nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2021‒03‒08
57 papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Economic advantages of using bacterial biopreparations in agricultural crops By Toader, George; Chiurciu, Viorica; Nistor, Mrierean; Sevciuc, Petru; Filip, Valentina; Burnichi, Floarea; Trifan, Daniela; Rasnoveanu, Luxita; Enea, Catalin Ionut; Toader, Elena Violeta; Ilie, Leonard
  2. Climate finance and emission reductions: What do the last twenty years tell us? By Gavard, Claire; Schoch, Niklas
  3. Renewable power management: A review By Irims, Tonye
  4. Climate Mitigation Policy in Denmark: A Prototype for Other Countries By Nicoletta Batini; Ian Parry; Philippe Wingender
  5. India's progress in meeting its climate goals: A comparative analysis using country-reported and external data By Manisha Jain
  6. Improved Modelling Framework for Assessing the Interaction between the Energy, Agriculture, Forestry and Land Use Change Sectors: Integrating the CAPRI, LUISA-BEES, CBM and POTEnCIA models By Amarendra Sahoo; Ignacio Perez Dominguez; Sarah Mubareka; Giulia Fiorese; Giacomo Grassi; Roberto Pilli; Mihaly Himics; Viorel Blujdea; Marco Follador; Frederik Neuwahl; Raffaele Salvucci; Mate Rozsai; Peter Witzke; Monika Kesting
  7. Three green financial policies to address climate risks By Francesco Lamperti; Valentina Bosetti; Andrea Roventini; Massimo Tavoni; Tania Treibich
  8. Ecosystem services value: a literature review By Bartolomeo Toffano; M. Bruna Zolin
  9. Climate solidarity, green trade unions and timing of technological choice By Asproudis, Elias; Filippiadis, Eleftherios; Tian, Mo
  10. R&D in natural resource based industries: Governments should prioritize innovation which reduces environmental hazards By Mads Greaker
  11. Optionen für mehr Biodiversität in derAgrarlandschaft –Erkenntnisse aus dem F.R.A.N.Z.-Projekt By Reiter, Karin
  12. The economic impact of weather and climate By Richard S. J. Tol
  13. Cross-sectoral Externalities Related to Natural Resources and Ecosystem Services By Manuel Bellanger; Robert Fonner; Daniel S. Holland; Gary D. Libecap; Douglas W. Lipton; Pierre Scemama; Cameron Speir; Olivier Thébaud
  14. The inequalities-environment nexus: Towards a people-centred green transition By OECD
  15. The impact of climate variability and extremes on agriculture and food security - An analysis of the evidence and case studies By Holleman, C.; Rembold, F.; Crespo, O.; Conti, V.
  16. Environmental Policy with Green Consumerism By Stefan Ambec; Philippe De Donder
  17. Adapting forest management practices to climate change: Lessons from a survey of French private forest owners By Julie Thomas; Marielle Brunette; Antoine Leblois
  18. Ist dasDVL-Modell „Gemeinwohlprämie“ als potenzielle Ökoregelung der GAP nach 2020geeignet? By Röder, Norbert; Laggner, Birgit; Reiter, Karin; Offermann, Frank
  19. Making the carbon basket count: Goal setting promotes sustainable consumption in a simulated online supermarket By Kanay, Ayşegül; Hilton, Denis; Charalambides, Laetitia; Corrégé, Jean-Baptiste; Inaudi, Eva; Waroquier, Laurent; Cezera, Stéphane
  20. Effects of Ending Payments for Ecosystem Services: removal does not crowd prior conservation out By Lina Moros; Maria Alejandra Vélez; Alexander Pfaff; Daniela Quintero
  21. Natural gas has been understood to be the transition fuel allowing inter alia the European Union to substitute more polluting fossil fuels when moving to a renewable energy-based society. This role has been based on it yielding the least emissions upon combustion, which had insulated it from the negative impacts of climate policy. A combination of an extensive infrastructure and legal-technical framework, widely adopted consumer practices, and the transition fuel narrative both built on and furthered the lock-in of the fuel. Natural gas policy essential refrained from incorporating significant climate considerations and the fuel was assumed to have bright future. As the European Commission’s climate action became more stringent, the parallel paths of climate and natural gas policy eventually collided. The promulgaters of the transition fuel narrative, the natural gas industry, was unprepared for such changes. However, it was quick to mobilise and devise strategies to sustain its role in the EU’s energy future—the impacts of which are yet to be seen. By John Szabo
  22. Garbage in, garbage out: the impact of e-waste dumping sites on early child health By Stefania Lovo; Samantha Rawlings
  23. Energy Saving Can Kill: Evidence from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident By Guojun He; Takanao Tanaka
  24. Governing climate geoengineering: Side-payments are not enough By Riccardo Ghidoni; Anna Lou Abatayo; Valentina Bosetti; Marco Casari; Massimo Tavoni
  25. The semiconducting principle of monetary and environmental values exchange By , AISDL
  26. Using a Crop Model to Benchmark Miscanthus and Switchgrass By Monia El Akkari; Fabien Ferchaud; Loïc Strullu; Ian Shield; Aurélie Perrin; Jean Louis Drouet; Pierre Alain Jayet; Benoit Gabrielle
  27. Cover Crop Trends, Programs, and Practices in the United States By Wallander, Steven; Smith, David; Bowman, Maria; Claassen, Roger
  28. A Novel Hydro - Economic - Econometric Approach for Integrated Transboundary Water Management under Uncertainty By Nikolaos Englezos; Xanthi Kartala; Phoebe Koundouri; Mike Tsionas; Angelos Alamanos
  29. Avances recientes en los conceptos de servicios ambientales, pagos por servicios ambientales y condiciones para su éxito: lineamientos para formuladores de política y practicantes By Rocío del Pilar Moreno-Sánchez; Jorge Higinio Maldonado
  30. ESG Investing and Public Pensions: An Update By Jean-Pierre Aubry; Anqi Chen; Patrick M. Hubbard; Alicia H. Munnell
  31. Modelling the economy-wide marginal impacts due to climate change in Australian agriculture By Glyn Wittwer
  32. Ökologische, soziale und ökonomische Dimensionen des Meeresangelns in Deutschland By Weltersbach, Marc Simon; Riepe, Carsten; Lewin, Wolf-Christian; Strehlow, Harry V.
  33. Economic valuation of air pollution-related mortality in France By Olivier Chanel; Sylvia Medina; Mathilde Pascal
  34. Greening (runnable) brown assets with a liquidity backstop By Eric Jondeau; Benoit Mojon; Cyril Monnet
  36. Reclaiming public space in Kuwait’s residential neighbourhoods: an applied policy-oriented approach By Peca Amaral Gomes, Alexandra; Al-Ragam, Asseel; AlShalfan, Sharifa
  37. Technology vs information to promote conservation: Evidence from water audits By Erik Ansink; Carmine Ornaghi; Mirco Tonin
  38. Agricultural total factor productivity growth, technical efficiency, and climate variability in sub-Saharan Africa By Bannor, Frank; Dikgang, Johane; Gelo, Dambala
  39. Economic and climate effects of low-carbon agricultural and bioenergy practices in the rice value chain in Gagnoa, Côte d’Ivoire By Eveillé, F.; Schiettecatte, L.-S.; Toudert, A.
  40. Voting for environmental policy with green consumers: the impact of income inequality By Lesly Cassin; Paolo Melindi-Ghidi; Fabien Prieur
  41. Planning for disaster risk reduction within the framework of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development By Bello, Omar; Bustamante, Alejandro; Pizarro, Paulina
  42. Efficiency of sharing liability rules: An experimental case. By Serge Garcia; Julien Jacob; Eve-Angéline Lambert
  43. Ask BERT: How Regulatory Disclosure of Transition and Physical Climate Risks affects the CDS Term Structure By Julian F Kölbel; Markus Leippold; Jordy Rillaerts; Qian Wang
  44. Assessment of AIR Quality Index for Delhi region: A comparison between odd-even policy 2019 and Lock Down Period. By Dhingra, Chesta
  45. Stakeholder Perspectives on the Sustainable Transportation Implications of On-demand Ridehailing By Pike, Susan
  46. The Sustainability Wage Gap By Philipp Krueger; Daniel Metzger; Jiaxin Wu
  47. Summary of Interviews with California Metropolitan Planning Organizations About Senate Bill 375 and the Sustainable Communities Strategies By Amini, Jazmin; Kerchof, Clay; Mathews, Laurel; Thompson, Matthew
  48. Drivers of on-the-water recreational fishing site choice in New South Wales, Australia By Navarro, Matthew L.; Langlois, Tim J.; Murphy, Jeff; Ochwada-Doyle, Faith A.
  49. Vehicle-based recreation and compliance for three beaches in northern New South Wales By Totterman, Stephen
  50. Civil society in Kono District, Sierra Leone: Capacity, constraints, and potential to contribute to local Sustainable Development Goals By Fasuluku, Sahr Otto
  51. An Initial Assessment of the Potential Weather Barriers of Urban Air Mobility By Reiche, Colleen PhD; Cohen, Adam P; Fernando, Chris
  52. Quality of Goods Imports: Which Role for Non-tariff Measures? By Payam Elhami; Mahdi Ghodsi; Robert Stehrer
  53. CSR in Vietnam: What factors would promote CSR in Vietnam? By , AISDL
  54. Northern and Arctic Air Connectivity in Canada By Mike Tretheway; Robert Andriulaitis; Jody Kositsky; Geneva Tretheway
  55. Uso potencial y efectivo de la tierra agrícola en Colombia: resultados del Censo Nacional Agropecuario By Martha Delgado
  56. Operationalizing eco-social policies: a mapping of energy poverty measures in EU member states By Laure-Anne Plumhans
  57. Infrastructure aid for resource trade? The crossroads of strategy and sustainable development By Handrik Kruse; Thaís Núñez Rocha; Camélia Turcu

  1. By: Toader, George; Chiurciu, Viorica; Nistor, Mrierean; Sevciuc, Petru; Filip, Valentina; Burnichi, Floarea; Trifan, Daniela; Rasnoveanu, Luxita; Enea, Catalin Ionut; Toader, Elena Violeta; Ilie, Leonard
    Abstract: The ecological, genetic, biological approach proposed by agricultural specialists in order to protect plants and crops has a role in reducing the impact of pests through the process of selection and improvement of genetic resources in the processes of planting, development and introduction of biological means to combat pests in agricultural ecosystems. The strategies proposed by the specialists in the agricultural field aim not at the total extermination of the pests from the agricultural crops but at keeping the pest populations at the optimal damage threshold. The most important advantages of these biological processes are those of the evolutionary stability of the crop systems, the ecological stabilization of the pest and crop populations as well as the assurance of a superior quality of the resulting agricultural products.The present paper aims to present the main advantages of using bacterial biopreparations in agricultural ecosystems (research conducted in agricultural research stations in Romania), reducing soil pollution, environmental crops, use of alternative fertilization and cultivation technologies as well as obtaining additional, ecological productions.The aim of this paper is to present the economic advantages of using bacterial biopreparations in agricultural research and development stations, reducing costs in agriculture and the processes that these bacterial biopreparations have on the agricultural ecosystem, the environment and humans and animals.
    Keywords: bacterial biopreparations, bioinsecticide, green fertilization technologies, economic advantages
    JEL: Q12 Q56 Q57
    Date: 2020–11–19
  2. By: Gavard, Claire; Schoch, Niklas
    Abstract: In the framework of the Paris Agreement implementation, financial transfers remain a major point of negotiation for addressing equity concerns raised by the ambitious climate objectives. In complement to the theoretical, experimental and numerical studies that have examined the role of transfers in facilitating coalitions, we conduct the first empirical analysis of their impact on national carbon emission reductions. We build on the existing literature to develop a conceptual framework which models continuous national emission choices in the presence of financial transfers. We infer an equation of the impact of mitigation and adaptation finance on national emissions of recipient countries. We test the derived hypothesis using carbon emissions data of non-OECD countries in the last 20 years. We find that public adaptation and mitigation finance tend to increase emissions. Private mitigation finance seems to reduce them only after five years following the transfers.
    Keywords: International environmental agreements,public goods,transfers,climate finance,emission reductions,adaptation,climate policy
    JEL: C23 C70 D02 K33 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Irims, Tonye
    Abstract: For a decent quality of life, energy is important. And many people in the world do not have adequate electricity. It is important to provide sustainable and sufficient energy sources that are not responsible for climate and emissions, and renewables offer a solution. In certain parts of the world, wind and solar farms will provide the cheapest electricity. In addition, all electricity demands in the world will be fulfilled. But, while market forces aid rapidly to switch from fossils to renewables, there are competing strains and challenges faced by the developed and developing countries. The increasing clean, productive and sustainable energy fields have contributed to the creation of past experiments, which entail a transition to more sustainable energy management. Energy Management is a concept used to reduce and monitor the volume and expense of energy used to deliver a service. All systematic processes focused in the current study begins by examining the links between population, economy and energy consumption in the past, and analyzing the conventional and renewable sources of energy, as well as their management, in order to support ever-growing requirements for energy in the coming decades. This report is also about the recent green energy management technologies as well as primary threats and risks. Potential new clean energy initiatives and policies in developed markets, along with high-level renewable management examples in emerging economies, are discussed. Finally, the study focuses on renewable energy management in operation from the frontline of energy insecurity in the industrialized world. The Researcher offers new frameworks for energy sustainability measurements, realistic approaches for the deployment of renewable energies and enhancement of efficiencies and specific insights into risk control in power generation plants.
    Date: 2021–02–21
  4. By: Nicoletta Batini; Ian Parry; Philippe Wingender
    Abstract: Denmark has a highly ambitious goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions 70 percent below 1990 levels by 2030. While there is general agreement that carbon pricing should be the centerpiece of Denmark’s mitigation strategy, pricing needs to be effective, address equity and leakage concerns, and be reinforced by additional measures at the sectoral level. The strategy Denmark develops can be a good prototype for others to follow. This paper discusses mechanisms to scale up domestic carbon pricing, compensate households, and possibly combine pricing with a border carbon adjustment. It also recommends the use of revenue-neutral feebate schemes to strengthen mitigation incentives, particularly for transportation and agriculture, fisheries and forestry, though these schemes could also be applied more widely.
    Keywords: climate change, Denmark climate mitigation, carbon pricing, feebate, revenue recycling, border carbon adjustment, transportation, agriculture
    JEL: Q48 Q54 Q58 H23
    Date: 2021
  5. By: Manisha Jain (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research)
    Abstract: Recent studies analyzing India's decarbonisation efforts using external data do not confirm the achievements stated in India's country reports submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Convention. The role of economic structure changes compared to energy intensity in driving India's carbon dioxide emissions also differs across studies using different data sources. In this paper the difference in the country-reported data and the data published by International Energy Agency (IEA) is studied, and its implications on India's progress in meeting its mitigation goals are examined. This study finds that the main difference between the two data sources is the estimates of emissions from the manufacturing and construction sectors. As per country data, India's carbon dioxide emission intensity of industrial production during 2007-14 has declined by 7. However, as per IEA data, it has increased by 10. The country data shows that sector-level energy intensity effect has put downward pressure on emissions in this period. However, the IEA data shows that only the structural changes in the economy have pushed India's carbon dioxide emissions downwards in 2007-14. These findings have implications on the effectiveness of India's mitigation strategies in promoting energy-efficient technologies, particularly in industrial production.
    Keywords: Decarbonization, CO2 emissions intensity, decomposition analysis, Log Mean Divisia Index, industrial energy efficiency
    JEL: Q48 Q58
    Date: 2021–02
  6. By: Amarendra Sahoo (European Commission - JRC); Ignacio Perez Dominguez (European Commission - JRC); Sarah Mubareka (European Commission - JRC); Giulia Fiorese (European Commission - JRC); Giacomo Grassi (European Commission - JRC); Roberto Pilli (European Commission - JRC); Mihaly Himics (European Commission - JRC); Viorel Blujdea (European Commission - JRC); Marco Follador (European Commission - JRC); Frederik Neuwahl (European Commission - JRC); Raffaele Salvucci (European Commission - JRC); Mate Rozsai (European Commission - JRC); Peter Witzke (EuroCare GmbH, Bonn (Germany)); Monika Kesting (EuroCare GmbH, Bonn (Germany))
    Abstract: This report is an attempt to develop a modelling framework integrating different sectoral stand-alone models used at the JRC for policy impact assessment in the fields of agriculture, forestry, land use change and energy. The proposed quantitative framework should improve the capability of assessing greenhouse gas emissions and removals resulting from complex interactions between the agriculture, forestry, and other land use (AFOLU) sectors, and facilitate the analysis of policy scenarios relevant for a sustainable and carbon-neutral European economy. Four models are considered, for which a revised model specification and harmonization of relevant databases and model parameters is needed. The Common Agricultural Policy Regionalized Impact (CAPRI) Modelling System is a widely used large-scale multi-commodity agricultural economic model. The Land Use-based Integrated Sustainability Assessment modelling platform for BioEconomy and Ecosystem Services (LUISA-BEES) is primarily used for the ex-ante evaluation of European policies that have a direct or indirect territorial impact on the agricultural and forestry sectors. The Carbon Budget Model (CBM) is a stand-alone forestry model that simulates forest carbon dynamics. The Policy Oriented Tool for Energy and Climate Change Impact Assessment (POTEnCIA) model depicts a detailed EU energy system combining both techno-economic modules. As a 'proof of integration', this report describes the improvement of the CAPRI land use function and harmonization of related database such as to be linked to the output from the LUISA-BEES model. Moreover, forestry area projections and related carbon removals in CAPRI are improved by using direct information from the CBM model. Last but not least, the POTEnCIA model is improved by parameterizing a first generation biofuel supply curve based on CAPRI simulations. In order to test the proposed modelling framework, the report proposes a set of exploratory policy scenarios based on each model’s capabilities: reform of the Common Agricultural Policy, expansion of biofuel mandates and carbon pricing (CAPRI); implementation of spatially explicit sustainability criteria for the plantation of energy crops and afforestation (LUISA-BEES), different levels of forest harvesting (CBM) and strong decarbonisation policies (POTEnCIA).
    Keywords: AFOLU, Integrated Framework, Agriculture, Forestry, Land Use Change, Energy, CAPRI, LUISA-BEES, CBM and POTENCIA
    Date: 2021–01
  7. By: Francesco Lamperti; Valentina Bosetti; Andrea Roventini; Massimo Tavoni; Tania Treibich
    Abstract: Which policies can increase the resilience of the financial system to climate risks? Recent evidence on the significant impacts of climate change and natural disasters on firms, banks and other financial institutions call for a prompt policy response. In this paper, we employ a macro-financial agent- based model to study the interaction between climate change, credit and economic dynamics and test a mix of policy interventions. We first show that financial constraints exacerbate the impact of climate shocks on the economy while, at the same time, climate damages to firms make the banking sector more prone to crises. We find that credit provision can both increase firms' productivity and their financial fragility, with such a trade-off being exacerbated by the effects of climate change. We then test a set of 'green' finance policies addressing these risks, while fostering climate change mitigation: i) green Basel-type capital requirements, ii) green public guarantees to credit, and iii) carbon-risk adjustment in credit ratings. All the three policies reduce carbon emissions and the resulting climate impacts, though moderately. However, their effects on financial and real dynamics is not straightforwardly positive. Some combinations of policies fuel credit booms, exacerbating financial instability and increasing public debt. We show that the combination of all three policies leads to a virtuous cycle of (mild) emission reductions, stable financial sector and high economic growth. Additional tools would be needed to fully adapt to climate change. Hence, our results point to the need to complement financial policies cooling down climate-related risks with mitigation policies curbing emissions from real economic activities.
    Keywords: Climate change; endogenous growth; financial stability; macroprudential policy; agent-based model.
    Date: 2021–02–21
  8. By: Bartolomeo Toffano (Department of Economics, University Of Venice Cà Foscari); M. Bruna Zolin (Department of Economics, University Of Venice Cà Foscari)
    Abstract: The paper aims to analyse the literature on ecosystem services and on payments for ecological services focusing on the pollination case study by highlighting the economic approaches most used in the evaluation of tangible and intangible environmental services. Agriculture guarantees food security and, to some extent, energy security, often at the expense of other ecosystem services. Remedying the negative consequences of intensive agriculture requires the identification of products and services deriving from eco-sustainable land management and their financial value (the so-called Payments for ecological systems). The literature agrees in recognizing a value to ecological services produced by sustainable agricultural management systems; however, different methods are applied.
    Keywords: Ecosystem services, payments, agriculture, pollinators, sustainability
    JEL: Q57 Q24 Q18 R14 Q58
    Date: 2021
  9. By: Asproudis, Elias; Filippiadis, Eleftherios; Tian, Mo
    Abstract: We consider a Cournot duopoly consisting of two geographically separated firms, each associated with a local environmental-friendly trade union that exhibits climate solidarity. In the basic model, firms choose abatement technologies prior to bargaining over wages and employment with the unions. We show that the trade unions would lower the wage with the degree of reciprocal solidarity, providing additional incentives for firms to adopt greener technology and hence improving the social welfare. In the alternative model where trade unions decide the wages prior to the firms’ abatement and employment decisions, the firms always choose the dirtiest available technology while output will increase with the degree of solidarity. These results suggest that establishing the social norm and practice of reciprocal solidarity across trade unions in appropriate manner will help the internalisation of global environmental issues, which could mitigate the global regulation difficulties that require strong cross-border coordination among governments.
    Keywords: green trade unions, reciprocity, climate solidarity, emissions, environmental technology
    JEL: Q5
    Date: 2021
  10. By: Mads Greaker (Oslo Business School - OsloMet)
    Abstract: Sustainable yield from a natural resource áuctuates in response to both natural conditions and harvesting practices. On the one hand, research and development (R&D) may reduce the áuctuations through more knowledge of ecosystem functioning. On the other hand, R&D may also increase the fluctuations if it results in more efficient harvesting operations with increased impact on the environment. We analyze the incentives for innovation in a natural resource based industry. The direction of technical change can either be towards profitability enhancing innovations or environmental hazard reducing innovations. We then pose the following research questions: Is the marketís ranking of profitability enhancing and environmental hazard reducing innovation projects in line with the ranking of the social planner? In order to investigate our research question, we develop a theoretical model of innovation in a natural resource based industry, which we also calibrate to the Norwegian aquaculture industry. Two key results emerge; first, the government should subsidize the adoption of environmental hazard reducing technology. Second, the private incentive for profitability enhancing innovation is likely to outperform the private incentives for environmental hazard reducing innovation. In fact, the optimal R&D subsidy to to the former type of R&D is negative, while the optimal R&D subsidy to the latter type of R&D is positive and larger the more serious the environmental hazard.
    Keywords: Renewable natural resources, innovation, environmental policy, aquaculture
    Date: 2020–10–21
  11. By: Reiter, Karin
    Abstract: This report builds on a previous study in the context of the F.R.A.N.Z project (Joormann and Schmidt, 2017) that sought to identify barriers for farmers’ participationin area-based biodiversity measures. Joormann and Schmidt conducted a survey with German farmers and advisors. In the present report we discuss the barriers addressed in the earlier study in the light of the funding regulations for agri-environmental and climate measures (AECMs) financed by the European Union (EU) and/or the German federal government. The main findings of Joormann and Schmidt are that: • the farmers’ assessed AECM restrictions in parts as to be too complex, • uncertainties about content and extent of AECM restrictions exist, • payment levels – in particular in conditions favourable for agricultural production - are considered being too low, • fixed deadlines and time periods for field work as well as the required accuracy regarding field size and locationare criticised.• farmers would like to get more feedback on the success of AECMs. In parts, like insufficient (area) payments for sites with favourable conditions for agricultural production, barriers are of economic nature. On high-yielding arable and grassland as well as in areas with intensive animal production payments do not cover the opportunity costs. Furthermore, there is a relatively high risk of non-compliance. Key reasons for non-complianceare (1) deviations in the extent and location between reported and actually managed areas, often caused by unfavourable area cuts and (2) only partial fulfilment of the frequently extensive documentation requirements. Our analysis showed that some of the existing barriers are cause by lack of information.This can be overcome or at least being mitigated by increasing transparency in administrative action and improving information services. Based on the earlier findings, we identify leverages that are already being used in some federal states when implementing AECMs. These are (1) market-oriented revision clauses to compensate for price fluctuations in the agricultural production, (2) temporal management restrictions to be complemented by phenological development status or (3) result-based biodiversity measures that work without management restrictions. Our key recommendations for the design and implementation of area-based biodiversity measures are: •Requirements and restrictions of area-based biodiversity measures should be primarily geared towards the intended ecological impact. •Regional differentiation of payments for AECMs should be expanded, in view of increasing participation in areas with favourable production conditions. •Transaction costs of 20% should be granted to applicants to compensate for higher organisational and administrative costs (e.g. due to size and shape of fields). •Compulsory management requirements should be limited to what is ecologically necessary. This presupposes the avoidance of target overloading of biodiversity measures. Documentation obligations should be limited to those that are necessary for the achievement of the environmental objective or contributeto increase the knowledge of the participants. •Biodiversity measures often target small-sized plots or unfavourably cut areas. This makes agri-environmental measures extremely prone to sanctions, if the same sanction mechanism as pillar 1 are applied. Therefore,i t is necessary to adapt the sanction mechanism to the specificities of area-based measures under pillar 2 of the CAP. •It is important to improve the provision of information about ecological objectives, funding contents and the success of biodiversity measures in a simple language and by keeping informationup to date at all times. This also serves the purpose of strengthening the self-responsibility of the participants by means of content-related explanations of technically necessary funding requirements. •Biodiversity advisory service free of charge, with a modular design should be established or expanded. In addition to communicating the range of funding opportunities, one module should specifically geared towards showing practitioners the achievable ecological successes. Furthermore, within this module the support should be offered to the practitioners regarding the maintenance of the land use recording and the annual submission of applications. This all could contribute to mitigate the likelihood of sanctions.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2021–03–03
  12. By: Richard S. J. Tol
    Abstract: I propose a new conceptual framework to disentangle the impacts of weather and climate on economic activity and growth: A stochastic frontier model with climate in the production frontier and weather shocks as a source of inefficiency. I test it on a sample of 160 countries over the period 1950-2014. Temperature and rainfall determine production possibilities in both rich and poor countries; positively in cold countries and negatively in hot ones. Weather anomalies reduce inefficiency in rich countries but increase inefficiency in poor and hot countries; and more so in countries with low weather variability. The climate effect is larger that the weather effect.
    Date: 2021–02
  13. By: Manuel Bellanger; Robert Fonner; Daniel S. Holland; Gary D. Libecap; Douglas W. Lipton; Pierre Scemama; Cameron Speir; Olivier Thébaud
    Abstract: Standard approaches to environmental and natural resource use externalities generally focus on single-sector resources and user groups. Remedies include Pigouvian-style government constraints, small group controls following Elinor Ostrom, or less frequently, bargaining across users as outlined by Ronald Coase. However, many difficult natural resource management problems involve competing uses of the same resource or multiple interdependent resources, across multiple, heterogeneous sectors. Cross-sectoral externalities are generated and impede attainment of conservation objectives. The multiplicity of resources and stakeholders, who may have different property rights, hold different use or non-use values, have different traditions, or fall under different regulatory regimes, increases the likelihood of multi-jurisdictional conflicts. We provide an institutional analysis following Oliver Williamson’s four-levels of institutions (social embeddedness, institutional environment, governance, resource allocation) to illustrate the sources of potential conflict, the costs of addressing them, and the potentials for exchange. In comparing the costs of alternative approaches, we include transaction costs associated with property rights; the costs of lobbying, implementing, and enforcing government regulation; and the costs of scaling up from small-group controls when resource problems involve multiple sectors and heterogeneous populations. In our illustrative case examples, instruments that are not formal property rights are exchanged at lower transaction costs. We close by discussing how Coasean, Pareto-improving voluntary exchange agreements may be lower cost, more effective, and more durable solutions than alternative management regimes to mitigate cross-sectoral externalities.
    JEL: D23 H23 H73 P48 Q20 Q22
    Date: 2021–02
  14. By: OECD
    Abstract: The COVID-19 crisis has amplified the urgency of addressing together the dual challenges of inequality and environmental degradation. This paper contributes to the debate on the inequalities-environment nexus by analysing the consequences of the environmental degradation and of environmental policies on four well-being dimensions: health, income and wealth, work and job quality, and safety. The analysis shows that the impacts of environmental degradation tends to be concentrated among vulnerable groups and households. At the same, the benefits and costs of environmental policies are also likely to be unevenly distributed across households. In this context, policy packages for an inclusive green transition should aim at: (i) mitigating the possible regressive impact of pricing environmental externalities, (ii) investing in human capital and upgrading skills to facilitate labour reallocation, (iii) addressing systemic inequalities with sectoral and place-based policies, (iv) ensuring efficient and responsive governance. The paper concludes by highlighting the need for an effective framework to measure progress towards a people-centred green recovery, and possible areas of future work.
    Keywords: green transition, inequalities
    Date: 2021–03–08
  15. By: Holleman, C.; Rembold, F.; Crespo, O.; Conti, V.
    Abstract: Global climate studies show that not only temperatures are increasing and precipitation levels are becoming more varied, all projections indicate these trends will continue. It is therefore imperative that we understand changes in climate over agricultural areas and their impacts on agriculture production and food security. This study presents new analysis on the impact of changing climate on agriculture and food security, by examining the evidence on recent climate variability and extremes over agricultural areas and the impact of these on agriculture and food security. It shows that more countries are exposed to increasing climate variability and extremes and the frequency (the number of years exposed in a five-year period) and intensity (the number of types of climate extremes in a five-year period) of exposure over agricultural areas have increased. The findings of this study are compelling and bring urgency to the fact that climate variability and extremes are proliferating and intensifying and are contributing to a rise in global hunger. The world’s 2.5 billion small-scale farmers, herders, fishers, and forest-dependent people, who derive their food and income from renewable natural resources, are most at risk and affected. Actions to strengthen the resilience of livelihoods and food systems to climate variability and extremes urgently need to be scaled up and accelerated. This publication was developed as a background study for "The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2018" (available at 9553EN).
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2020–12–10
  16. By: Stefan Ambec; Philippe De Donder
    Abstract: Is green consumerism beneficial to the environment and the economy? To shed light on this question, we study the political economy of environmental regulations in a model with neutral and green consumers where the latter derive some warm glow from buying a good of higher environmental quality produced by a profit-maximizing monopoly, while the good bought by neutral consumers is provided by a competitive fringe. Consumers unanimously vote for a standard set at a lower than first-best level, or for a tax delivering the first-best environmental protection level. Despite its under-provision of environmental protection, the standard dominates the tax from a welfare perspective due to its higher productive efficiency, i.e., a smaller gap between the environmental qualities of the two goods supplied. In stark contrast, voters unanimously prefer a tax to a standard when the willingness to pay for greener goods is small enough.
    Date: 2020
  17. By: Julie Thomas (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - UL - Université de Lorraine - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Marielle Brunette (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - UL - Université de Lorraine - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Antoine Leblois (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - UMR 5211 - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Climate change seriously impacts forest ecosystems. In order to maintain forest cover, adaptation strategies should be implemented. In France, adaptation decisions are mainly in the hands of private forest owners. However, little is known about the way they perceive climate change or about their decisions related to adaptation. The aim of this article is precisely to obtain such information through a survey conducted among more than 900 French private forest owners. We identified determinants to the adoption of adaptation (gender, area, profession, having a management document, perception of climate change impact). More importantly, we show that the decision of adaptation should not be thought of in general but strategy-by-strategy because we identified strategy-dependent drivers. The article concludes with a discussion about the public policy implications of the results.
    Keywords: adaptation,forest,survey,French private forest owners
    Date: 2021–02–16
  18. By: Röder, Norbert; Laggner, Birgit; Reiter, Karin; Offermann, Frank
    Abstract: In this scientific opinion, the authors, on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture, examine whether and to what extent the model of the Public Goods Bonus developed by the German Landcare Association is suitable for implementation as Eco-Scheme within the CAP after 2020. For this purpose, we analyse the legal and administrative feasibility and the environmental effectiveness with a focus on biodiversity and climate protection. In addition, we estimate the effects on individual farm incomes and the effect on farm and regional redistribution of support payments. In principle, the approach of the public goods premium is suitable to promote the provision of public goods services via the instrument of eco-schemes and it can be implemented with some adjustments as an eco-scheme according to Art. 28 (6) a of the (COM, 2018). Compared to the options presented in the paper of the Bund-Länder Working Group on the ‘Development of the CAP' (BLAG, 2020), the Public Goods Bonusis likely to achieve a significantly higher level of environmental services for a given budget. Furthermore, the system can be dynamically developed and new public goods can be successively included. The weighting of individual measures can also be adjusted over time by adjusting their point values without changing the underlying architecture.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2021–03–03
  19. By: Kanay, Ayşegül; Hilton, Denis; Charalambides, Laetitia; Corrégé, Jean-Baptiste; Inaudi, Eva; Waroquier, Laurent; Cezera, Stéphane
    Abstract: We compared the effectiveness of basket goal-setting to product information strategies on sustainable consumption in a simulated online supermarket. Experiment 1 found a significant effect of basket goal setting techniques with carbon basket feedback in either numerical or graphical form on the carbon content of baskets purchased but no effect of numerical product information alone or in combination with basket CO2 information. Experiment 2 also found that basket goal setting was effective, but found no additional effect of introducing five-colour coding of the carbon footprints of either products or baskets. Experiment 3 replicated the effects of goal setting and found that repeated visits to the online supermarket led to improved learning about product carbon footprint in the basket goal setting condition. Our results suggest that goal setting techniques with feedback can reduce the carbon footprint of online shopping baskets and facilitate learning about product carbon footprint.
    Keywords: Sustainable consumption; Goal-setting; Decision-aiding; Carbon labels; Groceries
    Date: 2021–02
  20. By: Lina Moros; Maria Alejandra Vélez; Alexander Pfaff; Daniela Quintero
    Abstract: We implemented a decision experiment in the field with rural peasants in Colombia to test the effects of introducing then partially or totally removing Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES). We consider individual and collective payments and different rules for removal. We find that there is clearly no behavioral ‘crowding-out’ when a PES is created then ended. Even a simple pre-versus-post-PES comparison finds ‘crowding in’, if anything, with contributions higher after PES was removed than before PES was introduced. Comparing to a control, without PES, strengthens that conclusion. We discuss four possible mechanisms explaining these findings: recognition or gratitude; lack of negative emotions; pre-existing and persistent intrinsic motivations, and evocation of pro-environmental behavior.
    Keywords: lab in the field experiment, pro-environmental behavior, payment for ecosystem services, incentives, Colombia.
    JEL: Q Q Q57 Q
    Date: 2020–12–21
  21. By: John Szabo (Institute of World Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies)
    Keywords: EU; natural gas; transition fuel; climate policy; energy transition
    JEL: F50 Q34 Q48
    Date: 2020–09
  22. By: Stefania Lovo (Department of Economics, University of Reading); Samantha Rawlings (Department of Economics, University of Reading)
    Abstract: This paper examines the effect of e-waste dumping sites on early child health. We focus on two major dumping sites in West Africa, in Ghana and Nigeria. We observe children born before and after the creation of these dumps, and estimate a difference-in-difference specification in which we compare outcomes of those born within the vicinity of the dump (within 11km) to those further away, before and after e-waste sites are created. We find that the e-waste sites increase neonatal and infant mortality by 4.5 and 6.5 percentage points, respectively, for children living in the proximity of the site. Event study analysis suggests that the negative effects emerge 2-3 years after the existence of the site, consistent with the gradual and systematic build up on contaminants in the environment. Preliminary analysis considering routes of exposure suggests that water pollution may drive some of the observed effects.
    Keywords: E-waste, Health, Infant Mortality, Dumping Sites
    JEL: I10 Q53 Q56 O10
    Date: 2021–02–22
  23. By: Guojun He (Division of Social Science, Division of Environment and Sustainability, Department of Economics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.); Takanao Tanaka (Division of Social Science, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.)
    Abstract: Following the Fukushima nuclear accident, Japan gradually shut down all its nuclear power plants, causing a country-wide power shortage. In response, the government launched large-scale campaigns that aimed to reduce summer electricity consumption by as much as 15% in some regions. Because electricity use plays a key role in mitigating climate impacts, such policies could potentially damage the population’s health. Exploiting the different electricity- saving targets set by different regions, we show that the reduction in electricity consumption indeed increased heat-related mortality, particularly during extremely hot days. This unintended consequence suggests that there exists a trade-off between climate adaptation and energy saving.
    Keywords: Electricity Saving, Climate Change Adaptation, Fukushima Accident, Extreme Weather
    JEL: Q48 Q54 O12 I1
    Date: 2019–09
  24. By: Riccardo Ghidoni; Anna Lou Abatayo; Valentina Bosetti; Marco Casari; Massimo Tavoni
    Abstract: Climate geoengineering strategies can help reduce the economic and ecological impacts of global warming. However, governing geoengineering is challenging: since climate preferences vary across countries, excessive deployment relative to the socially optimal level is likely. Through a laboratory experiment on a public good-or-bad game, we study whether side-payments can address this governance problem. While theoretically effective, our experimental results show only a modest impact of side-payments on outcomes, especially in a multilateral setup. Replacing unstructured bilateral exchanges with a treaty framework simplifies the action space and performs moderately better.
    Keywords: climate governance, public good-or-bad, free-driving, transfers, promises, experiment, Coase theorem
    JEL: C70 C90 H40 Q50
    Date: 2021–02
  25. By: , AISDL
    Abstract: This short article represents the first attempt to define a new core cultural value that will enable engaging the business sector in humankind’s mission to heal nature. First, I start with defining the problem of the current business culture and the extant thinking on how to solve environmental problems, which I called “the eco-deficit culture.” Then, I present a solution to this problem by formulating the “semiconducting principle” of monetary and environmental values exchange, which I believe can generate “an eco-surplus business culture.” This work adds one new element, the eleventh cultural value, to the ten core values of progressive cultures postulated by Harrison (2000).
    Date: 2021–01–20
  26. By: Monia El Akkari (ECOSYS - Ecologie fonctionnelle et écotoxicologie des agroécosystèmes - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Fabien Ferchaud (Université de Liège, INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Loïc Strullu (Université de Liège, INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Ian Shield (Rothamsted Research); Aurélie Perrin (ESA - Ecole supérieure d'Agricultures d'Angers); Jean Louis Drouet (ECOSYS - Ecologie fonctionnelle et écotoxicologie des agroécosystèmes - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Pierre Alain Jayet (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE AgroParisTech, UMR Economie Publique, France); Benoit Gabrielle (ECOSYS - Ecologie fonctionnelle et écotoxicologie des agroécosystèmes - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Crop yields are important items in the economic performance and the environmental impacts of second-generation biofuels. Since they strongly depend on crop management and pedoclimatic conditions, it is important to compare candidate feedstocks to select the most appropriate crops in a given context. Agro-ecosystem models offer a prime route to benchmark crops, but have been little tested from this perspective thus far. Here, we tested whether an agro-ecosystem model (CERES-EGC) was specific enough to capture the differences between miscanthus and switchgrass in northern Europe. The model was compared to field observations obtained in seven long-term trials in France and the UK, involving different fertilizer input rates and harvesting dates. At the calibration site (Estrées-Mons), the mean deviations between simulated and observed crop biomass yields for miscanthus varied between −0.3 t DM ha −1 and 4.2 t DM ha −1. For switchgrass, simulated yields were within 1.0 t DM ha −1 of the experimental data. Observed miscanthus yields were higher than switchgrass yields in most sites and for all treatments, with one exception. Overall, the model captured the differences between both crops adequately, with a mean deviation of 0.46 t DM ha −1 , and could be used to guide feedstock selections over larger biomass supply areas.
    Keywords: second generation biofuels,lignocellulosic species,crop modeling,modélisation des cultures,espèce lignocellulosique,biocarburant de seconde génération
    Date: 2020
  27. By: Wallander, Steven; Smith, David; Bowman, Maria; Claassen, Roger
    Abstract: On U.S. cropland, the use of cover crops increased by 50 percent between 2012 and 2017. Over this same period, Federal and State conservation programs have increased efforts to promote cover crops through financial and technical assistance. Based on a series of farm- and field-level surveys, this report details how cover crops are managed on corn, cotton, soybean, and wheat fields.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management
    Date: 2021–02–18
  28. By: Nikolaos Englezos; Xanthi Kartala; Phoebe Koundouri (Dept. of International and European Economic Studies, Athens University of Economics and Business); Mike Tsionas; Angelos Alamanos
    Abstract: Competitive use of transboundary waters across different countries and among different sectors can be approached as a stochastic multistage dynamic game. In this paper we use this approach to develop and apply a novel framework for optimal management of limited transboundary water resources and evaluation of different international strategies, under hydrological uncertainty. The Omo-Turkana River Basin in Africa is used as a case study application, since it faces the above challenges within the water-food-energy nexus framework. The basic mathematical model consists of the water balance (availability and demand for the different sectors), the costs of water extraction, and the social benefits from water resources. The non-cooperative and cooperative (Stackelberg "leader-follower") cases are solved and compared based on the future water availability. The empirical application of the model calls for sector-specific production function estimations, for which we employ nonparametric treatment of the production functions, while we extend it to allow for technical inefficiency in production and autocorrelated Total Factor Productivity, providing thus a more realistic model. For this purpose, Bayesian analysis is performed using a Sequential Monte Carlo/Particle-Filtering approach. The cooperative solution is the optimal pathway not only for both riparian countries, but for the sustainable water use of the basin too, as in future uncertainty conditions it maintains the maximum welfare option. The detail and sophistication of both the mathematical and econometric models are key elements for this novel approach, supporting robust policy recommendations towards sustainable management of transboundary resources.
    Keywords: Transboundary water management, cooperation games, stochasticity, endogenous adaptation, production functions technical inefficiency, demand curve
    Date: 2021–02–03
  29. By: Rocío del Pilar Moreno-Sánchez; Jorge Higinio Maldonado
    Abstract: El pago por servicios ambientales (PSA) es un instrumento económico diseñado para promover la conservación de ecosistemas y la provisión de sus servicios. Durante casi dos décadas, el concepto, el diseño y la implementación de esta herramienta ha evolucionado y ha brindado lecciones sobre aspectos que se deben considerar para su exitosa ejecución. En ese documento se hace una revisión de la evolución del concepto mismo de servicios ambientales y del instrumento de pago por servicios ambientales, así como de las características, precondiciones y condiciones necesarias para su adecuada implementación. También se revisan las bases teóricas que sustentan su aplicación y cómo estas bases definen condiciones básicas para la decisión sobre si el PSA es la herramienta adecuada en un escenario determinado. Una revisión extensa de estudios muestra como las preferencias de los participantes definen las características de los contratos y la importancia de considerar estas preferencias en el diseño de los mismos. Las principales lecciones de esta revisión son: (i) el PSA es el instrumento económico más directo para alcanzar la conservación; (ii) sin embargo, no es la única herramienta ni está diseñada para resolver todos los problemas ambientales; (iii) el éxito de la implementación de un esquema de PSA depende de considerar las condiciones específicas y de contexto que rodean cada situación, así como las preferencias y restricciones de los potenciales participantes.
    Keywords: instrumentos económicos, conservación, servicios ecosistémicos, América Latina, externalidades.
    JEL: D04 H23 O13 Q01 Q2 Q56 Q57
    Date: 2021–01–28
  30. By: Jean-Pierre Aubry; Anqi Chen; Patrick M. Hubbard; Alicia H. Munnell
    Abstract: Public pension funds have engaged in social investing since the early 1970s, when several states passed laws to screen out ÒsinÓ stocks, such as tobacco, alcohol, and gambling. The practice was broadened in the early 1980s in the wake of a major campaign to encourage pension funds and others to divest from companies doing business in South Africa. States have also aimed to achieve domestic goals, such as promoting union workers, economic development, and homeownership. In the mid-2000s, the focus shifted to Òterror-freeÓ investing in response to the Darfur genocide and to weapons proliferation in Iran. And, after mass shootings in Aurora, CO and Newtown, CT, some public funds shed their holdings in gun manufacturers. In the last few years, state legislation has renewed the call to divest from Iran and has increasingly targeted fossil fuels to combat climate change. Interestingly, a ÒnewÓ form of investing Ð called ESG (environmental, social, and governance) Ð has gained traction among public plans themselves Ð as opposed to being imposed by state legislatures. A key tenet of ESG investing is that certain non-financial factors Ð such as a firmÕs environmental impact, its relationship with communities where it operates, and its management culture Ð are also relevant to longterm value. Proponents believe that, by integrating these ESG factors into existing methods of financial analysis, investors can both earn higher returns and promote socially beneficial practices and outcomes. This brief explores whether this new form of investing can fulfill its claims.
    Date: 2020–10
  31. By: Glyn Wittwer
    Abstract: The decade from 2011 to 2020 started with the tail end of one of the wettest two year periods observed in eastern Australia and ended with recovery from the hottest and driest year ever recorded. An increasing prevalence of extremes is consistent with expectations concerning climate change. This study uses observed rainfall and temperature anomalies to infer farm productivity levels by region. Productivity shocks are run year-by-year in the multi-regional VU-TERM model. The three scenarios of the study include a decade reflecting 2011 to 2020 seasons, a "2030" scenario in which farm productivity falls by 10% relative to the first scenario in five of the 10 seasons and a "2050" scenario in which, in the corresponding years, farm productivity falls 20%. The welfare impact of the first scenario relative to a baseline without year-on-year seasonal variations is minus $35 billion in net present value terms. The welfare impact in the second scenario is minus $46 billion and minus $59 billion in the third scenario. Welfare losses are alleviated to a small extent by resource movements. In particular, in years in which drought induces collapses in productivity, livestock production switches from grazing to fodder inputs. The study assumes that Outback Queensland consists of rangeland production in which a switch to fodder is not feasible. The region's income losses in drought are worse than elsewhere. Lack of input flexibility contributes to the region's losses.
    Keywords: regional drought impacts climate change welfare adaptation
    JEL: C68 Q54 R11 R15
    Date: 2021–02
  32. By: Weltersbach, Marc Simon; Riepe, Carsten; Lewin, Wolf-Christian; Strehlow, Harry V.
    Abstract: Research on the social and economic value of marine recreational fishing and its possible effects on marinefish stocks and ecosystems has been underrepresented in Germany in the past. This study should therefore collect and analyze representative data on (1) the number, fishing effort, and catches of German marine anglers in the North Sea and Baltic Sea (including the brackish lagoon Bodden waters), (2) the socio-economic importance,and (3) aspects of fisheries management.Therefore, a representative telephone screening survey was conducted with 50,000 randomly selected German households in the period from May to October 2014 to determine the incidence of marine anglers in the German population and to recruit participants for a one-year diary study. The telephone screening survey identified 562 households with marine anglers. The diary study involved 586 anglers who documented a total of 5,154 fishing days. The results showed that a total of around 200,000 German marine anglers fished approximately 1.8 million days per year in the German Northand Baltic Sea including the Bodden waters. In the Baltic Sea, about 161,000 anglers fished for approx. 1.2 million fishing days per year in 2014/2015. For the Bodden waters this resulted in about 49,000 persons and a fishing effort of about 332,000 fishing days per year in 2014/2015. At the North Sea there were about 32.000 anglers with about 147.000 fishing days per year in 2014/2015. While angling in the Baltic Sea and the Bodden waters was mainly carried out from boats, shore fishing was the most popular fishing method in the North Sea. German marine anglers were predominantly male (92%), on average 49 years old, and lived in households with two or three persons. Peace and relaxation, the experience of nature, and the capture of fish were the main motives for pursuing their hobby. On average, each angler spent about 900 Euro per year on marine recreational fishingin Germany, which corresponds to a total annual expenditure of 185 million Euro. The largest share of the expenditure was accounted for by costs for own boats, fishing tackle, travel/transportation, and accommodation. Marine anglers are thus an important source of income for coastal tourism in Germany, especially in the low season. The evaluation of the diary study showed that a total of 27 different fish species were caught in the Baltic Sea during the study period. The most important target species for Baltic Sea anglers were cod (Gadus morhua), sea trout (Salmo trutta), various flatfishes (Pleuronectoidei), and herring (Clupea harengus), with cod and herring being also the most commonly caught fish. Depending on the species, the importance of recreational fisheries harvests varied considerably compared to the German commercial fisheries landings in the Baltic Sea (ICES subdivisions 22 and 24). For example, the relative share of recreational fishing on the total harvest (sum of commercial and recreational harvest in tons) of sea trout (91%) and cod (53%) was high, while the shares of herring and flounder were each well below 10% of the total harvest. A total of 17 fish species were caught in the Bodden waters. Pike (Esox lucius), pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) and perch (Perca fluviatilis) were the most important target species. The most commonly caught species were herring, perch, pike, garfish (Belone belone), and pikeperch. Overall the results show that angling plays an important role for certain fish stocks in the Bodden waters. In the case of pike, angling is even the dominant form of exploitation. A total of 13 species of fish were caught in the North Sea. The most popular target fish species were sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), flatfish, cod and mackerel (Scomber scombrus). The most commonly caught species were mackerel, plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), and cod. Overall, it was found that angling in the North Sea is of rather minor importance compared to commercial fishing. About two thirds of the anglers were very or rather satisfied with their catches during marine recreational fishing, whereas about 22% were rather or very dissatisfied. The main reasons for being unsatisfied were overfishing and insufficient regulation of commercial fishing. Minimum landing sizes and closed seasons were judged as very good recreational fisheries management measures by about 80% of the marine anglers, whereas daily bag limits were assessed more critically. The results of this study may serve as basis for the development of a sustainable marine recreational fishery in Germany. Furthermore, social and economic aspects should be considered in future management decisions in order to ensure a sustainable, fair and, from an economic perspective, optimal allocation of the marine fish resources in Germany.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2021–03–05
  33. By: Olivier Chanel (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - AMU - Aix Marseille Université); Sylvia Medina (Santé publique France - French National Public Health Agency); Mathilde Pascal (Santé publique France - French National Public Health Agency)
    Abstract: This article proposes a methodological discussion based on an economic evaluation of the mortality impacts of chronic exposure to fine particulate matter in mainland France. It starts from the health impact assessment carried out by Santé publique France in 2016 for 5 scenarios of decrease in concentrations using two methods to measure mortality (number of premature deaths prevented, and total number of life years gained). After a justification of the monetary values used – €3 million for the value for a prevented fatality and €80,000 for the value of a life year gained – we apply them to the health data and obtain results comparable to contemporary studies. In particular, in a scenario without anthropogenic pollution, the 2016 EQIS estimates that 48,283 premature deaths could be prevented, corresponding to an economic assessment of €144.85 billion. We then address methods and practices first identifying the sources of divergence with the previous French study conducted in 1998-99, whose assessment was 5 times lower despite higher particulate emissions. We next discuss the choice of monetary values and the conditions for using these results in public decision-making. Finally, we provide an additional argument on the need to reduce people's exposure to ambient air pollution in France.
    Abstract: Cet article propose une discussion méthodologique à partir d'une évaluation économique des impacts sur la mortalité de l'exposition chronique aux particules fines en France continentale. Il prend comme point de départ l'évaluation quantitative d'impact sanitaire (EQIS), réalisée par Santé publique France en 2016, de 5 scénarios de réduction des concentrations par deux méthodes de mesure de la mortalité (nombre de décès prématurés évités et nombre total d'années de vie gagnées). Après une justification des valeurs monétaires utilisées – 3 millions € pour la valeur d'évitement d'un décès et 80 000 € pour celle d'une année de vie gagnée – nous les appliquons aux données sanitaires, et obtenons des résultats comparables aux études contemporaines. En particulier, dans un scénario sans pollution anthropique, l'EQIS de 2016 estime à 48 283 les décès prématurés évités, que nous évaluons à 144,85 milliards €2008. Nous questionnons ensuite les méthodes et pratiques, en commençant par identifier les sources de divergence avec la précédente étude française menée en 1998-99, dont l'évaluation était 5 fois moindre en dépit d'émissions particulaires plus élevées. Puis, nous discutons le choix des valeurs monétaires et les conditions d'utilisation de ces résultats dans la décision publique. Au final, nous apportons un argument supplémentaire sur la nécessité de réduire l'exposition des populations à la pollution de l'air ambiant en France.
    Keywords: air pollution,economic valuation,mortality,value of a prevented fatality,pollution atmosphérique,évaluation économique,mortalité,valeur d'évitement d'un décès
    Date: 2020–11–05
  34. By: Eric Jondeau; Benoit Mojon; Cyril Monnet
    Abstract: The momentum toward greening the economy implies transition risks that are new threats to financial stability. In particular, the expectation that other investors may exclude high carbon corporate emitters from their portfolio creates a risk of runs on brown assets. We show that runs can be contained by a liquidity backstop with an access fee that is based on the firm's carbon intensity, while the interest rate on the liquidity lent through this facility is independent from its carbon intensity.
    Keywords: green finance, financial stability, bank runs, brown assets, liquidity provision
    JEL: G01 G18 G28
    Date: 2021–03
  35. By: Susniwati, Susniwati
    Abstract: Batu City is known as one of the leading tourist cities in Indonesia because of its extraordinary potential of natural beauty. The purpose of this research is to analysize the actor network in tourism management based on sustainable development in Batu City. This study used a descriptive research method with a qualitative approach. As a result it is recommended to strengthen the role Department of Environmental Service in tourism development policies in Batu City. Batu City Government needs to establish a forum for “Community Conscious Environment” as a controlling agent. Batu City Government also needs to expand cooperation with academics, especially in environmental assessment cooperation.
    Date: 2020–10–19
  36. By: Peca Amaral Gomes, Alexandra; Al-Ragam, Asseel; AlShalfan, Sharifa
    Abstract: Kuwait’s population is expanding rapidly and accommodating this growth through sustainable urban development will be a challenge for the small emirate. This calls for a shift in current urbanisation patterns that are contributing to high levels of motorisation, public space neglect, physical inactivity and health and environmental problems.1 These negative externalities are coupled with unsustainable and profit-driven regeneration schemes that neglect the relationship between everyday behaviour and public space. Consequently, re-evaluating the relationship between urban growth and public space standards becomes vital. This applied policy-oriented research expands on the limited qualitative studies on public space in Kuwait and challenges state top-down design standards used in planning its residential neighbourhoods. It explores the impact that planning, design, and behavioural factors have on public space use. Building on the existing literature, it also adds a socio-spatial dimension to public space studies and contributes a qualitative policy-oriented approach that is environmentally sustainable and one that leads to healthier social and individual behaviour. A comparative case study method guided the investigation on two local streets in residential neighbourhoods in Kuwait with divergent urban characteristics: 4th Street, Qortuba and AlDimna Street, Salmiya. A qualitative user-centred analysis based on Gehl’s public survey tools2 was then used ‘to measure public space and public life’.3 The findings highlight that an overlap in responsibilities at state planning authorities and limited user-centred policies have hindered the successful use of public space in Kuwait. However, and as this investigation illustrates, public space improvement cannot be achieved with isolated measures. Design improvements to public space must also take into account the cultural and climatic impact of users’ social negotiations that take place in the public space of residential neighbourhoods in Kuwait. This investigation uses the selected case studies to address these different factors. The aim is to explore the impact of qualitative methods of analysis in understanding public space and to use the collected data to generate evidence-based policies that could then be applied on a much larger scale to the sustainable urban development of Kuwait. Effective urban policies and management will promote the necessary change that will help create more vibrant communities.
    JEL: Q15
    Date: 2021–03–01
  37. By: Erik Ansink (School of Business and Economics, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the Netherlands); Carmine Ornaghi (School of Economics, Social and Political Sciences, University of Southampton, UK); Mirco Tonin (Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Italy)
    Abstract: We study the impact of audits on water conservation, distinguishing between the information and technological components. We observe water consumption for up to 18 months for 10,000 households in the South East of England who received the visit of a so-called Green Doctor. We find that water-saving devices decrease water consumption by 2-4%, with an effect that is persistent over 18 months. Devices reducing water pressure are particularly effective, while shower timers are ineffective. The information component of the water audit has a large initial impact, but this gradually fades to a drop in consumption of 2% after 12 months. Technology appears to be more cost-effective than information provision and this can help in the design of policy interventions.
    Keywords: Water audits; Green Doctors; conservation, information; technology
    JEL: D12 H42 L95 Q25
    Date: 2021–02
  38. By: Bannor, Frank; Dikgang, Johane; Gelo, Dambala
    Abstract: Despite continuous reforms and increased spending in the agricultural sector, Africa remains a net food importer. Previous research has argued that agricultural productivity is lower in Africa than in all other parts of the world due to challenging ecological conditions – soil fertility challenges and extreme climate. Increasing the region’s food supply requires significant increases in agricultural productivity, which in turn depends on investment in research and development (R&D). This study examines how climate variability (proxied by rainfall variability) affects agricultural total factor productivity (TFP) of maize in 14 sub-Saharan African countries (SSA). Maize farming in Africa – due to its significance in regional food production, evident climate variability, and the need to significantly increase efficiency – is an ideal region of investigation for climate impacts on maize production. We apply a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) on the Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI) to decompose productivity growth into technical efficiency and technological progress. In addition, a single-stage maximum-likelihood estimation of a true fixed effect was used to investigate how climate variability affects maize productivity through technical efficiency. The results show that climate variability has a negative effect on technical efficiency in the agricultural production of maize. Furthermore, increased spending on R&D is required to enhance technical efficiency and productivity.
    Keywords: climate change,data envelopment analysis,maize,total factor productivity,research and development,technical efficiency
    JEL: Q1 Q5
    Date: 2021
  39. By: Eveillé, F.; Schiettecatte, L.-S.; Toudert, A.
    Abstract: The present technical study provides the results and a summary of the most important lessons learned from implementation of a series of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) practices in the rice supply chains of Gagnoa in Côte d’Ivoire. The aim of the CSA practices was to enhance the adaptive capacity of the rice sector against climate change, as erratic rainfall patterns and droughts events have, historically, significantly impacted production. This study relies on data collected at farm and processing levels during two field missions to two pilot sites in August 2017 and September 2018 under the project “Contribution à l’atteinte des objectifs liés au changement climatique et à la sécurité alimentaire via l’agriculture intelligente face au climat en Côte d’Ivoire – cas de la filière riz”. This project is a technical cooperation project implemented by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) from 2016 and 2018. The study provides a series of recommendations for policymakers, including incentives for the development of a modern bioenergy sector in Côte d’Ivoire which are still nascent.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management
    Date: 2020–09–27
  40. By: Lesly Cassin (UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne); Paolo Melindi-Ghidi (EconomiX - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Fabien Prieur (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - UMR 5211 - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: This article analyzes the impact of income inequality on environmental policy in the presence of green consumers. We develop a theory with three main ingredients: first, citizens have different income capacities; second they have access to two different commodities whose consumption differs in terms of price and environmental impact, and third, they have to vote on the environmental policy. In this setting, there exists a unique political equilibrium such that the population is split in two groups, depending on whether there is positive consumption of the green good. The analysis shows that higher income inequality is generally associated with lower public spending in environmental protection. We then test this prediction in a fixed-effect model with robust standard errors using a panel of European countries over the period 1996-2019. We indeed find that income inequality negatively affects both public expenditures in environmental protection.
    Keywords: income distribution,inequality,green consumption,environmental policy,probabilistic voting,political equilibrium
    Date: 2021–02–19
  41. By: Bello, Omar; Bustamante, Alejandro; Pizarro, Paulina
    Abstract: A disaster can cause countries to lose the economic and social ground that they have worked for decades to gain and can have even more severe impacts on the most vulnerable groups in their populations. The extent of its impacts will depend on the countries’ ability to identify and address their vulnerabilities. This study, which is intended for use by policymakers, in particular, explores the ways in which development planning can lay the foundation for a comprehensive transition from disaster management to disaster risk management. It advocates the adoption of system-based approaches, in keeping with those outlined in global development frameworks, and the attainment of a fuller understanding of the nature of disaster risk that will pave the way for new lines of research and for new methodologies and opportunities for planning before, during and after a disaster.
    Date: 2021–02–05
  42. By: Serge Garcia; Julien Jacob; Eve-Angéline Lambert
    Abstract: We experimentally investigate the relative performance of two liability sharing rules for managing environmental harms that are jointly caused by two firms which can make ex ante safety investments in order to reduce the magnitude of the harm. The investment levels are chosen non-cooperatively and assumed to be non-observable by the regulator. If one firm is unable to cover its part of the damages, third parties might not receive full compensation for their harm. Through an experiment, we analyze the investment choices under two widely used liability sharing rules and compare the decisions to theoretical predictions. In line with theory, we show that insolvency leads to under-investment. Moreover, we show that the relative performance of each rule depends on the firms’ relative degree of solvency. Our results indicate that the legislator should make the default liability sharing rule dependent upon the degree of capitalization of firms.
    Keywords: Environmental Regulation; Liability Sharing Rules; Multiple Tortfeasors; Firms’ Insolvency.
    JEL: K13 K32 Q53
    Date: 2021
  43. By: Julian F Kölbel (University of Zurich, Department of Banking and Finance; MIT Sloan); Markus Leippold (University of Zurich - Department of Banking and Finance; University of Zurich - Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Information Technology); Jordy Rillaerts (University of Zurich - Department of Banking and Finance; Swiss Finance Institute); Qian Wang (University of Zurich - Department of Banking and Finance)
    Abstract: We use BERT, an AI-based algorithm for language understanding, to decipher regulatory climate-risk disclosures and measure their impact on the credit default swap (CDS) market. Risk disclosures can either increase or decrease credit spreads, depending on whether disclosure reveals new risks or sharpens the signal and decreases the uncertainty. Training BERT to differentiate between transition and physical climate risks, we find that disclosing transition risks increases CDS spreads, especially after the Paris Climate Agreement of 2015, while disclosing physical climate risks leads to a decrease in CDS spreads. These impacts are statistically and economically highly significant.
    Keywords: climate risk disclosure, CDS spreads, 10-K filings, physical risks, transition risks, BERT model
    JEL: G13 G28 M48
    Date: 2021–03
  44. By: Dhingra, Chesta
    Abstract: The aim behind doing this research is to analyse the impact of odd-even policy and lockdown implementation on the air quality index of Delhi by doing the case study on the four regions Ashok Vihar, Anand Vihar, Dwarka and R.K. Puram. The data is been collected from DPCC and the main parameters we looked for are PM10 and PM2.5. In which we find out that. highest levels of the pollutants PM10 and PM2.5 been observed during the time of odd-even policy implementation for the year 2019 (04 November 2019- 15 November 2019) whereas during the lockdown period (23 March 2020-31st August 2020) a great decline in pollutant levels is been detected. This we further try to correlate with the spatial variations of Delhi region and able to discern that meteorological parameters (Ambient Temperature, Relative Humidity, Wind Speed and Solar Radiations) in respect with seasonal variations have a major influence on PM 10 and PM 2.5 levels. During the winter season both the parameters PM10 & PM2.5 are touching the peak because of the impact of three major meteorological parameters Ambient Temperature, Wind Speed and Solar Radiation and during the monsoon season air quality conditions are quite favourable because of Ambient Temperature and Wind Speed parameters. In the end we use the ensembled machine learning algorithms like Random Forest and Extra trees regressor to have an accurate estimation of PM2.5 levels for all the four regions of Delhi and perceived that these ensembled learning techniques are better than other machine learning algorithms like Neural Networks, Linear regression and SVMs. The Random Forest and Extra trees regressor models give the R2 value 0.75 and 0.78 respectively for estimation of PM2.5; R2 value is a statistical measurement which explains the variance of dependent variable based on the independent variables of a regression model.
    Date: 2021–02–18
  45. By: Pike, Susan
    Abstract: There is much uncertainty over whether on-demand ridehailing services, namely Uber and Lyft, will worsen or alleviate existing transportation problems such as congestion, emissions, and inequities in access and mobility. For policymakers, transportation planners, and others in the transportation arena, these unknowns have created uncertainty over which policies would best steer ridehailing toward equitable and sustainable outcomes. To address these uncertainties, researchers at UC Davis assessed how stakeholders from different groups view the possible impacts of ridehailing and the policies that might best address those impacts. The researchers evaluated these questions through in-depth interviews with stakeholders from 38 agencies and organizations throughout California. Interviewees included transportation planners, members of state agencies, and representatives from non-profit organizations and the ridehailing industry. This policy brief summarizes those interviews, as well as findings from the research. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, Exhaust gases, Interviewing, Ridesourcing, Stakeholders, Sustainable transportation, Transportation planning, Uncertainty, Vehicle miles of travel
    Date: 2021–03–01
  46. By: Philipp Krueger (University of Geneva - Geneva Finance Research Institute (GFRI); Swiss Finance Institute); Daniel Metzger (Erasmus University Rotterdam (EUR) - Rotterdam School of Management (RSM); European Corporate Governance Institute (ECGI); London School of Economics & Political Science (LSE) - Financial Markets Group); Jiaxin Wu (Stockholm School of Economics - Department of Finance)
    Abstract: We document a new channel through which a firm’s sustainability policies can contribute positively to its bottom line, by reducing labor costs and by enabling firms to recruit and retain workers that are highly skilled. Using detailed administrative employer-employee matched data from Sweden and a novel measure that quantifies the environmental sustainability of different economic activities, we document that workers earn about 10% lower wages in firms that operate in more sustainable sectors. We refer to this empirical regularity as the Sustainability Wage Gap. Exploiting heterogeneities in workers’ preferences for sustainable jobs, we show that the wage gap is larger for high-skilled workers, especially those with high non-cognitive skills, and increasing over time. We argue that our results are difficult to reconcile with many alternative interpretations suggested in prior research.
    Keywords: Sustainable Finance, ESG, CSR, Sustainability, Allocation of Talent, Millennials, Non-monetary Preferences, Wages
    JEL: G11 G38 J24 J28 J31
    Date: 2021–03
  47. By: Amini, Jazmin; Kerchof, Clay; Mathews, Laurel; Thompson, Matthew
    Abstract: In July and August of 2020, a research team of four graduate students from UC Berkeley’s Department of City and Regional Planning conducted interviews with directors and other high-level staff representing several of California’s metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) to gather information on the achievements and challenges associated with the implementation of SB 375. Key takeaways from this effort include: 1) MPOs are not requesting additional authorities or oversight of local land use decisions; 2) MPOs use funding as “carrots” to incentivize local plans to align with regional goals, and many MPOs desire more discretionary funding and priority-specific funding; 3) some MPOs want to focus on greenhouse gas (GHG) strategies, such as telecommuting, active transportation, and technological advancement, in order to meet their GHG emission targets; 4) MPOs want the State to develop policies in ways that acknowledge distinct planning nuances and economic and geographic contexts across regions; 5) the process of developing and submitting regional plans to the State for review is staff-intensive and technically complex for MPOs, which takes away from the agencies’ capacity to focus on implementation and other work; 6) Senate Bill 375 has empowered MPOs to consider more deeply the relationship between land use and transportation; and 7) as a result of Senate Bill 375, there is now increased communication and engagement between the MPO and a broader set of stakeholders
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, greenhouse gases, climate change, environmental policy, policy analysis, regional planning vehicle miles of travel, incentives, metropolitan planning organizations, interviews
    Date: 2021–02–01
  48. By: Navarro, Matthew L.; Langlois, Tim J.; Murphy, Jeff; Ochwada-Doyle, Faith A.
    Abstract: To effectively manage recreational fisheries, managers require an understanding of the drivers of recreational fisher behaviour. In this preliminary study, we explore drivers of recreational fishing site choice in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. In contrast to previous site choice studies, we investigate whether cues of fishing quality (e.g., depth and rugosity), as opposed to catch expectations can be used to explain site choices. We find that recreational fishers in NSW were more likely to visit sites with lower travel cost, greater water depths, and with fish aggregation devices (FADs). Unsurprisingly, the effect of FADs was particularly pronounced on trips targeting pelagic species. This working paper provides some preliminary evidence that cues of fishing quality could be used to explain site choices, but further research is needed particularly involving higher resolution data on habitats that are likely to be important site quality cues.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2021–01–25
  49. By: Totterman, Stephen
    Abstract: Vehicles can be a serious vector for human recreation disturbance to beach-nesting birds because they enable people, often with their dogs, to disperse over greater distances than they would typically walk. The objective of this study was to quantify vehicle-based recreation and compliance with regulations and codes of conduct for Seven Mile (Lennox Head), South Ballina and Airforce (Evans Head) beaches, N New South Wales, Australia. South Ballina and Airforce supported remnant beach-nesting Australian pied oystercatcher Haematopus longirostris populations. Vehicle-based recreation and compliance varied among beaches. The most frequent activities observed were picnics (31–50%), driving (14–30%) and fishing (5–16%). Picnics can be intensely disturbing for beach-nesting birds because they typically occur on the super-tidal zone and are long-duration events. Compliance was high for beach driving zones and driving below the high tide limit but variable for speed limits (33–79%) and dog zones (6–100%). The Discussion argues that regulations and codes of conduct are not effective for managing the social and environmental impacts of beach driving if they do not limit the numbers of vehicles.
    Date: 2021–02–17
  50. By: Fasuluku, Sahr Otto
    Abstract: This study examines the organisational capacity and constraints of civil society organisations (CSOs) in Kono District, Sierra Leone and their potential to deliver the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) there. Capacity was found to be very low, with major constraints both internal and external preventing capacity growth and effectiveness. These included poor internal systems and member cooperation, external financial and in-kind dependency, power and politics within and without CSOs, communities’ fear of speaking to power and therefore their abdication of roles as checks and balances to hold leaders to account. Several options are available to CSOs, councils and chiefs to address Kono’s effectiveness at delivering the SDGs for Kono.
    Date: 2021–02–18
  51. By: Reiche, Colleen PhD; Cohen, Adam P; Fernando, Chris
    Keywords: Engineering
    Date: 2021–01–01
  52. By: Payam Elhami; Mahdi Ghodsi (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Robert Stehrer (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: Eight multilateral rounds of negotiations under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and international agreements under the World Trade Organisation (WTO) have contributed significantly to the reduction of tariffs among WTO members. However, the imposition and use of non-tariff measures (NTMs) have surged over the years, mostly for legitimate policy goals. Among these measures, technical barriers to trade (TBTs) and sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures, in particular, allow countries to impose restrictions on the imports of low-quality products suspected of harming domestic consumers’ health, plants, animals or the global environment. Such trade policy instruments aim to force higher standards in the import market and to ensure alignment with domestic regulations. The main question therefore is whether and how regulative NTMs affect trade flows, and in particular the quality of traded goods. Following the theoretical framework proposed by Feenstra and Romalis (2014), we theoretically illustrate how NTMs affect the average quality of imported products, while also incorporating the impact on the quantity and value of imports. The framework then allows us to estimate the impact of NTMs on traded values, quantities, unit values, quality and quality-adjusted prices at the detailed HS six-digit level. The results of the various estimated variables for all countries at the detailed product level are available in a visualised format (Tableau) as well as an online data appendix, providing comprehensive insights for scholars and policy makers. Generally, the results point towards a quality-increasing impact of regulative NTMs, though this may come with lower traded quantities or values. These aspects must be weighed against the positive outcomes, i.e. the compliance with the aims of the regulations concerning health, security or environmental goals and the overall increase in quality. Imposing such measures should therefore be done in such a way that they reduce trade frictions as much as possible while recognising the legitimate motivations behind the imposition of NTMs. Further, harmonisation of standards at the multilateral level may circumvent potential frictions while supporting the overall aims of regulative NTMs.
    Keywords: non-tariff measures, technical barriers to trade, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, quality of products, global bilateral trade
    JEL: F13 F14 L15
    Date: 2021–02
  53. By: , AISDL
    Abstract: The role of CSR in Vietnam needs to be enhanced and encouraged properly by the stakeholders in relation to each other to catch up with MNCs, western governments, and international organizations at political, legal, and economic levels. Since they introduced this concept of CSR to Vietnam in 2002. However, when applying CSR practices in Vietnam, MNCs need to adapt and modify to particular situations of Vietnam. For instance, they seem to recognize and finally find a way to respect and implement CSR projects that support the Buddhist or socialist beliefs of their Vietnamese employees, partners, and authorities. In this essay, we will discuss what factors would promote CSR in the context of Vietnam.
    Date: 2019–10–31
  54. By: Mike Tretheway (InterVISTAS Consulting Inc.); Robert Andriulaitis (InterVISTAS Consulting Inc.); Jody Kositsky (InterVISTAS Consulting Inc.); Geneva Tretheway (InterVISTAS Consulting Inc.)
    Abstract: This paper examines explicit northern and Arctic connectivity policies in Canada, recognising the vital importance of air services in economic and social life. It comments on existing legislation, regulations, policies and programmes of the federal government as well as of Canada’s three northern territories. It also looks at recommendations from past transport policy reviews.
    Date: 2021–01–22
  55. By: Martha Delgado
    Abstract: El presente estudio tiene por objeto determinar el uso potencial y efectivo del suelo agropecuario del país, a partir de los mapas de aptitud y uso del suelo elaborados por el IGAC y de los resultados del Censo Nacional Agropecuario -CNA 2014. Esta comparación permite identificar las zonas del país en las que se da un mejor aprovechamiento de su potencial productivo, y aquellas en las que hay un mayor conflicto entre uso y vocación, además de los posibles factores que lo explicarían. Para profundizar en el conocimiento sobre el uso del suelo agropecuario en el país, se utiliza la información del CNA para analizar las características productivas y tecnológicas de varios de los cultivos más importantes del país agrupados en tres categorías: exportables, de sustitución de importaciones y no transables. Con base en los resultados del estudio se identifican acciones de política pública encaminadas a hacer un mejor uso del suelo e incrementar la productividad y la producción del sector agropecuario colombiano. El estudio se divide en siete capítulos. El primero plantea los antecedentes y el objetivo del estudio. El segundo capítulo presenta la metodología utilizada para el análisis. El tercer capítulo resume algunos de los resultados más relevantes del CNA. El cuarto capítulo presenta los resultados de vocación y uso del suelo a nivel nacional y regional. El quinto capítulo resume los principales indicadores del CNA para el conjunto de cultivos seleccionados y los resultados en cuanto a la vocación y uso de los suelos en los que se ubican. El sexto capítulo incluye los resultados del modelo sobre los determinantes de la productividad y de la eficiencia técnica para cada uno de los cultivos. Por último, el capítulo séptimo presenta las conclusiones y recomendaciones.
    Keywords: Suelos, Tierras, Tierra Agrícola, Uso de la Tierra, Censo Nacional Agropecuario - CNA, Sector Agropecuario, Productividad Agrícola, Colombia
    JEL: Q15 Q24 R52 Q10
    Date: 2019–09–30
  56. By: Laure-Anne Plumhans
    Date: 2021
  57. By: Handrik Kruse (Univ. Orléans, CNRS, LEO and Labex Voltaire, FRE 2014); Thaís Núñez Rocha (Univ. Orléans, CNRS, LEO and Labex Voltaire, FRE 2014); Camélia Turcu (Univ. Orléans, CNRS, LEO and Labex Voltaire, FRE 2014)
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the claim that rich countries use development aid to ensure access to natural resources. We provide a theoretical model that suggests that even an altruistic donor may be inclined to allocate a higher share of their aid expenditure on infrastructure and other trade promoting measures if they rely on the recipient’s resource exports for their own production. We use a panel dataset from 2001 to 2011. Our results suggest that bilateral resource trade on average positively affects the number of infrastructure projects and the average size of projects. The effect seems to be driven mostly by fuels and road infrastructure projects. While the effect of resources is weaker for landlocked countries, we find that the transport capacity of the recipient’s fleet of bulk carriers —used in the maritime transport of many resources— reinforces the effect of resources on infrastructure aid. Finally, we find a decreasing influence of resources over time.
    Keywords: Foreign Aid, Resource exports, Political Economy, Trade costs, Infrastructure
    JEL: F
    Date: 2020

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