nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2020‒06‒15
75 papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. The Moderating Role of Green Energy and Energy-Innovation in Environmental Kuznets: Insights from Quantile-Quantile Analysis By Hammed Oluwaseyi Musibau; Rabindra Nepal; Joaquin L. Vespignani; Maria Yanotti
  2. A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis of Environmental Tax Reform in Japan By Shiro Takeda; Toshi H. Arimura
  3. How to implement a fair and progressive carbon price to fight climate change? By Raphaël-Homayoun Boroumand; Stéphane Goutte; Thomas Porcher; Thomas Stocker
  4. COMMIT TO A CREDIBLE PATH OF RISING CO2 PRICES By Sweder van Wijnbergen; Rick van der Ploeg; Stan Olijslagers
  5. A comparative study of export processing zones in the wake of sustainable development goals: Cases of Botswana, Kenya, Tanzania and Zimbabwe By Richard Adu-Gyamfi; Simplice A. Asongu; Tinaye S. Mmusi; Herbert Wamalwa; Madei Mangori
  6. To what extent has climate change impacted the Total Factor Productivity of the Australian beef industry by state and as a country? By Harris, Patrick
  7. Introductory Chapter: The Need to Change the Paradigm - Sustainability and Development at the 21st Century By Maria Bastante-Ceca; Jose Fuentes-Bargues; Florin Mihai; Corneliu Iatu; Levente Hufnagel
  8. The relationship between economic growth and carbon emissions in G-7 countries: evidence from time-varying parameters with a long history By Mehmet Akif, Destek; Muhammad, Shahbaz; Ilyas, Okumus; Shawkat, Hammoudeh; Avik, Sinha
  9. Dirty Density: Air Quality and the Density of American Cities By Carozzi, Felipe; Roth, Sefi
  10. Air Pollution, Affect, and Forecasting Bias: Evidence from Chinese Financial Analysts By Rui Dong; Raymond Fisman; Yongxiang Wang; Nianhang Xu
  11. Using Environmental Knowledge Brokers to Promote Deep Green Agri-environment Measures By Paolo Melindi-Ghidi; Tom Dedeurwaerdere; Giorgio Fabbri
  12. Cooking Fuel Choice, Indoor Air Quality and Child Mortality in India By Basu, Arnab K.; Byambasuren, Tsenguunjav; Chau, Nancy H.; Khanna, Neha
  13. Effects of climate change on tourism demand considering individual seasonal preferences By Robert Steiger; Eva Posch; Gottfried Tappeiner; Janette Walde
  14. Food labels: how consumers value moral, environmental, and health aspects of meat consumption By Carlsson, Fredrik; Kataria, Mitesh; Lampi, Elina; Nyberg, Erik; Sterner, Thomas
  15. A Semiparametric Analysis of Green Inventions and Environmental Policies By Massimiliano Mazzanti; Antonio Musolesi
  16. Le New Deal Vert, la troisième révolution industrielle ? Une analyse de la pensée de Jeremy Rifkin By Jacques Fontanel
  17. Aligning short-term climate action with long-term climate goals: Opportunities and options for enhancing alignment between NDCs and long-term strategies By Chiara Falduto; Marcia Rocha
  18. Corporate Social Responsibility and Optimal Pigouvian Taxation By Villena, Mauricio
  19. How to articulate beyond GDP and businesses’ social and environmental indicators? By Olivier E. Malay
  20. A comparative study of export processing zones in the wake of the Sustainable Development Goals: The cases of Botswana, Kenya, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe By Richard Adu-Gyamfi; Simplice A. Asongu; Tinaye Sonto Mmusi; Herbert Wamalwa; Madei Mangori
  21. Carbon pricing design: Effectiveness, efficiency and feasibility: An investment perspective By Florens Flues; Kurt van Dender
  22. A Meta-Analysis of the literature on Climate Change and Migration By Michel Beine; Lionel Jeusette
  23. The Carbon 'Carprint' of Suburbanization: New Evidence from French Cities * By Camille Blaudin de Thé; Benjamin Carantino; Miren Lafourcade
  24. Role of Waste Collection Efficiency in Providing a Cleaner Rural Environment By Florin Mihai; Adrian Grozavu
  25. Desenvolvimento sustentável e geração de impacto positivo: caso Natura e Amazônia By -
  26. Environmental Policy and Heterogeneous Labor Market Effects: Evidence from Europe By Rutzer, Christian; Niggli, Matthias
  27. O modelo de ação do Polo de Inovação Campos dos Goytacazes By Carvalho, Rogério Atem de
  28. Unidade de Cogeração Lages: um exemplo do potencial transformador da economia circular By Magri, José Lourival; Cusatis, Mario Wilson
  29. The effects of financial and non-financial incentives on the demand for a sustainable DRT system By Minnich, Aljoscha; Rau, Holger A.; Schlüter, Jan
  30. The Climate Decade: Changing Attitudes on Three Continents By Carlsson, Fredrik; Kataria, Mitesh; Krupnick, Alan; Elina, Lampi; Åsa, Löfgren; Qin, Ping; Thomas, Sterner; Yang, Xiaojun
  31. Biodiversity, Shapley value and phylogenetic trees: some remarks By Hubert Stahn
  32. Polímeros Verdes: tecnologia para promoção do desenvolvimento sustentável By Mello, Adriana; Soto, Jorge; Viveiro, José Augusto
  33. Household air pollution and COVID-19 risk in India: A potential concern By Sharma, Rachit; Hossain, Md Mahbub
  34. A Dynamic Theory Of Spatial Externalities By Raouf Boucekkine; Giorgio Fabbri; Salvatore Federico; Fausto Gozzi
  35. A dynamic theory of spatial externalities By Raouf Boucekkine; Giorgio Fabbri; Salvatore Federico; Fausto Gozzi
  36. An Analysis of the use of Chemical Pesticides and their Impact on Yields, Farmer Income and Agricultural Sustainability: The Case for Smallholder Farmers in Ethiopia By Aparna Rao; Risa Morimoto
  38. Economia e ecologia nos montados de sobro ibericos: o uso do solo na segunda metade do seculo XIX By Carlos Manuel Faísca
  39. Green Urban Areas By Pierre M. Picard; Thi Thu Huyen Tran
  40. Vaccine Supply Chains in Resource-Limited Settings: Mitigating Rainy Season Disruptions By Kim De Boeck; Catherine Decouttere; Jónas Oddur Jónasson; nico Vandaele
  41. De crises en crises. De la maladie des hommes à la maladie de la Terre By Jacques Fontanel
  42. Drivers of farm performance: Empirical country case studies By Johannes Sauer; Catherine Moreddu
  43. Sustainable Rural Development under Agenda 2030 By Florin Mihai; Corneliu Iatu
  44. The Dynamic of COVID-19 New Infections under Different Stringent Policies By Razzak, Weshah
  45. Climate Change, Migration and Voice - An Explanation for the Immobility Paradox By Michel Beine; Ilan Noy; Christopher Parsons
  46. Arresting the Sword of Damocles: Dating the Transition to the Post-Malthusian Era in Denmark By Peter Sandholt Jensen; Maja Uhre Pedersen; Cristina Victoria Radu; Paul Richard Sharp
  47. Permit markets with political and market distortions By Alex Dickson; Iain A Mackenzie
  48. Emissions Information Can Prompt Travelers to Purchase Greener Flights By Amenta, Nina; Sanguinetti, Angela
  49. Optimal hydrogen supply chains: co-benefits for integrating renewable energy sources By Fabian St\"ockl; Wolf-Peter Schill; Alexander Zerrahn
  50. Does teaching school children about recycling reduce household waste? By Ek, Claes; Söderberg, Magnus
  51. Da subsistência ao desenvolvimento: o processo de construção da Associação de Catadores de Materiais Recicláveis de Lavras – MG By Moreira, Eliane Oliveira; Wivaldo, Jucilaine Neves Sousa
  52. Dealing with uncertainties of green supplier selection: a fuzzy approach By Hayk Manucharyan
  53. The War of Rare Earth Elements: A Dynamic Game Approach By Luisito Bertinelli; Stéphane Poncin; Benteng Zou
  54. Weather, pollution and Covid-19 spread: a time series and Wavelet reassessment By Olivier Damette; Stéphane Goutte
  55. Discouragement through incentives By Dmitri V. Vinogradov; Elena V. Shadrina
  56. Private Sector Participation in the Provision of Quality Drinking Water in Ghana’s Urban Areas: Are People Willing to Pay? By Francis Mensah Asenso-Boadi; Godwin K. Vondolia
  57. The macroeconomic determinants of Covid19 mortality rate and the role of post subprime crisis decisions By Olivier Damette; Stéphane Goutte
  58. Household indebtedness risks in the wake of COVID‑19 By Olga Bilyk; Anson T. Y. Ho; Mikael Khan; Geneviève Vallée
  59. Innovation and Entrepreneurship in the Energy Sector By David Popp; Jacquelyn Pless; Ivan Haščič; Nick Johnstone
  60. How do pesticide retailers recommend pesticides to farmers in rural China? By Li, Zhongju; Hu, Ruifa; Zhang, Chao; Xiong, Yankun; Chen, Kevin
  61. Environmental Disclosures Effect on Cost of Capital Structure Financing of the Nigerian Listed Companies By Magaji Abba; Muhammad Auwal Kabir; Abdulkadir Abubakar
  62. Active or passive? Companies' use of the EU ETS By Schleich, Joachim; Lehmann, Sascha; Cludius, Johanna; Abrell, Jan; Betz, Regina Annette; Pinkse, Jonatan
  63. Big Push para a Sustentabilidade no Brasil: a contribuição dos Tûkûna do Médio Rio Juruá (AM) By Bastos, Cairo Guilherme Milhomem; Valle, Fernando Esteban do; Brito, Tatiana Ribeiro Souza
  64. Causal Estimation of Stay-at-Home Orders on SARS-CoV-2 Transmission By M. Keith Chen; Yilin Zhuo; Malena de la Fuente; Ryne Rohla; Elisa F. Long
  65. Soutenabilité des systèmes urbains et inégalités environnementales: Le cas français By Eloi Laurent
  66. Introduction : la transition juste: Un nouvel âge de l’économie et de l’environnement By Eloi Laurent
  67. Wirtschaftsethische Überlegungen zum Klimawandel By Dilger, Alexander
  68. Success through failure? Four Centuries of Searching for Danish Coal By Kristin Ranestad; Paul Richard Sharp
  69. The Consequences of a more resource efficient and circular economy for international trade patterns: A modelling assessment By Rob Dellink
  70. Interactions between polygenic scores and environments: Methodological and conceptual challenges By Domingue, Benjamin; Trejo, Sam; Armstrong-Carter, Emma; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.
  71. Advancing Sustainable Development Goals through Immunization: A Literature Review By Catherine Decouttere; Kim De Boeck; Nico Vandaele
  72. Strengthening science, technology, and innovation-based incubators to help achieve Sustainable Development Goals: Lessons from India By Kavita Surana; Anuraag Singh; Ambuj D Sagar
  73. Ressources naturelles et guerres civiles au Moyen-Orient By Mahdi FAWAZ
  74. Combien pour sauver la Planète ? By Nelo Magalhães
  75. Genetic diversity and its value: conservation genetics meets economics By Noël Bonneuil; Raouf Boucekkine

  1. By: Hammed Oluwaseyi Musibau; Rabindra Nepal; Joaquin L. Vespignani; Maria Yanotti
    Abstract: The recent environmental challenges in Africa that emanated from global warming, human activity, limited access to electricity and overexploitation of natural resources have contributed to the growth of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the region. This paper empirically investigates the moderating role of green energy consumption and energy innovation in the environmental Kuznets curve for the Sub-Saharan African (SSA) region using data spanning from 1980 to 2018. Our threshold model found that at least 54 percent of the population needs access to energy innovation before the region could be safe from environmental degradation. We conclude that investment in green energy, energy innovation and conservation of natural resources will help to mitigate environmental degradation in SSA in the long run. Policies should be targeted towards encouraging the consumption of green energy, and more investment in energy innovation beyond the estimated threshold will save the region from pollution and its implications.
    Keywords: Environmental Kuznets Curve; Green energy; Energy innovation; CO2 emission; SSA countries; Quantile-Quantile regression
    JEL: E10 C20 Q40
    Date: 2020–05–27
  2. By: Shiro Takeda (Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-Ku, Kyoto City, 603-8555, Japan. Research Institute for Environmental Economics and Management (RIEEM), Waseda University, 1?6?1 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169?8050, Japan.); Toshi H. Arimura (Faculty of Political Science and Economics & Research Institute for Environmental Economics and Management (RIEEM), Waseda University, 1-6-1 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 169-8050, Japan.)
    Abstract: The Japanese government plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050. However, it is not yet clear which policy measures the government will adopt to achieve this goal. In this regard, environmental tax reform, which is the combination of carbon regulation and the reduction of existing distortionary taxes, has attracted much attention. This paper examines the effects of environmental tax reform in Japan. Using a dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, we analyze the quantitative impacts of environmental tax reform and clarify which types of environmental tax reform are the most desirable. In the simulation, we introduce a carbon tax and consider the following five scenarios for the use of carbon tax revenue: 1) a lump-sum rebate to the household, 2) a cut in social security contributions, 3) a cut in income taxes, 4) a cut in corporate taxes and 5) a cut in consumption taxes. The first scenario is a pure carbon tax, and the other four scenarios are types of environmental tax reform. Our CGE simulation shows that environmental tax reform tends to generate more desirable impacts than the pure carbon tax by improving welfare or increasing GDP while reducing emissions (double dividend). In particular, we show that a cut in corporate taxes leads to the most desirable policy in terms of GDP and national income.
    Keywords: Carbon Tax; Environmental Tax Reform; Double Dividend; Computable General Equilibrium; Climate Change; Tax Interaction Effects; Paris Agreement
    JEL: Q54 Q58 C68 H23
    Date: 2020–06
  3. By: Raphaël-Homayoun Boroumand (City University London); Stéphane Goutte (Cemotev - Centre d'études sur la mondialisation, les conflits, les territoires et les vulnérabilités - UVSQ - Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines); Thomas Porcher (PSB - Paris School of Business); Thomas Stocker (Physics Institute, University of Bern, National Centre of Competence in Research PlanetS, Bern, Switzerland)
    Abstract: The principle of "common but differentiated responsibility", a key concept of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), acknowledges the conditions for a generally acceptable and differentiated pricing mechanism on carbon emissions. With reference to this principle, carbon price determination has become one of the necessary instruments to limit global warming to a maximum of 2 °C. In this article, we propose the allocation of a carbon price per country based on the Human Development Index (HDI) and 0 2 emissions per capita. We demonstrate that under a multilateral framework, the price of carbon would be fixed according to a reference price depending on the HDI and 0 2 emissions. For example, if a country emits more than the amount allocated to its HDI level, it will have to pay a higher price than the established reference price, and vice versa. Reference prices as functions of HDIs and emissions will be estimated based on a trajectory to reach the target goal of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. A key element of our proposed scheme is that it generates national revenue allowing high-emitting countries a rapid decarbonization and developing countries (with generally lower emissions) accelerated development and early implementation of green infrastructures. Our research goal is related to documenting the benefits of a differentiated and progressive carbon pricing mechanism to ease intergovernmental cooperation.
    Keywords: carbon,climate,price,market,tax
    Date: 2020–05–20
  4. By: Sweder van Wijnbergen (University of Amsterdam); Rick van der Ploeg (Economics Department Oxford university); Stan Olijslagers (University of Amsterdam)
    Abstract: CO2 pricing is essential for an efficient transition to the green economy. Despite Daniel, Litterman and Wagner (2019)’ claim that CO2 prices should decline, CO2 prices should rise over time. First, damages from global warming are proportional to economic activity and this makes CO2 prices grow at the same rate as the economy. Second, even if uncertainty about the damage ratio is gradually resolved over time, this only slows down the price rise. Third, if CCS is allowed for, the optimal CO2 price will rise before it declines but this decline does not occur until more than two centuries ahead. Fourth, damages are likely to be a very convex function of temperature which with rising temperature implies that CO2 prices must grow faster than the economy. Fifth, internalizing the social benefits of learning by doing or a shift towards technical progress in renewable energy production requires a subsidy for renewable energy, not a temporary spike in CO2 prices. Having high CO2 prices upfront is an artefact of failing to separate out renewable energy subsidies from the carbon price. Finally, efficient intertemporal allocation of policy efforts implies that a temperature cap or cap on cumulative emissions requires that CO2 prices must rise at a rate equal to the risk-adjusted interest rate, typically higher than the economic growth rate. Summing up, CO2 prices must rise at a rate at least equal to the economic growth rate and at most to the risk-adjusted interest rate. They should not decline.
    Keywords: CO2 prices, risk, damages
    JEL: H23 Q51 Q54
    Date: 2020–05–29
  5. By: Richard Adu-Gyamfi (Geneva, Switzerland); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon); Tinaye S. Mmusi (Gaborone, Botswana); Herbert Wamalwa (Nairobi, Kenya); Madei Mangori (Gaborone, Botswana)
    Abstract: The objective of this research is to assess the extent to which export processing zones in Botswana, Kenya, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe integrate the Sustainable Development Goals in their implementation and operations. We focused on four Sustainable Development Goals—gender equality, decent work, industry, and climate action. We interviewed four zone authorities, one in each country. A total of 12 firms in the agro-processing, textiles and garments, construction, and real estate sectors were also interviewed. All four zone authorities demonstrate a measure of environmental inclusiveness in their zone programmes. We found that firms in Kenya and Zimbabwe have a higher number of male than female employees, while zones in Tanzania employ more women. We propose that to promote sustainable development in these zones, policy action should concentrate on attracting firms that (are willing and able to) align with the particular Sustainable Development Goal that zone programmes are intended to achieve.
    Keywords: export processing zones, sustainable development, Botswana, Kenya, Southern Africa, Tanzania, Zimbabwe
    JEL: O25 O55 O57 Q01
    Date: 2020–05
  6. By: Harris, Patrick
    Abstract: The societal and climatic pressures towards agriculture and specifically the beef industry is increasingly prevalent in recent years. This paper has identified and evaluated the impact of climate on the TFP of the beef sector by state and as a country, which was found to be negative on balance. Additionally, it was found that Victoria was the most susceptible to changes in climate on average, complimenting previous literature that the southern regions of Australia (NSW, VIC, SA, TAS) are more susceptible to changes in climate compared to northern regions on average. Moreover, this paper addressed the current and prospective initiatives and management practices to mitigate the impact of adverse climate aberations, which found that feed additives, the breed of cattle, government subsidised insurance markets and education will assist the productivity of the beef sector in Australia and develop the resilience of farmers during extreme climate aberations.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Agriculture and climate change, agricultural econometrics, Australian beef production, beef production, total factor productivity, temperature and agriculture, Australian beef, econometrics, panel data.
    JEL: O4 O44 O5 O50 O56 Q0 Q1 Q12 Q14 Q15 Q18 Q2 Q20 Q28 Q5 Q52 Q53 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2020–05–31
  7. By: Maria Bastante-Ceca (UPV - Universitat Politecnica de Valencia); Jose Fuentes-Bargues (UPV - Universitat Politecnica de Valencia); Florin Mihai (Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iași [Romania]); Corneliu Iatu (Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iași [Romania]); Levente Hufnagel (Szent István University)
    Abstract: Since the second half of the twentieth century, the big processes of globalization of the economy, coupled with the development of new technologies and the increase of the population, have led to the emergence of major environmental problems whose importance transcends beyond the limits of the countries, in a manner that we could say that they are global impacts. These problems include, among others, the ozone layer depletion, the climate change due to the greenhouse gas emission, or the depletion of natural resources. Industry, as well as modern societies, must face this challenge, changing their consumption patterns, increasing product life, banishing the concept of "use and throw away," and changing from the traditional production systems to a more sustainable one.
    Keywords: sustainable development,circular economy,SDGS,sustainabilty
    Date: 2020–02–12
  8. By: Mehmet Akif, Destek; Muhammad, Shahbaz; Ilyas, Okumus; Shawkat, Hammoudeh; Avik, Sinha
    Abstract: This paper re-investigates the time-varying impacts of economic growth on carbon emissions in the G-7 countries over a long history. In doing so, the historical data spanning the period from the 1800s to 2010 (as constructed) for each country is examined using the time-varying cointegration and bootstrap-rolling window estimation approach. Unlike the previous environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) studies, using this methodology gives us avenue to detect more than one, two, or more turning points for the economic growth-carbon emissions nexus. The empirical findings show that the nexus between economic growth and carbon emission seems over a long history to be M-shaped for Canada and the UK; N-shaped for France; inverted N-shaped for Germany; and invertedM-shaped (W-shaped) for Italy, Japan, and the USA. In addition, the possible validity of EKC hypothesis is examined for both the pre-1973 and post-1973 sub-periods. Based on this investigation, we found that an inverted U-shaped is confirmed only for the pre-1973 period in France, Italy, and the USA. These empirical evidences provide new insights to policy makers to improve environmental quality using economic growth as an economic tool for the long run by observing changes in the environmental impact of this growth from year to year.
    Keywords: Environmental Kuznets curve; Chebyshev time polynomials; Time-varying cointegration; G-7 countries
    JEL: Q5 Q53
    Date: 2020–04
  9. By: Carozzi, Felipe (London School of Economics); Roth, Sefi (London School of Economics)
    Abstract: In this paper we study the effect of urban density on the exposure of city dwellers to air pollution using data from the United States urban system. Exploiting geological features to instrument for density, we find an economically and statistically significant pollution-density elasticity of 0.13. We also assess the health implications of these estimates and find that doubling density in an average city increases annual mortality costs by $630 per capita. Our findings highlight the possible trade-off between reducing global greenhouse gas emissions, which is associated with denser cities according to prior research, and preserving local air quality and human health within cities.
    Keywords: air pollution, cities, density, health
    JEL: Q53 R11 I10
    Date: 2020–04
  10. By: Rui Dong (University of China); Raymond Fisman (Boston University); Yongxiang Wang (University of Southern California); Nianhang Xu (Renmin University of China)
    Abstract: We document a negative relation between air pollution during corporate site visits by investment analysts and subsequent earnings forecasts. After accounting for analyst, weather , and firm characteristics, an extreme worsening of air quality from “good/excellent†to “severely polluted†is associated with a more than 1 percentage point lower profit forecast, relative to realized profits. We explore heterogeneity in the pollution-forecast relation to understand better the underlying mechanism. Pollution only affects forecasts that are announced in the weeks immediately following a visit, indicating that mood likely plays a role, and the effect of pollution is less pronounced when analysts from different brokerages visit on the same date, suggesting a debiasing effect of multiple perspectives. Finally, there is suggestive evidence of adaptability to environmental circumstances – forecasts from analysts based in high pollution cities are relatively unaffected by site visit pollution.
    Keywords: Pollution; Forecasting bias; Investment analysts; Adaptation
    JEL: D91 Q5
    Date: 2019–12
  11. By: Paolo Melindi-Ghidi (Corresponding author. ECONOMIX, Université Paris-Nanterre and AMSE, Aix-Marseille University); Tom Dedeurwaerdere (FNRS & BIOGOV Unit, Université Catholique de Louvain and FNRS, Belgium); Giorgio Fabbri (GAEL - CNRS, INRA, Grenoble INP, Univ. Grenoble Alpes)
    Abstract: Intermediary organisations have increasingly played a role in payments for agri-environment services across Europe over the last two decades. However, the economics literature has so far not examined the impact of this new governance mechanism on environmental protection and on individuals' behaviour. We develop a new theoretical economic framework to compare an incentive mechanism using intermediaries, such as environmental knowledge brokers and information providers, with a standard central governance mechanism, in terms of environmental impact. We show that the emergence of knowledge intermediaries is particularly effective where farmers initially have low environmental awareness, or when the public institution organizing the scheme is insufficiently aware of individuals' characteristics. Our findings provide theoretical support for previous empirical results on payment schemes for agri-environment measures.
    Keywords: Knowledge Brokers, Intermediaries, Pro-environmental Culture, Agri-environment Measures, Cultural Transmission, Principal-agent
    JEL: Q51 Q58 Z19
    Date: 2020–03–27
  12. By: Basu, Arnab K. (Cornell University); Byambasuren, Tsenguunjav (Cornell University); Chau, Nancy H. (Cornell University); Khanna, Neha (University of Birmingham)
    Abstract: Indoor air pollution (IAP)–predominantly from the use of solid fuel for cooking–is a global health threat, particularly for women and young children, and one of the leading causes of infant deaths worldwide in developing countries. We estimate the causal effect of cooking fuel choice on infant mortality in India, focusing on children under five years of age using pooled cross-sectional data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) over the period 1992–2016. To address the potential endogeneity in the relationship between fuel choice and mortality, we instrument for cooking fuel choice using a speed of change in forest cover and ownership status of agricultural land, which induce significant variations in fuel type. We find that cooking fuel choice has a statistically significant impact on under-five and neonatal mortality, raising the mortality risk by 4.9 percent. We also find that the past literature has overestimated the association between under-five mortality and polluting fuel use by about 0.6 percentage points or equivalently, 152,000 deaths per year nationally. Our result is robust to a set of alternative specifications with the inclusion of various controls and different estimation strategies.
    Keywords: cooking fuel, indoor air pollution, infant mortality, India
    JEL: I18 N35 Q53
    Date: 2020–05
  13. By: Robert Steiger; Eva Posch; Gottfried Tappeiner; Janette Walde
    Abstract: Climate change is a major challenge for weather-dependent industries such as winter tourism. Existing climate change impact assessments largely do not consider seasonality of demand and snow conditions are usually included as binary variable (e.g. ski area open or closed). With this paper we want to address seasonality of demand, timing of marginal snow conditions and differential sensitivity of customers to marginal snow. Our objective is to investigate the impact of climate change on ski tourism demand in order to improve the basis for assessing the economic impacts of climate change. A representative survey and choice experiment with 1312 skiers in 53 Austrian ski areas is used as basis for this analysis. The impact of marginal snow conditions on demand is simulated with preferences of skiers for certain ski area attributes (including snow) derived from the choice experiment. Results show that a lack of natural snow can cause significant demand losses of up to 17%. If in addition snow experiences turn to bad, our simulation shows losses of up to 35%. Results suggest that demand losses are to be expected sooner than suggested by impact assessments modeling operating days. This study also shows that seasonality of demand combined with seasonality of marginal snow conditions considerably alters projected climate change-induced losses of demand.
    Keywords: Winter tourism; Climate change; Choice experiment; Alpine region; Demand simulation; seasonality
    JEL: R11 D9 Q56 Z3
    Date: 2020–08
  14. By: Carlsson, Fredrik (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Kataria, Mitesh (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Lampi, Elina (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Nyberg, Erik (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Sterner, Thomas (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University)
    Abstract: Policy changes could improve health and environmental outcomes by addressing the many externalities and internalities related to food consumption. Using a stated preference approach, we investigate to what extent consumers are willing to make costlier food consumption choices if doing so contributes to decrease environmental externalities, health damages, and animal suffering. We find a considerable willingness to pay for some aspects of the food bought. People are willing to pay an additional 50% for a product if it carries a label declaring that the product meets the highest available standards in terms of healthiness, animal welfare, and antibiotics use, respectively. The willingness to pay for a climate impact label is also sizeable but smaller. We compare a traffic-light label with a plain-text label and a grey-scale label in order to disentangle the effects of introducing labels Our results are mixed, suggesting that a traffic-light label has both normative and cognitive effects on behavior.
    Keywords: Food labels; choice experiment; norms; food choice
    JEL: Q11 Q18
    Date: 2020–04
  15. By: Massimiliano Mazzanti (University of Ferrara; SEEDS, Italy); Antonio Musolesi (University of Ferrara; SEEDS, Italy)
    Abstract: Innovation is a primary engine of sustainable growth. This paper provides new semiparametric econometric policy evaluation methods and estimates a green knowledge production function for a large, 30-year panel dataset of high-income countries. Because of the high degree of uncertainty surrounding the data-generating process and the likely presence of nonlinearities and latent common factors, the paper considers semiparametric panel specifications that extend the parametric multifactor error model and the random trend model. It also adopts a recently proposed information criterion for smooth model selection to compare these semiparametric models and their parametric counterparts. The results indicate that (1) the semiparametric additive specification with individual time trends is the preferred model, (2) threshold effects and nonlinearities are relevant features of the data that are obscured in parametric specifications, and (3) the effect of environmental policy is significant and clearly heterogeneous when modeled as a nonparametric function of certain knowledge inputs. The evidence shows a relevant nonlinear policy inducement effect occurring through R&D investments.
    Keywords: Innovation, knowledge, environmental policy, policy assessment, policy heterogeneity, large panels, cross-sectional dependence, factor models, random trend model, spline functions, model selection.
    Date: 2020–06
  16. By: Jacques Fontanel (CESICE - Centre d'études sur la sécurité internationale et les coopérations européennes - UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - Grenoble 2 - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - IEPG - Sciences Po Grenoble - Institut d'études politiques de Grenoble)
    Abstract: Faced with the catastrophic effects expected from global warming, many proposals have been made to develop a Green New Deal. Jeremy Rifkin presents a complete and optimistic dossier on the possibilities of finding quick solutions. With the help of public institutions, the tipping point for the transition to a higher profitability of non-carbon energies is set for 2028. The aim is to combine the new performance of solar and wind energy with a plan to use the digital industry to optimise the electrical potential of cars, buildings, agriculture, transport and industry. A "New Green Deal" was proposed in February 2019 to the US Senate. It would aim to produce 100% of the United States' electricity from clean, renewable sources and to increase the country's energy efficiency. This will result in "locked assets" in oil and gas fields. Rifkin is therefore urging financiers to invest in clean energy right away.
    Abstract: Face aux effets catastrophiques attendus par le réchauffement climatique, de nombreuses propositions ont été faites pour développer un New Deal vert. Jeremy Rifkin présente un dossier complet et optimiste quant aux possibilités de trouver des solutions rapides. Avec l'aide des institutions publiques, le point de bascule du passage à une rentabilité supérieure des énergies non carbonées est établi pour 2028. Il s'agit d'allier les nouvelles performances de l'énergie solaire et éolienne à l'application d'un plan conduisant à utiliser l'industrie digitale pour optimiser le potentiel électrique des voitures, des bâtiments, de l'agriculture, des transports et de l'industrie. Un « New Green Deal » a été proposé en février 2019 au Sénat américain. Il s'agirait de produire 100% de l'électricité des Etats-Unis avec des sources renouvelables et propres et d'augmenter l'efficacité énergétique nationale. Il en résultera des « actifs bloqués » des champs pétrolières ou gazeux. Rifkin incite alors les financiers à investir tout de suite dans les énergies propres.
    Keywords: global warming,wind energy,electricity,solar energy,intervention de l’Etat,New Green deal,industrie digitale,réchauffement climatique,Actifs bloqués,énergie renouvelables
    Date: 2020–05–13
  17. By: Chiara Falduto (OECD); Marcia Rocha (OECD)
    Abstract: The Paris Agreement and its accompanying decision call for Parties to strive to formulate mid-century communicate long-term low-greenhouse gas emission development strategies (LT-LEDS) by 2020. Moreover, the Paris decision requests Parties to communicate a new or updated Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) by 2020. This paper finds that there is potential for these long-term strategies to guide short- and mid-term action and feed into future NDC submissions. This paper highlights that long-term strategies can substantially shape countries’ short- and mid-term priorities, policies and investment pipelines, leading to significant cost reductions in the long-term. Linking NDCs to long-term mitigation strategies will be key in ensuring efficient use of resources, particularly crucial for responding to climate change amidst and following the COVID-19 crisis.
    JEL: F53 Q54 Q56 Q58
    Date: 2020–06–12
  18. By: Villena, Mauricio
    Abstract: We formally study Pigouvian taxation in a duopoly market in which a CSR firm interacts with a profit maximizing firm. Unlike previous literature, we consider three different scenarios: (i) the CSR firm acts as a consumer-friendly firm, cares for not only its profits but also consumer surplus, as a proxy of its concern for its "stakeholders" or consumers; (ii) the CSR firm main objective is a combination of its own profit and the environment, caring for the environmental damage produced by the market in which it interacts; and (iii) the CSR firm is both consumer and environmental friendly. Finally, we compare the different Pigouvian rules derived with the first best competitive market solution and the monopoly/duopoly second best solutions.
    Keywords: Corporate social responsibility, consumer-friendly firm, environment-friendly firm, Mixed Duopoly, Emission Taxation
    JEL: H23 L13 L31 Q5 Q50
    Date: 2019–12–03
  19. By: Olivier E. Malay (IRES & Hoover Chair of Economic and Social Ethics, University of Louvain (UCLouvain))
    Abstract: In the past decades, new indicators have been developed to provide alternatives to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at the macro level, and to financial indicators at the business level (businesses’ social and environmental indicators). However, these new indicators are poorly articulated between the business and the macro level. This paper aims to discuss the different possibilities of articulation that exist and outline a framework for a better micro-macro articulation. Firstly, we draw from the example of GDP and traditional business indicators by analysing the way they are articulated. Secondly, we review how sets of alternative indicators aim to articulate the macro and micro level by analysing indicators constructed around Gross National Happiness (GNH) and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This research shows that two specific types of articulation exist between indicators at different levels, one referred to as the ‘accounting’ type and the other called the ‘conceptual’ type. Their strengths and limits will be discussed, as well as how they can be combined. Finally, recommendations will be provided on how to best articulate beyond GDP and business level indicators.
    Keywords: Sustainability indicators; Beyond GDP indicators; Business indicators; Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR); Micro macro articulation; Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), Gross National Happiness (GNH)
    JEL: E0 M41 N10 N40 Q56
    Date: 2020–04–01
  20. By: Richard Adu-Gyamfi; Simplice A. Asongu; Tinaye Sonto Mmusi; Herbert Wamalwa; Madei Mangori
    Abstract: The objective of this research is to assess the extent to which export processing zones in Botswana, Kenya, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe integrate the Sustainable Development Goals in their implementation and operations. We focused on four Sustainable Development Goals?gender equality, decent work, industry, and climate action. We interviewed four zone authorities, one in each country. A total of 12 firms in the agro-processing, textiles and garments, construction, and real estate sectors were also interviewed.
    Keywords: export processing zones, Sustainable development, Botswana, South Africa, Tanzania, Zimbabwe
    Date: 2020
  21. By: Florens Flues; Kurt van Dender
    Abstract: Carbon pricing helps countries steer their economies towards and along a carbon-neutral growth path. This paper considers how the design of carbon pricing instruments affects their effectiveness, efficiency and feasibility. Design choices matter both for taxes and Emissions Trading Systems (ETSs). Considering the role of carbon price stability for clean investment, the paper shows how volatile carbon prices can cause risk-averse investors to forego clean investment that they would have undertaken with more stable prices. The paper then evaluates the effectiveness and efficiency of policy instruments to stabilise carbon prices in ETSs, which tend to produce more volatile carbon prices than taxes. The paper analyses the auction reserve price in California, the carbon price support in the UK, and the market stability reserve in the EU ETS. Considering feasibility, the paper discusses the tax (or emissions) base, how revenue use can affect support from households and firms, and administrative choices.
    JEL: D04 D40 G11 H21 H23 H32 Q52 Q54
    Date: 2020–06–22
  22. By: Michel Beine (CREA, Université du Luxembourg); Lionel Jeusette (CREA, Université du Luxembourg)
    Abstract: Recent surveys of the literature on climate change and migration emphasize the important diversity of outcomes and approaches of the empirical studies. In this pa- per, we conduct a meta-analysis in order to investigate the role of the methodological choices of these empirical studies in finding some particular results concerning the role of climatic factors as drivers of human mobility. We code 51 papers representative of the literature in terms of methodological approaches. This results in the coding of more than 85 variables capturing the methodology of the main dimensions of the analysis at the regression level. These dimensions include authors’ reputation, type of mobility, measures of mobility, type of data, context of the study, econometric methods and last but not least measures of the climatic factors. We look at the influence of these characteristics on the probability of finding any effect of climate change, of find- ing a displacement effect, of finding an increase in immobility and of finding evidence in favour of a direct versus an indirect effect. Our results highlight the role of some important methodological choices, such as the frequency of the data on mobility, the level of development, the measures of human mobility and of the climatic factors as well as the econometric methodology.
    Keywords: Climate change; Human mobility; Econometric regressions; Meta-analysis.
    JEL: C83 F22 J61 Q54
    Date: 2019
  23. By: Camille Blaudin de Thé (PSE - Paris School of Economics); Benjamin Carantino (PSE - Paris School of Economics); Miren Lafourcade (PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PSE - Paris School of Economics, RITM - Réseaux Innovation Territoires et Mondialisation - UP11 - Université Paris-Sud - Paris 11)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of urban form on household fuel consumption and car emissions in France. We in particular analyze three features of cities commonly referred to as the "3 D's" (Cervero & Kockelman 1997): Density, Design and Diversity. Individual data allow us to identify the effects of urban form and the spatial sorting of households on emissions. We also use instrumental variables to control for other endogeneity issues. Our results suggest that, by choosing to live at the fringe of a metropolitan area instead of the city center, a representative household would consume approximately six extra tanks of fuel per year. More generally, doubling residential Density would result in an annual saving of approximately two tanks per household. However, larger gains would result from better urban Design (job-housing central-ization, improved rail/bus routes to central business districts, reduced pressure for road construction and a less fragmented built environment in urban areas) while improved Diversity (the concentration of various local amenities such as shops and public facilities) can also help lower fuel consumption. Another important finding is that the relationship between the metropolitan population and car emissions in France is bell-shaped, contrary to that in the US, suggesting that small cities do compensate for their lack of Density/Diversity by environmentally-friendly Design.
    Keywords: Sprawl,car emissions,CO 2 footprint,driving,public transport,smart cities
    Date: 2020–05
  24. By: Florin Mihai (Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iași [Romania]); Adrian Grozavu (Université Alexandru Ioan Cuza de Iasi - Faculté de Géographie et Géologie, Département de Géographie)
    Abstract: The exposure of rural communities to illegal waste dumping practices associated with the lack of or poor waste collection schemes prior to the closure of rural dumpsites under EU regulations and the role of collection efficiency afterward in reducing this critical environmental threat constitutes a key issue in rural Romania. The present study reveals huge amounts of household uncollected waste released into the natural environment outside the official statistics of rural dumpsites. Despite the expansion of waste collection coverage towards rural areas since 2010, the problem of illegal dumping practice is difficult to solve. The improvement of collection efficiency, better law enforcement, and surveillance of environmental authorities coupled with educational and environmental awareness are necessary steps to combat this bad practice. A circular economy paradigm must be enacted in rural regions through separate collection schemes and to improve cost-efficient alternatives, such as home composting, and traditional and creative reuse practices, particularly in less developed regions
    Keywords: circular economy,Circular economy CE,recycling,environment,rural area,waste management,pollution
    Date: 2019–12
  25. By: -
    Abstract: O presente trabalho se baseia no estudo de caso sobre a relação da empresa de cosméticos Natura S.A. com o desenvolvimento sustentável da região amazônica, tendo como base a sociobiodiversidade para composição dos produtos da companhia e estruturação de programas que contribuem para o manejo sustentável da floresta em pé. Em 1999, a companhia deu início a um relacionamento com a região amazônica ao lançar a linha Ekos, de produtos com ingredientes de origem vegetal da sociobiodiversidade brasileira. Desde então, a empresa expandiu o uso desses ativos para outras linhas de produtos e mantém relação com mais de 4,6 mil famílias na região pan-amazônica. Este caso busca concluir que, por meio de inovação, é possível pensar em novas formas de organização econômica na região, pautando-se pela promoção de bem-estar social, econômico e ambiental, em linha com a abordagem cepalina do Big Push para a Sustentabilidade.
    Date: 2020–05–26
  26. By: Rutzer, Christian (University of Basel); Niggli, Matthias (University of Basel)
    Abstract: In this paper, we use a data-driven approach to predict the "green potential" of ISCO occupations based on their corresponding skills. With this information, we can investigate the relationship between environmental regulations and occupation-level employment in the manufacturing sector of 19 European countries for the period 1992-2010. Our empirical results highlight heterogeneous occupational employment changes in response to an increase in environmental policy stringency. More specically, we nd a decrease in labor demand for occupations with relatively low green potential and an increase for occupations with relatively high green potential. Thus, at least in the short term, greening the economy may create winners and losers across occupations and countries.
    Keywords: environmental regulation, green transition, labor market, supervised learning
    JEL: J23 J24 Q52
    Date: 2020–06–01
  27. By: Carvalho, Rogério Atem de
    Abstract: O presente capítulo estuda o caso do modelo de ação do Polo de Inovação Campos dos Goytacazes (PICG), do Instituto Federal Fluminense, dedicado à Pesquisa, Desenvolvimento e Inovação e à Extensão Tecnológica e voltado à sustentabilidade com impacto no contexto econômico, social e geográfico de sua área de influência. Com 12 anos de existência, o PICG desenvolve capacidades humanas e competências tecnológicas e inovativas, como por exemplo tecnologias inovadoras para a Produção Mais Limpa junto ao setor produtivo, ao mesmo tempo em que vem construindo uma tradição de colaboração com as comunidades locais e regionais na promoção de iniciativas de educação ambiental e desenvolvimento sustentável. O estudo discute, à luz da abordagem do Big Push para a Sustentabilidade, como é possível coordenar investimentos sustentáveis em inovação ao integrar e articular financiamento público e privado, ação local e nacional, e projetos simples e de alta complexidade, em um modelo que se baseia na sustentabilidade como meio, fim e objetivo permanente a ser atingido.
    Date: 2020–05–26
  28. By: Magri, José Lourival; Cusatis, Mario Wilson
    Abstract: Idealizada como um Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo (MDL), a Unidade de Cogeração Lages (UCLA), localizada na Serra Catarinense e pertencente à ENGIE Brasil Energia, tem a redução de emissões entre seus principais propósitos, desde o início de suas operações, em 2003. Ao utilizar resíduos da indústria madeireira local para gerar energia elétrica e vapor, a Usina deu novo destino a um material com grande potencial de emissão de metano —gás de efeito estufa (GEE) até 25 vezes mais potente que o dióxido de carbono (CO2). Assim, em uma década, a operação da UCLA evitou a emissão de, aproximadamente, 2,5 milhões de toneladas de CO2 equivalentes. Adicionalmente, a Companhia buscou ampliar o impacto positivo do empreendimento, destinando as cinzas de biomassa para uso na agricultura e, em um projeto experimental, na compostagem de rejeitos orgânicos domésticos. Os resultados obtidos confirmam que o investimento em iniciativas de economia circular guarda grande potencial transformador em direção ao desenvolvimento sustentável.
    Date: 2020–05–26
  29. By: Minnich, Aljoscha; Rau, Holger A.; Schlüter, Jan
    Abstract: This paper analyzes in a large-scale field experiment (N = 2,980) the incentive effects of monetary vs. non-monetary incentives on the usage of a sustainable Demand Responsive Transport (DRT) system. Financial incentives were implemented by offering customers vouchers, which were received when they reached a certain threshold of rides with the DRT service (EcoBus). In the non-financial incentive treatment, we applied the same thresholds. In this case, we exploited the sustainable character of the EcoBus and offered environmental certificates which documented the saved level of carbon dioxide because of the bus usage. The data show strong support that financial incentives excellently work to increase the demand for a sustainable transport service. EcoBus rides nearly doubled during the intervention phase. Interestingly, non-financial incentives also have a positive effect on the demand for the bus service. However, the effect is attenuated at the end of the treatment phase. Thus, financial incentives outperform non-financial incentives.
    Keywords: Demand Responsive Transport,Field Experiment,Incentive Effects
    JEL: C93 D12 D83 D91
    Date: 2020
  30. By: Carlsson, Fredrik (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Kataria, Mitesh (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Krupnick, Alan (Resources for the Future,); Elina, Lampi (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Åsa, Löfgren (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Qin, Ping (School of Applied Economics, Renmin University of China); Thomas, Sterner (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Yang, Xiaojun (School of Public Policy and Administration, Xi'an Jiaotong University)
    Abstract: We examine how attitudes and willingness to pay (WTP) for climate policies have changed over the past decade in the United States, China, and Sweden. All three countries exhibit an increased willingness to pay for climate mitigation. Ten years ago, Sweden had a larger fraction of believers in anthropogenic climate change and a higher WTP for mitigation, but today the national averages are more similar. Although we find convergence in public support for climate policy across countries, there is considerable divergence in climate attitudes and preferences within countries, particularly the United States. Political polarization explains part of this divergence.
    Keywords: Climate change; willingness to pay; climate policy attitudes; political polarization; multi-country; China; United States; Sweden
    JEL: Q51 Q54
    Date: 2020–05
  31. By: Hubert Stahn (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper explores the main differences between the Shapley values of a set of taxa introduced by Haake et al. (J Math Biol 56:479–497, 2007. and Fuchs and Jin (J Math Biol 71:1133–1147, 2015., the latter having been found identical to the Fair Proportion index (Redding and Mooers in Conserv Biol 20:1670–1678, 2006. In line with Shapley (in: Kuhn, Tucker (eds) Contributions to to the theory of games, volume II, annals of mathematics studies 28, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1953), we identify the cooperative game basis for each of these two classes of phylogenetic games and use them (i) to construct simple formulas for these two Shapley values and (ii) to compare these different approaches. Using the set of weights of a phylogenetic tree as a parameter space, we then discuss the conditions under which these two values coincide and, if they are not the same, revisit Hartmann's (J Math Biol 67:1163–1170, 2013. convergence result. An example illustrates our main argument. Finally, we compare the species ranking induced by these two values. Considering the Kendall and the Spearman rank correlation coefficient, simulations show that these rankings are strongly correlated. These results are consistent with Wicke and Fischer (J Theor Biol 430:207–214, 2017., who reach similar conclusions with a different simulation method.
    Keywords: Fair Proportion index,Biodiversity,Phylogenetic trees,Shapley value
    Date: 2020–02
  32. By: Mello, Adriana; Soto, Jorge; Viveiro, José Augusto
    Abstract: O objetivo desse estudo é analisar o Polietileno Verde (PE Verde) desenvolvido pela Braskem sob a ótica do Big Push para a Sustentabilidade da CEPAL. A produção de polímeros a partir de fontes renováveis está em estágio embrionário e a Braskem faz sua parte com a introdução no mercado de uma tecnologia de produção de resina usando cana-de-açúcar como matéria-prima. Conforme demonstrado no estudo, o PE Verde é um exemplo de investimento que promove o desenvolvimento sustentável, e seus benefícios estão alinhados com a Agenda 2030. Para seu sucesso foram necessários investimentos tecnológicos, parcerias com fornecedores, clientes e com o governo, sempre considerando os impactos econômicos e socioambientais. Entendemos que a produção de produtos com base em insumos renováveis é o caminho da química do futuro. Além do PE Verde, outros produtos foram desenvolvidos ou estão em desenvolvimento pela Braskem. Essa abordagem pode ter escala ampliada em toda na América Latina se políticas públicas que incentivem a economia de baixo carbono forem fortalecidas.
    Date: 2020–05–26
  33. By: Sharma, Rachit; Hossain, Md Mahbub
    Abstract: One in every two Indian households continues to rely on highly-polluting solid fuels to meet their cooking and other energy demands. Recent evidence demonstrates that people suffering from preconditions associated with air pollution and those with short-term exposures to air pollution are highly susceptible to the novel Coronavirus infection and associated morbidity and mortality. And as for many Indians, especially those with pre-existing health conditions and the elderly, home-based isolation and confinement practices are likely to continue to prevent the infection, exposure to household air pollution may render such population groups more susceptible to COVID-19. This warrants caution and demands immediate and specific actions; which are discussed. To protect the health and wellbeing of millions of Indians, during the COVID-19 crisis and beyond, addressing household air pollution should be prioritized and aligned with long term environmental health initiatives in the country.
    Date: 2020–05–25
  34. By: Raouf Boucekkine (Aix-Marseille University (Aix-Marseille School of Economics), CNRS, EHESS and Ecole Centrale de Marseille, France. Corresponding member, IRES, UCLouvain, Belgium.); Giorgio Fabbri (Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, INRA, Grenoble INP, GAEL); Salvatore Federico (Università degli Studi di Siena, Dipartimento di Economia Politica e Statistica); Fausto Gozzi (Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza, LUISS Guido Carli, Roma)
    Abstract: In this paper, we revisit the theory of spatial externalities. In particular, we depart in several respects from the important literature studying the fundamental pollution free riding problem uncovered in the associated empirical works. First, instead of assuming ad hoc pollution diffusion schemes across space, we consider a realistic spatiotemporal law of motion for air and water pollution (diffusion and advection). Second, we tackle spatiotemporal non-cooperative (and cooperative) differential games. Precisely, we consider a circle partitioned into several states where a local authority decides autonomously about its investment, production and depollution strategies over time knowing that investment/production generates pollution, and pollution is transboundary. The time horizon is infinite. Third, we allow for a rich set of geographic heterogeneities across states while the literature assumes identical states. We solve analytically the induced non-cooperative differential game under decentralization and fully characterize the resulting long-term spatial distributions. We further provide with full exploration of the free riding problem, reflected in the so-called border effects. In particular, net pollution flows diffuse at an increasing rate as we approach the borders, with strong asymmetries under advection, and structural breaks show up at the borders. We also build a formal case in which a larger number of states goes with the exacerbation of pollution externalities. Finally, we explore how geographic discrepancies affect the shape of the border effects.
    Keywords: Spatial externalities, environmental federalism, transboundary pollution, differential games in continuous time and space, infinite dimensional optimal control problems
    JEL: Q53 R12 O13 C72 C61 O44
    Date: 2020–05–07
  35. By: Raouf Boucekkine (Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS, EHESS, Ecole Centrale, AMSE & IMERA, Marseille, France); Giorgio Fabbri (Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, INRA, Grenoble INP, GAEL, 38000 Grenoble); Salvatore Federico (Universita degli Studi di Siena, Dipartimento di Economia Politica e Statistica, Siena, Italy); Fausto Gozzi (Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza, LUISS Guido Carli, Rome, Italy)
    Abstract: In this paper, we revisit the theory of spatial externalities. In particular, we depart in several respects from the important literature studying the fundamental pollution free riding problem uncovered in the associated empirical works. First, instead of assuming ad hoc pollution diffusion schemes across space, we consider a realistic spatiotemporal law of motion for air and water pollution (diffusion and advection). Second, we tackle spatiotemporal non-cooperative (and cooperative) differential games. Precisely, we consider a circle partitioned into several states where a local authority decides autonomously about its investment, production and depollution strategies over time knowing that investment/production generates pollution, and pollution is transboundary. The time horizon is infinite. Third, we allow for a rich set of geographic heterogeneities across states while the literature assumes identical states. We solve analytically the induced non-cooperative differential game under decentralization and fully characterize the resulting long-term spatial distributions. We further provide with full exploration of the free riding problem, reflected in the so-called border effects. In particular, net pollution flows diffuse at an increasing rate as we approach the borders, with strong asymmetries under advection, and structural breaks show up at the borders. We also build a formal case in which a larger number of states goes with the exacerbation of pollution externalities. Finally, we explore how geographic discrepancies affect the shape of the border effects.
    Keywords: spatial externalities, environmental federalism, transboundary pollution, differential games in continuous time and space, infinite dimensional optimal control problems
    JEL: Q53 R12 O13 C72 C61 O44
    Date: 2020–05
  36. By: Aparna Rao (Department of Economics, SOAS University of London); Risa Morimoto (Department of Economics, SOAS University of London)
    Abstract: In economic theory, the agricultural sector plays an undisputed role in growth, development and poverty reduction in a country. The sector is pivotal for a vast majority of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), given the large number of people dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. With the constraints on land expansion and the dual threat of climate change and an ever increasing population, agricultural productivity has become a key matter of concern in agricultural economics. Given this, a vast majority of literature focuses on improving productivity to meet food demand at any cost. A large percentage of it is focused on the use of pesticides, pre-harvest, to eradicate pests and diseases that lead to losses in the produce. As a result, there has been a significant increase in global pesticide usage over the last few years. Using the context of smallholder vegetable production in Ethiopia, this paper aims to highlight that although there is a requirement to increase yields to be able to meet the growing food demand, the focus has to shift towards looking at agricultural productivity through a sustainable lens. This is to say that increasing the use of pesticides to increase productivity, without considering human and environmental health, quality of produce and farmer income, is not enough to ensure sustainability. Rather, there is a requirement to go beyond the yield-based definition of productivity to incorporate agroecological farming practices.
    Keywords: pesticides; smallholders; Ethiopia; yield productivity; agricultural sustainability
    JEL: Q15 Q18
    Date: 2020–05
  37. By: IJACHI IJACHI (Covenant University, Ota); Uwuigbe Uwalomwa (Covenant University, Ota); STEPHEN OJEKA (Covenant University, Ota); OPEYEMI AJETUNMOBI (Covenant University, Ota); SIMON ILOGHO (Covenant University, Ota)
    Abstract: The prime purpose of this research is to understand the relationship between foreign aid and sustainable development in Nigeria, using an environmentally adjusted human development index as a tool to measure sustainable development. Net Official Development Assistance & Official aid received (ODA) was used as a proxy for foreign aid (ODA) while the proxy for sustainable development was the Environmentally Adjusted Human Development Index (EaHDI). The study used secondary sources of data. The researcher employed the use of Spearman's Correlation and Simple Linear regression analysis. The research could not find any statistically significant evidence that foreign aid has contributed significantly to sustainable development in Nigeria, even when corruption is controlled. The researcher recommends the adoption of sustainability reporting by the Nigerian Government, and follow up on donations by foreign aid donors to ensure accountability and transparency in the use of funds.
    Keywords: Foreign Aid, Sustainable Development, Environmentally Adjusted Human Development Index, Nigeria, Official Development Assistance, Environmental Performance Index
    JEL: Q56
    Date: 2020–02
  38. By: Carlos Manuel Faísca
    Abstract: The supply of raw material is probably the most important issue in the cork business due mainly to the preponderance that it presents in the industry's cost structure. In the 19th century, the quality and quantity of cork was an even more important factor than nowadays because, in the absence of the cork agglomerate, only corks with larges calibers and high quality had industrial use. This work analyses, in a comparative perspective between Spain and Portugal, a cultural practice with high repercussion in the forest production of cork, the use of the soil. The main objective is to identify, during the second half of the 19th century, agroforestry practices that may have reduced the cork potential of the Iberian countries, helping to partially explain the different level in which Portugal and Spain cork business were in the 19th century. However, it is concluded, from the analysis of several sources that cover the main Iberian regions with cork oak forests, that on both sides there were harmful actions against the correct development of cork in the trees. Soil mobilization and full weeding of the bushes, for example, often due to cereal crops, led to a decline in soil fertility and of the usability of the land with negative economic and ecological repercussions.
    Keywords: cork oak forest, cork, soil degradation
    JEL: N53 N63 Q23
    Date: 2020–06
  39. By: Pierre M. Picard (CREA, Université du Luxembourg); Thi Thu Huyen Tran (CREA, Université du Luxembourg)
    Abstract: This paper studies the size and location of urban green areas across city spaces. Urban green areas offer amenities that affect residential choices, land consumption and land rent. This paper discusses the socially optimal sizes and locations of urban green areas within a city and their decentralized allocation through land markets. The main result is that the share of land dedicated to urban green areas is a concave function of the distance to the city center. This result is confirmed by the empirical study of urban structures in the 305 largest EU cities. The importance of urban green areas is finally assessed by a counterfactual analysis, where 50% of urban green areas are removed in each city.
    Keywords: Urban green areas, urban spatial structure, land use policy, amenities, optimal locations, public facilities, structural estimation.
    JEL: C61 D61 D62 R14 R53
    Date: 2019
  40. By: Kim De Boeck; Catherine Decouttere; Jónas Oddur Jónasson; nico Vandaele
    Abstract: Immunization is widely recognized as one of the most successful and cost-effective health interventions, preventing two to three million deaths from vaccine-preventable diseases each year. Although progress has been made in recent years, substantial operational challenges persist in resource-limited settings with frequent stock-outs contributing to sub-optimal immunization coverage and inequality in vaccine access. In this paper, we investigate the role of rainy season induced supply chain disruptions on vaccination coverage and inequalities. We develop a modeling framework combining spatial modeling--to predict flood disruptions in road networks--and a discrete-event simulation of a multi-tiered vaccine supply chain (VSC). Our models are fitted and validated using data from the Malagasy VSC network. Our baseline simulation predicts the national vaccination coverage with good accuracy and suggests that 67% of regions with low reported immunization coverage are affected by rainy season disruptions or operational inefficiencies, causing significant geographical inequalities in vaccine access. We investigate various mitigation strategies to increase the resiliency of VSCs and find that by strategically placing buffer inventory at targeted facilities prior to the rainy season the proportion of children receiving all basic vaccines in these areas is increased by 7% and the geographical inequality in vaccination coverage is reduced by 11%. By also increasing the replenishment frequency from every third month to every month, the national vaccination coverage improves by 37%. Our results contribute to achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by providing actionable insights for improving vaccination coverage (SDG 3) and investigating the resiliency of the VSC to increased flooding due to climate change (SDG 13).
    Date: 2020
  41. By: Jacques Fontanel (CESICE - Centre d'études sur la sécurité internationale et les coopérations européennes - UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - Grenoble 2 - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - IEPG - Sciences Po Grenoble - Institut d'études politiques de Grenoble)
    Abstract: Economic and social crises follow one another. On the horizon of this century, the climate crisis is looming. It is both certain, all other things being equal, and impossible, as the effects would be so destructive. We must therefore reason differently and ask ourselves what our children will say when the crisis is effective (enlighten catastrophism). What should have been done? Several structural reforms are proposed, concerning the management of companies, the choice of autonomy, the priority to public goods, the choice of green policies or political structures.
    Abstract: Les crises économiques et sociales se succèdent. A l'horizon, de ce siècle, la crise climatique s'annonce. Elle est à la fois certaine, toutes choses égales par ailleurs, et impossible tant les effets seraient destructeurs. Il faut donc raisonner différemment et se demander ce que nos enfants diront lorsque la crise sera effective (catastrophisme éclairé). Qu'aurait fallu-t-il faire ? Plusieurs réformes structurelles sont proposées, concernant la direction des entreprises, les choix de l'autonomie, la priorité aux biens collectifs, le choix des politiques vertes ou les structures politiques.
    Keywords: enlightened catastrophism.,social inequalities,economic crises,climate crisis,crise économique,crise climatique,inégalités sociales,catastrophisme éclairé.
    Date: 2020–05–25
  42. By: Johannes Sauer (Technical University of Munich); Catherine Moreddu (OECD)
    Abstract: This report contains an empirical analysis of the productivity and sustainability performance of different types of farms in thirteen countries. Farm productivity performance is measured through estimates of average productivity levels and through annual rates of technical change. Evidence on the environmental sustainability of farm groups is based on an index that reflects environmental pressure per hectare and the local environmental sustainability of production practices. In addition to environmental sustainability, the analysis also considers fundamental differences across farms with respect to farm structure, innovation of operations, individual characteristics as well as farm location. Productivity performance by farm classes is related to the environmental sustainability performance and to other farm characteristics in order to shed light on the factors that drive or impede farm performance. Empirically identifying the main conditions for and obstacles to performance improvement supports the development of effective and efficient policies targeting the performance of farms. This analysis contributes in particular to a better understanding of the synergies and trade-offs between productivity and environmental sustainability performance.
    Keywords: agricultural policy, agriculture, drivers of performance, environmental sustainability, farm structure, innovation, productivity, technical change, technology
    JEL: D24 O31 O33 Q12 Q18
    Date: 2020–06–08
  43. By: Florin Mihai (Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iași [Romania]); Corneliu Iatu (Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iași [Romania])
    Keywords: sustainability,Economic development,environment,circular economy,rural tourism,sustainable agriculture,SDGS,rural development
    Date: 2020–02–12
  44. By: Razzak, Weshah
    Abstract: We estimate an unrestricted VAR to summarize the dynamics of the stringency of policy and COVID-19 infections in New Zealand, Australia, Denmark, Sweden, and the U.S. using the newly published Stringency Index by the Blavatnik School of Government at the University of Oxford, Hale et al. (2020). The stringency of the policy responds positively to the number of new infections, and new infection cases respond negatively to the increase in the stringency of the policy. New Zealand and Australia followed slightly different stringent policies, but both managed the pandemic remarkably well. Denmark, Sweden, and the U.S. adopted different policies in terms of stringency and timing. Had Denmark, Sweden, and the U.S. adopted the New Zealand’s stringent policy they could have reduced the number of infection cases significantly, but not as much as in New Zealand because the stringency and timing of policy is endogenous and country-specific.
    Keywords: COVID-19, Stringency Index, VAR, Dynamic Stochastic Projections
    JEL: C53 C9 I10
    Date: 2020–05–17
  45. By: Michel Beine (CREA, Université du Luxembourg); Ilan Noy (Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand); Christopher Parsons (University of Western Australia)
    Abstract: This paper sheds light on the apparent paradox, wherein populations adversely affected by climatic conditions fail to migrate as much as would otherwise be expected. Drawing on Hirschman’s treatise on Exit, Voice and Loyalty, we develop a simple model, which highlights the theoretical case for a substitution effect between voicing and emigration. We subsequently provide causal evidence of voicing representing a new mechanism through which countries adapt to climate change, implementing wage differentials and changes in visa policies at destination as instruments. More intense voicing, as captured by greater numbers of press reports, is associated with lower emigration rates. This substitution effect holds for both internal and international voicing. Our results suggest that restrictions on mobility could result in increasing voicing, both within and between countries.
    Keywords: Emigration, Climate Change, Voicing, Trapped Populations
    JEL: F22 O15 P16
    Date: 2019
  46. By: Peter Sandholt Jensen (University of Southern Denmark); Maja Uhre Pedersen (University of Southern Denmark); Cristina Victoria Radu (University of Southern Denmark); Paul Richard Sharp (University of Southern Denmark, CAGE, CEPR)
    Abstract: Unified Growth Theory postulates a transition from a Malthusian to a post-Malthusian era and finally to modern economic growth. Previous studies have been able to date the end of the post-Malthusian era, but none have conclusively established the timing of the end of the Malthusian era and thus transition to the post-Malthusian era. We consider the case of Denmark, which was characterized by extreme resource and environmental constraints until the final decades of the eighteenth century and thus presents a good candidate for a purely Malthusian society. We employ a cointegrated VAR model on Danish data from ca. 1733-1800, finding that evidence for diminishing returns, which characterize the “pure” Malthusian era, disappears after 1775, consistent with an increasing pace of technological progress.
    Keywords: Cointegration, Denmark, Malthusian, post-Malthusian
    JEL: J1 N33 O4
    Date: 2020–04
  47. By: Alex Dickson (Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde); Iain A Mackenzie (School of Economics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 4072.)
    Abstract: This article investigates the cost effectiveness of cap-and-trade markets in the presence of both political and market distortions. We create a model where dominant firms have the ability to rent seek for a share of pollution permits as well as influence the market equilibrium with their choice of permit exchange because of market power. We derive the subgame-perfect equilibrium and show the interaction of these two distortions has consequences for the resulting allocative efficiency of the market. We find that if the dominant rent-seeking firms are all permit buyers (or a composition of buyers and sellers) then allocative efficiency is improved relative to the case without rent seeking; by contrast, if the dominant rent-seeking firms are all permit ellers then allocative efficiency reduces.
    Keywords: pollution market, market power, rent-seeking.
    JEL: E65 G12 G18 P16
    Date: 2020–01
  48. By: Amenta, Nina; Sanguinetti, Angela
    Abstract: This policy brief summarizes findings and policy implications from a study in which researchers at the University of California, Davis, surveyed over 450 UC Davis faculty, researchers, and staff, and asked them to choose among hypothetical flight options for domestic and international university-related business trips. The hypothetical flight options were developed using actual data on UC Davis employee air travel and available flights. The survey prominently presented emissions estimates for different flight alternatives alongside price, with the lowest-emissions option labeled “greenest flight”. Researchers then estimated the effect that changing the current UC Davis flight-search interface to prominently display emissions, label the greenest flight choice, and present an alternative departure airport could have on the emissions and costs of business-related air travel. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, Air travel, Airlines, Carbon dioxide, Computer reservation systems, Consumer behavior, Pollutants, Reservations, Travel behavior
    Date: 2020–05–01
  49. By: Fabian St\"ockl; Wolf-Peter Schill; Alexander Zerrahn
    Abstract: Green hydrogen can decarbonize transportation, but also help to integrate variable renewable energy sources if its production is sufficiently flexible in time. Using an open-source co-optimization model of the power sector and four supply chains for hydrogen at filling stations, we find a trade-off between energy efficiency and temporal flexibility: for lower shares of renewables and hydrogen, more energy-efficient decentralized electrolysis is optimal. For higher shares of renewables and/or hydrogen, more flexible centralized hydrogen supply chains gain importance as they allow disentangling hydrogen production from demand via storage. Liquid hydrogen emerges as particularly beneficial, followed by liquid organic hydrogen carriers and gaseous hydrogen. Centralized hydrogen supply chains can deliver substantial power sector co-benefits, mainly through reduced renewable surplus generation. Energy modelers and system planners should consider the flexibility characteristics of hydrogen supply chains in more detail when assessing the role of green hydrogen in future energy transition scenarios.
    Date: 2020–04
  50. By: Ek, Claes (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Söderberg, Magnus (Department of Sociology, Environmental and Business Economics, University of Southern Denmark)
    Abstract: Reduced waste generation is a prioritized environmental policy objective in the EU as well as worldwide. We perform a randomized controlled trial in Sweden with school children aged 10-16 to evaluate an intervention designed to reduce household waste, Environmental Education Programs (EEP). Crucially, we are able to examine the causal effect of a wastethemed EEP on the actual waste generated in households where a child was treated. This is done by coupling the addresses of participating students with high-resolution address-level panel data on collected waste amounts, supplied by municipal waste authorities. Our design allows identifcation of the differential effect of the EEP on waste generation in treated versus control households. We fnd no signifcant evidence that the intervention had any effect on waste generation. There is also no indication that this null result is due to interference between treated and control students.
    Keywords: Field experiments; Environmental Education Programs; household waste; intergenerational learning
    JEL: D13 I21 Q53
    Date: 2020–02
  51. By: Moreira, Eliane Oliveira; Wivaldo, Jucilaine Neves Sousa
    Abstract: Este estudo apresenta alguns processos iniciais da construção da Associação de Catadores e Materiais Recicláveis (ACAMAR), localizada no município de Lavras em Minas Gerais. Houve uma construção conjunta da comunidade local com a Fundação Pró-Defesa Ambiental para superar problemas ambientais, sociais e econômicos. Por meio de técnicas participativas e projetos, partindo da horta comunitária, foram realizados espaços de diálogo de onde emergiu a estruturação da atividade de coleta de materiais recicláveis, juntamente com a ACAMAR. Observa-se que o processo de desenvolvimento da ACAMAR e as ações introduzidas permitiram que a associação fosse capaz de remunerar e emancipar os sujeitos, os quais possuem a força de trabalho como grande potencial de investimento. Práticas extensionistas dialógicas podem ser promotoras de grandes impulsos ao desenvolvimento. Considera-se que soluções ao Big Push para a Sustentabilidade podem surgir das demandas sociais locais e ser construídas por diferentes atores, como as organizações sociais, setor público e universidades, que atuando com e para a sociedade podem causar transbordamentos.
    Date: 2020–05–26
  52. By: Hayk Manucharyan (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw)
    Abstract: Increasing public awareness of environmental protection has caused the emergence of green supply chain management in recent years. As firms tend to outsource a significant part of their activities, the importance of supplier selection increases from a competitive standpoint. While most studies of supplier selection have introduced methods based on economic criteria, the number of studies that incorporate environmental issues is rather limited. In this paper, a methodology is proposed to address the green supplier evaluation and selection issue by first identifying the appropriate criteria and then developing a model for their measurement in the evaluation process. The authors apply fuzzy set theory to deal with the subjectivity of supplier selection decision-making and capture the linguistic terms used for human assessments. A rule-based fuzzy inference system is developed to evaluate suppliers based on ten environmental criteria and eventually select the best-performing supplier. The dynamic nature of the model allows the decision-makers to manipulate the importance of different supplier attributes and constructed rules, based on individual preferences. An illustrative example is also presented to show the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed methodology.
    Keywords: supplier evaluation, supplier selection, supply chain economics, uncertainty, fuzzy logic, fuzzy inference system
    JEL: C44 D81 D91
    Date: 2020
  53. By: Luisito Bertinelli (CREA, Université du Luxembourg); Stéphane Poncin (CREA, Université du Luxembourg); Benteng Zou (CREA, Université du Luxembourg)
    Abstract: Rare earth elements govern today’s high-tech world and are deemed to be essential for the attainment of sustainable development goals. Since the 1990s, these elements have been predominantly supplied by one single actor, China. However, due to the increasing global relevance of their availability, other countries are now encouraged to enter the market. The objective of this paper is to analyze the strategic interactions among (potential) suppliers. In particular, we are interested in (1) the optimal timing for a newcomer (e. g. the U.S.) to enter the market, (2) the incumbent’s (i. e. China’s) optimal behavior, and (3) the cost-efficiency of cooperative vs. competitive market relations. By setting up a continuous-time dynamic game model, we show that (1) the newcomer should postpone the production launch until its rare earth reserves coincide with those of the incumbent, (2) the incumbent should strive for a late market entry and therefore keep its monopolistic resource extraction at the lowest possible level, (3) compared to the payoffs under competition, cooperation leads to a Pareto improvement when started at an early stage. The findings of our model are particularly relevant for the rational strategic positioning of the two great powers, America and China.
    Keywords: rare earth elements, dynamic games, open-loop strategic Nash equilibria.
    JEL: C61 C7 Q3
    Date: 2019
  54. By: Olivier Damette (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UL - Université de Lorraine - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg); Stéphane Goutte (Cemotev - Centre d'études sur la mondialisation, les conflits, les territoires et les vulnérabilités - UVSQ - Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines)
    Abstract: Faced with the global pandemic of Covid-19, we need to better understand the links between meteorological factors, air quality and the virus. In the vein of a recent empirical literature, we reassess the impact of weather factors like temperatures, humidity and air quality indicators on Covid-19 daily cases in China both for Wuhan and Beijing. Using a consistent number of observations (104), we compute, for the first time, correlations but also Granger causality and above all, a spectral analysis using Wavelet methods. Our results go further previous studies and reveal the complexity of the studied relationships when both time and frequency domains are taken into account. Wavelet analysis enables us to go further usual correlations analysis. Though negative humidity impact on Covid-19 cases was expected to be relatively clear regarding previous literature based on correlations, we do not find evidence of such a result. The controversial effect of warmer temperatures on the Covid-19, often difficult to identify or sometimes identified as surprisingly positive, can negatively emerge via Wavelet analysis for some periods only. This result is however clear-cut for the Hubei Province but for the Beijing one. Finally, our results reveal a bi-directional causality between air quality and the number of infected people. Short-run causality from Covid-19 to air quality (better induced air quality) via lockdown policies disappear in a medium-run and turns to become a significant causal link from induced air quality improvement to Covid-19 daily cases (reduction of infected people).
    Date: 2020–05–27
  55. By: Dmitri V. Vinogradov; Elena V. Shadrina
    Abstract: Incentives are usually designed to promote desirable behaviour. In many instances, however, even in the absence of an incentive scheme, people may deliberately choose to act as desired. In such a case, introducing a system of incentives may discourage people from doing this. The discouragement mechanism works through the possibility of errors that may wrongly classify the observed behaviour as undesirable, and hence trigger penalties. The effect is amplified by pessimism, which leads to an overestimation of the error probability, and by the disappointment from errors, which increases the disutility of unfair penalties. This approach is capable of explaining two typical observations for enterprises/industries subject to environmental regulation – overcompliance (excessive investment in compliance) and discretionary inspections by regulators (raised frequency of inspections to enterprises suspected of non-compliance).
    Keywords: pro-environmental behaviour, incentives, pessimism, environmental protection, compliance, overcompliance
    JEL: Q01 D86 D03
    Date: 2018–12
  56. By: Francis Mensah Asenso-Boadi; Godwin K. Vondolia (Research Associate, National Health Insurance AuthorityNHIA, PMB, Ministries Post Office, Accra, Ghan)
    Abstract: Access to clean drinking water is not only a fundamental human right, but also claims a big stake in economic growth, poverty reduction and sustainable development. With an increase in population, rapid urbanization and increasing income levels, the demand for water outstrips public water supply in developing countries. As a result, private water production has been promoted in developing countries to achieve greater efficiency and expansion in order to supplement public water supply. This study used the contin-gent valuation method to survey households in three cities in Ghana to estimate their willingness to pay in a bid to evaluate a policy of better water supply for urban areas in Ghana. It was found that more than 80% of the respondents favour some form of private sector engagement in water quality improvement. Also, the mean willingness to pay for water quality improvement is about GH¢13.42 (US$12) per month. Given the mean household monthly water bill of GH¢10.82, these results indicate that there is demand for water quality improvement and the general view is that private sector engagement is likely to provide these services. However, the same policy measure will marginalize the poor in terms of access to water. Therefore, private sector participation in water de-livery, with a corresponding complementary government programme to promote access to water among low income households, would deliver the double dividends of water quality and universal access, which characterize the debate on private sector engage-ment in water provision in Ghana.
  57. By: Olivier Damette (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UL - Université de Lorraine - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg); Stéphane Goutte (Cemotev - Centre d'études sur la mondialisation, les conflits, les territoires et les vulnérabilités - UVSQ - Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines)
    Abstract: We investigate, for the first time, the empirical drivers of the Covid-19 crosscountry mortality rates at a macroeconomic level. The intensity of the pandemic (number of infected people), the demographic structure (proportion of people age 65 or above) and the openness degree (number of tourists arrivals) seem to be significant predictors in addition to health infrastructures (number of hospital beds, physicians). We also find that the subprime crisis and the austerity policies conducted in certain countries, by reducing the public health expenditures in the last ten years and altering the adaptation capacity of the health system, have probably intensified the tragic consequences of the Covid-19 pandemic. Pollution seems to have only played a marginal role as well as control strategies (travel restrictions, testing policy). We do not find consistent effects against the Covid-19 virus due to past exposal to other types of epidemics like Malaria or Tuberculosis.
    Keywords: Covid-19 pandemic,fatalities,macroeconomic drivers,health infrastructure,health spending,Covid-19 control strategies,pollution,immunity,austerity policies
    Date: 2020–05–26
  58. By: Olga Bilyk; Anson T. Y. Ho; Mikael Khan; Geneviève Vallée
    Abstract: COVID-19 presents challenges for indebted households. We assess these by drawing parallels between pandemics and natural disasters. Taking into account the financial health of the household sector when the pandemic began, we run model simulations to illustrate how payment deferrals and the labour market recovery will affect mortgage defaults.
    Keywords: Climate change; Credit and credit aggregates; Econometric and statistical methods; Financial stability; Fiscal policy; Housing; Recent economic and financial developments; Sectoral balance sheet
    JEL: C2 C21 D1 D12 D14 E2 E24 E27 E6 E62 G2 G21 G28 R2
    Date: 2020–06
  59. By: David Popp; Jacquelyn Pless; Ivan Haščič; Nick Johnstone
    Abstract: Historically, innovation in the energy sector proceeded slowly and entrepreneurial start-up firms played a relatively minor role. We argue that this may be changing. Energy markets are going through a period of profound structural change. The rise of hydrofracturing lowered fossil fuel prices so much that natural gas is now the primary fuel for electricity generation in the US. Renewable energy technologies also experienced significant cost and performance improvements. However, integrating intermittent resources creates additional grid management challenges, requiring further innovation. This chapter documents the evolving roles of innovation and entrepreneurship in the energy sector. First, we provide an overview of the energy industry, highlighting that many new energy technologies are smaller, modular, and increasingly rely on innovation in other fast-moving high-tech sectors. We then conduct two descriptive data analyses that document a sharp decline in both clean energy patenting and start-up activity from about 2010 onwards. We discuss potential explanations and provide some evidence that while innovation in existing technologies may simply have been successful, continued innovation will be needed in enabling technologies that are more likely to depend on progress in other sectors.
    JEL: O31 Q4 Q42 Q55
    Date: 2020–05
  60. By: Li, Zhongju; Hu, Ruifa; Zhang, Chao; Xiong, Yankun; Chen, Kevin
    Abstract: Using survey data from 242 pesticide retailers, this study attempts to uncover how pesticide retailers in China make recommendations to farmers and identify influencing factors on those recommendations. Our data include a total of 586 recommendations to farmers about pesticide use from the 242 retailers. The study finds that, among approximate one quarter of the recommendations, the recommended types of pesticides cannot control the insects and diseases that affect farmers’ crops. Retailers typically recommend pesticide overuse more than appropriate use or underuse of pesticides. The Probit estimation results illustrates that government inspection, years in doing business, and information from government agricultural extension institutions are positively associated with the likelihood of retailers recommending the correct use of pesticide, while participation in technology training organized by pesticide firms reduces the likelihood of retailers recommending the correct use of pesticides. Furthermore, there is a positive association between having relatives who are pesticide retailers and the likelihood of retailers making recommendations of pesticide underuse, while there are negative associations between both being registered with the authorities and years in doing business with the likelihood of retailers making recommendations of pesticide overuse. Retailers in township seats and villages tend to recommend wrong pesticide types and excessive amounts of pesticides to farmers. Policy implications of the findings are then discussed.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management
    Date: 2020–07
  61. By: Magaji Abba (Faculty of Management Sciences, A.T.B.U. Bauchi); Muhammad Auwal Kabir (Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, Bauchi State University, Gadau); Abdulkadir Abubakar (Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, Bauchi State University, Gadau)
    Abstract: The paper examined the relationship between environmental disclosure and cost of capital structure financing of the Nigerian listed companies. This is due to a concern about the environmental behaviour of the companies that result in stakeholders? interest in environmental disclosure. Though the disclosure is voluntary (to a certain extent) its inadequacy creates information asymmetric and risk that affect the cost of capital structure financing. The study was on listed Nigerian companies whose activities have an environmental repercussion. Where the data was gathered from content analysis of the companies? annual reports. A regression analysis based on the pool, 2SLS and 3SLS were made to improve the robustness of the results. It provides evidence in support of companies? stakeholders? engagement through disclosure to manage the cost of capital structure financing. The disclosure level effect on the cost of capital structure will help curtailed negative environmental activities of the companies. However, the sample size is small due to the limited number of publically listed companies in the Nigerian. Additionally, the data is cross-sectional which may not be stable over time and across industries level. Recommend for further study that will look into financial stakeholders? perception about the environmental disclosure and its value relevance in financing decision.
    Keywords: Environmental Disclosure; Information Asymmetric; Disclosure Quality; Cost of Capital Structure Financing; Nigerian Listed Companies
    JEL: M41 Q56 E22
    Date: 2020–02
  62. By: Schleich, Joachim; Lehmann, Sascha; Cludius, Johanna; Abrell, Jan; Betz, Regina Annette; Pinkse, Jonatan
    Date: 2020
  63. By: Bastos, Cairo Guilherme Milhomem; Valle, Fernando Esteban do; Brito, Tatiana Ribeiro Souza
    Abstract: O presente estudo consiste em análise sobre um conjunto de três esforços que objetivaram criar condições para o desenvolvimento social em três comunidades indígenas, a saber, as aldeias Flecheira, Beija-Flor e Morada Nova, situadas na Terra Indígena Kanamari do Rio Juruá, Sudoeste Amazônico. O estudo foi realizado tendo como marco a abordagem do Big Push para a Sustentabilidade desenvolvida pela CEPAL. Existe neste exemplo a comunhão de iniciativas do poder público federal, estadual e municipal, do terceiro setor e a ação endógena da comunidade Flecheira de atrair investimentos e buscar uma via de autodesenvolvimento. Os saberes e tradições indígenas, a valorização do papel da mulher e o foco no indivíduo são levantados como pontos essenciais para se pensar em soluções de desenvolvimento sustentável adaptadas ao contexto amazônico.
    Date: 2020–05–26
  64. By: M. Keith Chen; Yilin Zhuo; Malena de la Fuente; Ryne Rohla; Elisa F. Long
    Abstract: Accurately estimating the effectiveness of stay-at-home orders (SHOs) on reducing social contact and disease spread is crucial for mitigating pandemics. Leveraging individual-level location data for 10 million smartphones, we observe that by April 30th---when nine in ten Americans were under a SHO---daily movement had fallen 70% from pre-COVID levels. One-quarter of this decline is causally attributable to SHOs, with wide demographic differences in compliance, most notably by political affiliation. Likely Trump voters reduce movement by 9% following a local SHO, compared to a 21% reduction among their Clinton-voting neighbors, who face similar exposure risks and identical government orders. Linking social distancing behavior with an epidemic model, we estimate that reductions in movement have causally reduced SARS-CoV-2 transmission rates by 49%.
    Date: 2020–05
  65. By: Eloi Laurent (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques)
    Abstract: La première partie de cet article propose quatre approches des systèmes urbains et tente de caractériser les enjeux de soutenabilité qui s'y rattachent. La deuxième partie s'attache à mettre en lumière l'enjeu des inégalités environnementales des systèmes urbains ainsi caractérisés, à la croisée de la justice spatiale et environnementale. La troisième partie reprend les quatre approches définies à la première partie pour montrer, au sujet du cas français, comment prendre la mesure des inégalités environnementales urbaines définies à la deuxième partie.
    Keywords: Systèmes urbains; Inégalités environnementales; Pollutions
    Date: 2020–01
  66. By: Eloi Laurent (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques)
    Abstract: L’article propose une introduction au numéro spécial de la Revue de l’OFCE « Écologie et inégalités » en présentant les différents âges de l’économie de l’environnement, le défaut d’intérêt de la discipline économique contemporaine pour les enjeux environnementaux et les étapes de ce que serait une transition juste.
    Keywords: Économie de l’environnement; Économie écologique; Transition juste
    Date: 2020–01
  67. By: Dilger, Alexander
    Abstract: Naturwissenschaftliche Fragen rund um den Klimawandel sind von Naturwissenschaftlern zu beantworten. Ökonomen und Wirtschaftsethiker können jedoch dazu beitragen, den Klimawandel und mögliche Gegenmaßnahmen zu bewerten. Dabei ist ein einheitlicher Preis für die Emission von Treibhausgasen zu empfehlen. Es gibt ein globales Kollektivgutproblem, welches sich am ehesten durch die Vereinbarung einer Zertifikatslösung überwinden lässt. Außerdem sollten die Forschung und Entwicklung gefördert werden.
    JEL: A11 A12 D61 D70 D81 F64 H23 H41 H87 P18 Q40 Q51 Q54 Q55 Q58
    Date: 2020
  68. By: Kristin Ranestad (Lund University); Paul Richard Sharp (University of Southern Denmark, CAGE, CEPR)
    Abstract: Natural resources, especially energy resources, are often considered vital to the process of economic development, with the availability of coal considered central for the nineteenth century. Clearly, however, although coal might have spurred economic development, development might also have spurred the discovery and use of coal. To shed light on this, we suggest that the case of resource poor Denmark, which spent centuries looking for coal, is illuminating. Specifically, we emphasize that the process of looking for coal and the creation of a natural resource industry in itself is important beyond the obvious dichotomy of haves and have-nots. We seek to understand this process and find that prices proved an important stimulus to coal surveys.
    Keywords: Coal, Denmark, natural resources, mining
    JEL: N55
    Date: 2020–05
  69. By: Rob Dellink (OECD)
    Abstract: This report investigates the effects of a resource efficiency and circular economy (RE-CE) transition on international trade flows, using the OECD’s ENV-Linkages model. A global RE-CE policy package will cause secondary materials to become cheaper, while primary materials become more expensive to produce. By 2040, primary non-ferrous metals are projected to decline by 35-50%, primary iron & steel by 15% and primary non-metallic minerals by around 10%. Regional shifts in production and trade-related effects (shifts in the regional sourcing of the primary materials by the materials processing sectors) account for roughly one-third of the total reduction in materials use. The other two thirds of materials use reduction come from scale effects (reduced economic activity) and efficiency effects (reduced materials use per unit of output of the processed commodities).
    Keywords: circular economy, general equilibrium model, resource efficiency, trade and environment
    JEL: C68 F18 O14 Q53 O44
    Date: 2020–06–12
  70. By: Domingue, Benjamin; Trejo, Sam; Armstrong-Carter, Emma; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M. (University of Texas at Austin)
    Abstract: Interest in the study of gene-environment interaction has recently grown due to the sudden availability of molecular genetic data—in particular, polygenic scores—in many long-running cohort studies. Identifying and estimating statistical interactions comes with several analytic and inferential challenges; these challenges are heightened when used to integrate observational genomic and social science data. We articulate some of these key challenges, provide new perspectives on the study of gene-environment interactions, and finally offer some practical guidance for conducting research in this area. Given the sudden availability of well-powered polygenic scores, we anticipate a substantial increase in research testing for interaction between such scores and environments. The issues we discuss, if not properly addressed, may impact the enduring scientific value of gene-environment interaction studies.
    Date: 2020–05–26
  71. By: Catherine Decouttere; Kim De Boeck; Nico Vandaele
    Abstract: Immunization directly impacts health (SDG3) and brings a contribution to 14 out of the 17 SDGs, such as ending poverty, reducing hunger, and increasing equity. Therefore, immunization is recognized to play a central role in reaching the SDGs, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, the immunization-related indicators for SDG3 lag behind in sub-Saharan Africa, despite continuous interventions to strengthen immunization systems and to adequately respond with emergency immunization during epidemics. The current performance on the connected SDGs is both a cause and a result of this. We conduct a literature review to construct a cross-sectoral system map of driving mechanisms behind infectious disease threats from both a Public Health and a Planetary Health perspective, and we position these drivers against the SDGs. Challenges for sustainable control of vaccine-preventable diseases are identified, and model-based approaches that support SDG-promoting interventions concerning immunization systems are analyzed in the light of the strategic priorities of the Immunization Agenda 2030. It can be concluded that relevant future research in humanitarian operations requires (i) design for system resilience,(ii) transdisciplinary modeling,(iii) connecting interventions in immunization with SDG outcomes, (iv) designing interventions and their implementation simultaneously, (v) offering tailored solutions, and (vi) model coordination of services and partnerships. The operations management community is called upon to activate existing knowledge and generate new insights and decision-supporting tools for LMIC health authorities and communities to leverage immunization in its transformational role toward successfully meeting the SDGs in 2030.
    Keywords: Immunization, Sustainable Development Goals, Low- and middle- income countries, Systems Thinking
    Date: 2020
  72. By: Kavita Surana; Anuraag Singh; Ambuj D Sagar
    Abstract: Policymakers in developing countries increasingly see science, technology, and innovation (STI) as an avenue for meeting sustainable development goals (SDGs), with STI-based startups as a key part of these efforts. Market failures call for government interventions in supporting STI for SDGs and publicly-funded incubators can potentially fulfil this role. Using the specific case of India, we examine how publicly-funded incubators could contribute to strengthening STI-based entrepreneurship. India's STI policy and its links to societal goals span multiple decades -- but since 2015 these goals became formally organized around the SDGs. We examine why STI-based incubators were created under different policy priorities before 2015, the role of public agencies in implementing these policies, and how some incubators were particularly effective in addressing the societal challenges that can now be mapped to SDGs. We find that effective incubation for supporting STI-based entrepreneurship to meet societal goals extended beyond traditional incubation activities. For STI-based incubators to be effective, policymakers must strengthen the 'incubation system'. This involves incorporating targeted SDGs in specific incubator goals, promoting coordination between existing incubator programs, developing a performance monitoring system, and finally, extending extensive capacity building at multiple levels including for incubator managers and for broader STI in the country.
    Date: 2020–05
  73. By: Mahdi FAWAZ
    Abstract: Les travaux consacrés à l’effet des ressources naturelles sur les guerres civiles montrent généralement l’existence d’une relation positive entre ces deux variables. Ces études sont pour la plupart centrées sur la région de l’Afrique. Le rôle des ressources naturelles dans les guerres civiles au Moyen-Orient a été peu étudié. Or, cette région occupe le rôle de premier producteur de pétrole au Monde. Dans cet article, nous nous intéressons au déclenchement de guerre civile. Nous montrons que les ressources naturelles exercent un effet négatif sur le déclenchement de guerre civile au Moyen-Orient. L’importante manne financière générée par les États rentiers permet d’investir dans la capacité militaire et « forcer » ainsi la paix.
    Keywords: Guerres civiles; ressources naturelles; coûts d'opportunités du conflit; Moyen-Orient
    JEL: C33 D74 O13 Q34 Q35
    Date: 2020
  74. By: Nelo Magalhães (LADYSS - Laboratoire Dynamiques Sociales et Recomposition des Espaces - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - UP8 - Université Paris 8 Vincennes-Saint-Denis - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - UPD7 - Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Date: 2020–02–06
  75. By: Noël Bonneuil (EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales, INED - Institut national d'études démographiques); Raouf Boucekkine (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IUF - Institut Universitaire de France - M.E.N.E.S.R. - Ministère de l'Education nationale, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche)
    Abstract: Does drawing economic benefit from nature impinge on conservation? This has been a subject of controversy in the literature. The article presents a management method to overcome this possible dilemma, and reconcile conservation biology with economics. It is based on recent advances in the mathematical theory of dynamic systems under viability constraints. In the case of a one-locus two-allele plant coexisting with a one-locus two-allele parasite, the method provides a rule for deciding when and to what extent the resistant or the susceptible strain should be cultivated, in the uncertain time-varying presence of the parasite. This is useful for preventing the fixation of the susceptible allele - and thereby limiting the plant's vulnerability in the medium term, should the parasite reappear. The method thus provides an aid to decision for economic and ecology-friendly profitability.
    Keywords: Genetic resistance,C-viability,Sustainability,Genetic diversity,Genetic distance
    Date: 2020–03–01

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