nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2021‒01‒18
78 papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Maximizing the effectiveness of national commitments to protected area expansion for conserving biodiversity and ecosystem carbon under climate change. By Carroll, Carlos; Ray, Justina
  2. The Impact of Low-Carbon Policy on Stock Returns By Rania Hentati-Kaffel; Alessandro Ravina
  3. Climate Mitigation Policy in Denmark: A Prototype for Other Countries By Nicoletta Batini; Ian Parry; Philippe Wingender
  4. A macroeconomic evaluation of a carbon tax in overseas territories: A CGE model for Reunion Island By Sabine Garabedian; Avotra Narindranjanahary; Olivia Ricci; Sandrine Selosse
  6. Bangladesh; Selected Issues By International Monetary Fund
  7. Going green with behavioural economics: How to combine business and ethics By Enste, Dominik; Wildner, Julia; Nafziger, Lucia
  8. Climate-Related Stress Testing: Transition Risks in Norway By Pierpaolo Grippa; Samuel Mann
  9. Climate Change and Marine Fisheries in Africa By World Bank
  10. Monsoon diseases in lower Kuttanad (Kerala): An environmental perspective By Bejo Jacob Raju; S Manasi
  11. Regulator Reputation Effects in Developing Countries: Evidence from the Toxics Pollution Registry of Mexico By Chakraborti, Lopamudra
  12. Efficient Forestation in the Brazilian Amazon: Evidence from a Dynamic Model By Araujo, Rafael; Costa, Francisco J M; Sant'Anna, Marcelo
  13. Weather shocks, coping strategies and household well-being: Evidence from rural Mauritania By Mamoudou Ba; Mazhar Mughal
  14. Energy and Climate Change By Ralf Martin; Petra Sarapatkova; Dennis Verhoeven
  15. Priorities for Climate Action By Tulika Narayan; Anu Rangarajan; Faraz Usmani
  16. Fuel subsidies and Carbon Emission: Evidence from asymmetric modelling By Ibrahim A. Adekunle; Isiaq O. Oseni
  17. Climate Change and Touristic Winter Activities By Mohamed Kayal
  18. Heat and Hate, Climate Security and Farmer-Herder Conflicts in Africa By Ulrich J. Eberle; Dominic Rohner; Mathias Thoenig
  19. Federated States of Micronesia; Climate Change Policy Assessment By International Monetary Fund
  20. Strategic Delegation in the Formation of Modest International Environmental Agreements By Sarah Spycher; Ralph Winkler
  21. Coase and Cap-and-Trade: Evidence on the Independence Property from the European Carbon Market By Aleksandar Zaklan
  22. Creation d’un cadre de certification carbone pour le secteur agricole By Claudine Foucherot; Cyril Brûlez; Valentin Bellassen
  23. Economics of Multifunctional Forestry in the Sámi People Homeland Region By Parkatti, Vesa-Pekka; Tahvonen, Olli
  24. Monitoring Cointegrating Polynomial Regressions: Theory and Application to the Environmental Kuznets Curves for Carbon and Sulfur Dioxide Emissions By Knorre, Fabian; Wagner, Martin; Grupe, Maximilian
  25. What policies for the hydrogen sector ? Lessons from city buses By Guy Meunier; Jean-Pierre Ponssard
  26. Managing Groundwater for Drought Resilience in South Asia By World Bank
  27. Lesotho Disaster Risk Financing Diagnostic By World Bank
  28. Investment planning to minimize climate risk in agricultural production: An optimization model for a semi-arid region in India By Deb Pal, Barun; Kumar, Shalander; Patan, Elias Khan
  29. The relationship between economic growth and carbon emissions in India By Kaumudi Misra
  30. Model Uncertainty in Climate Change Economics: A Review and Proposed Framework for Future Research By Loïc Berger; Massimo Marinacci
  31. Investigating the Origins of Differentiated Vulnerabilities to Climate Change and their Effects on Wellbeing By Cappelli, Federica
  32. Influence of Consumer Buying Orientation and Pro-environmental Values on their Willingness to Patronise Green Hotels By Christina Appiah-Nimo
  33. Chile’s Forests By World Bank
  34. Distributional Impacts of Cost-effective Spatially Homogeneous and Regionalized Agri-Environment Payments. A case study of a Grassland Scheme in Saxony, Germany By Markova-Nenova, Nonka; Wätzold, Frank; Sturm, Astrid
  35. Fair international protocols for the abatement of GHG emissions By Biung-Ghi Ju; Min Kim; Suyi Kim; Juan D. Moreno-Ternero
  36. Évaluation économique de la mortalité liée à la pollution atmosphérique en France By Olivier Chanel; Sylvia Medina; Mathilde Pascal
  37. Tax haven, pollution haven or both? By Thierry Madiès; Ornella Tarola; Emmanuelle Taugourdeau
  38. Climate Change Mitigation Policies: Aggregate and Distributional Effects By Cezar Santos; Tiago Cavalcanti; Zeina Hasna
  39. Lao Biodiversity By World Bank
  40. Nitrate Pollution and Efficiency Measurement in Intensive Farming Systems: A Parametric By-Production Technology Approach By Michail Tsagris; Vangelis Tzouvelekas
  41. Users and Uses of Environmental Accounts By Robert Smith
  42. Storing 4 per 1000 carbon in soils: what potential and at what cost? By Laure Bamière; Michele Schiavo; Olivier Rechauchère; Sylvain Pellerin
  43. Overstraining International Climate Finance: When Conflicts of Objectives Threaten Its Success By Buchholz, Wolfgang; Rübbelke, Dirk
  44. IEAs and compliance: Do treaty linkages play a role? By Maamoun, Nada
  45. A Dynamic Analysis of the Income-Pollution Relationship in a Two-country Setting By Eleftherios Filippiadis; Anastasia Litina
  46. The UK Economy: Policies for Investment and Productivity Growth By Anna Valero; John Van Reenen
  47. Rethinking Venice from an Ecosystem Services Perspective By da Mosto, Jane; Bertolini, Camilla; Markandya, Anil; Nunes, Paulo A.L.D.; Spencer, Tom; Palaima, Arnas; Onofri, Laura
  48. Energy, Efficiency Gains and Economic Development: When Will Global Energy Demand Saturate? By Christian Bogmans; Lama Kiyasseh; Akito Matsumoto; Andrea Pescatori
  49. Environmental Engagement, Religion and Spirituality in the Context of Secularization By Briguglio, Marie; García-Muñoz, Teresa; Neuman, Shoshana
  50. The role of socioeconomic and environmental factors on the number of tuberculosis cases in Indonesia By Kustanto, Andi
  51. Integrated and Data-Driven Transportation Infrastructure Management through Consideration of Life Cycle Costs and Environmental Impacts By Saboori, Arash
  52. Using Climate Finance Effectively: Five Recommendations By Tulika Narayan; Anu Rangarajan
  53. Behavioural Dynamics of Vaccine Hesitancy: The Case of sub-Saharan African Communities By Catherine Decouttere; Stany Banzimana; Pål Davidsen; Carla Van Riet; Corinne Vandermeulen; Elizabeth Mason; Mohammad S Jalali; Nico Vandaele
  54. Hanoi - Toward A Water Pollution and Flood Free City By World Bank
  55. The Influence of ESG Disclosures on Firm Value in Thailand By Thanyaorn Yordudom
  56. Quelles politiques publiques pour la filière hydrogène? Les enseignements tirés du cas des bus urbains By Guy Meunier; Jean-Pierre Ponssard
  57. Informal versus Formal Corporate Social Responsibility: a Tale of Hidden Green Attitude By Olivier Beaumais; Mireille Chiroleu-Assouline
  58. Mitigating Floods for Managing Droughts through Aquifer Storage By Paul Pavelic
  59. Kantians Defy the Economists' Mantra of Uniform Pigovian Emissions Taxes By Thomas Eichner; Rüdiger Pethig
  60. Use of Evidence to Inform Agricultural Policy Decisions By Christopher Delgado; Karen Brooks; Christian Derlagen; Steven Haggblade; Kate Lawyer
  61. 2019 Investment Policy and Regulatory Review - Turkey By World Bank
  62. Disaster Property Insurance in Uzbekistan By World Bank
  63. Adapting participatory processes to fine‐tune conservation approaches in multiactor decision settings By Arnaud Buchs; Emeline Hassenforder; Yves Meinard
  64. Does livestock ownership affect food security? Evidence from rural Mauritania By Mamoudou Ba
  65. Risk sources and management strategies of farmers: Evidence from mahanadi river basin of Odisha in India By Jayanti Mala Nayak; A V Manjunatha
  66. A Conceptual Proposal for Responsible Innovation By Thais Assis de Souza; Rodrigo Marçal Gandia; Bruna Habib Cavazza; André Grützmann; Isabelle Nicolaï
  67. Welfare Costs of Catastrophes: Lost Consumption and Lost Lives By Martin, Ian W. R.; Pindyck, Robert S.
  68. An Emerging Natural Gas Hub in the Eastern Mediterranean By Alexander Huurdeman
  69. Sustainability concerns on sugarcane production in Maharashtra, India: A decomposition and instability analysis By Abnave Vikas B
  71. Understanding the Racial and Income Gap in COVID-19: Social Distancing, Pollution, and Demographics By Rajashri Chakrabarti; Lindsay Meyerson; Maxim L. Pinkovskiy
  72. Global Mobility and the Threat of Pandemics: Evidence from Three Centuries By Clemens, Michael A.; Ginn, Thomas
  73. Groundwater and Surface Water in the Mega-Irrigation Systems of Pakistan By Frank van Steenbergen
  74. Government Insurance Against Natural Disasters: An Application to the ECCU By Alejandro D Guerson
  75. Environmental efficiency measurement when producers control pollutants under heterogeneous conditions: a generalization of the materials balance approach By Andreas Eder
  76. Saisir les processus méso : une approche régulationniste By Thomas Lamarche; Pascal Grouiez; Jean-Pierre Chanteau; Agnès Labrousse; Sandrine Michel; Martino Nieddu; Julien Vercueil
  77. Optimizing agricultural demand response for reducing costs of renewable energy integration in India By Khanna, Tarun
  78. Sustainable development based on structural transformation in Southeast China By Liu, Meiping

  1. By: Carroll, Carlos; Ray, Justina
    Abstract: Global commitments to protected area expansion should prioritize opportunities to protect climate refugia and ecosystems which store high levels of irrecoverable carbon, as key components of effective response to biodiversity loss and climate change. The United States and Canada are responsible for one-sixth of global greenhouse gas emissions but hold extensive natural ecosystems which store globally-significant above- and below-ground carbon. Canada has initiated a process of protected area network expansion in concert with efforts at reconciliation with Indigenous Peoples, and acknowledged nature-based solutions as a key aspect of climate change mitigation. The US, although not a signatory to global biodiversity conventions, has recently committed to protecting 30% of its extent by 2030 and achieving the UNFCCC Paris Agreement’s mitigation targets. The opportunities afforded by these dual biodiversity conservation and climate commitments require coordinated national and regional policies to ensure that new protected areas maximize ecosystem-based adaptation and mitigation opportunities. We address how global commitments can best inform national policy initiatives which build on existing agency mandates for regional planning and species conservation. Previous analyses of global conservation priorities under climate change have been tenuously linked to policy contexts of individual nations and have lacked information on refugia due to limitations of globally available datasets. Comparison and synthesis of predictions from a range of recently-developed refugia metrics allow such data to inform planning despite substantial uncertainty arising from contrasting model assumptions and inputs. A case study for endangered species planning for old-forest-associated species in the US Pacific Northwest demonstrates how regional planning can be nested hierarchically within national ecosystem-based adaptation and mitigation strategies which integrate refugia, connectivity, and ecosystem carbon metrics to holistically evaluate the role of different land designations and where carbon mitigation and protection of biodiversity’s resilience to climate change can be aligned.
    Date: 2020–12–24
  2. By: Rania Hentati-Kaffel (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Alessandro Ravina (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper assesses the impact of low-carbon policy on stock returns by means of an environmental extension of Fama and French's (2015) five factor model. This paper makes four major contributions. Firstly, for the first time a factor, GMC (green minus carbon), meant to provide the premium which results from not paying a carbon price is constructed. The GMC factor is obtained by means of a sample of 182 firms from 19 European countries operating in 35 sectors: from January 2008 to December 2018 the value-weight returns of 91 firms regulated by the 2003/87/CE directive are subtracted from the value-weight returns of 91 firms exempted by the 2003/87/CE directive upon which the EU-ETS is based. Secondly, we provide evidence that the addition of the GMC factor improves the performance of the 5 factor model in Europe in the 2008-2018 time span. Thirdly, results show that there is a high green premium rather than a carbon premium as it was asserted by parts of the literature, and that this green premium is highly statistically significant. Fourthly, after performing a carbon stress test, we show the effects of EU-ETS average price shocks on both carbon and green firms for each market cap tranche.
    Keywords: Low-carbon transition risks,EU-ETS,CO2 emissions,asset pricing model,green premium
    Date: 2020–02–10
  3. By: Nicoletta Batini; Ian Parry; Philippe Wingender
    Abstract: Denmark has a highly ambitious goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions 70 percent below 1990 levels by 2030. While there is general agreement that carbon pricing should be the centerpiece of Denmark’s mitigation strategy, pricing needs to be effective, address equity and leakage concerns, and be reinforced by additional measures at the sectoral level. The strategy Denmark develops can be a good prototype for others to follow. This paper discusses mechanisms to scale up domestic carbon pricing, compensate households, and possibly combine pricing with a border carbon adjustment. It also recommends the use of revenue-neutral feebate schemes to strengthen mitigation incentives, particularly for transportation and agriculture, fisheries and forestry, though these schemes could also be applied more widely.
    Keywords: Carbon tax;Greenhouse gas emissions;Consumption;Climate change;Agricultural commodities;Denmark climate mitigation,carbon pricing,feebate,revenue recycling,border carbon adjustment,transportation,agriculture.,WP,emission rate,EU ETS,emissions price,sliding scale,greenhouse gas,proxy emissions fee
    Date: 2020–11–12
  4. By: Sabine Garabedian; Avotra Narindranjanahary; Olivia Ricci; Sandrine Selosse (CMA - Centre de Mathématiques Appliquées - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres)
    Abstract: Reunion Island, similar to most insular regions, is ruled by a carbon-based economy that is heavily dependent on fossil fuels. In recent years, the energy transition towards a low-carbon economy has become the watchword of this French overseas region, with the objective of a 100% renewable energy mix by 2030. Reducing fossil fuel use while maintaining economic growth is an important issue for all countries but is even more important for island territories with structural and geographical handicaps. Energy transition and drastic greenhouse gas emission reductions represent costs and opportunities that need to be quantified. This research paper assesses the environmental and macroeconomic effects of the carbon price policy introduced in France to meet the target of the Paris Agreement. The acceptability of the tax significantly depends on the possibility of recycling tax revenues. Different schemes for recycling tax revenues are considered in simulations. The methodology used is a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for Reunion Island (GetRun-NRJ) that takes into account all island specificities. The results show that the carbon tax enables substitutions between fossil and renewable energy production and reduces CO 2 emissions. However, the tax has negative effects on the aggregate economy. The implemented tax revenue recycling compensation mechanisms mitigate the negative impacts, but the results differ significantly, as the recycling schemes do not support the same economic actors.
    Date: 2020–12
  5. By: Rick Van der Ploeg
    Abstract: The social rate of discount is a crucial driver of the social cost of carbon (SCC), i.e. the expected present discounted value of marginal damages resulting from emitting one ton of carbon today. Policy makers should set carbon prices to the SCC using a carbon tax or a competitive permits market. The social discount rate is lower and the SCC higher if policy makers are more patient and if future generations are less affluent and policy makers care about intergenerational inequality. Uncertainty about the future rate of growth of the economy and emissions and the risk of macroeconomic disasters (tail risks) also depress the social discount rate and boost the SCC provided intergenerational inequality aversion is high. Various reasons (e.g. autocorrelation in the economic growth rate or the idea that a decreasing certainty-equivalent discount rate results from a discount rate with a distribution that is constant over time) are discussed for why the social discount rate is likely to decline over time. A declining social discount rate also emerges if account is taken from the relative price effects resulting from different growth rates for ecosystem services and of labour in efficiency units. The market- based asset pricing approach to carbon pricing is contrasted with a more ethical approach to policy making. Some suggestions for further research are offered.
    Keywords: cost-benefit analysis, climate policy, carbon pricing, social discount rate, term structure, Keynes-Ramsey rule, risk and uncertainty, disasters, expert opinions
    JEL: D81 D90 G12 H43 Q51 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2020–07–22
  6. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: This Selected Issues paper summarizes achievements of the authorities to date and describes several options to support their ongoing efforts. The economic impact of climate change on Bangladesh is likely to become more pronounced. The outlook for Bangladesh is a source of concern, with experts from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predicting that a rise in sea levels and coastal erosion could lead to a loss of 17 percent of land surface and 30 percent of food production by 2050. Responding effectively to the impact of climate change depends on designing an appropriate set of fiscal policies. These can play a key role in mobilizing both public and private sources of finance for mitigation and adaptation activities. A second priority for Bangladesh is to raise domestic revenue from its current low base, including through introduction of a carbon tax. By helping establish a predictable price for carbon emissions, carbon taxes also provide clear incentives to promote investments in emissions-saving technologies. Although opponents argue that such taxes harm economic activity and slow job creation, the revenue they generate may over time be used to reduce other distorting taxes on labor and capital.
    Keywords: Climate change;Natural disasters;Comparative advantage;Exports;Greenhouse gas emissions;ISCR,CR,Bangladesh,product,economy,industry,labor force
    Date: 2019–09–18
  7. By: Enste, Dominik; Wildner, Julia; Nafziger, Lucia
    Abstract: This paper calls for an increased discourse between Fridays for Future and representatives of business. Fridays for Future play a key role in educating the public and raising awareness of scientific reports, such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment, which demonstrate the urgency with which we must tackle climate change. This is important to gain world attention on pressing questions of our time. At the same time, it is crucial to examine the main drivers in our socio-economic system to understand that the spread of information alone is insufficient to bring fundamental change. Human behaviour remains propelled by both the quest for prosperity and the call for a fair and sustainable economic system. We need to understand how to expand our economy in a sustainable way, how business can foster sustainable innovations and how to motivate consumers to support companies by buying green products. Companies are the necessary key for green innovations. These innovations are only as strong as their demand. Concern about the environment has widely spread in our society. At the same time this concern is not always translated into our actions. Behavioural Economics integrates psychological insights of human behaviour into economic theory and shows us solutions how to overcome the attitude-behavior-gap. Our aim is to work out how behavioural economics can be used to support environmentally friendly practices with incentives. All of our purchase decisions are influenced by cognitive biases. It is estimated that 40 percent of our day-to-day decisions are based on habits. The status quo bias or the discounting of future value often hinder pro-environmental behaviour. Therefore, purely apportioning blame will not result in changes. Instead, an adjustment of the framework through restructuring incentives to overcome biases can as a piece of the puzzle help to achieve the change required. Through the recognition of human "defaults" these can then be harnessed to nudge green actions. Similarly, the individual structural pursuit of profit can be channelled towards green growth. Through the spread of information and effective incentives, we can spark innovations which defuse tensions between economic growth and environmental protection, facilitating sustainable development.
    JEL: F64 Q56 Q58
    Date: 2021
  8. By: Pierpaolo Grippa; Samuel Mann
    Abstract: This paper explores three possible transmission channels for transition risk shocks to the financial system in Norway. First, we estimate the direct firm-level impact of a substantial increase in domestic carbon prices under severe assumptions. Second, we map the impact of a drastic increase in global carbon prices on the domestic economy via the Norwegian oil sector. Third, we model the impact of a forced reduction in Norwegian oil firms’ output on shareholder portfolios. Results show that such a sharp increase in carbon prices would have a significant but manageable impact on banks. Finally, the paper discusses ways to advance the still evolving field of transition risk stress testing.
    Keywords: Carbon tax;Oil sector;Oil, gas and mining taxes;Oil prices;Greenhouse gas emissions;Climate change,transition risk,carbon emissions,carbon price,environmental policy,asset pricing,financial stability,WP,balance sheet approach,emissions data,low-carbon economy,enterprise value
    Date: 2020–11–08
  9. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Environment - Adaptation to Climate Change Environment - Climate Change Impacts Environment - Coastal and Marine Environment Environment - Environmental Protection Water Resources - Coastal and Marine Resources Water Resources - Oceans
    Date: 2019–12
  10. By: Bejo Jacob Raju; S Manasi (Institute for Social and Economic Change)
    Abstract: This paper attempts to trace the change in the epidemiology of monsoon diseases (communicable diseases that show high occurrence during the monsoon) in the Lower Kuttanad region of the Kuttanad Wetland Ecosystem (Kerala). Change in the epidemiology of climate sensitive diseases in an environment sensitive hotspot can be validated only if the environmental history and changes in the geography of the region are traced. The changes in the geography of the study area are traced with the help of Global Information System (GIS). The occurrences of monsoon diseases were captured by IDSP data. The results were subsequently supplemented with the review of published literature and archival reports and in parallel, the perception of the local inhabitants regarding the changes in the geography of the region and its linkages to disease epidemiology are traced through oral history methods. The key informants (on the basis of traditional occupational divisions) from the villages in Lower Kuttanad were identified for the oral history. The results from the study reveal signs of ecological degradation in Kuttanad wetland. The narratives from the field visits connect changes in disease epidemiology to the changes in the geography of the study area.
    Keywords: Epidemiology; Kuttanad Wetland Ecosystem (Kerala); Ecology
    Date: 2019
  11. By: Chakraborti, Lopamudra
    Abstract: In this study, we document regulator reputation effects in a developing country. We construct a panel on 3,432 major toxic polluters from 2004 to 2015 using detailed plant-specific data on pollution, inspections, and fines. Results show that: regulators target polluters based on past violations; fines induce more accurate self-reporting and result in higher self-reported pollution at the sanctioned facility; increased fines on other polluters lead to long-term improvements in environmental performance and reductions in toxic pollution. An increase in amount fined by 1% on all others in the same municipality leads to an individual plant reducing its annual pollution discharges by 0.1% for all seven toxics examined. These findings are significant as toxic pollutants are harmful even at small concentrations. We highlight synergies in costs of monitoring and enforcement of mandatory reporting regulation.
    Keywords: Environmental Deterrence; Inspections and Fines; developing countries; Toxics Pollution Registry; Regulator Regulation Effects; Voluntary Environmental Regulation
    JEL: K32 Q52 Q53 Q58
    Date: 2020–11–20
  12. By: Araujo, Rafael; Costa, Francisco J M (FGV EPGE Brazilian School of Economics and Finance); Sant'Anna, Marcelo
    Abstract: This paper estimates the Brazilian Amazon’s efficient forestation level. We propose a dynamic discrete choice model of land use and estimate it using a remote sensing panel with land use and stock of carbon of 5.7 billion pixels, at 30 meters resolution, between 2008 and 2017. We estimate that a business as usual scenario will generate an inefficient loss of 1,075,000 km2 of forest cover in the long run, an area almost two times the size of France, implying the release of 44 billion tons of CO2. We quantify the potential of carbon and cattle production taxes to mitigate inefficient deforestation. We find that relatively small carbon taxes can mitigate a substantial part of the inefficient forest loss and emissions, while only very large taxes on cattle production would achieve a similar effect.
    Date: 2020–12–10
  13. By: Mamoudou Ba (CATT - Centre d'Analyse Théorique et de Traitement des données économiques - UPPA - Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour); Mazhar Mughal (ESC Pau)
    Abstract: The extent to which farm households can successfully employ coping strategies to smooth their consumption in the face of droughts depends crucially on the intensity of the climatic shocks. In this study, we analyse geo-coded climate data matched with household data from the two rounds of Mauritania's Permanent Survey on Living Conditions of Households (EPCV) to compare the impact of the 2008 and 2014 droughts on rural households' welfare and the adaptation strategies that they subsequently employed. The 2008 and 2014 droughts differ sharply in intensity. The 2008 drought was localized with about 45% rural households reporting loss of livestock. In contrast, the 2014 drought was the worst in a decade and affected nearly all parts of the country. We generate a number of indicators of drought intensity in Mauritania and examine their impact on per capita consumption, livestock assets and poverty incidence among Mauritanian households. We find that households living in departments where the 2014 drought was at least one standard deviation more intense relative to the department's long-term precipitation average have an 8.2% lower per capita consumption and 5.2% higher likelihood of falling below the national poverty line compared to households which faced less-intense drought. Importantly, we observe no such welfare losses during the 2008 drought. Change in household asset portfolio sheds light on these findings: Household wealth fell during both periods of drought, implying that farm households attempted to maintain consumption by liquidating assets, especially livestock. However, ownership of small ruminants (goats and sheep) grew, suggesting a greater reliance on more drought-resistant livestock species. The sale of livestock and raising of greater numbers of small ruminants helped maintain consumption levels during the 2008 drought but did not entirely compensate for the losses or could prevent households from reducing consumption during the 2014 drought.
    Abstract: La capacité des ménages agricoles à utiliser avec succès des stratégies d'adaptation pour lisser leur consommation face aux sécheresses dépend fondamentalement de l'intensité des chocs climatiques. Dans cette étude, nous analysons les données climatiques géocodées couplées aux données des ménages issus des deux cycles de l'Enquête Permanente sur les Conditions de Vie des Ménages (EPCV) de Mauritanie afin de comparer l'impact des sécheresses de 2008 et 2014 sur le bien-être des ménages ruraux et les stratégies d'adaptation qu'ils ont ensuite employées. Les sécheresses de 2008 et 2014 diffèrent fortement en intensité. La sécheresse de 2008 était localisée, environ 45 % des ménages ruraux ayant déclaré avoir perdu du bétail. En revanche, la sécheresse de 2014 a été la pire de la décennie et a touché presque toutes les régions du pays. Nous générons un certain nombre d'indicateurs de l'intensité de la sécheresse en Mauritanie et examinons leur impact sur la consommation par tête, les biens d'élevage et l'incidence de la pauvreté parmi les ménages mauritaniens. Nous constatons que les ménages vivant dans les départements où la sécheresse de 2014 était au moins d'un écart-type plus intense par rapport à la moyenne des précipitations à long terme du département ont une consommation par habitant inférieure de 8,2 % et une probabilité supérieure de 5,2 % de tomber sous le seuil national de pauvreté par rapport aux ménages qui ont été confrontés à une sécheresse moins intense. Il est important de noter que nous n'avons pas observé de telles pertes de bien-être pendant la sécheresse de 2008. L'évolution du portefeuille d'actifs des ménages éclaire ces résultats : La richesse des ménages a diminué pendant les deux périodes de sécheresse, ce qui implique que les ménages agricoles ont tenté de maintenir leur consommation en liquidant leurs actifs, en particulier le bétail. Cependant, la possession de petits ruminants (chèvres et moutons) a augmenté, ce qui suggère une plus forte dépendance à l'égard d'espèces de bétail plus résistantes à la sécheresse. La vente de bétail et l'élevage d'un plus grand nombre de petits ruminants ont contribué à maintenir les niveaux de consommation pendant la sécheresse de 2008, mais n'ont pas entièrement compensé les pertes ou empêché les ménages de réduire leur consommation pendant la sécheresse de 2014.
    Date: 2020–09–23
  14. By: Ralf Martin; Petra Sarapatkova; Dennis Verhoeven
    Abstract: UK greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are declining and have been declining for some time. As of 2018, the UK emitted 449 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e). That corresponds to a reduction of 43% relative to 1990 levels, which should make it easy to meet the 2020 target of a reduction of 37%. Moreover, the UK has a framework of long-run targets developed by the Committee on Climate Change, an independent body of experts advising government. At present, this requires a reduction of 51% by 2025 and 57% by 2030. In addition, shortly before resigning as prime minister, Theresa May introduced a so-called 'net zero' target, requiring a reduction of emissions to (net) zero by 2050.
    Keywords: greenhouse gas emissions, committee on climate change, offshore wind power
    Date: 2019–11
  15. By: Tulika Narayan; Anu Rangarajan; Faraz Usmani
    Abstract: This brief outlines four priority areas for the new administration’s consideration that offer opportunities for high-impact climate action: (1) sustainable climate finance, (2) analytic frameworks and decision support tools to maximize impact, (3) behavior change interventions combined with rapid-cycle evaluations to enhance intervention effectiveness, and (4) climate justice.
    Keywords: climate, finance, greenhouse, gas, emissions, global, energy
  16. By: Ibrahim A. Adekunle (Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria); Isiaq O. Oseni (Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria)
    Abstract: It is expected that fuel subsidy removal should hinder carbon emissions growth through low energy consumption channels amid higher energy prices. However, outliers in this theoretical disposition make empirical proof of the fuel subsidy-carbon intensity apt and primitive. Despite established fuel subsidy abolishment gains for climate and economic welfare, the relevance, magnitude and policy implications remain dimly. This paper employs the non-linear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL) estimation procedure to gauge the contemporaneous influence of fuel subsidy for carbon intensity in Nigeria. Findings revealed that fuel subsidy removal inversely relates to Nigeria's carbon emission in the short-run and long run. The study recommends complementary policy option that ensures additional financial savings to the government should be invested in public sector growth that can cushion the effect of relative income loss to the citizenry. The Nigerian government should ensure measures are kept in place to discourage over-consumption of alternative energy (for example, coal) that could also threaten the green economy paradox.
    Keywords: Fuel Subsidy, Carbon Emission, Non-linear ARDL, Nigeria
    JEL: C22 E31 N57 Q54
    Date: 2021–01
  17. By: Mohamed Kayal (Anadolu Üniversitesi (TURKEY) - Anadolu Üniversitesi (TURKEY))
    Abstract: Majority of scientists approve and acknowledge the existence of climate change effects and are aware of the predicted intensity and frequencies, in the long term, of the results that the year of 2100 will be showing. The objective of this article is to shed light on the risks that the present effects of climate on tourism in general and specifically on the winter activities. This article will also explain the measures that could be taken to help the fight against the effects of climate change and the measures that would certainly be costly ecologically and financially speaking.
    Keywords: Tourism,IPCC,Green House Emissions,Global Warming,Winter Activities,Climate Change
    Date: 2020–02–19
  18. By: Ulrich J. Eberle (Future of Conflict Fellow at International Crisis Group and Princeton University); Dominic Rohner (University of Lausanne and CEPR); Mathias Thoenig (University of Lausanne and CEPR)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of climate shocks on violence between herders and farmers by using geolocalized data on conflict events for all African countries over the 1997-2014 period. We find that a +1℃ increase in temperature leads to a +54% increase in conflict probability in mixed areas populated by both farmers and herders, compared to +17% increase in non-mixed areas. This result is robust to controlling for the interaction between temperature and ethnic polarization, alternative estimation techniques, disaggregation levels, and coding options of the climatic/conflict/ethnic variables. When quantifying at the continental level the impact on conflict of projected climate change in 2040, we find that, in absence of mixed population areas, global warming is predicted to increase total annual conflicts by about a quarter in whole Africa; when factoring in the magnifying effect of mixed settlements, total annual conflicts are predicted to rise by as much as a third. We also provide two pieces of evidence that resource competition is a major driver of farmer-herder violence. Firstly, conflicts are much more prevalent at the fringe between rangeland and farmland - a geographic buffer of mixed usage that is suitable for both cattle herding and farming but is particularly vulnerable to climate shocks. Secondly, information on groups' mobility reveals that temperature spikes in the ethnic homeland of a nomadic group tend to diffuse its fighting operations outside its homeland, with a magnified spatial spread in the case of conflicts over resources. Finally, we show that violence is substantially reduced in the presence of policies that empower local communities, foster participatory democracy, enforce property rights and regulate land dispute resolution.
    Keywords: Conflict, civil war, violence, climate change, weather, heat, temperature, nomadic, ethnicity, resource competition, farmer-herder conflict, Sahel
    JEL: D74 N47 O13 Q34 Z13
    Date: 2020–12
  19. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: This Climate Change Policy Assessment (CCPA) takes stock of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM)’s climate response plans, from the perspective of their macroeconomic and fiscal implications. CCPA explores the possible impact of climate change and natural disasters and the cost of FSM’s planned response. It suggests macroeconomically relevant reforms that could strengthen the national strategy and identifies policy gaps and resource needs. FSM has made progress toward its Nationally Determined Contribution mitigation pledge by beginning to expand renewable power generation and improve its efficiency. The authorities plan to continue this and encourage the take-up of energy efficient building design and appliances. Accelerating adaptation investments is paramount, which requires addressing critical capacity constraints and increasing grant financing. It is recommended that FSM needs to increase its capacity to address natural disaster risks following the expiry of Compact-related assistance in 2023. It is advised to improve climate data collection and use, including on the costs of high and low intensity disasters and disaster response expenditure.
    Keywords: Climate change;Natural disasters;Disaster aid;Infrastructure;Climate policy;ISCR,CR,financial support,fiscal cliff,FSM authorities,capital project,government of FSM
    Date: 2019–09–06
  20. By: Sarah Spycher; Ralph Winkler
    Abstract: We reassess the well-known “narrow-but-deep” versus “broad-but-shallow” trade-off in international environmental agreements (IEAs), taking into account the principal-agent relationship induced by the hierarchical structure of international policy. To this end, we expand the modest coalition formation game, in which countries first decide on whether to join an agreement and then decide on emissions by a strategic delegation stage. In the weak delegation game, principals first decide whether to join an IEA, then delegate the domestic emission choices to an agent. Finally, agents in all countries decide on emissions. In countries not joining the IEA, agents choose emissions to maximize their own payoff, while agents of countries joining the IEA set emissions to internalize some exogenously given fraction of the externalities that own emissions cause on all members of the IEA. In the strong delegation game principals first delegate to agents, which then decide on membership and emissions. We find that strategic delegation crowds out all efforts to increase coalition sizes by less ambitious agreements in the weak delegation game, while in the strong delegation game the first-best from the principals’ point of view can be achieved.
    Keywords: international climate policy, coalition formation game, political economy, strategic delegation, strategic voting
    JEL: Q54 Q58 C72 D62 H41 P16
    Date: 2020
  21. By: Aleksandar Zaklan
    Abstract: This paper tests the independence property under the Coase Theorem in a large multinational cap-and-trade scheme for greenhouse gas emissions, the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS). I analyze whether emissions of power producers regulated under the EU ETS are independent from allowance allocations, leveraging a change in allocation policy for a difference-in-differences strategy. The evidence suggests that the independence property holds overall and for larger emitters. It fails for small emitters, indicating that transaction costs distort their emission decisions. However, due to their small share of aggregate emissions the independence property remains intact at the sector level.
    Keywords: Coase theorem, independence property, cap-and-trade, EU ETS, greenhouse gas emissions
    JEL: Q58 Q54 Q52 L94
    Date: 2021
  22. By: Claudine Foucherot (I4CE-Institute for Climate Economics); Cyril Brûlez (I4CE-Institute for Climate Economics); Valentin Bellassen (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Ce projet piloté par I4CE avait pour objectif de créer un cadre de certification carbone volontaire national afin de répondre à la demande des acteurs agricoles et forestiers désireux de faire reconnaitre leurs efforts de réduction des émissions de GES et à la demande des entreprises souhaitant compenser leurs émissions en finançant des projets situés sur le territoire national. En effet, depuis 2013, aucune certification carbone n'était possible en France. La compensation carbone des entreprises passe actuellement uniquement par l'achat de crédit carbone issus de projets situés dans les pays en développement.Ce projet a permis de créer le Label Bas Carbone porté par le Ministère de la transition écologique et solidaire et de développer la première méthode de comptabilisation des réductions d'émissions par rapport à un scénario de référence dans le secteur agricole. Il s'agit d'une méthode multi-levier s'appuyant sur l'outil CAP'2ER et d'adressant aux élevage bovins.Les premiers projets vont pouvoir démarrer ce qui permettra de générer des «réductions d'émissions» reconnues par le MTES et qui pourront ainsi être achetées par les entreprises pour leur compensation carbone.Désormais le cadre est en place mais il s'agit maintenant de faciliter son appropriation par les différents acteurs concernés (porteurs de projet, auditeurs, développeurs de méthodes carbone et les entreprises et collectivités visant la neutralité carbone). Cela passera notamment par de l'accompagnement, de la formation, du partage d'expérience et la création de guide de bonnes pratiques.Ce cadre de certification pourrait par ailleurs s'utiliser dans d'autres canaux que celui de la compensation carbone.Il pourrait par exemple permettre de flécher des subventions vers des projets ayant un réel impact environnemental quantifié et certifié ou servir de garantie de qualité dans le cadre de la finance verte.Enfin, une concertation avec les pays ayant mis enplace un outil similaire au Label Bas Carbone devra avoir lieu afin de faire du partage d'expérience, d'apporter de la cohérence entre ces initiatives et réfléchir ensemble à la pertinence de développer un cadre commun de certification carbone au niveau européen.
    Keywords: Design,Uncertainty,Payment for environmental services,Carbon offsetting
    Date: 2019
  23. By: Parkatti, Vesa-Pekka; Tahvonen, Olli
    Abstract: We study forestry in the Sámi people homeland region to understand an ongoing conflict between conventional forest logging and maintaining forests as reindeer pastures for indigenous people. We use a detailed model that simultaneously includes timber production, carbon storage in living biomass, deadwood and wood products, negative effects on reindeer husbandry, and a flexible optimization between rotation forestry (cf. clearcuts) and forestry that maintains continuous forest cover. We show that the profitability of conventional forestry is based on utilizing existing forest stands, an outcome that can be understood as forest capital mining. By varying the carbon price between €0 tCO2 and €40 tCO2, we show that the optimal solutions based on a 3% interest rate are always continuous cover forestry. A carbon price of €60 - €100tCO2 implies that it is optimal to give up timber production and utilize forests for carbon storage and reindeer pasture only. Given the present forest management practices and an old-growth forest as the initial state, the carbon choke price decreases to €14–€20 CO2. The optimal choice between timber production and utilizing forests purely for carbon storage and reindeer husbandry may depend on the initial forest state. The choice between maintaining old-growth forest and converting land to timber production, as determined by dynamic economic analysis, is incompatible with the frequently applied approach based on carbon debt and the carbon payback period.
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development
    Date: 2020–12–17
  24. By: Knorre, Fabian (TU Dortmund University, Germany and Ruhr Graduate School in Economics Essen, Germany); Wagner, Martin (University of Klagenfurt, Austria, and Bank of Slovenia, Ljubljana, Slovenia, and Institute for Advanced Studies, Vienna, Austria); Grupe, Maximilian (TU Dortmund University, Germany)
    Abstract: This paper develops residual-based monitoring procedures for cointegrating polynomial regressions, i. e., regression models including deterministic variables, integrated processes as well as integer powers of integrated processes as regressors. The regressors are allowed to be endogenous and the stationary errors are allowed to be serially correlated. We consider five variants of monitoring statistics and develop the results for three modified least squares estimators for the parameters of the CPRs. The simulations show that using the combination of self-normalization and a moving window leads to the best performance. We use the developed monitoring statistics to assess the structural stability of environmental Kuznets curves (EKCs) for both CO2and SO2 emissions for twelve industrialized country since the first oil price shock.
    Keywords: Cointegrating Polynomial Regression, Environmental Kuznets Curve, Monitoring, Structural Change
    JEL: C22 C52 Q56
    Date: 2020–12
  25. By: Guy Meunier; Jean-Pierre Ponssard (X - École polytechnique)
    Abstract: Summary: Hydrogen is a possible alternative to the internal combustion engine, alongside battery-powered vehicles, in the context of reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with transport activities. The costs associated with hydrogen vehicles are currently high, even when considering the greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants avoided by their use. Efforts to reduce these costs, which will determine the social and environmental desirability of hydrogen vehicles, face two challenges : the high cost of refueling, linked to the crucial problem of coordination between development of the vehicle fleet and refueling infrastructure; and high purchase prices, which may decrease when sufficient quantities generate experience effects. This policy brief argues that each of these two handicaps calls for a specific policy design : at a local level for coordination between actors, and at a European level to generate sufficient volumes. The example of hydrogen-powered urban buses offers a telling illustration of these issues.. Key points: The growing importance of the hydrogen sector has been encouraged by various initiatives in France. These initiatives are based on the idea of a regional ecosystem : around a city, a network of local communities, or even a department or a region. The example of hydrogen buses shows that the abatement costs induced by this technology are still too high. The problem lies both in the price of the vehicles and the supply of fuel. Reducing the costs associated with the supply of fuel requires the resolution of coordination problems linked to network effects, which calls for a response at the local level. Achieving vehicle purchase prices low enough to be competitive requires a European approach, which alone makes it possible to reach significant volumes.
    Date: 2020–07
  26. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Environment - Climate Change and Environment Environment - Water Resources Management Water Resources - Drought Management Water Resources - Flood Control Water Resources - Groundwater
    Date: 2020–01
  27. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Conflict and Development - Disaster Management Environment - Climate Change Impacts Environment - Natural Disasters Finance and Financial Sector Development - Insurance & Risk Mitigation Water Resources - Drought Management Water Resources - Flood Control Public Sector Development - Public Financial Management
    Date: 2019–12
  28. By: Deb Pal, Barun; Kumar, Shalander; Patan, Elias Khan
    Abstract: The primary aim of this study is to prioritize investment required for scaling up climate-smart agriculture (CSA) technologies across different districts of Telangana state, which is in the semi-arid region of India. First, we analysed the trade-offs between expected agricultural income and its deviation across districts under drought and normal weather scenarios. The conventional MOTAD model was extended with various climate-smart technologies to assess their role in minimizing the trade-offs under various weather scenarios. A district-level panel dataset on cost of cultivation and crop production for 11 major crops under six different climate-smart technologies and farmers’ practices for five years (2010-11 to 2014-15) has been used. The dataset comprised a collation of official statistics on cost of cultivation, focus group interviews with farmers over the years, and data from experimental plots of Regional Agricultural Research Stations. The analysis reveals that the adoption of CSA technologies is likely to reduce production risk by 16% compared to farmers’ traditional practices (FTPs) while achieving optimum levels of crop income. Under a scenario of higher probability of drought, production risk is likely to increase by 12% in the state under FTPs; the adoption of CSA technologies could reduce the risk by 25%. The study suggests increasing investments in farm ponds and un-puddled machine transplanting in rice to minimize the risk-return trade-offs under a higher drought frequency scenario. Finally, the study generates evidence for policymakers to make informed investment decisions on CSA in order to enhance farming system resilience across districts in the semi-arid state of Telangana, India.
    Keywords: INDIA; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA; climate-smart agriculture; agriculture; technology; investment planning; risk reduction; risk; agricultural production; models; agricultural technology; risk minimization; climat risk; MOTAD model; Minimization of Total Absolute Deviation model
    Date: 2020
  29. By: Kaumudi Misra (Institute for Social and Economic Change)
    Abstract: This paper attempts to analyse the relationship between economic growth and carbon emissions in India. The parameters selected for understanding this relationship are GDP (as a proxy of economic growth) and CO2 emissions for the period 1970-2012. The study includes other important parameters such as energy consumption (oil) and urbanisation. Granger causality is used to check the existence of unidirectional and bi-directional causalities between the variables. The results reveal that there exists a unidirectional causality from energy consumption and GDP to carbon emissions. The ARDL model is used to understand the long run and short run relationship between the variables. The study finds that there exists a long run relationship between the variables whereas in the short run, there is no relationship between the variables. The findings imply that any attempt at reducing carbon emissions without bringing in energy efficiency will adversely affect the economic growth of the country.
    Keywords: Economics; Consumption; Urbanization
    Date: 2019
  30. By: Loïc Berger; Massimo Marinacci (Bocconi University [Milan, Italy])
    Abstract: We review recent models of choices under uncertainty that have been proposed in the economic literature. In particular, we show how different concepts and methods of economic decision theory can be directly useful for problems in environmental economics. The framework we propose is general and can be applied in many different fields of environmental economics. To illustrate, we provide a simple application in the context of an optimal mitigation policy under climate change.
    Keywords: Ambiguity,non-expected utility,model uncertainty,climate change
    Date: 2020–09–19
  31. By: Cappelli, Federica
    Abstract: The paper traces the evolution the concept of socioeconomic vulnerability to climate change has followed in the academic and scientific debate. The recent recognition of vulnerability as a social construction has shifted the focus of the analysis on the dimension of adaptive capacity, i.e. the human response to environmental stresses and climate hazards. Depending on the social and institutional factors in place in a society, this human response can either mitigate or exacerbate harm. In particular, the paper focuses on the role of both vertical and horizontal inequalities in determining differentiated vulnerabilities across individuals and population groups. Inequality in the distribution of income and relevant resources is primarily a question of access to tangible and intangible assets and capabilities that can enable individuals or population groups to prevent and cope with impacts from extreme weather events.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2020–12–16
  32. By: Christina Appiah-Nimo (Department of Management and Marketing Faculty of Management and Economics Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Czechia. Author-2-Name: Gloria K.Q. Agyapong Author-2-Workplace-Name: Department of Marketing and Supply Chain Management School of Business University of Cape Coast, Ghana Author-3-Name: Daniel Ofori Author-3-Workplace-Name: Department of Marketing and Supply Chain Management School of Business University of Cape Coast, Ghana Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective - Based on the theory of planned behaviour, this study empirically investigated and significantly validated the relationship among hedonistic buying orientation, utilitarian buying orientation, pro-environmental orientation. and willingness to patronise green hotels. Methodology/Technique - This quantitative study used the survey technique in data collection among hotel customers. 208 online surveys were gathered for data analysis. Sem-pls was used to analyse the hypothesised objectives. Findings - The findings indicated that pro-environmental values, hedonistic buying orientation and utilitarian buying orientation all have a positive and significant relationship with their willingness to patronise green hotels. Novelty - The value of this study lies in the novel use of consumer buying orientation as a predictive factor of consumers' willingness to patronise green hotels, and to the best of the authors knowledge, it is among the first to empirically test such relationship. This study is useful to key stakeholders in the hospitality sector and managers of hotels to understand consumers pro-environmental patronage. Type of Paper - Empirical.
    Keywords: Consumer buying orientation; willingness to patronise green hotel; pro-environmental value.
    JEL: M31 M39
    Date: 2020–12–31
  33. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Agriculture - Forestry Management Environment - Climate Change and Environment Environment - Forests and Forestry Environment - Sustainable Land Management
    Date: 2020
  34. By: Markova-Nenova, Nonka; Wätzold, Frank; Sturm, Astrid
    Abstract: Economic analysis of agri-environment schemes (AES) has focused mainly on improving their cost-effectiveness. In contrast, the distributional impacts of AES have received less attention in the economic literature, even though the implementation of cost-effective policies can receive much more support, if their distributional impacts are desirable. We combine cost-effectiveness and distributional considerations and investigate empirically for a case study (a grassland program in Saxony, Germany), if trade-offs or synergies exist between improving the cost-effectiveness of an AES and its distributional impacts. We apply an ecological-economic modelling procedure to design two cost-effective AES - one scheme with spatially homogeneous payments and one with regionally differentiated payments. To compare the distributional impacts of the schemes we use the criteria of equality, equity and Rawls’ maximin criterion. Our results suggest that substantial cost-effectiveness improvements can be achieved with the spatially differentiated AES. Regarding distributional impacts, on the federal state level and within the largest region, we find a trade-off between equality and cost-effectiveness, whereas equity generally increases with improved cost-effectiveness of the AES, except in the largest region. On Rawls’ maximin criterion the spatially homogeneous payments are preferred, as they lead to the highest net benefits in the poorest region. This shows the importance of analyzing the distributional implications of cost-effective AES on different spatial levels.
    Keywords: cost-effectiveness, distribution, fairness, maximin, agri-environmental payments, ecological-economic modelling, spatial differentiation
    JEL: Q18 Q57
    Date: 2020–12–16
  35. By: Biung-Ghi Ju (Department of Economics, Seoul National University); Min Kim (Rutgers University, USA); Suyi Kim (Hongik University, Korea); Juan D. Moreno-Ternero (Department of Economics, Universidad Pablo de Olavide;)
    Abstract: We study the design of fair international protocols for the abatement of GHG emissions. We formulate normative principles, pertaining to countries' population, emission history, and (business as usual) future emissions, as axioms for allocation rules. We show that combinations of these axioms characterize the so-called equal per capita allocation rules, with or without historical accountability. The allocations provided by these rules are in stark contrast with the allocation suggested by the Kyoto protocol, which is close to the allocation in proportion to the current and business-as-usual emissions, suggested by the equal per emission (grandfathering) rule. As we illustrate, equal per capita allocations admit more emissions to developing countries with large populations. And, with historical accountability, developed countries with large historical emissions are clearly penalized.
    Keywords: climate change; GHG reduction targets; allocation rules; historical accountability; history independence; equal per capita allocation
    JEL: D63 Q52 Q54
    Date: 2021
  36. By: Olivier Chanel (Aix-Marseille Univ., CNRS, AMSE, Marseille, France); Sylvia Medina (Santé publique France, Saint-Maurice, France); Mathilde Pascal (Santé publique France, Saint-Maurice, France)
    Abstract: Cet article propose une discussion méthodologique à partir d’une évaluation économique des impacts sur la mortalité de l’exposition chronique aux particules fines en France continentale. Il prend comme point de départ l’évaluation quantitative d’impact sanitaire (EQIS), réalisée par Santé publique France en 2016, de 5 scénarios de réduction des concentrations par deux méthodes de mesure de la mortalité (nombre de décès prématurés évités et nombre total d’années de vie gagnées). Après une justification des valeurs monétaires utilisées – 3 millions € pour la valeur d’évitement d’un décès et 80 000 € pour celle d’une année de vie gagnée – nous les appliquons aux données sanitaires, et obtenons des résultats comparables aux études contemporaines. En particulier, dans un scénario sans pollution anthropique, l’EQIS de 2016 estime à 48 283 les décès prématurés évités, que nous évaluons à 144,85 milliards €2008. Nous questionnons ensuite les méthodes et pratiques : les sources de divergence avec la précédente étude française menée en 1998-99, le choix des valeurs monétaires et les conditions d’utilisation de ces résultats dans la décision publique. Au final, nous apportons un argument supplémentaire sur la nécessité de réduire l’exposition des populations à la pollution de l’air ambiant en France.
    Keywords: pollution atmosphérique, évaluation économique, mortalité, valeur d’évitement d’un décès
    JEL: I18 Q53 Q58
    Date: 2021–01
  37. By: Thierry Madiès (Université de Fribourg); Ornella Tarola (DISSE, University of Rome La Sapienza); Emmanuelle Taugourdeau (CNRS, CREST, ENS Paris-Saclay)
    Abstract: This paper studies the interplay between a poor and a rich country when they sequentially compete over corporate taxes and environmental regulations to attract imperfectly mobile firms. Countries have also different environmental awareness. We show that the poor country generally undercuts the corporate tax set by the rich country. The poor country chooses to be both a tax and pollution haven when it is less environmentally concerned than the rich country and capital integration is low. The rich country has never an incentive to be both a tax haven a pollution haven. Interestingly, at equilibrium, the poor country rarely does better in terms of welfare than the rich country. Finally we find that higher capital mobility narrows the tax gap between the rich and the poor country but does not affect the optimal environmental policy: tax competition immunizes countries against the detrimental effect of globalization on environmental standards.
    Keywords: Tax Competition, Capital Integration, Cross-border Pollution, Environmental Standards
    JEL: H2 R3 R5 Q5
    Date: 2021–01–08
  38. By: Cezar Santos; Tiago Cavalcanti; Zeina Hasna
    Abstract: We evaluate the aggregate and distributional effects of climate change mitigation policies using a multi-sector equilibrium model with intersectoral inputoutput linkages and worker heterogeneity calibrated to different countries. The introduction of carbon taxes leads to changes in relative prices and inputs reallocation, including labor. For the United States, reaching its Paris Agreement pledge would imply at most a 0.6% drop in output. This impact is distributed asymmetrically across sectors and individuals.Workers with a comparative advantage in dirty energy sectors who do not reallocate bear relatively more of the cost but constitute a small fraction of the labor force.
    JEL: E13 H23 J24
    Date: 2020
  39. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Environment - Biodiversity Environment - Environmental Protection Environment - Wildlife Resources
    Date: 2020
  40. By: Michail Tsagris; Vangelis Tzouvelekas (Department of Economics, University of Crete, Greece)
    Abstract: This paper develops a novel empirical framework for estimating individual emission levels in a nonpoint source (NPS) pollution problem. For doing so we incorporate into the GME model suggested by Kaplan et al., (2003) a specific theoretical structure describing both crop production technology and nature's residual generating mechanism based on the multiple production relations model suggested by Murty et al, (2012) fitted into a parametric stochastic framework.
    Keywords: nitrogen leaching, multiple production relations, Generalized Maximum Entropy, greenhouse farming, Crete
    JEL: C40 Q12 Q24 Q25
    Date: 2021–01–05
  41. By: Robert Smith
    Keywords: Environment - Environmental Economics & Policies Environment - Environmental Information Systems Environment - Environmental Protection
    Date: 2020–01
  42. By: Laure Bamière (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - AgroParisTech - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Michele Schiavo (UAR - Délégation à l'Expertise scientifique collective, à la Prospective et aux Etudes - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Olivier Rechauchère (UAR - Délégation à l'Expertise scientifique collective, à la Prospective et aux Etudes - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Sylvain Pellerin (ISPA - Interactions Sol Plante Atmosphère - Bordeaux Sciences Agro - Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Sciences Agronomiques de Bordeaux-Aquitaine - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: L'initiative "4 ‰ sur les sols pour la sécurité alimentaire et le climat", lancée par la France à l'occasion de la Conférence de Paris sur le climat (COP-21), propose d'augmenter chaque année d'un quatre millième le stock de carbone présent dans tous les sols du monde. Ce chiffre résulte d'un calcul initial simple, considérant que l'ensemble des émissions annuelles de CO2 dues aux activités humaines représente actuellement, au niveau mondial, l'équivalent d'un quatre millième du stock de carbone (C) des sols de la planète (environ 2 400 gigatonnes de C). Un stockage annuel de 4 pour 1000 (4‰) sur toute la profondeur du sol compenserait alors l'ensemble de ces émissions. Cet objectif initial a été corrigé ultérieurement en considérant une cible de stockage annuel de 4‰ sur le seul horizon de surface (0-30 cm) des sols mondiaux. A la demande de l'ADEME et du Ministère de l'Agriculture et de l'Alimentation, l'INRA a conduit une étude, centrée sur la France métropolitaine, visant à estimer le potentiel de stockage de carbone des sols agricoles et forestiers, en identifiant les pratiques qui permettraient d'accroître leur teneur en carbone organique et in fine à évaluer la contribution potentielle de ce levier à l'objectif de réduction des émissions nettes de gaz à effet de serre.
    Keywords: Carbone,Sols agricoles,France,effet de serre
    Date: 2019
  43. By: Buchholz, Wolfgang; Rübbelke, Dirk
    Abstract: Expectations concerning international climate finance have increased considerably. In particular, provisions for international transfer schemes are an important element in the Paris Agreement. Yet, climate finance is not only seen as a tool to efficiently combat global warming, but also to solve development problems in the recipient countries. Thereby, conflicts between distributive and allocative objectives arise, which threaten overall performance of such transfer schemes. Given the severity of the climate change problem, we raise concerns whether the world can afford climate transfer schemes that do not focus on prevention of (and adaptation to) climate change, but are considered as a vehicle of rent-seeking by many agents. In line with the famous Tinbergen rule we argue that other sustainability problems and issues of global fairness should not be primarily addressed by climate finance but should be mainly tackled by other means. Future designs of international transfer schemes within the framework of the Paris Agreement are to be based on experience gained from existing mechanisms. Therefore, we con-sider different existing schemes using a graphical technique first proposed by David Pearce and describe the conflicts between allocative and distributional goals that arise.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2020–12–16
  44. By: Maamoun, Nada
    Abstract: International environmental agreements (IEAs) address cross-border public goods, therefore they are faced with free-riding problems. Generally, the incentives of states to comply with such treaties are low as the benefits of compliance do not always outweigh the cost. Previous literature has pointed towards the importance of the treaty design characteristics in motivating compliance and deterring free-riding. The aim of this paper is to investigate the association of using of those mechanisms -treaty linkages- and the compliance with IEAs. By using data on 92 IEAs from the international regime database (IRD), the paper finds that the number of reinforcing links per treaty has a positive and significant association with better compliance. Counter to existing literature, trade links, however, do not exhibit a significant association with better compliance.
    Keywords: International Environmental agreements,Treaty linkages,Compliance,Public goods
    JEL: H41 K33 O19 Q50 Q56
    Date: 2021
  45. By: Eleftherios Filippiadis (Department of Economics, University of Macedonia); Anastasia Litina (Department of Economics, University of Macedonia)
    Abstract: This research explores the presence of the income-pollution relationship in a dynamic two- country setting. We argue that the initial conditions of an economy, as described by its initial stock of physical capital, its total factor productivity, and the degree of environmental aware- ness, are critical determinants of the income-pollution paths. More importantly, these initial conditions have a more pronounced e¤ect in a world where economies interact with one another and transboundary and global pollutants are a¤ecting more than one country. We show that, in the presence of pollution externalities between two countries, the income-pollution paths these countries follow depend on the stage of development of each country, on their relative and absolute productivities, on the degree of environmental awareness and on the transbound- ary nature of the pollutants. In a two-country setting with pollution externalities even more complex patterns may arise compared to single country models, thereby con…rming the non- linear e¤ect of growth on environmental outcomes. It is shown that even small asymmetries span income-pollution relationships that are signi…cantly di¤erent than the prescribed inverted U-shaped patterns.
    Keywords: Environmental Kuznets Curve, Environmental poverty trap, TFP asymmetry, Transboundary pollutants.
    JEL: O13 Q01 Q56
    Date: 2021–01
  46. By: Anna Valero; John Van Reenen
    Abstract: Since the global financial crisis, the UK has been grappling with persistent poor productivity performance. While a number of factors have been at play, reduced investment due to austerity harmed growth in the early years, and more recently, policy uncertainty surrounding Brexit has held back investment. While Brexit has dominated UK politics and economic policy since the referendum on EU membership in 2016, the UK government has been developing an industrial strategy in recent years, and has also made a commitment to achieving net zero carbon emissions by 2050. These two elements of policy must be consistent and long-term to enable the UK to meet its commitments, while realising the growth opportunities associated with innovation in the low carbon transition. While institutions around industrial strategy have been strengthened, there is a risk that the volatile political climate could prevent its objectives from being achieved.
    Keywords: productivity, Brexit, low investment, earnings
    Date: 2019–11
  47. By: da Mosto, Jane; Bertolini, Camilla; Markandya, Anil; Nunes, Paulo A.L.D.; Spencer, Tom; Palaima, Arnas; Onofri, Laura
    Abstract: Safeguarding the future of Venice is a globally recognised challenge of urban sustainability. We propose a sustainable management model, alternative to the current strategy, that primarily focuses on the built heritage and which interprets the city together with its encircling lagoon as a matrix of interlinked natural, cultural and social capital. In particular, Venetian natural capital can be valued as a stock of wealth that produces a flow of income, its ecosystem services. Such values can be measured in economic, including monetary, terms. Using the examples of salt marsh and seagrass carbon sequestration, together with sediment retention, water purification and artisanal fishery and aquaculture, we show that it is economically viable to develop and reorientate the nearfuture trajectory of Venice and its lagoon with reference to a more sustainable pathway, where the natural capital is a driver of future economic development and, as such, is comparable with the value of currently dominant economic activities (port and mass tourism).
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development
    Date: 2020–12–17
  48. By: Christian Bogmans; Lama Kiyasseh; Akito Matsumoto; Andrea Pescatori
    Abstract: Not anytime soon. Using a novel dataset covering 127 countries and spanning two centuries, we find evidence for an energy Kuznets curve, with an initial decline of energy demand at low levels of per capita income followed by stages of acceleration and then saturation at high-income levels. Historical trends in energy efficiency have reduced energy demand, globally, by about 1.2 percent per year and have, thus, helped bring forward a plateau in energy demand for high income countries. At middle incomes energy and income move in lockstep. The decline in the manufacturing share of value added, globally, accounted for about 0.2 percentage points of the energy efficiency gains. At the country level, the decline (rise) of the manufacturing sector has reduced (increased) US (China) energy demand by 4.1 (10.7) percent between 1990 and 2017.
    Keywords: Personal income;Manufacturing;Consumption;Energy prices;Oil prices;Energy demand,economic growth,climate change,WP,income elasticity,income growth,energy consumption,income level,manufacturing share,per capita income
    Date: 2020–11–20
  49. By: Briguglio, Marie (University of Malta); García-Muñoz, Teresa (Universidad de Granada); Neuman, Shoshana (Bar-Ilan University)
    Abstract: Over the past half century, a literature has developed across a range of disciplines exploring the relationship between religion and environmental engagement, including pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours.Empirical results are diverse and the relationship seems to vary in size and direction, depending on definitions and the method of investigation adopted. An increasingly important phenomenon which has received far less attention is that of spirituality, within/out the context of a religion. This paper contributes to the literature by examining the question in a predominantly Roman Catholic European Union country where church attendance is in decline. It employs a nationally representative dataset (n=1,029) which includes diverse measures of religiosity and spirituality, as well as measures of interest in environmental issues, in wildlife and natural history, and engagement in countryside activities and gardening, together with relevant socio-economic control variables. Our findings confirm that the usual socio-economic determinants are associated with this type of environmental engagement. We find that church attendance adds no further explanatory power to environmental engagement. On the other hand, participation in socio-cultural religious activities and self-assessed spirituality are positively and significantly associated of various dimensions of environmental engagement.
    Keywords: religion, spirituality, environment, catholic, secularization, quantitative
    JEL: O13 P18 Q51 Z12
    Date: 2020–12
  50. By: Kustanto, Andi
    Abstract: The threat of TB continues to occur in the world. In 2018, 10 million people suffered from TB, and 1.5 million people die from this infectious disease. Referring to target 3 of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) goals 03 regarding good health and well-being, by 2030, end the epidemic of AIDS, TB, malaria, and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases, and other communicable diseases. Based on data from the WHO, Indonesia ranks 3rd for TB cases globally. The estimated population suffering from TB is 845,000 cases; only 68 percent of cases were found and treated in 2018. The high number of TB cases in Indonesia could threaten the golden generation's opportunity in the next 2025 demographic bonus, where the number of productive age population is higher than the population non-productive age. This study found that population factors such as population, population density, and the number of poor people had a positive and significant effect on TB cases. In contrast, the GRDP per capita, the number of health workers, and literacy rates negatively affected the TB cases. Furthermore, environmental factors from the availability of proper sanitation and toilet facilities show a negative but insignificant effect on TB cases.
    Date: 2020–12–04
  51. By: Saboori, Arash
    Abstract: The main goal of this dissertation was to develop frameworks, quantitative models, and databases needed to support data-driven, informed, and integrated decision-making in managing the vast transportation infrastructure in California. Such a management system was envisioned to consider both costs and environmental impacts of management decisions, based on full life cycles of the infrastructure, and using reliable, high quality data that well represent local conditions in terms of materials and energy sources, production technologies, design methods, construction practices, and other critical parameters. This PhD research consisted of three parts: 1) development of a comprehensive life cycle inventory (LCI) database for implementation of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology in transportation infrastructure management in California. 2) Evaluation of current and potential sustainability actions at the state and local government levels through the development of frameworks, models, and datasets needed for objective and accurate quantification of the impacts of management decisions. 3) Assessment of recycling practices available for pavements at their end of life to quantify changes in environmental impacts compared to conventional methods, considering the effects of recycling through the use stage.
    Keywords: Engineering, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Infrastructure Management, Life Cycle Assessment, Life Cycle Cost Analysis, Policy Analysis, Predictive Models, Sustainable Transportation
    Date: 2020–11–01
  52. By: Tulika Narayan; Anu Rangarajan
    Abstract: Global actions to slow climate change are critical, and so is the need to bring a massive influx of funding to adapt to conditions that are now inevitable. The past decade has seen significant capital commitment to address climate change, focused primarily on mitigation actions in the energy sector. Yet more needs to be done. This brief highlights several actions that can help us achieve global climate goals under a new presidential administration.
    Keywords: climate, finance, greenhouse, gas, emissions, global, energy
  53. By: Catherine Decouttere; Stany Banzimana; Pål Davidsen; Carla Van Riet; Corinne Vandermeulen; Elizabeth Mason; Mohammad S Jalali; Nico Vandaele
    Abstract: Objective: To understand the dynamics and drivers of vaccine hesitancy and analyse stakeholder engagement and intervention design for immunization at the community level in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: We applied systems thinking and human-centred design to the local immunization systems in two Rwandese communities. Based on primary data collected at health centres in 2018 and 2019 and the vaccine hesitancy 3C’s framework (confidence, complacency, convenience), we created a system dynamics simulation model to analyse vaccine hesitancy. Several feedback loops between immunization service delivery and vaccine hesitancy were identified and included in the model. The impact of vaccine hesitancy on timely measles immunization coverage and on the health of the population at risk was demonstrated. Findings: The two underlying factors of intent to vaccinate (trust and awareness) are dynamic, revealing the importance of sustainable interventions. Our simulation results show that vaccination campaigns play a critical role in decreasing hesitancy and consequently increasing immunity levels in communities. However, their effects are minimal if not continued, therefore, frequent campaigns are necessary to maintain effects. Moreover, exogenous factors such as COVID-19 and weather conditions further complicate the decision to vaccinate by decreasing the safety of travelling to and being in a health centre. Conclusions: A bottom-up approach revealed context-specific challenges and opportunities for immunization interventions. Stakeholder engagement should continuously be revitalized by co-designing interventions through community engagement. Essentially, intervention implementation should be monitored for sustainability assessment, considering behavioural factors (awareness and trust) as well as environmental factors (e.g., rain seasons) and unexpected events (e.g., COVID-19).
    Date: 2021
  54. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Water Resources - Flood Control Water Supply and Sanitation - Sanitation and Sewerage Water Supply and Sanitation - Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Water Supply and Sanitation - Water Treatment & Quality
    Date: 2020
  55. By: Thanyaorn Yordudom (Faculty of Management Sciences, Prince of Songkla University, 90110, Songkhla, Thailand Author-2-Name: Muttanachai Suttipun Author-2-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Management Sciences, Prince of Songkla University, 90110, Songkhla, Thailand Author-3-Name: Author-3-Workplace-Name: Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective - The study aimed (1) to investigate the extent and level of environmental, social and governance (ESG) disclosures of listed companies in Thailand Sustainable Investment (THSI) group from the Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET), and (2) to examine the influence of ESG disclosures on firm value. Methodology – Population and samples were 60 listed companies in THSI group from the SET. Content analysis by word counting was used to quantify the extent and level of ESG disclosures in corporate annual reporting during 2015 to 2019, while firm value was collected by the market price. Descriptive analysis, correlation matrix, and multiple regression were used to analyze the data from the SET. Findings – As the results, the extent and level of environmental, social, and governance disclosures were 309.91, 1196.12, and 1197.84 average words. The most common ESG disclosure was governance disclosure following by social and environmental disclosures. Moreover, the study found the positive influence of environmental and social disclosures on firm value, while there was a negative influence of governance disclosure on firm value. Novelty – This study is the first THSI group study of ESG disclosure in Thailand. Type of Paper - Empirical
    Keywords: ESG disclosures; Firm value; Thailand.
    JEL: M40 M41 M48
    Date: 2020–12–31
  56. By: Guy Meunier; Jean-Pierre Ponssard (X - École polytechnique)
    Abstract: Résumé : La filière hydrogène est une alternative possible au moteur thermique, aux côtés des véhicules à batterie, dans la perspective de réduire les émissions de gaz à effets de serre associées aux activités de transport. Les coûts associés aux véhicules à hydrogène sont actuellement élevés, même au regard des émissions de gaz à effet de serre et de polluants évitées par leur utilisation. Une diminution des coûts associés aux véhicules à hydrogène, déterminant de leur désirabilité sociale et environnementale, se heurte pourtant à des difficultés de deux ordres. D'une part un coût de recharge élevé, où le problème de la coordination entre développement de la flotte de véhicules et infrastructure de recharge est crucial. D'autre part, des prix d'achat élevés, susceptibles de diminuer grâce à des quantités suffisantes générant des effets d'expérience.Cette note argumente que chacun de ces deux handicaps appellent une politique publique structurée à un niveau spécifique : un niveau local pour la coordination entre acteurs, et un niveau européen pour générer des volumes suffisants. L'exemple des bus urbains à hydrogène offre une illustration parlante de ces problématiques. Points clés : La montée en puissance de la filière hydrogène est encouragée par diverses initiatives en France. Ces initiatives reposent sur la notion d'écosystème régional : autour d'une ville, d'une communauté de collectivités locales, voire d'un département ou d'une région. L'exemple des bus à hydrogène montre que les coûts d'abattements induits par cette technologie sont encore trop élevés. Le problème réside à la fois dans le prix des véhicules et dans la fourniture du combustible. Faire diminuer les coûts associés à la fourniture du combustible nécessite la résolution de problèmes de coordination liés aux effets de réseau, ce qui appelle une réponse au niveau local. Atteindre des prix d'achats de véhicules suffisamment bas pour être compétitifs nécessite une approche européenne, qui seule permet d'atteindre un niveau significatif de volumes.
    Date: 2020–07
  57. By: Olivier Beaumais (CREAM - Centre de Recherche en Economie Appliquée à la Mondialisation - UNIROUEN - Université de Rouen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - IRIHS - Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire Homme et Société - UNIROUEN - Université de Rouen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université, LISA - Lieux, Identités, eSpaces, Activités - UPP - Université Pascal Paoli - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Mireille Chiroleu-Assouline (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne)
    Abstract: We explore firms' commitment to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Using a unique dataset of 8,857 French firms collected through a survey conducted at the end of 2011 by the French National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (INSEE), we first construct 3 CSR pillar scores for each firm, based on a non-parametric Item Response Theory model known as Mokken Scale Analysis. CSR scores, along with responses to specific items of the 2011 INSEE survey, allow us to characterize firms implementing formal versus informal CSR. We then estimate simple probit models and count data models to show that, with regards to CSR commitment, size definitely matters, and that a significant share of firms stating that they are not actively committed to CSR, actually engage significantly in CSR, with no monotonic size effect. Cooperation with external actors such as NGOs mitigates the size effect in the likelihood of carrying out informal CSR, whereas the pressure of NGO campaigns against large companies mainly spurs the environmental score of smaller firms in the same sector.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility,corporate environmental responsability,non-parametric Item Response,Theory scoring,stakeholders,SME,France
    Date: 2020–12
  58. By: Paul Pavelic
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agricultural Irrigation and Drainage Water Resources - Drought Management Water Resources - Flood Control Water Resources - Groundwater Water Resources - Irrigation and Drainage
    Date: 2020–01
  59. By: Thomas Eichner; Rüdiger Pethig
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the efficient emissions taxation in economies with individuals who are morally motivated to reduce their emissions footprint. They are heterogenous with respect to their morality and their consumption preferences. We distinguish between the concepts of moral and conventional utilitarian (= material) welfare. The materially efficient tax rates turn out to be consumer-type specific; they are smaller than the Pigovian tax rate; and the smaller, the higher the individuals’ propensity to act morally. Finally, we briefly characterize the second-best uniform emissions tax.
    Keywords: Pigovian tax, material, moral, Kantian, consumer-type tax
    JEL: H21 Q58
    Date: 2020
  60. By: Christopher Delgado; Karen Brooks; Christian Derlagen; Steven Haggblade; Kate Lawyer
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agricultural Extension Agriculture - Agricultural Research Agriculture - Agricultural Sector Economics Agriculture - Climate Change and Agriculture Agriculture - Food Security
    Date: 2019–12
  61. By: World Bank
    Keywords: International Economics and Trade - Foreign Direct Investment Private Sector Development - Legal Regulation and Business Environment Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Investment and Investment Climate
    Date: 2020
  62. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Environment - Natural Disasters Finance and Financial Sector Development - Insurance & Risk Mitigation Urban Development - Hazard Risk Management
    Date: 2020–01
  63. By: Arnaud Buchs (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes, IEPG - Sciences Po Grenoble - Institut d'études politiques de Grenoble - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Emeline Hassenforder (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Yves Meinard (LAMSADE - Laboratoire d'analyse et modélisation de systèmes pour l'aide à la décision - Université Paris Dauphine-PSL - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Conservation decisions are typically made in complex, dynamic, and uncertain settings, where multiple actors raise diverse and potentially conflicting claims, champion different and sometimes contradictory values, and enjoy varying degrees of freedom and power to act and influence collective decisions. Therefore, effective conservation actions require conservation scientists and practitioners to take into account the complexity of multiactor settings. We devised a framework to help conservation biologists and practitioners in this task. Institutional economic theories, which are insufficiently cited in the conservation literature, contain useful insights for conservation. Among these theories, the economies of worth can significantly contribute to conservation because it can be used to classify the types of values peoples or groups refer to when they interact during the elaboration and implementation of conservation projects. Refining this approach, we designed a framework to help conservation professionals grasp the relevant differences among settings in which decisions related to conservation actions are to be made, so that they can adapt their approaches to the features of the settings they encounter. This framework distinguishes 6 types of agreements and disagreements that can occur between actors involved in a conservation project (harmony, stricto sensu arrangement, deliberated arrangement, unilateral and reciprocal compromise, and locked‐in), depending on whether they disagree on values or on their applications and on whether they can converge toward common values by working together. We identified key questions that conservationists should answer to adapt their strategy to the disagreements they encounter and identified relevant participatory processes to complete the adaptation.
    Keywords: decision making,deliberation,institutional economics,justification,participation,value pluralism,participa-,conservation action
    Date: 2020–10
  64. By: Mamoudou Ba (CATT - Centre d'Analyse Théorique et de Traitement des données économiques - UPPA - Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour)
    Abstract: Livestock farming sector significantly contributes to sustainable food security in many countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. It provides income and employment to a large segment of rural population in the countries of the Sahel such as Mauritania which face frequent climatic shocks. Keeping livestock also improves the availability of animal-source food for household consumption. In this study, we assess the role of livestock ownership and stock size in reducing severe food insecurity in rural Mauritania using data from a recent nationally representative household survey. We construct a food security index based on responses to the twelve questions asked in the survey, and use instrumental variables to correct for endogeneity problems. Our results suggest that livestock can have a positive role in improving food security in rural Mauritania. Compared to an agricultural household, the probability of being food insecure is 23.6% lower in a livestock-farming household for all types of livestock. Ownership of large (cows and camels) and small (goat and sheep) ruminants is associated with 16.3% and 21.6% greater probability of escaping from severe food insecurity. There is also some evidence for the size effect. A 1% increase in stock size (measured in tropical units) is associated with about 10% lower level of severe food insecurity among rural farm households. The beneficial contribution of livestock in insuring household food security is particularly visible among poor households. The results also show that livestock diversification has an important effect on the food security of households which practice this adaptation strategy to improve their food security. Helping farm households improve and expand their animal stock can therefore provide an answer to the challenges arising from multiple climatic and economic shocks and thus reduce severe food insecurity in the rural areas.
    Abstract: L'élevage contribue de manière significative à la sécurité alimentaire durable dans de nombreux pays. Il fournit des revenus et des emplois aux producteurs à la majorité des populations rurales dans les pays en développement, notamment au Sahel où elles sont confrontées à des problèmes climatiques et environnementaux fréquents. Ce document évalue la contribution de la détention ainsi que le stock des bétails à la réduction de la grave insécurité alimentaire en utilisant les données d'une récente enquête auprès des ménages représentatifs au niveau national. Nous construisons un indice de sécurité alimentaire en basant sur les réponses aux douze questions posées dans l'enquête, et utilisons des variables instrumentales pour corriger les problèmes d'endogénéité. Nos résultats suggèrent que l'élevage peut avoir un rôle positif dans l'amélioration de la sécurité alimentaire en Mauritanie rurale. Le niveau de l'insécurité alimentaire grave d'un ménage qui détient des bétails (mesuré par le stock mesuré en unités tropicales) est 10% inférieur à celui d'un ménage qui ne possède pas les bétails. La probabilité d'être en situation d'insécurité alimentaire est 23.6% inferieur pour un ménage éleveur tous types d'animaux confondus par rapport à un ménage agricole. De plus, un ménage rural mauritanien détenteur de gros et petit ruminant, a la probabilité de sortir de l'insécurité alimentaire grave de 16.3% et 21,6% respectivement. La détention du bétail améliore la disponibilité des aliments de source animale destinés à la consommation des ménages. Nous trouvons que les petits ruminants sont importants pour fournir des nutriments et une diversité alimentaire, soit par la consommation directe ou soit par la vente. Ces résultats soulignent l'importance des petits ruminants comme les chèvres et les moutons dans l'adaptation des ménages face aux chocs climatiques pour maintenir un niveau de sécurité alimentaire acceptable. Les résultats montrent également que la diversification de l'élevage a un effet important sur l'amélioration de la sécurité alimentaire des ménages qui pratiquent cette stratégie d'adaptation pour améliorer leur sécurité alimentaire. Nous suggérons que le fait de donner aux ménages ruraux les moyens de développer l'élevage pourrait apporter une réponse aux multiples chocs auxquels les populations rurales sont confrontées et ainsi réduire l'insécurité alimentaire grave dans ces zones.
    Keywords: Livestock breeders,Mauritania,Food security,Mauritanie,Elevage de ruminants,Securité alimentaire,Elevage pastoral,Elevage extensif,Changement climatiques,Coping Strategies
    Date: 2020–12–27
  65. By: Jayanti Mala Nayak; A V Manjunatha (Institute for Social and Economic Change)
    Abstract: This study utilises primary data of sample farmers from flood prone areas of Mahanadi river basin of Odisha to examine their perceptions on sources of risk and management strategies. Data was collected from 311 farmers located in three regions of river Mahanadi namely upper region (Sonepur district), middle region (Boudh district) and lower region (Kendrapada district). Factor analysis has been used to reduce 26 sources of risk and 24 risk management strategies into 8 to 10 factors. Results show that drought is the main source of risk in the upper region, problem of inadequate financial support from government in the middle region, farmers and flood in the lower region. In order to cope with the risk, the major risk management strategy followed by the farmers from upper region was varietal diversification with respect to rice, mixed cropping in the middle region and crop diversification in the lower region. The results of the study provide useful insights for improving the efficacy of management of risks in agriculture in the flood prone areas of Odisha.
    Keywords: Risk and management strategies; Farmers and flood; Mahanadi river; Odisha
    Date: 2019
  66. By: Thais Assis de Souza (LGI - Laboratoire Génie Industriel - CentraleSupélec - Université Paris-Saclay); Rodrigo Marçal Gandia; Bruna Habib Cavazza; André Grützmann; Isabelle Nicolaï (LGI - Laboratoire Génie Industriel - CentraleSupélec - Université Paris-Saclay)
    Abstract: The concept of Responsible Innovation holds that any innovation should take into account the balance of economic, ethical, social and sustainable aspects throughout the entire project in a manner that shows care for the future being constructed. However, as this concept is recent, originates in the context of the European Union and addresses issues of the Global North, critics have called for improvements in the way the concept is formulated. This article aims to establish a broader perspective to support the development of the concept of Responsible Innovation, which means discussing its main premises to highlight its critical aspects related to contextual terms, supporting a view to adapt it for use in different countries under various requirements and circumstances, thus facilitating its implementation on the path to innovation. Thus, an integrative review was developed. From an analysis of articles chosen based on research criteria, a useful theoretical framework was formed to fill the gaps in Responsible Innovation , comparing its perspectives to a traditional innovation, establishing a concept capable of yielding the expected benefits.
    Date: 2020–09–14
  67. By: Martin, Ian W. R.; Pindyck, Robert S.
    Abstract: Most of the literature on the economics of catastrophes assumes that such events cause a reduction in the stream of consumption, as opposed to widespread fatalities. Here we show how to incorporate death in a model of catastrophe avoidance, and how a catastrophic loss of life can be expressed as a welfare-equivalent drop in consumption. We examine how potential fatalities affect the policy interdependence of catastrophic events and “willingness to pay" (WTP) to avoid them. Using estimates of the “value of a statistical life" (VSL), we find the WTP to avoid major pandemics, and show it is large (10% or more of annual consumption) and partly driven by the risk of macroeconomic contractions. Likewise, the risk of pandemics significantly increases the WTP to reduce consumption risk. Our work links the VSL and consumption disaster literatures.
    Keywords: Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2020–12–17
  68. By: Alexander Huurdeman
    Keywords: Energy - Energy Markets Energy - Energy Trade Energy - Energy and Natural Resources Energy - Oil & Gas Energy - Renewable Energy
    Date: 2020–01
  69. By: Abnave Vikas B (Institute for Social and Economic Change)
    Abstract: This paper measures the instability levels in the area, production and productivity of sugarcane in Maharashtra in particular and India as a whole, using the available secondary data from 1966-67 to 2012-13. The analysis periods have been classified into five sub-periods and the growth trend, decomposition analysis and the Cuddy Dell Instability Index have been used for the analysis. The trend of sugarcane productivity in India as a whole is found better than in Maharashtra state in particular. The decomposition analysis result reveals that the contribution of area expansion is relatively more important as compared to productivity expansion to increase sugarcane production. Instability analysis indicates that the level of instability in the area, production and productivity of sugarcane is almost stagnant in India as a whole, whereas the level of instability in the area, production and productivity of sugarcane has been drastically increased in Maharashtra. There is no association found between low growth rate and high instability and vice versa. Therefore, this paper suggests that the sugarcane yield needs to be improved through the use of high yielding varieties of sugarcane, improved cultivation practices and better water and soil management to make it profitable and sustainable.
    Keywords: Sugarcane; Maharashtra
    Date: 2019
  70. By: Nicoleta-Daniela Milu (West University of Timisoara)
    Abstract: Digitalisation is equally about technology, innovation and how it transforms people's lives in the workplace. When an organization goes through a digital transformation, it must first take into account the main factor that determines the success of this process: employees. If employees are not prepared for this stage of change and remain faithful to old processes, the company will not be able to build products and experiences that meet the demands of today's consumers. The path to a sustainable business begins with its employees. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the digital skills of employees in European Union countries based on reports published by the European Commission in 2018-2019. The study shows that over half of the European Union countries have a low level of digital skills and should invest in employees, organize training courses and prepare them for the innovation process. To ensure its sustainability, a company must implement its own solutions, develop activities, train its employees so that they are prepared for the innovation process. The social responsibility of the companies regarding the employees appeared in the context in which the companies developed, they adopted new technologies and they focused on digitization. An important factor in the development of a sustainable company is the recruitment of those people who understand the company's sustainable development needs and who have the values, experience and skills necessary to develop and implement the sustainability strategy. Companies need motivated employees to work for the social and environmental aspects relevant to the business and who want to lay the foundations of the infrastructure for sustainability in the company.
    Keywords: CSR, Digital Economy and Society Index, Human Capital, sustainability, digitalisation
    JEL: M40 M20 M14
  71. By: Rajashri Chakrabarti; Lindsay Meyerson; Maxim L. Pinkovskiy
    Abstract: This is the third post in a series looking to explain the gap in COVID-19 intensity by race and by income. In the first two posts, we have investigated whether comorbidities, uninsurance, hospital resources, and home and transit crowding help explain the income and minority gaps. Here, we continue our investigation by looking at three additional potential channels: the fraction of elderly people, pollution, and social distancing at the beginning of the pandemic in the county. We aim to understand whether these three factors affect overall COVID-19 intensity, whether the income and racial gaps of COVID-19 can be further explained when we additionally include these factors, and whether and to what extent these factors independently account for income and racial gaps in COVID-19 intensity (without controlling for the factors considered in the other posts in this series).
    Keywords: COVID-19; hetergeneity; race; social distancing; pollution
    JEL: I14
    Date: 2021–01–12
  72. By: Clemens, Michael A. (Center for Global Development); Ginn, Thomas (Center for Global Development)
    Abstract: Countries restrict the overall extent of international travel and migration to balance the expected costs and benefits of mobility. Given the ever-present threat of new, future pandemics, how should permanent restrictions on mobility respond? A simple theoretical framework predicts that reduced exposure to pre-pandemic international mobility causes slightly slower arrival of the pathogen. A standard epidemiological model predicts no decrease in the harm of the pathogen if travel ceases thereafter and only a slight decrease in the harm (for plausible parameters) if travel does not cease. We test these predictions across four global pandemics in three different centuries: the influenza pandemics that began in 1889, 1918, 1957, and 2009. We find that in all cases, even a draconian 50 percent reduction in pre-pandemic international mobility is associated with 1–2 weeks later arrival and no detectable reduction in final mortality. The case for permanent limits on international mobility to reduce the harm of future pandemics is weak.
    Keywords: migration, pandemic, epidemic, disease, health, COVID-19, Coronavirus, flu, influenza, HIV, Zika, SARS, MERS, Spanish flu, Asian flu, Russian flu, Swine flu, H1N1, health systems, mortality, morbidity, mobility, movement, border, international, global, globalization
    JEL: H23 I18 J68
    Date: 2020–12
  73. By: Frank van Steenbergen
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agricultural Irrigation and Drainage Water Resources - Drought Management Water Resources - Groundwater Water Resources - Irrigation and Drainage
    Date: 2020–01
  74. By: Alejandro D Guerson
    Abstract: This paper estimates insurance requirements against natural disasters (NDs) in the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union (ECCU) using an insurance layering framework. The layers include a government saving fund, as well as market instruments. Each layer is calibrated to cover estimated fiscal cost of NDs according to intensity and expected damage. The results indicate that ECCU countries could target saving fund stocks for relativelly smaller and more frequent events in the range of 6-12 percent of GDP, enough to cover 95 percent of NDs’ fiscal costs. To ensure financially-sustainable saving funds with a low probability of depletion, this requires annual budget savings in the range os 0.5 to 1.9 percent of GDP per year. Additional coverage could be obtained with market instruments for large and less frequent events, albeit at a significant cost.The results are based on a Monte-Carlo experiment that simulates natural disaster shocks and their impact on output and government finances.
    Date: 2020–12–04
  75. By: Andreas Eder (University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Institute of Sustainable Economic Development)
    Abstract: This article provides a generalization of the materials balance-based production model introduced by Coelli et al. (2007). Based on this, some new environmental efficiency (EE) measures are presented. The Coelli et al. (2007) EE measure and its extension by Rødseth (2016) produce biased efficiency estimates if the material flow coefficients (MFCs) are heterogeneous across decision-making units and non-discretionary. Furthermore, the Coelli et al. (2007) measure fails to reward emission reductions by emission control. To overcome these shortcomings, this paper proposes production models which allow for heterogeneous MFCs reflecting differences of external environmental factors or non-controllable heterogeneities in inputs and outputs, and which properly take into account emission abatement activities. Based on this, we provide new EE measures and decompose them into i) a part reflecting emission control efficiency (ECE), ii) a part measuring material input efficiency (MIE), and iii) a part reflecting the efficient allocation between material and non-material inputs (environmental allocative efficiency, EAE). The approach is illustrated by an empirical application to arable farming in Austria utilizing data from 90 farms for the year 2011. Soil erosion is considered an undesirable output and land a material input. The average EE, ECE, MIE, and EAE are 0.53, 0.96, 0.69, and 0.79, respectively. The results indicate that actual output can be potentially achieved with 47% less soil loss. Most of the potential to improve EE is due to differences in MIE and EAE. Removing inefficiencies in the implementation of existing, subsidized erosion controls allows soil loss to be reduced by 4%.
    Keywords: Emission-generating technologies, Materials balance condition, Weak-G disposability, Data envelopment analysis, Non-discretionary factors, Soil erosion, Crop farms
    JEL: C61 D24 Q12 Q15
    Date: 2021–01
  76. By: Thomas Lamarche (LADYSS - Laboratoire Dynamiques Sociales et Recomposition des Espaces - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - UP8 - Université Paris 8 Vincennes-Saint-Denis - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UP - Université de Paris); Pascal Grouiez (LADYSS - Laboratoire Dynamiques Sociales et Recomposition des Espaces - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - UP8 - Université Paris 8 Vincennes-Saint-Denis - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UP - Université de Paris); Jean-Pierre Chanteau (CREG - Centre de recherche en économie de Grenoble - UGA [2016-2019] - Université Grenoble Alpes [2016-2019]); Agnès Labrousse (CRIISEA - Centre de recherche sur l'industrie, les institutions, et les systèmes économiques d'Amiens - UPJV - Université de Picardie Jules Verne); Sandrine Michel (UMR ART-Dev - Acteurs, Ressources et Territoires dans le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - UPVM - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Martino Nieddu (URCA - Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne); Julien Vercueil
    Date: 2020
  77. By: Khanna, Tarun
    Abstract: While demand side response is recognized as a useful tool in reducing the costs of integration of variable renewables, literature on demand side measures in the developing countries has been limited due to lack of publicly available data on system level end use load profiles. This article fills the gap by evaluating agricultural pumping demand as demand side resource in India. Enabled by the system of segregated power supply for irrigation, pumping load has long been used to flatten the load curve but its value to the system resource has largely been ignored. We collected data on hourly supply to 123 agriculture groups in two distribution utilities in the Indian state of Gujarat for one year and used the derived agriculture supply curves in a production cost optimization power model. We estimate that agriculture demand responds reduces the cost of grid operations by up to 6% in the current system. By suitably modifying the agriculture pumping load the cost of integrating up to 50% of renewable energy is reduced and curtailment is reduced by 3-6%. Decentralized agricultural pumps can reduce the cost of integrating and curtailment by enabling absorption of peak solar energy. We conclude that in power systems with moderate to high shares of agricultural demand, agricultural demand response can provide a cost-effective way of integrating high shares of renewable electricity. Further, even though decentralized systems may require higher feed-in-tariffs, replacing agricultural pumps dependent on centralised supply with decentralized agricultural pumps is more effective in integrating solar electricity as compared to centralized solar power plants besides having benefits for ground water conservation.
    Keywords: energy,demand response
    Date: 2021
  78. By: Liu, Meiping
    Abstract: China has developed into a highly diversified economy. Southeast China is one important region with rapid economic development and generally considered to contain Zhejiang, Fujian and Guangdong. The rapid development of Southeast China under structural adjustment is an exploration of the development of the forefront of China's reform and opening up. Structural adjustment is a major theoretical and practical improvement. Through the academic exploration of the current industrial structure transformation and upgrading, this paper deepens the understanding of Southeast China's high-quality development and helps to promote the construction of the modern economic system. Based on the exploration of the characteristics of the transition period of economic construction. This paper examines the characteristics and advantages of Southeast China's high-quality development and the challenges that may be faced in subsequent development. This paper makes recommendations for economic system reform and government services.
    Date: 2020–12–09

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