higher inequality aversion both decreases the welfare loss of reducing consumption of the current generation and also decreases the welfare gain of reducing the future risk of extinction.
    Keywords: Climate change,catastrophic risk,Equity,Population,Climate-economy model
    Date: 2020–11–12
  32. By: Pandey, Rita (National Institute of Public Finance and Policy); Gupta, Manish (National Institute of Public Finance and Policy); Sachdeva, Paavani (Department of Agriculture and Consumer Economics, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign); Singh, Abhishek (Fifteenth Finance Commission, Government of India)
    Abstract: Biodiversity and Ecosystem (BE) conservation finance in India, is highly fragmented. Multiple institutions are involved in directing finance often with overlapping functions. This has adversely impacted BE conservation efforts and outcomes in India. While a couple of studies have attempted to map the flow of funds towards biodiversity and ecosystem (BE) conservation, there is no comprehensive estimate of total public funding, including budgetary flows, in India. The paper not only fills this gap by presenting a methodology for mapping and estimation of fund flows for BE expenditure through budgetary and other public sources but also estimates fund flows from externally aided projects and corporate sector. Using a modified Rio-marker methodology and budgetary data on actual expenditure it estimates expenditure on BE for a period of 7 years (2009-10 to 2015-16) thereby contributing to both theoretical and empirical literature on the subject. The study estimates that states in India, on an average spend between 1.93 and 3.19 percent of their total expenditure towards BE conservation. Paper finds that owing to the fact that BE conservation in India is driven by programs of multiple institutions rather than National Biodiversity Targets; there is no mechanism for measuring either conservation expenditures or outcomes. The paper makes suggestions to address this policy gap.
    Keywords: Biodiversity and ecosystem financing ; Ecosystem Services ; government expenditure ; sub-national government ; Biodiversity mainstreaming
    JEL: Q5
    Date: 2021–03
  33. By: Perdanasari, Puteri Riztin
    Abstract: Another impact from the export of lobster seeds apart from destroying the balance of the lobster ecosystem, also has the potential to harm small fishermen. Fishermen must have certainty regarding transparent prices so that policies don’t tend to unilaterally benefit exporters. In this regard, it is hoped that a balance will be achieved between the sustainable potential (MSY) of fishery resources and their utilization so that the sustainability of fisheries resources can be guaranteed and the realization of public awareness in order to limit the capture of sea anemones so that the preservation of the population in nature can be maintained
    Date: 2021–04–09
  34. By: Khuc, Quy Van; Vuong, Quan-Hoang
    Abstract: Air pollution, willingness-to-pay, contingent valuation method, inner-city citizens, foreigners, Hanoi, Vietnam
    Date: 2021–04–07
  35. By: Tite, Caroline N J; Pontin, David; Dacre, Nicholas
    Abstract: Sustainability is focussed on avoiding the long-term depletion of natural resources. Under the terms of a government plan to tackle climate change, a driver for improved sustainability is the cut of greenhouse gas emissions in the UK to almost zero by 2050. With this type of change, new themes are continuously being developed which drive complex projects, such as the development of new power generation methods, which encompass challenging lead times and demanding requirements. Consideration of the implementation of strategies and key concepts, which may engender sustainability within complex projects therefore presents an opportunity for further critical debate, review, and application through a project management lens. Sustainability incorporation in project management has been documented in academic literature, with this emerging field providing new challenges. For example, project management education can provide a holistic base for the inculcation of sustainability factors to a range of industries, including complex projects. Likewise, practitioner interest and approaches to sustainability in project management are being driven by the recently Chartered Association for Project Management (APM). Whilst this body makes a significant contribution to the UK economy across many sectors, it also addresses ongoing sustainability challenges. Therefore, by drawing on research and practitioner developments, the authors argue that by connecting with the next generation through practice simulation approaches, and embedding sustainability issues within project management tools and methods, improved focus on sustainability in complex project management may be achieved.
    Date: 2021–02–22
  36. By: Alawiyah, Alisha
    Abstract: Indonesia has ample marine resources but domestic fishermen are still faced with several restrictions. Therefore, the government has revised 18 regulations in the field of fisheries and prepared 89 specifications for fishing gear that are more environmentally friendly. Several regulations have created conflicts, such as Regulation of the Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Number 12 of 2020 concerning Management of Lobster and Crab in the Territory of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia and ratification of fishing gear.
    Date: 2021–03–23
  37. By: Yves Crozet (LAET - Laboratoire Aménagement Économie Transports - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - ENTPE - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IEP Lyon - Sciences Po Lyon - Institut d'études politiques de Lyon - Université de Lyon)
    Abstract: La neutralité carbone en 2050 exige de réduire rapidement les émissions de CO2. Pour y parvenir, il est nécessaire (comme l'a recommandé le rapport Quinet en 2019) d'accroître sensiblement la valeur de la tonne de CO2. Quelles en sont les implications ?
    Keywords: Émissions de gaz à effet de serre,Tonne de carbone,Valeur
    Date: 2020
  38. By: Küffmann, Karin; Luhmann, Maik; vom Sondern, Manfred
    Abstract: 2010 begann man in Gelsenkirchen mit der Verlegung von Glasfaserkabeln. Seither sind in Gelsenkirchen etliche smarte Projekte aufgelegt worden, es sind u.a. Nachhaltigkeits-, Strukturwandel-, Bildungs- und Green City-Initiativen aufgegriffen und integriert worden. 2020 hat Gelsenkirchen die Projekte und Handlungsfelder unter einer integrierten Strategie der #vernetztenStadt Gelsenkirchen zusammengefasst. In diesem Beitrag wird ein Überblick über die Entwicklung zur intelligenten Stadt und den derzeitigen Handlungsschwerpunkten gegeben. Gelsenkirchen ist digitale Modellkommune in der digitalen Modellregion Emscher-Lippe.
    Keywords: Smart City,Smart Region,regional development,Strukturwandel,Digitalstrategie,Sustainable Smart City,Nachhaltige Entwicklung,Sustainable Development,Ruhrgebiet,Ruhr area,Digitale Modellkommune,Digitale Modellregion,Digitalisierung der Verwaltung,Online Zugangsgesetz
    JEL: H11 M13 O10 H11
    Date: 2021
  39. By: Alvin P. Ang; Jeremaiah M. Opiniano
    Abstract: Abstract Rural communities of origin play an important role in harnessing the development potential of overseas remittances. This role is to enable and ensure an economically competitive locality for all entrepreneurs and investors (including town mates working and residing abroad). This qualitative case study research illustrates the local economic competitiveness conditions of two rural municipalities in the Philippines. Assessing local economic competitiveness will help ascertain the roles being played by local communities and their authorities. Findings here can also provide indications on how overseas town mates’ remittances have changed in response to prevailing local competitiveness conditions. Qualitative findings here were part of a mixed methods tool, called the Remittance Investment Climate Analysis in Rural Hometowns (RICART), which employed the rapid rural appraisal (RRA) method. A global framework and a nationally applied index on local economic competitiveness were used as guides to analyze RRA findings. It was found that these municipalities have prevailing bottlenecks that limit the economic competitiveness of the locality—and the situation may deter prospective migrant town mates abroad from investing and doing business in their hometowns. Not surprisingly, interventions of local governments to improve their local investment conditions matter.
    Keywords: Overseas remittances, hometown investing, local economic competitiveness, local investment climate, Remittance Investment Climate Analysis in Rural Hometowns (RICART)
    Date: 2020–07–22
  40. By: Raheem, Ibrahim; Tiwari, Aviral; Balsalobre-Lorente, Daniel
    Abstract: This study explores the role of the information and communication technology (ICT) and financial development (FD) in both carbon emissions and economic growth for the G7 countries for the period 1990 to 2014. Using PMG, we found that the ICT has a long-run positive effect on emissions, while FD is a weak determinant. The interactive term between the ICT and FD produces negative coefficients. Also, both the variables are found to impact negatively on economic growth. However, their interaction shows that they have mixed effect on economic growth, i.e., positive in the short run and negative in the long run. Policy implications were designed based on these results.
    Keywords: T . Financial development . Carbon emissions . Economic growth . G7 countries
    JEL: C0 O3
    Date: 2020
  41. By: Mathias Reynaert (TSE - Toulouse School of Economics - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); James M. Sallee (Unknown)
    Abstract: Firms sometimes comply with externality-correcting policies by gaming the measure that determines policy. This harms buyers by eroding information, but it benefits them when cost savings are passed through into prices. We develop a model that highlights this tension and use it to analyze gaming of automobile carbon emission ratings in the EU. We document startling increases in gaming using novel data. We then analyze the effects of gaming in calibrated simulations. Over a wide range of parameters, we find that pass through substantially outweighs information distortions; on net, buyers benefit from gaming, even when they are fooled by it.
    Date: 2021–02
  42. By: van Dalen, Hendrik Peter (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management); Henkens, C.J.I.M. (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management)
    Date: 2021
  43. By: Paul E. Carrillo (George Washington University); Anthony Yezer (George Washington University)
    Abstract: This paper demonstrates theoretically and empirically that estimated implicit prices from hedonic equations using house value do not reflect implicit willingness to pay for housing attributes unless very strong conditions are present. The argument is sim- ple. Implicit prices obtained from rental hedonics, consistent with theory, reveal the willingness to pay for current housing services. Therefore hedonic equations relating asset prices to current characteristics only reveal willingness to pay for structure and neighborhood services if CAP rates (rent to value ratios) are constant. In some cases, the sign of the bias inherent in using asset rather than rental prices can be anticipated. Some rules and tests for situations where CAP rates are constant are developed here.
    Keywords: Hedonic models, implicit markets, environmental valuation
    Date: 2021–03
  44. By: Kaur, Amandeep (National Institute of Public Finance and Policy); Mohanty, Ranjan Kumar (National Institute of Public Finance and Policy); Chakraborty, Lekha (National Istitute of Public Finance and Policy); Rangan, Divy (National Institute of Public Finance and Policy)
    Abstract: This paper examines the empirical evidence of flypaper effects in the ecological fiscal spending in India. Using the panel data models, we analyse whether the intergovernmental fiscal transfers, or the states' own income determine the expenditure commitments on ecology at the State level. The econometric results show that the intergovernmental fiscal transfers rather than the states' own income determines ecological expenditure at subnational levels in India. The results hold, when the models are controlled for ecological outcomes and demographic variables.
    Keywords: Intergovernmental Transfers ; Flypaper effect ; Environmental Economics ; Macroeconomic Policy ; National Government Expenditure
    JEL: E6 H5 H7 Q5
    Date: 2021–03
  45. By: Wanaputra, Frillian
    Abstract: The citation about the Impact of Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries
    Date: 2021–03–25
  46. By: Yapanto, Lis M Universitas Negeri Gorontalo (Universitas Negeri Gorontalo)
    Abstract: Abstract This study aims to assess the household diversification of coastal fishing on the welfare of coastal communities in the District of Kabila Bone, Bolango District, for 5 months, from August 2019 - November 2019. Samples of the coastal community of 200 people, making do with a survey method. The data collected are primary data and secondary data were done by using observation, interview techniques, documentation techniques. Based on the model developed from the relevant theory, then tested on a model using the Structural Equation Model (SEM) based on SMART PLUS. The results of the analysis of business diversification models suggest that the utilization of environmental services does not affect the welfare of coastal communities. Keywords: diversification; SEM-PLS; welfare; environmental sustainability.
    Date: 2021–03–24
  47. By: Dias, Filipe S.; Betancourt, Michael; Rodríguez-González, Patricia María; de Água, Luís Borda
    Abstract: Understanding the factors associated with changes in species composition is a critical issue in ecology. A typical modeling approach consists of calculating beta diversity indices between pairs of sites using beta diversity indices and assessing the relationship between those indices and environmental covariates. Beta diversity indices are paired comparisons, which means that indices calculated with the same sample are not independent. The most common solution is to transform community data and environmental covariates into distance matrices, perform row and column permutations, and calculate correlations (e.g., Mantel tests and Generalized Dissimilarity Modeling). Here we introduce a novel hierarchical Bayesian approach that deals with this dependence by including two varying intercepts, one per sample, that capture the heterogeneity corresponding to that sample. Our modeling approach is highly flexible and customizable, adding novel features that are not available in any existing software packages. It allows the relationship between beta diversity indices and covariates to change across different regions by including varying intercepts and slopes and provides a simple path for performing model validation and model improvement.
    Date: 2021–04–08
  48. By: Hana, Mutiara
    Abstract: Citation of Pemikiran Ekonomi Bisnis
    Date: 2021–04–07
  49. By: Claudia Tomasini Montenegro; Jens F. Peters; Manuel Baumann; Zhirong Zhao-Karger; Christopher Wolter; Marcel Weil
    Abstract: Information about the potential environmental impacts of post-lithium batteries is scarce. For this reason, this work provides a prospective life-cycle assessment of a hypothetical commercial MgS battery based on primary information obtained for a prototype cell. The Mg-S battery is found to have a good environmental performance with potential to outperform also current lithium-ion batteries in terms of environmental impacts. However, this applies only if the assumed evolutions of the cell composition are achieved together with comparable performance in terms of battery lifespan. The initial (non-optimized) prototype cell cannot compete with current LIB in terms of energy density or environmental friendliness, mainly due to the high share of non-active components, decreasing its performance substantially. The use of exclusively abundant materials with comparably low environmental impacts within the cell is the major strength of the MgS battery, leaving the energy-intensive process steps as the remaining critical contributors to the total environmental impacts i.e., the cell manufacturing and magnesium and aluminium metal production. Here, the use of renewable electricity and non-fossil sources for process heat are the keys for further improving its environmental performance.
    Date: 2021–04
  50. By: Viviana Otero Fadul; Richard Lucas; Ruben Van De Kerchove; Behara Satyanarayana; Husain Mohd-Lokman; Farid Dahdouh-Guebas
    Abstract: Successful mangrove tree regeneration is required to maintain the provision of wood for silviculturally managed mangrove forest areas and to ensure mangrove rehabilitation in disturbed areas. Successful natural regeneration of mangroves after disturbance depends on the dispersal, establishment, early growth and survival of propagules. Focusing on the Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve (MMFR) in Peninsular Malaysia, we investigated how the location of a mangrove forest patch might influence the early regeneration of mangroves after clear-felling events that regularly take place on an approximately 30-year rotation as part of local management. We used Landsat-derived Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) annual time series from 1988 to 2015 to indicate the recovery of canopy cover during early regeneration, which was determined as the average time (in years) for the NDMI to recover to values associated with the mature forests prior to their clear felling. We found that clear-felled mangrove patches closer to water and/or to already established patches of Rhizophora regenerated more rapidly than those farther away. In contrast, patches located closer to dryland forests regenerated slower compared to patches that were farther away. The study concludes that knowledge of the distribution of water, hydro-period and vegetation communities across the landscape can indicate the likely regeneration of mangrove forests through natural processes and identify areas where active planting is needed. Furthermore, time-series comparisons of the NDMI during the early years of regeneration can assist monitoring of mangrove establishment and regeneration, inform on the success of replanting, and facilitate higher productivity within the MMFR.
    Keywords: Mangrove regeneration; Mangroves; Silviculture; Spatial analysis
    Date: 2020–09–01
  51. By: Cedic, Samir; Mahmoud, Alwan; Manera, Matteo; Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze the connectedness between renewable energy (RE) sectors, the oil & gas sector and other assets using time-scale spillover approach. We find that the RE bioenergy firms are the most connected to oil & gas firms and oil prices. The bond market transmits spillover to the RE sectors, while it receives spillover from the oil & gas sector. Moreover, short-run connectedness drives the dynamic total connectedness. Since changes in bond rates mainly spillover to RE firms and not to oil & gas firms, policy makers should also be aware that changes in interest rates may impact the societal transition to a RE based energy system. Since a shock that increases connectedness in the short run will deter investors from investing in RE assets, it is important for climate policy makers to develop policies that reduce the effect of increased connectedness on RE investments.
    Keywords: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2021–04–06
  52. By: Farid Gasmi (TSE - Toulouse School of Economics - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Laura Recuero Virto (CREST - Centre de Recherche en Économie et Statistique - ENSAI - Ecole Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Analyse de l'Information [Bruz] - X - École polytechnique - ENSAE ParisTech - École Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Administration Économique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Denis Couvet (MNHN - Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle)
    Abstract: In a dataset on 83 countries covering the years 1960–2009, we find a negative indirect effect of the share of renewable natural capital in wealth on economic growth transmitted through demographic factors, more specifically, population fertility. In contrast, in countries with lower income inequality and higher institutional quality, the share of non-renewable natural capital in wealth has a direct positive impact on growth. We also find that countries with higher income per capita, human development, and institutional quality have a higher share of renewable natural capital per capita, but a lower share of renewable natural capital in wealth. Renewable natural capital is thus valuable for the population and of primary concern for empowered countries, even though it contributes less to wealth and economic growth. Our results raise serious questions about the way wealth and growth are defined in economics when one investigates the impact of natural capital and point to the importance of preserving natural capital, particularly, in less developed countries.
    Keywords: Non-renewable,Renewable,Natural capital,Economic growth
    Date: 2020–08
  53. By: Di Foggia, Giacomo; Beccarello, Massimo
    Abstract: Waste management capacity plays a prominent role in complying with circular economy goals, such as reducing municipal waste disposal by landfilling to 10%. We first analyze the imbalance in municipal solid waste management across Italy by estimating the quantities of waste to be treated using technologies different from those currently in use. Subsequently, we estimate the impact that a system compliant with circular economy goals would have on the cost of waste management. Our empirical analyses are based on an econometric method. The results suggest that Italy could reduce the use of landfill by 11.5%, resulting in a 13% reduction in mechanical-biological treatment. The waste-to-energy capacity would rise by 4.6% compared to the current situation, while the organic fraction treatment capacity would increase by 8.3%. Besides the positive impact on the environment, the potential annual savings on the cost of waste management could reach 0.07%, or 0.27% when the phase corresponding to treatment and disposal is considered. We provide insights into the design of more efficient national waste management plans using a novel approach based on best performers.
    Keywords: waste management,waste, landfill, wte, municipal waste, circular economy
    JEL: H23 L1 Q0 Q5 Q50 R53
    Date: 2021
  54. By: Allison Loconto (LISIS - Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Sciences, Innovations, Sociétés - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Université Gustave Eiffel)
    Abstract: Los sistemas alimentarios sostenibles son fundamentales para garantizar que las generaciones actuales y futuras tengan seguridad alimentaria y puedan llevar una dieta saludable. Para hacer la transición hacia la sostenibilidad, es necesario reconstruir muchas actividades del sistema alimentario, y un sinnúmero de actores en todo el mundo están empezando a actuar localmente. Si bien algunos cambios son más fáciles que otros, saber cómo navegar a través de ellos para promover prácticas de consumo y producción sostenibles requiere un conjunto complejo de aptitudes. El presente manual está dirigido a los "innovadores de sistemas alimentarios sostenibles", y es realizado por un grupo de innovadores de Asia, África, América y Europa que están dirigiendo iniciativas para cultivar, compartir, vender y consumir alimentos más sostenibles en sus contextos locales. Incluye experiencias que están cambiando las estructuras organizativas de los sistemas alimentarios locales para hacerlos más sostenibles. Esta guía está escrita como un libro donde "eliges tu propia aventura". Cada lector – solo o en un grupo facilitado – puede desarrollar un viaje personalizado de aprendizaje y acción en línea con sus propias prioridades. Los temas tratados en esta guía son organizados en cuatro categorías de innovaciones: involucramiento de los consumidores, producción de manera sostenible, llevando los productos al mercado y organización.
    Keywords: Innovaciones,Sistemas alimentarios de proximidad,Sistemas alimentarios sostenibles,Innovaciones sociales,Certificación
    Date: 2021–02–25
  55. By: Pramod Kumar Sur; Masaru Sasaki
    Abstract: More than half a century has passed since the Great Chinese Famine (1959-1961), and China has transformed from a poor, underdeveloped country to the world's leading emerging economy. Does the effect of the famine persist today? To explore this question, we combine historical data on province-level famine exposure with contemporary data on individual wealth. To better understand if the relationship is causal, we simultaneously account for the well-known historical evidence on the selection effect arising for those who survive the famine and those born during this period, as well as the issue of endogeneity on the exposure of a province to the famine. We find robust evidence showing that famine exposure has had a considerable negative effect on the contemporary wealth of individuals born during this period. Together, the evidence suggests that the famine had an adverse effect on wealth, and it is even present among the wealthiest cohort of individuals in present-day China.
    Date: 2021–04
  56. By: Umanailo, M Chairul Basrun (Universitas Iqra Buru)
    Abstract: This study aims to determine the effect of customer satisfaction on buyer loyalty at Green Mart in Namrole supermarkets. This research is quantitative. This research took place in the city of Namrole with the object of research at the Green Mart Supermarket. Sources of data in this study are primary data and secondary data. The data collection techniques in this research were survey and literature study. Sampling was done by non-probability sampling with a purposive sampling technique. The data analysis in this study used regression analysis. This analysis is used to examine the effect of customer satisfaction on loyalty. The results showed that customer satisfaction has a positive effect on loyalty. This implies that, if customer satisfaction increases, loyalty also tends to increase, if a customer is satisfied with the value provided by the products sold and the services received from Supermarkets, Green Mart is very likely to become loyal customers to Supermarkets. Green Mart for a long time. However, if customer satisfaction decreases, loyalty tends to decrease. Increased customer satisfaction is influenced by several factors, including the product and quality of products sold by various stores and according to the market tastes of shop consumers, friendliness, speed of service, and ease of transactions.
    Date: 2021–03–10
  57. By: Taiwo, Kayode
    Abstract: Decentralisation promises efficiency gain and improved access to public goods and services, especially at the local level. Under decentralised governance arrangement, regional and environmental peculiarities are given prominent consideration in delivering public goods and services. Given the impact of the environment in influencing sanitation and water services, particularly water provision, this study examines the effect of decentralisation, as measured by revenue share and expenditure share, on improved access to sanitation and water services. Exploiting the variation in improved access to sanitation facilities and water sources using a static panel data estimator, this study’s empirical results suggest a positive impact of decentralisation on the improved access to sanitation and water services. The positive effect is larger in rural areas vis-à-vis the country level and urban areas. The study reveals that wealth and institutional factors are also important to improve access to sanitation and water services.
    Keywords: Decentralisation, Subnational government, Sanitation, Water, Panel data
    JEL: H77 O18
    Date: 2020–12
  58. By: Bannor, Frank; Dikgang, Johane; Kutela Gelo, Dambala
    Abstract: The performance of the agricultural sector in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains low compared to other regions. This is often attributed to the fact that agriculture in SSA is rain-fed, as well as to inadequate investment in research and development (R&D). It is well documented in the literature that climate variability is a possible reason for the low productivity observed in agriculture. It is similarly well documented that R&D investment affects the growth of agricultural productivity. This paper investigates whether public spending on R&D mitigates the negative effects of climate variability (measured by variability in rainfall) on agricultural productivity in SSA. We do so by employing a dynamic production model, and the Generalised Methods of Moments (GMM) technique. Based on cross-country panel data from the period 1995 to 2016, our empirical findings reveal that both climate variability and the interaction of R&D with climate variability are strongly correlated with agricultural productivity. As expected, climate variability reduces agriculture productivity by 0.433% to 0.296%. The interaction of R&D and climate variability enhances agricultural productivity by 0.124% to 0.065%. We also show that R&D is an absorption channel for the inimical effects of climate variability, and that the way in which climate variability impacts agricultural productivity depends on the magnitude of spending on R&D; in order to move from a negative to a positive impact of climate variability on agricultural productivity, public spending on R&D must increase by 3.492% to 4.554%. We conclude that to address the negative effects of climate variability, there is a need for governments to prioritise and increase spending on R&D.
    Keywords: Agriculture; Climate variability; R&D; Productivity; Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)
    JEL: Q1 Q16 Q18 Q5 Q54
    Date: 2021–01–05
  59. By: Handoyo, Anastasia
    Abstract: Tugas Pemikiran Ekonomi dan Bisnis (PEB)
    Date: 2021–03–24
  60. By: Allison Loconto (LISIS - Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Sciences, Innovations, Sociétés - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Université Gustave Eiffel)
    Abstract: Les systèmes alimentaires durables sont essentiels pour assurer la sécurité alimentaire et une alimentation saine pour les générations futures. Pour faire la transition vers la durabilité, de nombreuses activités du système alimentaire doivent se transformer, et une myriade d'acteurs à travers le monde doivent agir localement. Certains changements sont plus faciles à mettre en place que d'autres, mais savoir comment naviguer à travers ces changements pour promouvoir des modes de consommation et de production durables exige un ensemble de compétences complexes. Ce manuel, adressé aux «innovateurs de systèmes alimentaires durables», est rédigé par un groupe d'innovateurs d'Asie, d'Afrique, des Amériques et d'Europe qui mènent des initiatives pour cultiver, partager, vendre et consommer des aliments plus durables dans leur contexte local. Le manuel inclut des expériences de changement dans l'organisation des systèmes alimentaires locaux pour les rendre plus durables. Il est rédigé sous la forme d'un «livre dont vous êtes le héros» où chaque lecteur ou groupe de lecteurs peut identifier ses priorités et développer son parcours d'apprentissage et d'action. Les sujets abordés dans ce manuel sont répartis en trois groupes d'innovations organisationnelles: l'engagement des consommateurs, la production durable et la mise en marché des produits.
    Keywords: Innovation,Systèmes alimentaires locaux,Systèmes alimentaires territorialisés,Innovation institutionnelle,Certification
    Date: 2020–09–09
  61. By: Wenzhong Li (Northwestern Polytechnical University); Genjiu Xu (Northwestern Polytechnical University); Rene van den Brink (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)
    Abstract: Consider a group of agents located along a polluted river where every agent must pay a certain cost for cleaning up the polluted river. Following the model of Ni and Wang (2007), we propose the class of alpha-Local Responsibility Sharing methods, which generalizes the Local Responsibility Sharing (LRS) method and the Upstream Equal Sharing (UES) method. We fi rst show that the UES method is characterized by relaxing independence of upstream costs appearing in Ni and Wang (2007). Then we provide two axiomatizations with endogenous responsibility of the alpha-Local Responsibility Sharing method, one using this weak independence axiom (taken from the UES method) and one using a weak version of the no blind cost axiom (taken from the LRS method). Moreover, we also provide an axiomatization with exogenous responsibility by introducing alpha-responsibility balance. Finally, we defi ne a pollution cost-sharing game, and show that, interestingly, the Half Local Responsibility Sharing (HLRS) method coincides with the Shapley value, the nucleolus and the tau-value of the corresponding pollution cost-sharing game. This HLRS method can be seen as some kind of middle compromise of the LRS and UES methods.
    Keywords: pollution cost-sharing problems, alpha-Local Responsibility Sharing method, axiomatization, cooperative games
    JEL: Q53 C71 Q25
    Date: 2021–04–05
  62. By: Yves Crozet (LAET - Laboratoire Aménagement Économie Transports - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - ENTPE - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IEP Lyon - Sciences Po Lyon - Institut d'études politiques de Lyon - Université de Lyon)
    Abstract: En 1972, le Club de Rome publiait un rapport traduit en français sous le titre Halte à la croissance. Comme l'Histoire est ta-quine, elle déclencha la crise du pétrole de 1973. Le résultat fut en France un doublement immédiat du nombre de chômeurs et la fin des Trente Glorieuses. Vous vouliez la croissance zéro ? La voici !
    Keywords: Impacts macroéconomiques,Covid-19,Crise sanitaire
    Date: 2020

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