nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2021‒02‒22
fifty-five papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. The Green New Deal: Historical Foundations, Economic Fundamentals and Implementation Strategies By Julia M. Puaschunder
  2. Ökonomie der landwirtschaftlichen Kohlenstoffspeicherung in Böden By Dominique Desbois
  3. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explore Employees Intentions to Implement Green Practices By Bouarar, Ahmed Chemseddine; Mouloudj, kamel
  4. Market-induced carbon leakage in China’s certified emission reduction projects By Huiying Ye; Qi Zhang; Xunzhang Pan; Arash Farnoosh
  6. Managing the Impact of Climate on Migration: Evidence from Mexico By Isabelle Chort; Maëlys de la Rupelle
  7. Abolishing Environmental Regulation: Strategic E§ects and Welfare Implications By Espinola-Arredondo, Ana; Munoz-Garcia, Felix
  8. Valuation of the health and climate-change benefits of healthy diets By Springmann, M.
  9. International trade and circular Economy - Policy alignment By Shunta Yamaguchi
  10. The Economic Geography of Global Warming By Jose Luis Cruz Alvarez; Esteban Rossi-Hansberg
  11. Improving the environmental performance of Moroccan industries By Amina Laaroussi; Denis Lemaître; Soumia Bakkali; Souad Ajana
  12. The Social Cost of Carbon, Risk, Distribution, Market Failures: An Alternative Approach By Nicholas Stern; Joseph E. Stiglitz
  13. The geopolitics of the European Green Deal By Mark Leonard; Jeremy Shapiro; Jean Pisani-Ferry; Simone Tagliapietra; Guntram B. Wolff
  14. China’s War on Pollution: Evidence from the First Five Years By Michael Greenstone; Guojun He; Shanjun Li; Eric Zou
  15. On the relevance of values, norms, and economic preferences for electricity consumption By Elke D. Groh; Andreas Ziegler
  16. Import Ban and Clean Air:Estimating the Effect of China's Waste Import Ban on the Ozone Pollution By Jinsong Li
  17. A comparison of EU and US consumers’ willingness to pay for gene-edited food: Evidence from apples By Stéphan Marette; Anne-Célia Disdier; John Beghin
  18. Adapting to high temperatures: evidence on the impacts of sustainable agricultural practices in Uganda By Ignaciuk, A.; Maggio, G.; Mastrorillo, M.; Sitko, N.
  19. Pro-environmental attitude and behaviours: an investigation on the role of pro-sociality By Caterina Giannetti; Pietro Guarnieri; Tommaso Luzzati
  20. On the search for environmental sustainability in Africa: the role of governance By Ibrahim A. Adekunle
  21. The challenge of making climate adaptation profitable for farmers: evidence from Sri Lanka’s rice sector By Bandara, S.; Ignaciuk, S.; Hewage, A.; Kwon, J.; Munaweera, T.; Scognamillo, A.; Sitko, N.
  22. Invention and Global Diffusion of Technologies for Climate Change Adaptation: A Patent Analysis By Antoine Dechezleprêtre; Sam Fankhauser; Matthieu Glachant; Jana Stoever; Simon Touboul
  23. Common pool resource management and risk perceptions By Can Askan Mavi; Nicolas Querou
  24. Trade and FDI Thresholds of CO2 emissions for a Green Economy in Sub-Saharan Africa By Simplice A. Asongu; Nicholas M. Odhiambo
  25. List of wind power projects in Vietnam, 2021-01 By Minh Ha-Duong; Lan Nguyễn
  26. A dimensão de gênero no Big Push para a Sustentabilidade no Brasil: As mulheres no contexto da transformação social e ecológica da economia brasileira By Olivera, Margarita; Podcameni, Maria Gabriela; Lustosa, Maria Cecília; Graça, Letícia
  27. Weather, psychological wellbeing and mobility during the first wave of the Covid-19 pandemic By Burdett, Ashley; Davillas, Apostolos; Etheridge, Ben
  28. Weather, Psychological Wellbeing and Mobility during the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic By Burdett, Ashley; Davillas, Apostolos; Etheridge, Ben
  29. The impact of a gain-sharing cost-reflective tariff on waste management cost under incentive regulation: The Italian case By Di Foggia, Giacomo; Beccarello, Massimo
  30. What participatory strategy for local water management with citizens? Feedbacks and questions By Emeline Hassenforder; Anne Pressurot; Nils Ferrand; Melaine Aucante; Nathalie Sureau-Blanchet
  31. Greenwashing and product market competition By Mohamed Arouri; Sadok El Ghoul; Mathieu Gomes
  32. Quantifying the Externalities of Renewable Energy Plants Using Wellbeing Data: The Case of Biogas By Christian Krekel; Julia Rechlitz; Johannes Rode; Alexander Zerrahn
  33. Brevi riflessioni sullo sviluppo locale sostenibile nelle isole minori italiane By Andrea Salustri; Andrea Appolloni
  34. Women political empowerment and vulnerability to climate change: evidence from developing countries By Simplice A. Asongu; Omang O. Messono; Keyanfe T. J. Guttemberg
  35. Sustainable Development and the Optimal Level of Fiscal Expenditure Decentralization By Jin Hui; Jorge Martinez-Vazquez
  36. Impacts of Natural Disasters on Households and Small Businesses in India By Patankar, Archana
  37. Green potential of Europe's labour force: Relative share and possible skills imbalances By Lobsiger, Michael; Rutzer, Christian
  38. Policies for low-carbon and affordable home heating: A French outlook By Louis-Gaëtan Giraudet; Cyril Bourgeois; Philippe Quirion
  39. La transition écologique : incertitude, irréversibilité et modèle institutionnel By Jean-Luc Gaffard
  40. Addressing Cambodia’s Clean Water Infrastructure By JieYeon Celes Moon; Lewis Seagull
  41. Land scarcity impedes sustainable input intensification in smallholder irrigated agriculture: Evidence from Egypt By Abay, Kibrom A.; El-Enbaby, Hoda; Abdelfattah, Lina; Breisinger, Clemens
  42. Travel Cost Method Considering Trip-day Counts as Integers By Kono, Tatsuhito; Yoshida, Jun
  45. Real-Time Fixed-Target Statistical Prediction of Arctic Sea Ice Extent By Francis X. Diebold; Maximilian Gobel
  46. Un (pen)último anuncio de la administración Trump, antes de morir: "Se subastan concesiones de explotación de petróleo en el refugio de vida silvestre del ártico" By Elena Conde Pérez
  47. Increasing resident participation in waste management through intrinsic factors cultivation By , Sunarti; Tjakraatmadja, J.H.; Ghazali, A.; Rahardyan, B.
  48. Sustainably financing infrastructure in sub-Saharan Africa - What role for the DAC? By OECD
  49. Corporate govermance for sustainability By Andrew Johnston; Jeroen Veldman; Robert G. Eccles; Simon Deakin; Jerry Davis; Marie-Laure Salles-Djelic; Blanche Segrestin; Cynthia Williams; David Millon; Paddy Ireland; Beate Sjafjell; Christopher Bruner; Lorraine Talbot; Hugh Willmott; Charlotte Villiers; Carol Liao; Bertrand Valiorgue
  50. Indicateurs, critères, comptabilité des soutenabilités By Valérie Charolles
  51. Etude de faisabilité pour la mise en place d’une Délégation de Service Public d’un parc de PMH dans la région Nord du Burkina Faso - Analyse de la viabilité financière et économique du projet de délégation By C. Pezon
  52. The Distributional Impact of Climate Change: Why Food Prices Matter By Eeshita Gupta; Bharat Ramaswami; E. Somanathan
  53. Les "instruments de marché" dans la lutte contre le changement climatique : quel bilan après 20 ans ? By Philippe Quirion
  54. Addressing the adverse impacts of non-communicable diseases on the sustainable development of Caribbean countries By Abdulkadri, Abdullahi; Floyd, Shirelle; Mkrtchyan, Iskuhi; Marajh, Gina; Gonzales, Candice; Cunningham-Myrie, Colette
  55. Infraestructura resiliente: un imperativo para el desarrollo sostenible en América Latina y el Caribe By Weikert Bicalho, Fabio

  1. By: Julia M. Puaschunder (The New School, USA)
    Abstract: The Green New Deal (GND) serves as market solution to implement global environmental governance as “the sum of the many ways individuals and institutions, public and private, manage their common affairs.†This paper discusses the historical foundations, underlying economic mechanisms of the GND and contemporary implementation strategies of the GND. GND spending should target social and green causes fostering concepts such as eco-commerce, environmental enterprise, environmental finance, fiscal environmentalism, green accounting, economy, jobs and trading as well as sustainable energy. The economic policies proposed comprise of fiscal and monetary means, innovation efforts and behavioral changes. Concrete recommendations are given on carbon tax, emissions trading, green bonds, absorbing CO2 and forestation, insurance policies, intergenerational conscientiousness, engaging portfolio managers, ecotax, environmental pricing reform, environmental tariffs, net metering, Pigovian tax and sustainable tourism. All these efforts are to support global environmental governance. The paper closes with a prospective outlook of changes implied to the GND due to the novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis.
    Keywords: The Green New Deal, carbon tax, emissions trading, governance, green bonds, environmental costs, insurance policies, intergenerational conscientiousness
    Date: 2020–08
  2. By: Dominique Desbois (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - AgroParisTech - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique)
    Abstract: The States that signed the Paris Accord in 2015 at the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) set themselves the common objective of achieving a balance in anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by the second half of the 21st century. According to a net emissions flow approach adopted by several European countries, France adopted a "climate plan" in July 2017, with a "zero net emissions" (ZEN) objective for GHGs by 2050. Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils is one of the means envisaged to achieve this common mitigation objective.
    Abstract: Les États signataires de l'Accord de Paris en 2015 dans le cadre de la 21 e conférence des parties (COP21) à la Convention-cadre des Nations unies sur les changements climatiques (CCNUCC) se sont donnés comme objectif commun de parvenir à un équilibre des émissions anthropiques de gaz à effet de serre (GES) d'ici à la seconde moitié du XXI e siècle. Selon une logique en flux d'émissions nettes adoptée par plusieurs pays européens, la France s'est dotée d'un « plan climat » en juillet 2017, avec un objectif de « zéro émission nette » (ZEN) de GES à l'horizon 2050 1. La séquestration du carbone dans les sols agricoles est l'un des moyens envisagés pour atteindre cet objectif commun d'atténuation.
    Keywords: Carbon Neutrality,Carbon Pricing Economics,Carbon Sequestration,Cimate Change,Soil Management
    Date: 2021–02
  3. By: Bouarar, Ahmed Chemseddine; Mouloudj, kamel
    Abstract: Predicting behaviors is particularly important in the field of environmental management because the environment is greatly influenced by human behavior. This paper aims to contribute to the development of an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) and to gain some insight into the motives for employees' intentions to implement green practices in Algeria as a developing country. Data were collected from the convenience sample of 182 employees in three Algerian cities using a questionnaire survey. The results indicated that attitude toward behavior, subjective norms and environmental knowledge is positively and significantly affect employee's intention to implement green practices. The results also suggested that perceived behavior control had no significant effect. It is expected that the results of this paper can aid policymakers and stakeholders in drafting and implementing sustainable environmental regulations in the workplace.
    Keywords: Attitude; Environmental Knowledge; Perceived Behavior Control; Subjective Norms; Workplace.
    JEL: E24 M12 Q56
    Date: 2021–02–19
  4. By: Huiying Ye (China University of Petroleum, IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles - IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles); Qi Zhang (China University of Petroleum); Xunzhang Pan (China University of Petroleum); Arash Farnoosh (IFP School)
    Abstract: The topic of climate change has aroused increasingly widespread concern around the world. Under the agreement at the 21st Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), covened in Paris, France (Paris Agreement), which requires all Parties to undertake emission reductions, the developing countries who were once exempted from emission reduction obligations are now becoming more and more important. This study focuses on mitigation actions in China, the largest carbon emitter, as well as the largest developing country in the world. Specifically, we examine Chinese Certified Emission Reduction (CCER) projects. The objective is to compare the reduction efficiency of three types of projects: simple abatement and completely renewable energy alternative projects at the supply side and demand side projects. From market-induced carbon leakage point of view, a dual market equilibrium model was built, with results showing that the key factors affecting the leakage rates are price elasticities of both demand and supply sides and market share parameters. In most cases, renewable energy alternative projects show the least leakage rate while demand side projects show the highest. Sensitivity analysis finds that leakage rates for the three types of projects are more sensitive to price elasticity parameters than market share parameters. Moreover, factors Edec (electricity price elasticity of coal demand from coal-fired generation) and Ede (electricity price elasticity of electricity demand) affect not only the leakage rate of each project but also the comparative results between them. Although our study is based on China, the theoretical analysis is applicable in other regional voluntary emission reduction markets around the world. So, a systematic approach to comprehensively analyze the issue is summarized, based on which, we recommend two mitigation strategies to cope with the issue in offset projects in order to give managerial insights for the government. Firstly, the calculated leakage rates for different types of projects provide a new perspective to evaluate various offset projects, thus helping consider project types for priority validation. Secondly, we suggest to establish an accurate and classified discount coefficient system according to the project types to deal with the issue; the sensitivity analysis is helpful to find the most influential factors. A top-down approach to implement the strategy is proposed.
    Keywords: Market-induced carbon leakage,Certified emission reduction projects,Reduction efficiency,Comparison
    Date: 2020–08
  5. By: Wang-Laouna Benguellah (Faculty of Economics and Management, University of Maroua, Cameroon)
    Abstract: The article investigates the direct and indirect effects of foreign direct and indirect investment on sustainable development is an empirical analysis of the relationship between Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and sustainable development in the WAEMU and ECCAS zones. It examines the impact of FDI on sustainable development in a sample of ten countries1 during the period 2000-2017. The estimation technique is based on the Generalized Method of Moments based on Dynamic Panel data. After a battery of tests (interdependence, stationarity, co-integration, endogeneity and model identification tests), the results reveal through the prism of co-integration that our main variables have three long-term relationships in the ECCAS sub-region and no longterm relationship in the WAEMU sub-region. In addition, in the WAEMU subregion, an increase of one unit of human development index (HDI) leads to a decrease of 2.41E-10% in FDI; 1.36E-05% in non-renewable energy consumption (CENREN). On the other hand, there is an increase of 0.499551% in carbon dioxide emissions (ECO2); 0.003856% in renewable energy consumption (CEREN); 2.75E-05% in Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDP per capita). In the ECCAS subregion, an increase of one HDI unit reveals a decrease of 1.15E-05% in HDPI, and there is an increase of 3.06E-12% in FDI, 0.005318% in non-renewable energy consumption (CENREN), an increase of 0.089169% in carbon dioxide emissions (ECO2); and 8.85E-05% in renewable energy consumption (CEREN). These results show, on the one hand, that the HDI does not contribute to the increase of the HDP in the ECCAS sub-region (which can be explained by the presence of corruption, lack of employment, low labour costs, political instability in the different countries of the sub-region...) and deteriorates FDI and CENREN in the WAEMU sub-region. In terms of recommendations, in order to have an HDI that can have a positive impact on the HDP, the actions to be taken must focus on improving governance at the level of both the States and the ECCAS sub-region. Diversifying energy sources. Finally, avoid the repatriation of profits to the countries of origin
    Keywords: : Sustainable development; foreign direct investment; gross domestic product, renewable energy and non-renewable energy
    JEL: F64 Q01 Q56
    Date: 2020–06
  6. By: Isabelle Chort; Maëlys de la Rupelle (Université de Cergy-Pontoise, THEMA)
    Abstract: While there is a growing literature on the impact of climate and weather-related events on migration, little is known about the mitigating effect of different policies directed to the agricultural sector, or aimed at insuring against environmental disasters. This paper uses state-level data on migration ows between Mexico and the U.S. from 1999 to 2012 to investigate the migration response to weather shocks and the mitigating impact of an agricultural cash-transfer program (PROCAMPO) and a disaster fund (Fonden). We find that Fonden decreases migration in response to heavy rainfall, hurricanes and droughts. Increases in PROCAMPO amounts paid to small producers are found to play an additional, though more limited, role in limiting the migration response to shocks. Changes in the distribution of PROCAMPO favoring more vulnerable producers in the non irrigated ejido sector also seem to mitigate the impact of droughts on migration.
    Keywords: International migration, Weather shocks, Public policies, Weather variability, Natural disasters, Mexico-U.S. migration, Inequality
    JEL: F22 Q54 Q18 J61
    Date: 2021
  7. By: Espinola-Arredondo, Ana (Washington State University); Munoz-Garcia, Felix (Washington State University)
    Abstract: This paper considers an environmental policy that may be rolled back in future periods by anew administration. We examine how this policy uncertainty reduces firms' incentives to invest in green R&D before the policy is scheduled to come into e§ect, increasing as a result polluting emissions. We then evaluate the welfare loss generated by policy uncertainty and compare it against the welfare loss due to abolishing environmental regulation. We identify industries where policy uncertainty can yield larger welfare losses than those from an unregulated externality. We also Önd under which settings Örm proÖts are larger when environmental policy is likely to remain into e§ect than rolled back.
    Keywords: Environmental policy; Rolled back regulation; Green R&D investment; Welfarelosses; Policy uncertainty
    JEL: L13 L51 Q55 Q58
    Date: 2021–01–28
  8. By: Springmann, M.
    Abstract: Background paper for The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2019 – The health and environmental consequences of our dietary choices impose costs on society that are currently not reflected in the price of those foods or diets that contribute to these detrimental impacts. This paper provides updated estimates of two major cost items: the healthcare-related costs associated with unhealthy diets, and the climate-change costs associated with the emissions attributable to diets and food production. Results suggest that the health and climate-change costs of current diets are substantial and projected to increase up to 1.3-1.7 trillion USD annually by 2030.
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Health Economics and Policy
    Date: 2020–10–26
  9. By: Shunta Yamaguchi
    Abstract: Circular economy policies and initiatives largely take place domestically, and yet they have important interlinkages with international trade. This report explores how to make circular economy policies and trade policies mutually supportive by mapping out potential misalignments and identifying opportunities to align and strengthen both policy areas. The report highlights the various interlinkages between international trade and circular economy, and examines the interactions between trade and circular economy at the policy level, focussing on the multilateral trade regime and regional trade agreements, as well as specific policies to promote the circular economy, such as extended producer responsibility and product stewardship schemes, taxes and subsidies, green public procurement, environmental labelling schemes, and standards.
    Keywords: Circular economy, Environment policy, Resource efficiency, Trade and environment, Trade policy
    JEL: F18 O13 Q53 Q56
    Date: 2021–02–19
  10. By: Jose Luis Cruz Alvarez; Esteban Rossi-Hansberg
    Abstract: Global warming is a worldwide and protracted phenomenon with heterogeneous local economic effects. In order to evaluate the aggregate and local economic consequences of higher temperatures, we propose a dynamic economic assessment model of the world economy with high spatial resolution. Our model features a number of mechanisms through which individuals can adapt to global warming, including costly trade and migration, and local technological innovations and natality rates. We quantify the model at a 1° × 1° resolution and estimate damage functions that determine the impact of temperature changes on a region’s fundamental productivity and amenities depending on local temperatures. Our baseline results show welfare losses as large as 15% in parts of Africa and Latin America but also high heterogeneity across locations, with northern regions in Siberia, Canada, and Alaska experiencing gains. Our results indicate large uncertainty about average welfare effects and point to migration and, to a lesser extent, innovation as important adaptation mechanisms. We use the model to assess the impact of carbon taxes, abatement technologies, and clean energy subsidies. Carbon taxes delay consumption of fossil fuels and help flatten the temperature curve but are much more effective when an abatement technology is forthcoming.
    JEL: F63 F64 Q51 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2021–02
  11. By: Amina Laaroussi (University Hassan II); Denis Lemaître (FoAP - Formation et apprentissages professionnels - CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM] - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement - ENSTA Bretagne - École Nationale Supérieure de Techniques Avancées Bretagne, Département SHS - Département Sciences Humaines et Sociales - ENSTA Bretagne - École Nationale Supérieure de Techniques Avancées Bretagne); Soumia Bakkali (University Hassan II); Souad Ajana (University Hassan II)
    Abstract: The environmental awareness of Moroccan engineers in charge of industrial projects has become essential to improve environmental performance and, more broadly, to contribute to the environment protection and sustainable development strategy of Morocco. However, it is difficult to measure the level of environmental awareness among engineers and to promote it. Thus, to answer this issue and provide comprehension tools, a field study was carried out among Moroccan company managers from seven different industrial sectors. The manufacturing companies are mostly certified ISO 14001 and ISO 9001, they are nevertheless strongly consumers of raw materials and exercise polluting industrial activities which generate waste. The survey aims to gain a better understanding of the policies of these companies in terms of their environmental management of industrial projects, and expected engineering skills. It covers the projects managed by engineers from different specialties who graduated from Moroccan schools. The study combines on the one side, a quantitative assessment section on the mastery of the environmental footprint in the operational decision-making phase of 174 industrial projects led by Moroccan engineers. On the other side, it includes a qualitative analysis section of the expectations and recommendations of the industrialists for a better environmental management of projects. The study shows that the level of environmental implication of the engineers in the projects leaves room for improvement. The industrialists' attention was mainly focused on the control of the environmental footprint when completing projects, whilst still contributing to the improvement of the performance of industry and the country.
    Keywords: Morocco,Environmental performance,Environmental footprint,Manufacturing industries,Engineers,Project management
    Date: 2020–12
  12. By: Nicholas Stern; Joseph E. Stiglitz
    Abstract: Designing policy for climate change requires analyses which integrate the interrelationship between the economy and environment, including: the immense risks and impacts on distribution across and within generations; the many failures, limitations or absences of key markets; and the limitations on government, both in offsetting these failures and distributional impacts. Much of the standard economic modelling, including Integrated Assessment Models, does not embody key aspects of these essentials. We identify fundamental flaws in both the descriptive and normative methodologies commonly used to assess climate policy, showing systematic biases, with costs of climate action overestimated and benefits underestimated. We provide an alternative methodology by which the social cost of carbon may be calculated, one which embraces the essential elements we have identified.
    JEL: H0 Q0
    Date: 2021–02
  13. By: Mark Leonard; Jeremy Shapiro; Jean Pisani-Ferry; Simone Tagliapietra; Guntram B. Wolff
    Abstract: Policy Contribution co-writted by Mark Leonard and Jeremy Shapiro from ECFR. The European Green Deal is a plan to decarbonise the EU economy by 2050, revolutionise the EU’s energy system, profoundly transform the economy and inspire efforts to combat climate change. But the plan will also have profound geopolitical repercussions. The Green Deal will affect geopolitics through its impact on the EU energy balance and global markets; on oil and...
    Date: 2021–02
  14. By: Michael Greenstone; Guojun He; Shanjun Li; Eric Zou
    Abstract: The decade from 2010 to 2019 marked a significant turning point in China’s history of environmental regulation and pollution. This article describes the recent trends in air and water quality, with a focus on the five years since China declared a “war on pollution” in 2014. It summarizes the emerging literature that has taken advantage of accompanying improvements in data availability and accuracy to document sharp improvements in environmental quality, especially local air pollution, and understand their social, economic, and health consequences.
    JEL: Q50 Q53 Q56
    Date: 2021–02
  15. By: Elke D. Groh (University of Kassel); Andreas Ziegler (University of Kassel)
    Abstract: Based on data of more than 3700 citizens in Germany, this paper empirically examines the relevance of several groups of explanatory factors for electricity consumption. Besides controlling for individual housing and dwelling characteristics as well as socio-demographics, we analyze the effect of environmentally-related values and norms. Since behavioral economics reveals the importance of economic preferences for many individual activities, we additionally consider time and risk preferences, altruism, trust, and reciprocity in our econometric analysis. With respect to the latter factors, only patience has a significantly negative effect on electricity consumption. Our estimation results instead suggest a high relevance of individual housing and dwelling characteristics and socio-demographics. The most interesting result is probably that neither environmentally-related values such as ecological policy identification and environmental awareness nor environmentally-related social norms have a significant effect. In contrast to the USA and to the demand for green electricity in Germany, these estimation results suggest that citizens in Germany with strong environmental identity do not consider low electricity consumption as an important direction for environmental and climate protection.
    Keywords: Electricity consumption, values, norms, economic preferences, econometric analysis
    Date: 2021
  16. By: Jinsong Li (Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University)
    Abstract: This study investigates the effects of the plastic waste ban on local air quality in China. Using city-level daily ozone concentrations, we examine whether the pollution levels differ between coastal and inland cities in China after the import ban. Obtained results show that the daily ozone concentration lowered by 2.2% in coastal cities after the import ban. Additional analyses suggest that the effect is heterogeneous: the reduction is larger in later period, larger in cities with dirty baseline pollution, and smaller in cities with higher rural population density. These results are suggestive of the impact of import ban as an indirect policy instrument.
    Date: 2021–02
  17. By: Stéphan Marette (Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE AgroParisTech, UMR Economie Publique, France, ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Anne-Célia Disdier (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); John Beghin (Yeutter Institute of International Trade and Finance and Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nebraska Lincoln, Lincoln NE 68583, USA)
    Abstract: We compare consumers' attitude towards and willingness to pay (WTP) for gene-edited (GE) apples in Europe and the US. Using hypothetical choices in a lab and different technology messages, we estimate WTP of 162 French and 166 US consumers for new apples, which do not brown upon being sliced or cut. Messages center on (i) the social and private benefits of having the new apples, and (ii) possible technologies leading to this new benefit (conventional hybrids, GE, and genetically modified (GMO)). French consumers do not value the innovation and actually discount it when it is generated via biotechnology. US consumers do value the innovation as long as it is not generated by biotechnology. In both countries, the steepest discount is for GMO apples, followed by GE apples. Furthermore, the discounting occurs through "boycott" consumers who dislike biotechnology. However, the discounting is weaker for US consumers compared to French consumers. Favorable attitudes towards sciences and new technology totally offset the discounting of GE apples.
    Abstract: Nous comparons l'attitude des consommateurs et leur consentement à payer (CAP) pour des pommes modifiées via l'édition génétique (GE) en Europe et aux États-Unis. À partir de choix hypothétiques dans un laboratoire et de différents messages sur la technologie, nous estimons le CAP de 162 Français et 166 Américains pour les nouvelles pommes, qui ne brunissent pas après avoir été tranchées. Les messages sont centrés sur (i) les avantages sociaux et privés d'avoir de nouvelles pommes, et (ii) sur les technologies possibles menant à ces nouveaux avantages (hybrides conventionnelles, GE et génétiquement modifiés (OGM)). Les consommateurs français ne valorisent pas l'innovation, et ils la minimisent lorsqu'elle est générée par la biotechnologie. Les consommateurs américains apprécient l'innovation tant qu'elle n'est pas générée par la biotechnologie. Dans les deux pays, la diminution de CAP la plus forte concerne les pommes OGM, suivies par les pommes GE. Cependant, la diminution de CAP est plus faible pour les consommateurs américains que pour les consommateurs français. Les attitudes favorables envers les sciences et les nouvelles technologies compensent totalement la réduction des CAP pour les pommes GE.
    Keywords: willingness to pay,experimental economics,consumer information,hybrids,genetically modified organisms,Willingness to pay,Experimental economics,Consumer information,Hybrid,Genetically modified organisms,Gene editing,Information du consommateur,Hybride,OGM,Economie expériementale,Consentement a payer
    Date: 2021–04
  18. By: Ignaciuk, A.; Maggio, G.; Mastrorillo, M.; Sitko, N.
    Abstract: Rising temperatures due to climate change pose a significant threat to agricultural systems and the livelihoods of farmers across the globe. Identifying farm management strategies that reduce sensitivity to high temperatures is, therefore, critical for moderating the adverse effects of climate change. In this paper, we use spatially granular climate data merged with four waves of household survey data in Uganda to examine empirically the relationships between high temperatures, agricultural production outcomes, and the adoption (including its duration) of three sustainable agricultural practices (organic fertilizer adoption, banana-coffee intercropping and cereal-legume intercropping). We do this using a fixed-effect model, with instrumental variables to address potential endogeneity issues. Our findings indicate that, while exposure to high temperature does reduce farmers’ crop income, the adoption of these practices can offset the negative impact of high temperatures on such income. Indeed, we show that the benefits of adopting these practices on the total value of crop production increases monotonically astemperatures increase from their long-term averages. Moreover, the number of years a farmer adopts a practice is associated with higher total value of crop production, and this relationship holds across the full distribution of observed high temperature deviations. Taken together, the results suggest that organic fertilizer adoption, banana-coffee intercropping and cereal-legume intercropping are effective options to adapt to rising temperatures in Uganda, and these benefits increase with the duration of adoption. Adaptation policies and programmes must therefore be designed in ways that help farmers overcome initial barriers to adoption of these practices, as well as to support farmers to sustain adoption over time. This may require longer term funding horizons for adaptation programmes, and innovative support mechanisms to incentivize sustained adoption.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2021–02–18
  19. By: Caterina Giannetti; Pietro Guarnieri; Tommaso Luzzati
    Abstract: The multifaceted nature of contemporary environmental degradation requires an all-round policy approach, that cannot disregard the role of people’s behaviour. To study how to promote environmentally friendly actions, this paper investigates whether pro-sociality triggers pro-environmental behaviours (PEBs). To this aim, we consider not only the direct effect that pro-sociality might have on PEBs but also the indirect effect transmitted through environmental concerns. After outlining a theoretical framework based on the literature on PEBs, we use a Eurobarometer survey to conduct a causal mediation analysis. Our results show that pro social attitudes are actually important, having also a strong indirect effect on PEBs. Furthermore, they suggest that policies promoting pro-social attitudes may be more effective than those simply promoting pro environmental attitudes.
    Keywords: IV-mediation analysis, environmental citizenship, PEBs, EU citizens
    JEL: C36 Q57 Q58
    Date: 2021–02–01
  20. By: Ibrahim A. Adekunle (Liège, Belgium)
    Abstract: Africa remains the most affected by environmental degradation, thereby exacerbating the negative effect of climate change in the region. Little empirical credence has been leaned to the institutions-environmental sustainability relationship in Africa. This omission in the literature of environmental sustainability is abysmal, considering the role of institutions and government in ecological preservation. To inform policy and research on the subject matter, we estimated a balanced panel data of the indices of good governance and strong institutions to explain transformation to environmental sustainability using the dynamic system generalised method of moment estimator from 1996 through 2017. Findings suggested a positive relationship between the rule of law and regulatory quality and transformation to environmental sustainability. An inverse relationship between government effectiveness and environmental sustainability was established. We recommended concerted effort at an institutional level such that policy and punishment for violation of greenhouse strategies will be optimum.
    Keywords: Institutions, Governance, Environmental Sustainability, system GMM, Africa
    JEL: E62 G13
    Date: 2020–01
  21. By: Bandara, S.; Ignaciuk, S.; Hewage, A.; Kwon, J.; Munaweera, T.; Scognamillo, A.; Sitko, N.
    Abstract: Increased incidences of drought and water scarcity due to climate change is an important challenge facing Sri Lanka’s agricultural sector. Identifying farm practices that can reduce its adverse impacts on agricultural production and farmers’ livelihoods is a key policy objective in Sri Lanka. This paper makes use of household survey data collected in Anurādhapura District to evaluate the impacts of 11 drought adaptation practices adopted by farmers in the district. The impacts of the practices are estimated simultaneously along two dimensions: 1) impact on sensitivity to water stress (measured in terms of the probability of experiencing crop loss due to wilting) and 2) impact on household livelihood (measured in terms of total value of crops harvested and total gross household income). After accounting for a wide range of confounding factors, five practices are found to be associated with a reduced sensitivity to water stress. However, only two of these are simultaneously associated with a higher gross value of crops harvested, while none is associated with significant differences in household income relative to non-adopters. The reasons for this vary by practice, but are linked to opportunity costs of household labour and market weaknesses for crops other than rice. Making climate adaptation practices profitable is a key challenge faced by policy-makers and will require a holistic research and extension approach that is bundled with complementary support to market institutions, such as appropriate mechanization services, value chain support for other field crops and input supply systems.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2021–02–17
  22. By: Antoine Dechezleprêtre (CERNA i3 - Centre d'économie industrielle i3 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres); Sam Fankhauser; Matthieu Glachant (CERNA i3 - Centre d'économie industrielle i3 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres); Jana Stoever; Simon Touboul (CERNA i3 - Centre d'économie industrielle i3 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres)
    Date: 2020
  23. By: Can Askan Mavi (University of Luxembourg); Nicolas Querou (Universite Montpellier, CEEM)
    Abstract: Motivated by recent discussions about the issue of risk perceptions for climate change related events, we introduce a non-cooperative game setting where agents manage a common pool resource under a potential risk, and agents exhibit different risk perception biases. Focusing on the effect of the polarization level and other population features, we show that the type of bias (overestimation versus underestimation biases) and the resource quality level before and after the occurrence of the shift have first-order importance on the qualitative nature of behavioral adjustments and on the pattern of resource conservation. When there are non-uniform biases within the population, the intra-group structure of the population qualitatively affects the degree of resource conservation. Moreover, unbiased agents may react in nonmonotone ways to changes in the polarization level when faced with agents exhibiting different types of bias. The size of the unbiased agents’ sub-population does not qualitatively affect how an increase in the polarization level impacts individual behavioral adjustments, even though it affects the magnitude of this change. Finally, it is shown how perception biases affect the comparison between centralized and decentralized management.
    Keywords: Perception bias, , , ,
    JEL: Q20
    Date: 2021–02
  24. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaounde, Cameroon); Nicholas M. Odhiambo (Pretoria, South Africa)
    Abstract: This research focuses on assessing how improving openness influences CO2 emissions in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is based on 49 countries in SSA for the period 2000-2018 divided into: (i) 44 countries in SSA for the period 2000-2012; and (ii) 49 countries for the period 2006-2018. Openness is measured in terms of trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows. The empirical evidence is based on the Generalised Method of Moments. The following main findings are established. First, enhancing trade openness has a net positive impact on CO2 emissions, while increasing FDI has a net negative impact. Second, the relationship between CO2 emissions and trade is a Kuznets shape, while the nexus between CO2 emissions and FDI inflows is a U-shape. Third, a minimum trade openness (imports plus exports) threshold of 100 (% of GDP) and 200 (% of GDP) is beneficial in promoting a green economy for the first and second sample, respectively. Fourth, FDI is beneficial for the green economy below critical masses of 28.571 of Net FDI inflows (% of GDP) and 33.333 of net FDI inflows (% of GDP) for first and second samples, respectively. It follows from findings that while FDI can be effectively managed to reduce CO2 emissions, this may not be the case with trade openness because the corresponding thresholds for trade openness are closer to the maximum limit. This study complements the extant literature by providing critical masses of Trade and FDI that are relevant in promoting the green economy in Sub-Saharan Africa.
    Keywords: C52; O38; O40; O55; P37
    Date: 2020–01
  25. By: Minh Ha-Duong (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Université Paris-Saclay - AgroParisTech - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Lan Nguyễn
    Abstract: This dataset an historical list of wind power projects in Vietnam, updated 2021-01-21. The list contains 473 records, among which 381 refer to active projects. It includes the generation capacity, the project's location at the commune level, its stage classified on the Preliminary / Development / Implementation / Operation / Decommission scale, and wether it is onshore, nearshore or offshore. The sample is comprehensive for Implementation and Operation projects. We cover the total project investment cost for 162 records. We obtained the dataset by reviewing only public sources: national power development plan updates, provincial investment plans decisions ; the press and the professional literature. This dataset can be used for energy system research and modeling, for policy analysis at the provincial and national levels, and to better understand the market conditions. It provides an inspirational example of how fast it is possible to switch to renewable energy on a national scale. Climate change mitigation requires more stories like this one.
    Keywords: Wind power,Vietnam,Investment cost,Energy transition
    Date: 2021–02–01
  26. By: Olivera, Margarita; Podcameni, Maria Gabriela; Lustosa, Maria Cecília; Graça, Letícia
    Abstract: A atual conjuntura é marcada pelo enfrentamento da crise sanitária provocada pelo COVID-19 e busca da recuperação da atividade econômica, dos empregos e da qualidade de vida das pessoas no Brasil e no mundo. Aos aspectos conjunturais, somam-se os desafios estruturais tais como: os limites planetários, a emergência climática e as iniquidades, notadamente as de gênero. É preciso construir um novo estilo de desenvolvimento, em cujo centro estejam a igualdade e a sustentabilidade. O objetivo deste relatório é contribuir para o debate crítico acerca das políticas e medidas ligadas ao enfrentamento da mudança do clima que possibilitem alcançar a igualdade de gênero no Brasil. O estudo aborda a dimensão de gênero e as interseccionalidades no contexto da mitigação e da adaptação às mudanças climáticas com base em evidências da literatura, de dados estatísticos, da análise do quadro de políticas a nível nacional, regional e internacional, bem como de comentários e sugestões resultantes de uma oficina virtual com participação de diferentes segmentos da sociedade, reunindo experiências ligadas a gênero, meio ambiente, clima e desenvolvimento. Ao final, são apresentadas recomendações de políticas no marco da abordagem do Big Push para a Sustentabilidade.
    Date: 2021–02–08
  27. By: Burdett, Ashley; Davillas, Apostolos; Etheridge, Ben
    Abstract: To reduce infection rates during the first UK wave of the COVID-19 outbreak, a first lockdown was announced on March 23, 2020, with a final easing of the restrictions on July 4, 2020. Among the most important public health costs of lockdown restrictions are the potential adverse effects on mental health and physical activity. Using data from the UK Household Longitudinal Study (UKHLS) and Google COVID-19 Mobility Reports we find evidence of reduced park mobility during the initial period of the first UK lockdown and confirm existing evidence of worsening psychological wellbeing. Linkage with weather data shows that contrary to popular belief, weather conditions do not exacerbate the mental health consequences of the pandemic, while we find systematic links between park mobility and weather over the same period. Our results highlight the importance of promoting the existing guidelines on regular exercise during winter lockdowns.
    Keywords: COVID-19,mental health,mobility,weather conditions
    JEL: I10 I12 C23
    Date: 2021
  28. By: Burdett, Ashley (University of Essex); Davillas, Apostolos (University of East Anglia); Etheridge, Ben (University of Essex)
    Abstract: To reduce infection rates during the first UK wave of the COVID-19 outbreak, a first lockdown was announced on March 23, 2020, with a final easing of the restrictions on July 4, 2020. Among the most important public health costs of lockdown restrictions are the potential adverse effects on mental health and physical activity. Using data from the UK Household Longitudinal Study (UKHLS) and Google COVID-19 Mobility Reports we find evidence of reduced park mobility during the initial period of the first UK lockdown and confirm existing evidence of worsening psychological wellbeing. Linkage with weather data shows that contrary to popular belief, weather conditions do not exacerbate the mental health consequences of the pandemic, while we find systematic links between park mobility and weather over the same period. Our results highlight the importance of promoting the existing guidelines on regular exercise during winter lockdowns.
    Keywords: COVID-19, mental health, mobility, weather conditions
    JEL: I10 I12 C23
    Date: 2021–02
  29. By: Di Foggia, Giacomo; Beccarello, Massimo
    Abstract: In many European countries, waste tariff systems are being updated to take account of the consolidation of circular economy objectives. We forecast the impact of a gain-sharing cost-reflective tariff on waste management sustainability. The cost-reflective tariff generates an economic surplus for society, while meeting environmental goals. Based on empirical data we developed two scenarios. The baseline scenario formalizes the current Italian tariff scheme, while the intervention scenario includes users' response to a gainsharing policy. By optimizing the tariff structure, society would benefit from a surplus that could be reached setting an asymmetric regulation based on current waste management efficiency level. Our results will potentially be a basis for directing waste management policy as per tariff design
    Date: 2020–02–08
  30. By: Emeline Hassenforder; Anne Pressurot; Nils Ferrand; Melaine Aucante (INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Nathalie Sureau-Blanchet
    Keywords: Huveaune,Participation Citoyenne,Participation du Public,Rivière,Eau,Bassin versant,Gestion,Gouvernance,Usses,Sévenne,Arc,Drôme,Restauration Hydromorphologique,Partage de l’eau,Gestion Intégrée,Inondation,Habitants,Élus,Commission Locale de l’Eau,Plan de Gestion quantitative de la Ressource en Eau,PGRE,PAPI,Programme d'Actions de Prévention des Inondations,SAGE,Schéma d‘Aménagement et de Gestion des Eaux,Sentinelles,Charte de la Participation,Suivi-Evaluation,Impact,Plans,Projets,Communication,Programmes,Numérique
    Date: 2020–09–09
  31. By: Mohamed Arouri; Sadok El Ghoul; Mathieu Gomes (CleRMa - Clermont Recherche Management - Clermont Auvergne - ESC Clermont-Ferrand - École Supérieure de Commerce (ESC) - Clermont-Ferrand - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne)
    Abstract: This study examines the relationship between corporate greenwashing and product market competition (PMC). Using an unbalanced panel of 324 US fi rms over the 2005-2015 period, we fi nd that the negative impact of PMC on greenwashing is conditional on the level of environmental costs. Our results suggest that PMC is an effective disciplinary mechanism for achieving economic efficiency --in the case of fi rms featuring a high level of environmental costs-- through an increase in the disclosure of reliable and material information.
    Keywords: Greenwashing,Product market competition,Environmental cost
    Date: 2021
  32. By: Christian Krekel; Julia Rechlitz; Johannes Rode; Alexander Zerrahn
    Abstract: Although there is strong support for renewable energy plants, they are often met with local resistance. We quantify the externalities of renewable energy plants using well-being data. We focus on the example of biogas, one of the most frequently deployed technologies besides wind and solar. To this end, we combine longitudinal household data with novel panel data on more than 13, 000 installations in Germany. Identification rests on a spatial difference-in-differences design exploiting exact geographical coordinates of households, biogas installations and wind direction and intensity. We find limited evidence for negative externalities: impacts are moderate in size and spatially confined to a radius of 2, 000 metres around plants. We discuss implications for research and regional planning, in particular minimum setback distances and potential monetary compensations.
    Keywords: Renewables, Biogas, Externalities, Social Acceptance, Wellbeing, Spatial Analysis
    JEL: C23 Q42 Q51 R20
    Date: 2021
  33. By: Andrea Salustri (Università Sapienza di Roma - Dipartimento di Studi Giuridici, Filosofici ed Economici); Andrea Appolloni (Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Facoltà di Economia, Dipartimento di Management e Diritto)
    Abstract: Le Isole Minori o Piccole Isole italiane sono abitate da circa 200 mila residenti. Si tratta di contesti locali caratterizzati da evidenti peculiarità , nei quali, a fronte di un’elevata disponibilità pro capite di risorse naturalistiche, paesaggistiche e culturali, si osservano consistenti divari territoriali, economici e sociali rispetto al resto del Paese. Nell’impostare una politica di sviluppo per le Isole Minori italiane emerge, dunque, l’importanza di fare leva: i) sulle comunità e sul capitale territoriale per progettare forme di welfare efficaci nel rispondere alle esigenze rilevate e ii) su iniziative economiche sostenibili tanto da un punto di vista globale, quanto (e soprattutto) da un punto di vista locale. La ricognizione delle “distanze†sociali e territoriali come punto di partenza ed un ricorso ad una logica di piattaforma come punto di arrivo sono temi portanti dell’approccio proposto. Ciò è ancor più vero se si considera che l’economia delle Isole Minori è prevalentemente legata al turismo, che nel corso dei decenni si è affiancato ad attività primarie quali l’agricoltura e la pesca. D’altra parte, il turismo sostenibile, oltre ad essere un fine dello sviluppo locale, può costituire un mezzo per accumulare risorse in loco e dare avvio ad uno sviluppo infrastrutturale in grado di sostenere specializzazioni in settori di nicchia, ribaltando, cosí, la visione che vede le Isole Minori come contesti disagiati. In questa prospettiva, e specialmente nello scenario attuale segnato dalla crisi innescata dal Covid-19, il green public procurement può avere un ruolo di primo piano nell’attivare forme di economia circolare in grado di aumentare la capacità di carico turistica dei territori insulari.
    Date: 2021–02
  34. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaounde, Cameroon); Omang O. Messono (Dschang, Cameroon); Keyanfe T. J. Guttemberg (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: The objective of this article is to analyze the effect of the political empowerment of women on vulnerability to climate change in 169 countries for the period 1995-2017. The empirical evidence which is based on panel fixed effects regressions shows that: i) the political empowerment of women as well as its components (i.e. civil liberties of women, participation of women in civil society and participation of women in political debates) reduce vulnerability to climate change. ii) The underlying effect is most pronounced in upper middle income, Latin American, small and fragile countries. iii) Public spending on education, the effectiveness of governance and education are the real transmission channels through which vulnerability to climate change is affected by women’s political empowerment. The findings are robust to alternative estimation methods such as the Tobit, the dynamic fixed effects, and the generalized method of moments regressions. Policy implications are discussed, inter alia, the need for sampled countries to encourage women's political empowerment in order to reduce risks linked to climate change.
    Keywords: climate change; vulnerability; political empowerment
    JEL: Q50 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2021–02
  35. By: Jin Hui (School of Economics and Management, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University); Jorge Martinez-Vazquez (International Center for Public Policy, Georgia State University, USA)
    Abstract: Both excessive and insufficient levels of expenditure decentralization reduce efficiency of government and service provision, thereby exerting an adverse impact on national sustainable development. The main goal of this paper is to explore this proposition theoretically and empirically, seeking to determine the optimal level of expenditure decentralization. From a theoretical perspective, we introduce the expenditures of central and sub-national governments into Barro’s (1990) model and find a hump-shaped relationship between expenditure decentralization and sustainable development as well as striking upon the optimal expenditure decentralization on the theoretical level. To further test this finding empirically, we adopt the NSDI (National Sustainable Development Index) to measure sustainable development and use panel data for 52 countries covering the period 1991-2016 to validate the theorized hump-shaped relationship between expenditure decentralization and sustainable development both in the short and long run. These results remain significant even in two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimations with the Geographic Fragmentation Index (GFI) as the instrumental variable and are robust to alternative specifications. Finally, we also utilize the Lind-Mehlum method to determine the optimal level of expenditure decentralization and find results consistent with the other methods.
    Date: 2021–02
  36. By: Patankar, Archana (Green Globe Consultancy)
    Abstract: Extreme precipitation and flooding cause large-scale impacts on people, and are further intensified by rapid urbanization, infrastructure expansion, and large numbers of people residing in informal settlements in destitute conditions. This underscores the need to characterize the impacts of extreme precipitation on different stakeholders and help formulate policies and plans to mitigate them. The focus of this paper is on characterizing and analyzing the impacts of extreme precipitation events at the micro level on vulnerable households and small and medium-sized enterprises in three locations in India: Mumbai, Chennai, and Puri district. These areas have faced devastating extreme rainfall events in recent years and offer critical insights into asset the exposure of, and direct and indirect impacts on, urban and rural entities. The flood impact analysis in this paper provides a multidimensional view with quantitative damage estimates and qualitative insights into the devastation and distress caused. It also highlights the heterogeneity of flood impacts and the potential to push the poor into a debt trap and further poverty.
    Keywords: disaster risk management; extreme events; flooding; household survey; urban poverty
    JEL: I32 I38 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2019–12–23
  37. By: Lobsiger, Michael; Rutzer, Christian (University of Basel)
    Abstract: Using a data-driven methodology that allows to quantify the importance of different skills in performing green tasks, we estimate the green potential for 26 European countries. By green potential we mean the share of employed persons in occupations characterised by skills that are important for the exercise of green tasks to total employment. For the countries considered, we estimate a green potential between 7.1% and 16.8%, with the manufacturing and energy & construction sectors having above-average and the resources and services sectors below-average shares. We further examine the green potential with regard to a possible shortage of skilled workers by means of indicators that reflect different dimensions of skills shortages. Estimates of skills short ages related to the green potential reveal considerable heterogeneity among the investigated countries. Nevertheless, occupations with a high green potential are generally characterised by a tense skilled labour situation. Looking at four occupational groups, results reveal that the need for skilled workers with high green potential is particularly pronounced for managers and professionals, while being lower for technicians and smallest for craft & related trades workers.
    Keywords: green transition, labor market, skills shortage
    JEL: J23 J24 Q52
    Date: 2021–01–26
  38. By: Louis-Gaëtan Giraudet (CIRED - Centre international de recherche sur l'environnement et le développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech); Cyril Bourgeois (CIRED - Centre international de recherche sur l'environnement et le développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech, CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Philippe Quirion (CIRED - Centre international de recherche sur l'environnement et le développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Energy demand for residential heating is targeted in France by a number of subsidy programmes (tax credits, zero-interest loans, reduced VAT, white certificates and the carbon tax. We assess the cost-effectiveness and distributional impacts of these policies using Res-IRF, an energy-economy model that integrates relevant economic, behavioural and technological processes. We find that, without further specification of revenue recycling, the carbon tax is the most effective, yet most regressive, policy. Subsidy programmes save energy at a cost of €0.05-0.08 per lifetime discounted kilowatt-hour, or €300-800/tCO2-eq; one euro of public money spent on subsidy programmes induces €1.0-1.4 private investment in home energy retrofits. Targeting subsidies towards low-income households, who tend to live in energy inefficient dwellings, increases leverage, thus reconciling economic efficiency and equity. The public cost of subsidies – €3 billion in 2013 – is outweighed by carbon tax proceeds from 2025 onwards, were the tax rate to grow as initially planned by the government. Meeting the long-term energy saving targets set by the government however requires adjusting subsidy programmes to better address rental housing. Lastly, an order-of-magnitude discrepancy between simulated and observed numbers of zero-interest loans points to economic and psychological barriers that require further investigation.
    Keywords: residential buildings,space heating,energy-economy modelling,energy efficiency subsidies,carbon tax,fuel poverty,White certificate obligations,Zero-interest rate loans
    Date: 2021
  39. By: Jean-Luc Gaffard (Université Côte d'Azur; GREDEG CNRS; OFCE Sciences-Po; Institut Universitaire de France)
    Abstract: Réfléchir en économiste sur la transition écologique c'est, inévitablement, s'interroger sur la nature et les sources de la croissance, sur les conditions du bien-être individuel et collectif, sur la rationalité des comportements dans la perspective d'énoncer des conditions de viabilité de cette transition et de faisabilité du nouveau régime de développement. La transition écologique n'est autre qu'une nouvelle rupture, la conséquence d'une nouvelle innovation dont l'économie industrielle de marché est coutumière avec cette différence, cependant, que la survie de l'espèce humaine est en jeu. La thèse qui est défendue ici est qu'il ne peut y avoir de croissance et plus généralement d'activité humaine sans atteinte aux ressources primaires disponibles et qu'il n'existe pas d'équilibre de croissance nulle ou de croissance "verte". En revanche, il est possible de concevoir un modèle institutionnel qui minimise les dommages économiques et environnementaux. Ce modèle donne une place essentielle à une rationalité procédurale et au jeu des intelligences collectives organisées pour synchroniser de multiples horloges, faire valoir des formes de prudence et ainsi faire face à l'incertitude radicale qui pèse sur les technologies et les marchés futurs.
    Keywords: développement, écologie, croissance, inégalité, institution, irréversibilité, rationalité, temps, transition
    JEL: O33 O44 Q56 Q57
    Date: 2021–02
  40. By: JieYeon Celes Moon (Northfield Mount Hermon School, USA); Lewis Seagull (New Jersey City University, USA)
    Abstract: Cambodia in the 21st century is an underdeveloped third-world nation that lacks the resources to address its economic problems. One of the principal problems is the lack of infrastructure for the delivery of clean, sanitary water. Lack of all types of infrastructure in Cambodia is the result of a series of unfortunate historical events—collateral damage from the Vietnam War, the atrocities of the Khmer Rouge, and difficulties establishing a stable government, each of which contributed to Cambodia losing its academic, professional, and business classes. Now, a majority of its citizens are under the age of 24; the country lacks leaders and role models on which to base social, political, and economic development. One of the major problems that cuts across all three of these sectors is the absence of access to clean, sanitary water for personal, agricultural, and industrial uses due to underdeveloped infrastructure for the delivery of clean water. Factors that contribute to the problem are government inefficiency, lack of coordination in allocating government resources, and lack of expertise to address these issues. For Cambodia to improve its economy, it must address its infrastructure for the delivery of sanitary water.
    Keywords: Cambodian Economic Development, Clean Water, Sanitation, Infrastructure
    Date: 2020–08
  41. By: Abay, Kibrom A.; El-Enbaby, Hoda; Abdelfattah, Lina; Breisinger, Clemens
    Abstract: Increasing population pressure and population density in many African countries are inducing land scarcity and land constraints. These increasing land constraints are expected to trigger various responses and adaptation strategies, including agricultural intensification induced by land scarcity, as postulated by the Boserup hypothesis. However, most empirical evaluations of the Boserup hypothesis come from rainfed agriculture and mostly from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where application of improved agricultural inputs remains historically low. Agricultural intensification practices as well as the relevance of the Boserup hypothesis in irrigated agriculture and in contexts where application of improved inputs is high remains unexplored. Furthermore, while much of the debate on the topic in Africa has focused on how to boost agricultural intensification, there is scant evidence on whether evolving agricultural intensification practices in some parts of Africa are sustainable, yield-enhancing, and optimal. In this paper we investigate the implication of land scarcity on agricultural intensification and the relevance of the Boserup hypothesis in the context of Egypt, where agriculture is dominated by irrigation and input application rates are much higher than SSA. We also examine whether evolving agricultural intensification practices induced by land scarcity are agronomically appropriate and yield-enhancing. We find that land scarcity induces higher application of agricultural inputs, mainly nitrogen fertilizers, sometimes beyond the level that is agronomically recommended. More importantly, land scarcity increases overapplication of nitrogen fertilizer relative to crop-specific agronomic recommendations. This implies that land constraints remain as important challenges for sustainable agricultural intensification. Finally, we find suggestive evidence that such overapplication of nitrogen fertilizers is not yield-enhancing, but, rather, yield-reducing. We also document that land scarcity impedes mechanization of agriculture. Our findings have important implications to inform appropriate farm management and sustainable intensification practices. Furthermore, our results can inform long-term policy responses to land scarcity.
    Keywords: EGYPT, ARAB COUNTRIES, MIDDLE EAST, NORTH AFRICA, land resources, sustainability, smallholders, irrigated farming, agriculture, farming systems, intensification, land scarcity
    Date: 2021
  42. By: Kono, Tatsuhito; Yoshida, Jun
    Abstract: The Travel Cost Method (TCM) is a typical benefit measurement method, using the fact that people substitute the benefit of visiting some sites for their travel cost. However, in the case of tourist sites, travelers do not choose the number of days spent in a tourist city as continuous numbers but integer numbers. We investigate how a bias could arise from ignoring integer numbers of nights in TCM. We derive the formula of what factors constitute the bias. Next, we numerically show that when measuring benefits of improving quality at sites, the maximum bias could be around 20%.
    Keywords: Project Evaluation, Travel cost method, Integer property
    JEL: Q26 Q56
    Date: 2020–03–24
  43. By: Rosa María Velázquez-Sánchez (Universidad Autónoma “Benito Juárez†de Oaxaca, Mexico); Jesús Gómez-Velázquez (Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Mexico))
    Abstract: Mexico is widely recognized by the international tourism due to its natural and cultural attractions with coastal, ecotourism and community tourism destinations. There are several community tourism destinations in the southeast region of the country and mainly in Oaxaca State, which main attraction is its cultural heritage. In the northern highlands region of Oaxaca, where most of the indigenous groups are located, it is common to find a pre-Hispanic worldview based on the relationship with the earth and in this region is where the largest number of community tourism destinations is located. The community tourism lies in the appreciation of the natural environment in coexistence with the culture of the local inhabitants. However, the Mexican tourism policy has oriented the growth of tourism in indigenous communities with a homogeneous model based on the construction of cabins with modern elements and without considering the community worldview. In this research, the elements of the community worldview that relate to the conservation of cultural and natural heritage in the development of tourist destinations were analyzed qualitatively with the use of in-depth interviews with key informants. The results provide indicators of community worldview that explain the preservation of culture and can contribute to establish the bases for the development of sustainable tourism destinations in indigenous communities.
    Keywords: Tourism, Worldviews, Sustainability, Culture, Indigenous Communities.
    JEL: Q01 Q26 Q28
    Date: 2020–12
  44. By: Konrad Gunesch (American University in the Emirates, College of Media and Mass Communication, Dubai, United Arab Emirates)
    Abstract: Abundance Economics, also called post-scarcity economics, increasingly attracts attention in macroeconomic research as well as in policy practice, with its relevance predicted to be ever growing. After a historical overview, this article traces that research attention, shows the need and motivation for this investigation, and then predefines and differentiates the concept. Conceptually, abundance and post-scarcity economics is discussed within the frameworks of heterodox and postKeynesian economics, before examining how writings on abundance economics confront and overcome the scarcity paradigm within economics. Hence the first conceptual contribution of this research is the systematization of abundance economics within classical, heterodox and postKeynesian economics in a concise yet comprehensive form that does not yet exist in macroeconomic literature. The second conceptual contribution is the investigation of abundance economics as a macroeconomic paradigm shift, together with this paradigm shift’s pragmatic advantages in today’s world. The third conceptual contribution is the precise definition, itemization and scrutiny of abundance economics within the global macroeconomic system, in a form also not yet existing in the literature. Methodologically, this research evaluates a range of suggested disciplines contributing to, and benefitting from abundance economics, before studying the arguments for their use and introducing its own multidisciplinary approach. Hence its methodological contribution is the consideration, combination and practical application of a coherent multidisciplinary framework for evaluating the macroeconomic potential of abundance economics in 21st century scenarios. Its final and overall contribution is the synthesis, analysis and discussion of eight distinct yet relatable solutions for conceiving and using abundance economics in economic, social, political, ecological and cultural sustainability reflections and recommendations for local practice and global policy.
    Keywords: Abundance Economics, Post-Scarcity Economics, Post-Keynesian Economics, Heterodox Economics, Wealth and Welfare.
    JEL: B55 E12 E71 O35 P46
    Date: 2019–06
  45. By: Francis X. Diebold; Maximilian Gobel
    Abstract: We propose a simple statistical approach for fixed-target forecasting of Arctic sea ice extent, and we provide a case study of its real-time performance for target date September 2020. The real-time forecasting begins in early June and proceeds through late September. We visually detail the evolution of the statistically-optimal point, interval, and density forecasts as time passes, new information arrives, and the end of September approaches. Among other things, our visualizations may provide useful windows for assessing the agreement between dynamical climate models and observational data.
    Date: 2021–01
  46. By: Elena Conde Pérez (Instituto Complutense de Estudios Internacionales (ICEI). Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Campus de Somosaguas. Finca Mas Ferré, Edif. A. 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid.)
    Abstract: El lunes 16 de Noviembre, la administración Trump anunciaba que el Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre del Ártico se abriría a una subasta pública para la concesión de licencias de exploración y explotación petrolífera y gasística. Éste es probablemente el penúltimo anuncio disparatado del presidente D. Trump, consecuente con su nula voluntad de asumir honorablemente su derrota en las elecciones presidenciales de 2020. En esta breve reflexión, y respondiendo a las cuestiones que a continuación se plantean, trataré de dejar constancia de que éste pretende ser uno de los legados envenenados que el Presidente D. Trump planea dejar a su sucesor en el cargo, el Presidente electo J. Biden, de cuáles son los intereses en juego, qué se puede ganar y qué se puede perder y cuáles son las perspectivas realistas de éxito de tal oferta.
    Keywords: Administración Trump; Explotación petrolífera; Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre del Ártico.
    Date: 2020
  47. By: , Sunarti; Tjakraatmadja, J.H.; Ghazali, A.; Rahardyan, B.
    Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Resident participation in waste management is essential to overcome waste problems effectively. In many developing countries, the local government has been struggling to encourage resident involvement in the waste management process, but the participation rate is still low. Thus, it requires a system that can encourage residents to participate effectively and sustainably. Therefore, this study aimed to determine what determinant factors, either extrinsic or intrinsic, significantly improve resident participation by changing behaviour toward waste management. METHODS: This study tried to get insights from previous studies about key determinant factors affecting resident behaviour toward waste management to improve participation, significantly using a literature review method. FINDINGS: Educational setting for residents is crucial to improve waste management participation by cultivating key intrinsic factors with support from extrinsic factors that lead to changing behaviour. This study identified eight types of key contents shared in the educational setting to ensure its improvement. Key intrinsic factors should be cultivated, including six kinds of knowledge and five emotional domain factors. The six critical types of knowledge include technical experience, waste management performance knowledge, perception of benefits, environmental awareness, understanding of individual and social responsibility, and understanding the social norms and regulations. The five intrinsic factors in the emotional domain include environmental efficacy, motivation, personal moral norms, PBC, and Attitude toward waste management. All the critical determinant factors, including intrinsic and extrinsic factors, should support each other to improve residents’ behaviour, leading to sustainable participation. CONCLUSION: Relevance of educational content to the residents is crucial to ensure educational intervention effectiveness. With full support from the antecedent factors, waste management behaviour can be nurtured sustainably, significantly increasing the participation rate. Combining extrinsic and intrinsic factors is recommended to ensure the effectiveness of the improvement of resident participation.
    Date: 2020–11–25
  48. By: OECD
    Abstract: In a climate of heightened debt vulnerabilities, countries in sub-Saharan Africa struggle to fill the gap in infrastructure finance, which is paramount to achieving their sustainable development objectives. At the same time, the infrastructure financing landscape in the region has become increasingly diverse and challenging to navigate. This paper reviews the role of Development Assistance Committee (DAC) members in supporting countries to address mounting infrastructure needs while avoiding and mitigating potential debt crises.The first part of the paper provides an overview of the infrastructure needs in sub-Saharan Africa. The second part presents the changes in infrastructure financing, highlighting the dominant roles of domestic government and non-DAC lenders. The third part explains how infrastructure finance can be a potential driver for the debt build-up in the region; but that the quality of spending and the diversity of financing providers can be mitigating factors. The fourth part includes policy recommendations for DAC members.
    Date: 2021–02–16
  49. By: Andrew Johnston (University of Sheffield [Sheffield]); Jeroen Veldman (Nyenrode Business Universiteit); Robert G. Eccles (Saïd Business School - University of Oxford [Oxford]); Simon Deakin (CAM - University of Cambridge [UK]); Jerry Davis; Marie-Laure Salles-Djelic (Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Blanche Segrestin (MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres); Cynthia Williams (University of York [York, UK]); David Millon (WLU - Washington and Lee University); Paddy Ireland (University of Bristol [Bristol]); Beate Sjafjell (UiO - University of Oslo); Christopher Bruner (University of Georgia [USA]); Lorraine Talbot (University of Birmingham [Birmingham]); Hugh Willmott (CASS Business School - London, UK); Charlotte Villiers (University of Bristol [Bristol]); Carol Liao (UBC - University of British Columbia); Bertrand Valiorgue (CleRMa - Clermont Recherche Management - Clermont Auvergne - ESC Clermont-Ferrand - École Supérieure de Commerce (ESC) - Clermont-Ferrand - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne)
    Date: 2019–12
  50. By: Valérie Charolles (DEFI - Département Droit, Economie et Finances - TEM - Télécom Ecole de Management - IMT - Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris] - IMT-BS - Institut Mines-Télécom Business School, IIAC - Institut interdisciplinaire d'anthropologie du contemporain - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, LASCO - Laboratoire Sens et Compréhension du Monde Contemporain - IMT - Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris] - IMT Atlantique - IMT Atlantique Bretagne-Pays de la Loire - IMT - Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris] - IMT-BS - Institut Mines-Télécom Business School - Mines Saint Etienne)
    Abstract: Contribution au livret interactif "Quels indicateurs pour mesurer les (in)soutenabilités ?" ainsi que contribution personnelle "Indicateurs, critères, comptabilité des soutenabilités".
    Keywords: Langage comptable,Modèle ISAS,Actif salarial,Travail,Comptabilité
    Date: 2021–01
  51. By: C. Pezon (LIRSA - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire de recherche en sciences de l'action - CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM])
    Abstract: Ce document analyse la faisabilité financière et économique du modèle de gestion proposé par le Ministère de l'Eau et de l'Assainissement (MEA) pour les équipements hydrauliques de la Région administrative du Nord hors du périmètre de l'Office National de l'Eau et de l'Assainissement (ONEA). Dans un premier temps, nous décrivons le parc d'équipements en distinguant les villages bénéficiant d'un approvisionnement exclusif par PMH des villages et secteurs où l'approvisionnement combine PMH et PEA et/ou Adduction d'Eau Potable Simplifiée (AEPS). Ensuite, nous analysons les conditions de viabilité financière de la gestion proposée par le MEA et ses partenaires dans le cadre de contrats de 15 ans, à l'échelle des villages et secteurs où le service s'effectue par PMH, et les avantages comparatifs de ce mode de gestion par rapport à la gestion communautaire actuellement pratiquée. Enfin, nous nous intéressons à la performance allocative des investissements à consentir pour déployer la gestion par affermage dans les villages et secteurs de plus de 2000 habitants où le service s'effectue actuellement exclusivement par voie de PMH (approche value for money).
    Keywords: Burkina Faso,eau potable,hydraulique rurale,modèle de gestion,DSP,étude de faisabilité
    Date: 2020–09
  52. By: Eeshita Gupta (Indian Statistical Institute and KPMG); Bharat Ramaswami (Ashoka University); E. Somanathan (Indian Statistical Institute)
    Abstract: We analyze the impact of agricultural productivity losses stemming from climate change in an economy without frictions. The first-order GDP impacts are expected to be small. But the poor have higher food budget shares and food prices will rise. How do distributional impacts diverge from the GDP impact? This is the question that is addressed. The paper considers two major sets of comparative statics: the effect of trade and the effect of economic growth. The model is calibrated to Indian data of 2009 and projections for 2030. The percentage loss of income for the landless is six times the GDP impact in a closed economy. Trade halves this effect and economic growth moderates it substantially. Despite the food price rise, nearly all farmers lose from climate change. The model is simple enough for impact channels to be transparent.
    Keywords: Climate change, distribution, food prices, general equilibrium, India
    Date: 2021–02
  53. By: Philippe Quirion (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Date: 2020
  54. By: Abdulkadri, Abdullahi; Floyd, Shirelle; Mkrtchyan, Iskuhi; Marajh, Gina; Gonzales, Candice; Cunningham-Myrie, Colette
    Abstract: The high prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the Caribbean calls for sustained efforts to control these diseases and their risk factors. Such efforts are envisaged in several global, regional and national frameworks that exist to address the problem of NCDs, including the disease and economic burdens that they pose to countries around the world. In the Caribbean, the Heads of Government have long articulated the relationship between health and development, a position that aligns well with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development’s commitments to ensure that individuals fulfil their potential in a healthy environment. With NCDs contributing the most to disability-adjusted life years globally and considering the ageing of the population and the high and rising rates of childhood obesity in the Caribbean, this study makes a case for renewed focus on addressing NCDs given their potential to constitute an even greater burden in the future. It recognizes the leadership role played by the Caribbean in championing the fight against NCDs on the global stage and notes that the early successes recorded in the subregion in addressing the NCDs seemed to have stalled.
    Date: 2021–02–08
  55. By: Weikert Bicalho, Fabio
    Abstract: Esta publicación tiene como objetivo presentar los conceptos centrales de la resiliencia de la infraestructura, así como identificar los principales desafíos para su promoción en el fomento de la transformación productiva en los países de América Latina y el Caribe. Plantea, también, la adopción de un abordaje integrado para la resiliencia de los servicios de infraestructura en el contexto de la Agenda 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible, mediante el imperativo de promover el equilibrio entre tres dimensiones: resiliencia, eficiencia y sostenibilidad.
    Date: 2021–02–12

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