nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2020‒04‒27
forty-four papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Recycling under environmental, climate and resource constraints By Gilles Lafforgue; Etienne Lorang
  2. Recycling under environmental, climate and resource constraints By Gilles Lafforgue; Etienne Lorang
  3. Cost of CO2 Emission Mitigation and its Decomposition: Evidence from Coal-fired Thermal Power Sector in India By Surender Kumar; Rakesh Kumar Jain
  4. How to make the European Green Deal work By Grégory Claeys; Simone Tagliapietra; Georg Zachmann
  5. The Role of CETA on Carbon Dioxide, F-Gasses, Methane, and Nitrous Oxide By Qirjo, Dhimitri; Pascalau, Razvan; Krichevskiy, Dmitriy
  6. Low-carbon options for the French power sector: What role for renewables, nuclear energy and carbon capture and storage? By Behrang Shirizadeh; Philippe Quirion
  7. Environmental taxation: Pigouvian or Leviathan? By Isabelle Cadoret; Emma Galli; Fabio Padovano
  8. Application of Operational Research in Sustainable Environmental Management and Climate Change By Mishra, Mukesh Kumar
  9. The criticality of growth, urbanization, electricity and fossil fuel consumption to environment sustainability in Africa By Simplice A. Asongu; Mary Oluwatoyin Agboola; Andrew Adewale Alola; Festus Victor Bekun
  10. Exiting the fossil world: The effects of fuel taxation in the UK By Lucas Bretschger; Elise Grieg
  11. Temperature, climate change, and human conception rates: Evidence from Hungary By Tamás Hajdu; Gábor Hajdu
  12. Groundwater Management Lessons from Chile By Guillermo Donoso; Elisabeth Lictevout; Jean-Daniel Rinaudo
  13. Servicios ecosistémicos y estrategias de conservación a nivel local By Andrés Vargas Pérez; David Díaz Florián; Juanita Aldana-Domínguez
  14. Stated Willingness to Pay for Residential Renewable Electricity and Green Jobs in Aguascalientes, Mexico By Martinez-Cruz, Adan L.; Nuñez, Hector
  15. A Regime Switching Analysis of the Income-Pollution Path with time Varying- Elasticities in a Heterogeneous Panel of Countries By Amos, Sanday; Zoundi, Zakaria
  16. Stated benefits from urban afforestation in an arid city: A contingent valuation in Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico By Muñoz-Pizza, Dalia M.; Villada-Canela, Mariana; Rivera-Castañeda, Patricia; Reyna-Carranza, Marco A.; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Martínez-Cruz, Adan L.
  17. Confronting climate change: Adaptation vs. migration strategies in Small Island Developing States By Lesly Cassin; Paolo Melindi-Ghidi; Fabien Prieur
  18. Changing from Unrestricted Access to Sustainable Abstraction Management Regimes: Lessons Learnt from France and Australia By Jean-Daniel Rinaudo; Steve Barnett; Cameron Holley
  19. Best Management Practices and Nutrient Reduction: An Integrated Economic-Hydrologic Model of the Western Lake Erie Basin By Hongxing Liu; Wendong Zhang; Elena Irwin; Jeffery Kast; Noel Aloysius; Jay Martin; Margaret Kalcic
  20. Determinants of the marginal willingness to pay for improved domestic water and irrigation in partially electrified Rwandan villages By Simon Meunier; Dale T. Manning; Loic Queval; Judith A. Cherni; Philippe Dessante; Daniel Zimmerle
  21. Utilizing Highway Rest Areas for Electric Vehicle Charging: Economics and Impacts on Renewable Energy Penetration in California By Kiani, Behdad; Ogden, Joan; Sheldon, F. Alex; Cordano, Lauren
  22. Can blockchain technology reduce the cost of remittances? By Friederike Rühmann; Sai Aashirvad Konda; Paul Horrocks; Nina Taka
  23. Contingent Valuation in Community-Based Project Planning: The Case of Lake Bamendjim Fishery Restocking in Cameroon By Fonta William M.; Hyacinth E. Ichoku; Emmanuel Nwosu
  24. The redistributive effects of carbon taxation in France By Thomas Douenne
  25. Office Visits Preventing Emergency Room Visits: Evidence from the Flint Water Switch By Danagoulian, Shooshan; Grossman, Daniel; Slusky, David
  26. Groundwater policy in France: from private to collective management By Jean-Daniel Rinaudo
  27. The Butte Fire: A Case Study in Using LIDAR Measures of Pre-Fire Vegetation to Estimate Structure Loss Rates By Schmidt, James
  28. State, market or community failure? Untangling the determinants of groundwater depletion in Copiapó (Chile) By Jean-Daniel Rinaudo; Guillermo Donoso
  29. Análisis de cointegración entre el crecimiento económico y deterioro medio ambiental: un análisis empírico del desarrollo sostenible de América Latina y el Caribe By Victor Xavier Quinde Rosales; Gabriela Vaca Pinela; Francisco Quinde Rosales; Lourdes Lazo Vaca
  30. Mujeres y energía By -
  31. Zu den Verbraucherpreiseffekten des Klimapakets By Fiedler, Salomon
  32. Pesticide Use, Health Impairments and Economic Losses Under Rational Farmers Behavior By Konstantinos Chatzimichael; Margarita Genius; Vangelis Tzouvelekas
  33. Calidad bacteriológica del agua para consumo humano y enfermedad diarreica aguda en el Distrito de Rázuri. Provincia de Ascope. La Libertad - Perú By Jorge Wilmer Elías Silupu; Carlor Alexander Avalos Luis; Jessica Medrano Obando
  34. Competitividad de los recursos turísticos: una propuesta de indicadores para su medición en la región caribe colombiana By Tatiana Margarita Mercado Covo; Andrés Viloria Sequeda; Laritsa Mercado Covo
  35. Efecto de la Utilización de Agregados de Concreto Reciclado sobre el Ambiente y la Construcción de Viviendas en la Ciudad de Huamachuco By Jorge Wilmer Elías Silupu; Jorge Enrique Flores Franco; Ramon Enrique Barrera Gutiérrez; Cesar Alberto Reyna Pary
  36. Oiling up the field. Forced internal displacement and the expansion of palm oil in Colombia By Jaime Millán-Quijano, Sebastián Pulgarín
  37. The Coronavirus Shock Looks More like a Natural Disaster than a Cyclical Downturn By Jason Bram; Richard Deitz
  38. Implantation d'un établissement culturel et innovations d'un écosystème territorial à orientation touristique : le cas du Louvre-Lens By Aude Ducroquet; Pierre Louart
  39. Alternatives au glyphosate en arboriculture. Evaluation économique des pratiques de désherbage By Florence Jacquet; Nathalie Delame; Alizee Thoueille; Xavier Reboud; Christian Huyghe; Sylvie Colleu; Stéphanie Drusch
  40. Factores explicativos de la generación de residuos municipales en Catalunya By Lorena Olmos
  41. Analyzing Differences between Scenarios By David F. Hendry; Felix Pretis
  42. Public flood risk mitigation and the homeowner's insurance demand response By Stefan Borsky; Hannah B. Hennighausen
  43. Diversification Economies in Water and Sewerage Industry By Tomohiro Kitamura
  44. Les effets redistributifs de la fiscalité carbone en France By Thomas Douenne

  1. By: Gilles Lafforgue (Toulouse Business School); Etienne Lorang (BETA-INRAE and Climate Economics Chair)
    Abstract: We study the recycling opportunity of an industrial sector constrained by climate, resource and waste capacities. A final good is produced from virgin and recycled materials, and its consumption releases both waste and GHG emissions. We identify the optimal trajectories of resources use, mainly depending on the emission rates of each resource and on the relative scarcity of their stocks. Recycling is sometimes an opportunity to reduce the impact of consumption on primary resources and waste but can still affect the environment. We characterize the optimal recycling strategy and we show that, in some cases, the time pace of the recycling rate is inverted U-shaped. Last, we discuss the policy implications of our model by identifying and analyzing the set of optimal tax-subsidy schemes.
    Keywords: Recycling, Resource extraction, Waste, GHG emissions
    JEL: Q32 Q53 Q54
    Date: 2020–04
  2. By: Gilles Lafforgue; Etienne Lorang
    Abstract: We study the recycling opportunity of an industrial sector constrained by climate, resource and waste capacities. A final good is produced from virgin and recycled materials, and its consumption releases both waste and GHG emissions. We identify the optimal trajectories of resources use, mainly depending on the emission rates of each resource and on the relative scarcity of their stocks. Recycling is sometimes an opportunity to reduce the impact of consumption on primary resources and waste but can still affect the environment. We characterize the optimal recycling strategy and we show that, in some cases, the time pace of the recycling rate is inverted U-shaped. Last, we discuss the policy implications of our model by identifying and analyzing the set of optimal tax-subsidy schemes.
    Keywords: Recycling, Waste, GHG emissions, Resource extraction
    JEL: Q32 Q53 Q54
    Date: 2020
  3. By: Surender Kumar (Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics); Rakesh Kumar Jain (Indian Railways, New Delhi, India)
    Abstract: We estimate Carbon Mitigation Cost (CMC), and the factors determining change in CMC using environmental production function. The CMC index is defined as the ratio of maximum production of electricity under unregulated and regulated production technology. Change in CMC index is decomposed into technical change, scale change and change in the level of CO2 emissions. The production function is estimated for 45 coal-fired thermal power plants over the period of 2008 – 2012 using Data Envelopment Analysis. Decomposition of CMC change reveals that impacts of changes in scale of operation and CO2 emissions were more than the reduced costs realized due to technical changes. We find that the sample plants in Indian coal-fired thermal power sector had to sacrifice about 3.5 percent of electricity production amounting to 2005US$ 1702 million of revenue loss over the 5 years due to regulation of CO2 emissions.
    JEL: C61 D24 Q22 Q54
    Date: 2020–03
  4. By: Grégory Claeys; Simone Tagliapietra; Georg Zachmann
    Abstract: European Commission president-designate Ursula von der Leyen has made climate change a top priority, promising to propose a European Green Deal that would make Europe climate neutral by 2050. The European Green Deal should be conceived as a reallocation mechanism, fostering investment shifts and labour substitution in key economic sectors, while supporting the most vulnerable segments of society throughout the decarbonisation process. The deal’s four pillars would be carbon pricing,...
    Date: 2019–11
  5. By: Qirjo, Dhimitri; Pascalau, Razvan; Krichevskiy, Dmitriy
    Abstract: This study empirically investigates how the presence of CETA (Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement) may affect per capita emissions of four air pollutants. It follows closely the empirical work of (Qirjo et al., 2019), but it focuses in each category of GHGs. It finds statistically significant evidence suggesting that trade openness between the EU and Canada could help reduce per capita emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O in a typical CETA member, respectively. In the case of CO2, the presence of CETA may help reduce per capita emissions in almost all CETA members. However, there is empirical evidence that suggests that per capita emissions of CH4 could move from the EU towards Canada due to the implementation of CETA. There is also empirical evidence implying that there could be a shift of emissions per capita of N2O from Canada towards 8 former EU members due to the implementation of CETA. There is mainly statistically insignificant evidence of a positive relationship between the trade intensity of each EU member and Canada and per capita emissions of HFCs/PFCs/SF6. Furthermore, the study reports unambiguous empirical evidence in support of the Pollution Haven Hypothesis originating from national population density variations (PHH2) for Canada, in the case of CH4. Moreover, there is also clear evidence consistent with the Pollution Haven Hypothesis due to national income differences (PHH1) for 8 former Communist EU members, in the cases of N2O and HFCs/PFCs/SF6.
    Keywords: Free Trade, Environmental Economics, CETA.
    JEL: F11 F53 Q27 Q53 Q56
    Date: 2020–04–14
  6. By: Behrang Shirizadeh (CIRED / TOTAL S.A.); Philippe Quirion (CIRED)
    Abstract: In the wake of the Paris agreement, France has set a zero net greenhouse gas emission target by 2050. This target can only be achieved by rapidly decreasing the share of fossil fuels and accelerating the deployment of low-carbon technologies. We develop a detailed model of the power sector to investigate the role of different low emission and negative emission technologies in the French electricity mix and we identify the impact of the relative cost of these technologies for various values of the social cost of carbon (SCC). We show that for a wide range of SCC values (from 0 to 500€/tCO2), the optimal power mix consists of roughly 75% of renewable power. For a SCC value of 100€/tCO2, the power sector becomes nearly carbon neutral while for 200€/tCO2 and more, it provides negative emissions. The availability of negative emission technologies can decrease the system cost by up to 18% and can create up to 20MtCO2/year of negative emissions, while the availability of new nuclear is much less important. This study demonstrates the importance of an effective SCC value (as a tax for positive emissions and remuneration for negative emissions) to reach carbon neutrality for moderate costs. Negative emissions may represent an important carbon market which can attract investments if supported by public policies.
    Keywords: Power system modelling, Variable renewables, Negative emissions, Social cost of carbon, Nuclear energy
    JEL: Q47 Q48 H23 Q21
    Date: 2020–04
  7. By: Isabelle Cadoret (CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Emma Galli (Università degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza" [Rome]); Fabio Padovano (CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper empirically examines which type of fiscal levies are environmental taxes, by analyzing how governments actually use them. The theoretical literature is polarized between two alternative interpretations of environmental taxes: the Pigouvian and the Leviathan hypotheses, each leading to alternative testable hypotheses. We test them on a sample where the analysts' discretionary evaluations are minimal, the EU-28 countries that committed themselves to correcting a negative environmental externality, the greenhouse gas emissions, by 2020. The estimates lend support to the strict Pigouvian hypothesis, while the Leviathan hypothesis appears less consistent with the data.
    Keywords: Arellano–Bond GMM,GHG reduction,Leviathan government,Pigouvian taxation,Environmental taxes
    Date: 2020
  8. By: Mishra, Mukesh Kumar
    Abstract: Today, the impact of OR can be felt in many areas. A large number of management firms are currently engaged in OR activities. The principles of operational research (OR) and related mathematical methods have been applied to environmental issues for the long times. However, the increasing pressures experienced by industry over the last decade, pertaining to sustainable development performances, have renewed interests and intensified the potential application of OR techniques in environmental management. Capacity decisions establish a set of conditions within which operations will be required to function. Hence, it is extremely important to include input from operations management people in making capacity decisions. There is need to develop a balance between modernization and sustainability. Sustainability refers to service and production processes that use resources in ways that do not harm ecological systems that support both current and future human existence. Sustainability measures often go beyond traditional environmental and economic measures to include measures that incorporate social criteria in decision making. Because they all fall within the realm of operations, operations management is central to dealing with these issues. The need for effective optimisation methods that incorporate concepts of efficient resource use and environmental concern is becoming more and more urgent as the environmental situation deteriorates. This paper focus on the possibilities of incorporating Operational Researchers with environmental issues and the importance of OR models and techniques in environmental management.
    Keywords: Operation Research,Sustainable Development
    Date: 2020
  9. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaounde, Cameroon); Mary Oluwatoyin Agboola (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia); Andrew Adewale Alola (Istanbul Gelisim University, Istanbul, Turkey); Festus Victor Bekun (Istanbul Gelisim University, Istanbul, Turkey)
    Abstract: While most African economies are primarily sandwiched with the seemingly unsurmountable task of attaining consistent economic growth and unhindered energy supply, the enormous threat posed by environmental degradation has further complicated the economic and environmental sustainability drive. In this context, the present study examines the effect of economic growth, urbanization, electricity consumption, fossil fuel energy consumption, and total natural resources rent on pollutant emissions in Africa over the period 1980-2014. By employing selected African countries, the current study relies on the Kao and Pedroni cointegration tests to cointegration analysis, the Pesaran’s Panel Pooled Mean Group-Autoregressive distributive lag methodology (ARDL-PMG) for long run regression while Dumitrescu and Hurlin (2012) is employed for the detection of causality direction among the outlined variables. The study traces long run equilibrium relationships b-etween examined indicators. The ARDL-PMG results suggest a statistical positive relationship between pollutant emissions and urbanization, electricity consumption and non-renewable energy consumption. Dumitrescu and Hurlin (2012) Granger causality test lends support to the long-run regression results. Bi-directional causality is observed between pollutant emissions, electricity consumption, economic growth and pollutant emissions while a unidirectional causality is apparent between total natural resources rent and pollutant emissions. Based on these results, several policy implications for the African continent were suggested. (a) The need for a paradigm shift from fossil fuel sources to renewables is encouraged in the region (b) The need to embrace carbon storage and capturing techniques to decouple pollutant emissions from economic growth on the continent’s growth trajectory. Further policy insights are elucidated.
    Keywords: non- renewable energy consumption; electricity consumption; economic growth; panel econometrics; Africa
    JEL: C32 Q40
    Date: 2019–01
  10. By: Lucas Bretschger (Center of Economic Research (CER-ETH), ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Elise Grieg (Center of Economic Research (CER-ETH), ETH Zurich, Switzerland)
    Abstract: Carbon taxes remain economists favoured policy tool to curb emissions, but are unpopular among segments of the populations. Theoretical and numerical work tends to show the effectiveness of carbon taxes, but ex-post empirical analyses are still rare. In this paper we attempt to bridge this gap. We construct a theoretical general equilibrium model with dirty and clean transportation to show the static and dynamic effects of a fuel tax on transportation and consumption by deriving closed-form solutions. We take the predictions of the model to data on the UK Fuel Tax Escalator, and estimate the impact of the tax on CO2 emissions, GDP, and transport behaviour. With a potential control pool of OECD countries, we use the synthetic control method to estimate the difference between the observed outcome in the UK and a synthetic counterfactual UK. We find that the tax has a large and significant impact on CO2 emissions from trafic, while there is no discernable impact on GDP or growth. We do not find large changes in driving behaviours, but the available evidence points to a possible switch to rail travel from road travel.
    Keywords: fuel tax, synthetic control method, climate policy, transport, level and growth effects
    JEL: Q43 O47 Q56 O41
    Date: 2020–04
  11. By: Tamás Hajdu (Centre for Economic and Regional Studies Sciences); Gábor Hajdu (Institute for Sociology, Centre for Social Sciences)
    Abstract: In this paper, we examine the relationship between temperature and human conception rates and project the impacts of climate change by the mid-twenty-first century. Using complete administrative data on 6.8 million pregnancies between 1980 and 2015 in Hungary, we show that exposure to hot temperatures reduces the conception rate in the first few weeks following the exposure, but a partial rebound is observed after that. Absent adaptation, climate change is projected to increase seasonal differences in conception rates, and a decline is expected in terms of annual conception rates. This latter decline is driven by a change in the number of induced abortions and spontaneous fetal losses. The overall number of live births is unaffected. However, some newborns may experience non-negligible consequences because of the altering in utero temperature exposure due to a shift in the timing of conception.
    Keywords: conception rate; fertility; temperature; weather; climate change
    JEL: J13 Q54
    Date: 2020–04
  12. By: Guillermo Donoso (UC - Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile); Elisabeth Lictevout (HSM - Hydrosciences Montpellier - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - UM2 - Université Montpellier 2 - Sciences et Techniques - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Jean-Daniel Rinaudo (BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM))
    Abstract: Groundwater has increasingly become a water supply source in Chile. In the future this trend is expected to grow as a consequence of the increased water use due to economic growth, together with population growth, urbanization, water contamination and pollution, as well as the projected climate change impacts. The Water Code of 1981, as well as previous water codes, were in essence designed for surface water and, thus, contained only few references to groundwater. This regulatory absence has been covered with groundwater guidelines established through internal administrative acts. As it stands, the legal and institutional context considers the required instruments and mechanisms to balance growing demand and the need to protect and preserve groundwater resources. This chapter investigates whether this framework has been effective to ensure that groundwater is managed sustainably, through the analysis of two cases located in an arid region of northern Chile: the Copiapó Valley and the Pampa del Tamarugal Aquifer.
    Keywords: Chile 522,groundwater communities,collective groundwater management,groundwater management,Groundwater governance
    Date: 2020–03–17
  13. By: Andrés Vargas Pérez; David Díaz Florián; Juanita Aldana-Domínguez
    Abstract: El reconocimiento de la importancia de la biodiversidad y los ecosistemas para el bienestar humano ha derivado en un apoyo creciente al diseño de políticas y acciones de conservación basadas en la caracterización y valoración económica de los servicios ecosistémicos. Se espera de esta manera avanzar en la conservación al tiempo que se garantiza el suministro de servicios del ecosistema prioritarios para el bienestar, lo que a su vez derivaría en una menor tensión entre las oportunidades y necesidades de conservación y los imperativos del desarrollo a nivel local. Sin embargo, es difícil alcanzar simultáneamente estos objetivos debido a los múltiples trade-offs entre los diferentes servicios del ecosistema, así como entre los servicios del ecosistema y la biodiversidad. Así, por ejemplo, la conservación de paisajes multifuncionales que aseguren la provisión de servicios del ecosistema para el bienestar humano no garantiza necesariamente la conservación de especies o ecosistemas amenazados poco representados. En este sentido, una planificación de la conservación construida a partir de la identificación de los servicios del ecosistema valorados por las poblaciones asentadas en un territorio particular no coincide automáticamente con prioridades de conservación identificadas a través de métricas convencionales como nivel de amenaza o representatividad. ¿Cómo maximizar entonces las sinergias entre la biodiversidad y los servicios del ecosistema en la planeación de la conservación? A partir de una investigación realizada en una zona rural de la Costa Caribe, este trabajo contribuye a la discusión a través del estudio de los servicios ecosistémicos del bosque seco tropical y de las estrategias para conservarlo. Se analiza el papel que una política tipo pagos por servicios ambientales (PSA) puede desempeñar en esta situación.
    Keywords: servicios ecosistémicos, conservación, bosque seco tropical, valoración.
    Date: 2019–07–19
  14. By: Martinez-Cruz, Adan L. (CERE - the Center for Environmental and Resource Economics); Nuñez, Hector (Centro de Investigacion y Docencia Economicas (CIDE), Aguascalientes, Mexico)
    Abstract: Via a discrete choice experiment, this paper documents that residential electricity consumers in Aguascalientes, Mexico, are willing to pay a premium for renewable energies as well as for the creation of green jobs. These results are particularly timely because the current Federal administration has redirected priorities from an energy transition that was expected to boost renewable energies to the pursuing of energy sovereignty. Concerns regarding this prioritization have been raised by national and international stakeholders due to its potential economic ineffciency and its implications for the achievement of climate change goals. These concerns have only intensied as discussions begin on how Mexico should face the post-coronavirus recession. This paper's findings open the door to discuss whether a combination of a just energy transition together with the boosting of renewable energies should be part of a strategy to reach energy sovereignty at the same time that Mexico deals with a post-coronavirus world.
    Keywords: Residential renewable electricity demand; just energy transition; post-coronavirus policy; energy sovereignty; Mexico; discrete choice experiment
    JEL: Q42 Q48 Q51
    Date: 2020–04–15
  15. By: Amos, Sanday; Zoundi, Zakaria
    Abstract: We analyze the threshold effects of income changes on CO2 emissions in a large sample of 95 countries, over the period 1980-2017. Our estimation uses a Panel Smooth Transition Regression (PSTR) and controls for urbanization, energy consumption and population. Results of the point estimates show that income-pollution relation is captured by three continuums of regimes, and smooth transitions from one regime to another. In the first transition, the income-pollution elasticity is positive, meaning that a rise in income leads to more pollution. In the second transition, the coefficient tends to zero and is insignificant. This second transition represents an intermediate stage matching with the peak of EKC U-inverted curve, where the rise in income does not necessarily lead to more pollution. The third transition corresponds to the highest living standard and is characterized by a negative parameter. Any additional income leads to lesser pollution. For low-income countries, the turning point occurs at 1017$, for middle income at 1890$ and for high income at 12397$. These suggestive values, estimated inside the model, rather than pre-determined provide evidence that low and middle-income countries will not reach developed countries’ living standards to have their depollution at a sustainable level. Also, there is neither a single income threshold nor income-pollution path through which all countries should go through. Besides, developed countries’ income-pollution path appears to be more stable and resilient to external shocks as opposed to low- and middle-income countries. The major undermining factor for the atmosphere among the control variables is primary energy consumption. The impact of primary energy consumption remains high at all stages, with an average impact rate on CO2 emissions of 0.65% for any additional consumption. Population growth has a more positive impact on CO2, on average, than urbanization.
    Keywords: Energy consumption, GDP Growth, Panel Smooth Transition
    JEL: C13 C50 F63 O44
    Date: 2019–11
  16. By: Muñoz-Pizza, Dalia M. (Oceanographic Research Institute. Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Baja California, México); Villada-Canela, Mariana (Oceanographic Research Institute. Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Baja California, México); Rivera-Castañeda, Patricia (Department of Urban and Environmental Studies, El Colegio de la Frontera Norte, Baja California, México); Reyna-Carranza, Marco A. (Oceanographic Research Institute. Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Baja California, México); Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro (Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada); Martínez-Cruz, Adan L. (CERE - the Center for Environmental and Resource Economics)
    Abstract: The pervasiveness of particulate matter in arid cities has yet to be discussed and tackled. Given that urban trees have been documented to provide air-filtering and dry deposition services, this study documents the stated benefits from an urban afforestation scenario in Mexicali –an arid city located northwest Mexico at the US-Mexico border. Our double-bounded dichotomous contingent valuation protocol yields an estimated average annual willingness to pay (WTP) of USD 88 per household. Variations in the WTP are associated with perception of air quality and presence of respiratory symptoms in the respondent’s household. The smallest WTP (USD 75) is reported by respondents perceiving poor air quality in their neighborhood and with no household members affected by respiratory symptoms. In contrast, respondents perceiving good air quality and with at least one household member facing respiratory symptoms reported a WTP of USD 99. The average stated benefits represent around 0.8% of the annual household income.
    Keywords: Air quality; PM10; urban afforestation; contingent valuation; arid cities; Mexicali.
    JEL: Q51 Q53 Q58 Q59
    Date: 2020–04–16
  17. By: Lesly Cassin (EconomiX, University Paris Nanterre); Paolo Melindi-Ghidi (EconomiX, University Paris Nanterre); Fabien Prieur (CEE-M, University of Montpellier)
    Abstract: This paper examines the optimal adaptation policy of Small Island Developing States (SIDS) to cope with climate change. We build a dynamic optimization problem to incorporate the following ingredients: (i) local production uses labor and natural capital, which is degraded as a result of climate change; (ii) governments have two main policy options: control migration and/or conventional adaptation measures ; (iii) migration decisions drive changes in the population size; (iv) expatriates send remittances back home. We show that the optimal policy depends on the interplay between the two policy instruments that can be either complements or substitutes depending on the individual characteristics and initial conditions. Using a numerical analysis based on the calibration of the model for different SIDS, we identify that only large islands use the two tools from the beginning, while for the smaller countries, there is a substitution between migration and conventional adaption at the initial period.
    Keywords: Small Island Developing States, Climate change, Adaptation, Migration, Natural capital
    JEL: Q54 Q56 F22
    Date: 2020–04
  18. By: Jean-Daniel Rinaudo (BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM)); Steve Barnett (Government of South Australia); Cameron Holley (UNSW - University of New South Wales [Sydney])
    Abstract: This concluding chapter compares the important features of the groundwater policy and management approaches that have been implemented in France and Aus-tralia and draws lessons that may be relevant to other countries who are implementing groundwater management regimes. To support the comparison, the chapter looks at six main stages of the policy development process: 1) political awareness raising; 2) increasing the groundwater knowledge base; 3) defining and allocating water use rights; 4) defining sustainability objectives and setting extraction limits; 5) returning over allocated and overused groundwater systems to sustainable levels of extraction; and 6) enforcement policies.
    Keywords: political awareness raising,groundwater knowledge base,water use rights,allocation,extraction limts,enforcement
    Date: 2020–03–17
  19. By: Hongxing Liu; Wendong Zhang (Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD)); Elena Irwin; Jeffery Kast; Noel Aloysius; Jay Martin; Margaret Kalcic
    Abstract: We develop the first spatially integrated economic-hydrological model of the western Lake Erie basin explicitly linking economic models of farmers' field-level Best Management Practice (BMP) adoption choices with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to evaluate nutrient management policy cost-effectiveness. We quantify tradeoffs among phosphorus reduction policies and find that a hybrid policy coupling a fertilizer tax with cost-share payments for subsurface placement is the most cost-effective, and when implemented with a 200% tax can achieve the stated policy goal of 40% reduction in nutrient loadings. We also find economic adoption models alone can overstate the potential for BMPs to reduce nutrient loadings by ignoring biophysical complexities.
    Date: 2020–04
  20. By: Simon Meunier (GeePs - Laboratoire Génie électrique et électronique de Paris - UP11 - Université Paris-Sud - Paris 11 - CentraleSupélec - SU - Sorbonne Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Dale T. Manning (CSU - Colorado State University [Fort Collins]); Loic Queval (GeePs - Laboratoire Génie électrique et électronique de Paris - UP11 - Université Paris-Sud - Paris 11 - CentraleSupélec - SU - Sorbonne Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Judith A. Cherni (Imperial College London); Philippe Dessante (GeePs - Laboratoire Génie électrique et électronique de Paris - UP11 - Université Paris-Sud - Paris 11 - CentraleSupélec - SU - Sorbonne Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Daniel Zimmerle (CSU - Colorado State University [Fort Collins])
    Abstract: Access to water for domestic and irrigation uses remains limited across Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in rural areas. While the technical feasibility of implementing innovative technologies to improve water supply has been often evaluated, less is known about the drivers that motivate users to pay for obtaining the inherent benefits of improved water supply. In this article, the determinants of the marginal willingness to pay (mWTP) for improved domestic and irrigation water are investigated. For this purpose, a contingent valuation study is performed in rural Rwanda. This study uses survey data from 316 households situated in 8 villages, in which ~20 % of the households receive electricity thanks to microgrids powered by solar energy. It is found that the mWTP for improved domestic water supply is influenced by the proportion of children in the household, business ownership, and satisfaction with water quantity and quality. The mWTP for irrigation is determined by respondent education, business ownership and crop area planted. This paper contributes to the literature by allowing a comparison of the determinants of the mWTP for improved domestic water supply to the determinants of the mWTP for irrigation. Another contribution is to examine the mWTP for improved water infrastructure in partially electrified villages. Identifying areas with high marginal benefits from water can guide infrastructure investment and electrification efforts while improving well-being and increasing revenues in rural areas.
    Keywords: Rwanda,Willingness to pay,Domestic water,Irrigation,Electricity access,Contingent valuation
    Date: 2019
  21. By: Kiani, Behdad; Ogden, Joan; Sheldon, F. Alex; Cordano, Lauren
    Abstract: California policy is incentivizing rapid adoption of zero emission electric vehicles for light-duty and freight applications. This project explored how locating charging facilities at California’s highway rest stops might impact electricity demand, grid operation, and integration of renewables like solar and wind into California’s energy mix. Assuming a growing population of electric vehicles to meet state goals, state-wide growth of electricity demand was estimated, and the most attractive rest stop locations for siting chargers identified. Using a California-specific electricity dispatch model developed at UC Davis, the project estimated how charging vehicles at these stations would impact renewable energy curtailment in California. It estimated the impacts of charging infrastructures on California’s electricity system and how they can be utilized to decrease the duck curve effect resulting from a large amount of solar energy penetration by 2050. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Engineering, Highway Rest Areas, Electric Vehicle Charging, Energy System, Renewable Energy, Long-distance Travel
    Date: 2020–04–01
  22. By: Friederike Rühmann; Sai Aashirvad Konda; Paul Horrocks; Nina Taka
    Abstract: The achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) demands unprecedented resources and efforts. Remittances as one of the largest development finance flows are an important source of income for millions of households in developing countries and offer tremendous potential to contribute towards the achievement of Agenda 2030. However, the high cost of sending remittances limits their full potential. The global average cost of sending USD 200 is 6.9% of the remittance. SDG 10 C aims to reduce the cost to less than 3% and to eliminate remittance corridors with cost higher than 5% by 2030. Blockchain technology promises to disintermediate banks, transform the financial landscape and drastically reduce the cost of cross-border transactions, yet there is a need for further evidence on this topic.The OECD Development Co-operation Directorate (DCD) has developed this paper to provide an overview of diverse perspectives on the intersection of blockchain technology and remittances by exploring the opportunities and challenges of this technology for reducing the cost of remittances. The paper identifies several limitations, such as data privacy risks, regulatory uncertainty and last-mile delivery, among others, while investigating whether blockchain technology is the solution to reduce the cost of remittances.
    JEL: F24 E58 O19
    Date: 2020–04–21
  23. By: Fonta William M.; Hyacinth E. Ichoku; Emmanuel Nwosu (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.)
  24. By: Thomas Douenne (PSE - Paris School of Economics, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IPP - Institut des politiques publiques)
    Abstract: Although widely endorsed by economists, carbon tax is struggling to establish itself on the agendas of public decision-makers. One of the reasons for its slow development is the fear that it might generate major redistributive effects, and in particular discriminate against the lowest-income households. This policy brief presents the findings of an ex ante assessment of the redistributive effects on households of the environmental taxation reforms in France in 2018. Carbon tax is intrinsically regressive, but it generates additional revenue. By transferring this revenue neutrally to all households, a progressive reform would be obtained. However, even in such a situation, the reform would generate considerable redistributive effects within the income groups. Such horizontal transfers, which are more difficult to correct, suggest that other tools are necessary for reducing the impact of the reform on the most vulnerable. Looking to the long term, it appears essential to invest in improving the energy performance of housing and of transport. Such policies meet not only environmental requirements, but also the need to reduce the vulnerability of the lowest-income households to future energy price rises.
    Date: 2018–07
  25. By: Danagoulian, Shooshan (Wayne State University, Detroit); Grossman, Daniel (West Virginia University); Slusky, David (University of Kansas)
    Abstract: Emergency department visits are costly to providers and to patients. We use the Flint water crisis to test if an increase in office visits reduced avoidable emergency room visits. In September 2015, the city of Flint issued a lead advisory to its residents, alerting them of increased lead levels in their drinking water, resulting from the switch in water source from Lake Huron to the Flint River. Using Medicaid claims for 2013-2016, we find that this information shock increased the share of enrollees who had lead tests performed by 1.7 percentage points. Additionally, it increased office visits immediately following the information shock and led to a reduction of 4.9 preventable, non-emergent, and primary-care-treatable emergency room visits per 1000 eligible children (8.2%). This decrease is present in shifts from emergency room visits to office visits across several common conditions. Our analysis suggest that children were more likely to receive care from the same clinic following lead tests and that establishing care reduced the likelihood parents would take their children to emergency rooms for conditions treatable in an office setting. Our results are potentially applicable to any situation in which individuals are induced to seek more care in an office visit setting.
    Keywords: environmental regulation, lead, medicaid, emergency care
    JEL: H75 I12 I18 J13 Q53 Q58
    Date: 2020–03
  26. By: Jean-Daniel Rinaudo (BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM))
    Abstract: According to French Civil Code, groundwater is considered as a private property. However, after this resource started to be intensively exploited by industries in the 1850's, the State increasingly regulated its use. In 1935, a system of individual access and withdrawal rights, managed by the State, was established to protect deep confined aquifers which were showing signs of overexploitation. This system of use right was later on extended to unconfined shallow aquifers with the 1992 water law, mainly to protect the environment. A new management approach, based on individual volumetric entitlements, was then developed and tested in several French groundwater basins, subsequently obtaining a legal basis in the early 2000's. The 2006 water law constitutes a clear break in French water policy. The system of individual volumetric entitlements managed by the State was cancelled and users asked to form Water Users' Associations at the catchment level. Associations became the recipients of pooled water use entitlements, which they lust, share among their members using rules agreed collectively. Although this reform only applies to the agricultural sector, its represents a clear shift from a private to a common property regime.
    Keywords: water trading,users' associations,allocation policy,private property,common property
    Date: 2020–03–17
  27. By: Schmidt, James
    Abstract: The Butte Fire occurred in the northern Sierra Nevada foothills of California in September, 2015, resulting in the loss of two lives and an estimated 1,565 structures in 70,000 acres (28,000 ha.) burned. This study evaluates the utility of vegetation measures derived from pre-fire LIDAR data in predicting structure loss for the Butte Fire. Additional explanatory variables such as elevation, topography, structure density, and structure access are also examined to determine their impact on structure loss rates. Loss estimates based on LIDAR-derived vegetation measures are compared to estimates derived from infrared aerial imagery to evaluate the relative effectiveness of using LIDAR for this purpose. LIDAR-derived vegetation density in the 50-foot (15 m.) zone around each structure was found to be the most significant variable associated with structure loss. Elevation was the second most statistically significant predictor of structure loss. On average, a 10% increase in vegetation density in the 50-foot (15 m.) zone around each structure led to an estimated 10.2% increase in structure loss. A 1000 foot (300 m.) rise in elevation was associated with a 15% increase in structure loss. Topographic variables such as slope, aspect, and topographic position did not appear to have an important effect on structure losses. Measures of structure density and structure access also were not statistically significant predictors of structure loss rates. Vegetation cover derived from infrared aerial imagery proved nearly as accurate as LIDAR-derived vegetation density in estimating the probability of structure loss.
    Keywords: wildfire, forest fire, structure loss probability, vegetation, LIDAR, California, MODIS, wildland urban intermix, Sierra Nevada, risk assessment, defensible space
    JEL: Q00 Q56
    Date: 2020–04–10
  28. By: Jean-Daniel Rinaudo (BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM)); Guillermo Donoso (UC - Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the factors that explain why groundwater can be over-exploited despite the existence of sophisticated water laws, institutions and effective state agencies responsible for water management. The analysis is based on a case study conducted in the Copiapó Valley in Northern Chile. Based on an analysis of water use data, policy documents and interviews with a variety of stakeholders, the paper highlights the state's failure to perform some of its key missions and the ineffectiveness of groundwater users' associations in water management despite a very supportive legal framework. The paper concludes with some recommendations on how ensure long-term sustainable groundwater use.
    Keywords: Chile,collective management,governance,groundwater depletion,water policy
    Date: 2019
  29. By: Victor Xavier Quinde Rosales; Gabriela Vaca Pinela; Francisco Quinde Rosales; Lourdes Lazo Vaca
    Abstract: El presente artículo es de carácter investigativo con razonamiento inductivo y paradigma empírico-analítico, evalúa la relación existente entre el Producto Interno Bruto Per Cápita – PIB per cápita y el dióxido de carbono – CO2 en los grupos de países de América Latina y el Caribe considerados como en vías de desarrollo con un periodo de análisis de 1960 a 2011, se utilizó la prueba de raíz unitaria Dickey-Fuller Aumentada – DFA, se generó un modelo de vectores autorregresivos – VAR, se realizó la prueba de causalidad de Granger y se desarrolló la prueba de cointegración de Johansen. Los resultados demuestran la no estacionariedad de las variables en estudio, se obtuvo un modelo VAR de dos variables con un número de rezagos óptimo de catorce – VAR2(14) a lo cual se le realizo la prueba de causalidad demostrando una bidireccionalidad por parte del PIB per cápita al CO2 y viceversa, y se corroboró dicho resultado estableciendo que las variables se mueven conjuntamente a lo largo del tiempo y las diferencias entre ellas son estables, existiendo al menos un vector o relación de cointegración.
    Keywords: Crecimiento económico, Desarrollo económico, Distribución de la renta, Economía del medio ambiente, Evaluación de los efectos en el medioambiente
    Date: 2019–12–30
  30. By: -
    Abstract: En septiembre de 2015, los gobiernos del mundo acordaron la Agenda 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible, dentro de la que se incluye un objetivo de igualdad de género, mismo que es necesario para el cumplimiento de los otros 16 Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible y sus 169 metas. En la región, las mujeres destinan una gran parte de su tiempo al trabajo no remunerado, más concretamente a quehaceres domésticos, recolección de leña y agua, sobre todo en áreas rurales, y al cuidado de los hijos, adultos mayores, enfermos y personas con discapacidad. Esto implica que las mujeres dispongan de menos tiempo para realizar actividades económicas remuneradas. Los estereotipos y los roles socialmente asignados a hombres y a mujeres están directamente vinculados con el acceso y uso que cada uno de los géneros le da a la energía. Para el sector energético se identifican dos dimensiones necesidades básicas, por una parte, y participación económica, por otra. En la primera, la recolección de leña recae principalmente en la mujer Para la segunda, existe baja participación de las niñas y mujeres en ciencia, tecnología, ingeniería y matemáticas (STEM, por sus siglas en inglés), al igual que en el sector energético profesional, debido principalmente a temas de índole sociocultural, así como la falta de modelos femeninos a seguir, y la enseñanza que aún está impregnada de estereotipos. La formación de grupos de mujeres tanto para la dimensión de necesidades básicas como de participación económica y académica ha ido en aumento en los últimos años. Este trabajo resume algunas iniciativas de las mujeres para formar asociaciones, cooperativas y redes, entre otros, con el fin de apoyarse mutuamente e incentivar que más mujeres se unan para incrementar su bienestar y desarrollo.
    Date: 2020–04–13
  31. By: Fiedler, Salomon
    Abstract: Nach der Einigung im Vermittlungsausschuss beschlossen Bundestag und Bundesrat im Dezember 2019 das sogenannte Klimapaket, welches eine Reihe von Maßnahmen umfasst, die den CO2-Ausstoß in Deutschland reduzieren sollen. Im Folgenden soll abgeschätzt werden, wie stark die Konsumentenpreise - gemessen am Verbraucherpreisindex (VPI) - durch dieses Paket steigen werden.
    Date: 2020
  32. By: Konstantinos Chatzimichael; Margarita Genius (Department of Economics, University of Crete, Greece); Vangelis Tzouvelekas (Department of Economics, University of Crete, Greece)
    Abstract: The present paper develops a novel methodology for measuring the economic losses resulting from the negative health impacts of pesticides while taking into account their role as a damage control agent. To this effect a production model is presented that takes into account both the effect of the health impairment caused by pesticides on labor units and the pest control and crop enhancing properties of pesticides.
    Keywords: chemical pesticides; farmer's health; economic losses; greenhouse farms
    JEL: I12 I30 Q12 D24
    Date: 2020–04–08
  33. By: Jorge Wilmer Elías Silupu (Universidad Nacional de Trujillo); Carlor Alexander Avalos Luis (Universidad Nacional de Trujillo); Jessica Medrano Obando (Universidad Nacional de Trujillo)
    Abstract: El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la calidad bacteriológica del agua para consumo humano y la enfermedad diarreica aguda, en el Distrito de Rázuri. Provincia de Ascope. Departamento de La Libertad – Perú. Según el tipo de investigación es aplicada y cuantitativa. Método: prospectivo, estadístico, interpretativo, documental y valorativo. Con un diseño cuasi experimental con corte longitudinal. Las tomas de muestra de agua fueron colectadas de 14 localidades en 03 puntos de muestreo: en pozo, en reservorio y red pública; y los análisis microbiológicos de agua fueron evaluados por el laboratorio de la Oficina de Salud Ambiental de la Sub Gerencia de la Promoción de la Gestión Territorial – GERESA / LL. Para la determinación de enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA) los datos se tomaron del registro de consultas médicas del Centro de Salud de Rázuri – MINSA y software de registro médico – Puesto de Salud Malabrigo – ESSALUD. 2018. En la validación estadística se empleó la prueba no paramétrica prueba exacta de Fisher y Chi cuadrado ambas con un nivel de confianza del 95%, determinándose en cuanto a calidad bacteriológica del agua apta para las localidades de Puerto Malabrigo, Monte Seco, El Paraíso, La Perla de Macabí, Macabí Alto, La Línea, El Pancal y dentro de los grupos de no apta para las localidades de San Mateo, El Palomar, Santa Rosa, Los García, La Corlib, El Algodonal, y el Nuevo Paraíso. El agua potable es apta para consumo humano al 100% para la zona urbana administrada por SEDALIB y al 50% para la zona rural administrada por JASS. Se atendieron 318 (77%) casos de EDA acuosa procedentes de la zona urbana. Se concluye estadísticamente que no existe diferencia significativa en la calidad bacteriológica del agua potable clorada administrada tanto en la zona urbana y la zona rural. No existe diferencia significativa en los casos de EDA entre la zona urbana y la zona rural. En la zona urbana, administrada por SEDALIB, existe relación inversa entre agua clorada apta para consumo humano con respecto a la presencia de bacterias, por tanto, los casos de EDA posiblemente tengan otros orígenes como el consumo de alimentos contaminados; mientras que, para la zona rural, administrada por JASS, estos pueden deberse tanto al agua como a los alimentos contaminados.
    Keywords: Calidad bacteriológica del agua,enfermedad diarreica aguda,agua de consumo humano
    Date: 2020–03–14
  34. By: Tatiana Margarita Mercado Covo; Andrés Viloria Sequeda; Laritsa Mercado Covo
    Abstract: Se analizan recursos y atractivos turísticos de dos municipios en el Caribe colombiano con base en la creación de un indicador denominado Nivel de Competitividad de los Recursos Turísticos (NCRT). Para ello se identificaron y validaron las variables más relevantes en competitividad, empleando el Proceso de Análisis Jerárquico (AHP) y análisis estructural mediante Matriz de Impactos Cruzados (MICMAC). Se confirmó bajo nivel general de competitividad, con marcadas debilidades en Innovación y Gestión Empresarial. La variable Recursos Humanos evidenció mayor nivel de independencia con respecto al conjunto de variables. Las variables Localización y Costos demostraron mejor desempeño relativo en ambos municipios.
    Keywords: competitividad, recursos turísticos, destinos turísticos
    Date: 2019–12–30
  35. By: Jorge Wilmer Elías Silupu; Jorge Enrique Flores Franco (Universidad Nacional de Trujillo); Ramon Enrique Barrera Gutiérrez (Universidad Nacional de Trujillo); Cesar Alberto Reyna Pary
    Abstract: En la presente investigación se logró determinar el efecto de utilizar los agregados de concreto reciclado (ACR) como materia prima en la elaboración de concreto para la construcción de viviendas en la ciudad de Huamachuco. Se utilizó como materia prima, para el diseño de mezclas, el cemento Portland Tipo I, gravilla de 1/2" y 3/4", arena gruesa y los agregados de concreto reciclado, estos últimos sustituyeron a la arena gruesa y a la gravilla en los porcentajes en volumen de 50%, 75% y 100% respectivamente. Se elaboraron probetas de concreto simple y concreto
    Keywords: análisis del ciclo de vida.,resistencia a la compresión,concreto reciclado
    Date: 2020–03–14
  36. By: Jaime Millán-Quijano, Sebastián Pulgarín
    Abstract: The analysis of the relationship between natural resources and violent conflicts has shown how positive shocks in agricultural commodities are usually linked with reductions in violence (opportunity cost effect), while positive shocks to minerals or extractive commodities seem to increase conflict (rapacity effect). In this paper we examine the case of palm oil expansion in Colombia and find that our results differ from previous studies. We use changes in international prices of palm oil to show how positive income shocks increased forced displacement in palm producing municipalities. We found that a 1% increase in the price of palm oil raises the forced internal displacement rate in palm municipalities by 0.42 standard deviations. We also show evidence that the negative effect of palm oil income shock was stronger in areas with paramilitary armies, weak contract institutions and better land distribution. In addition, increases in palm prices increase rural violence but not urban violence. Our results support the hypothesis that the violence linked with the palm expansion was the result of the search for new lands for palm trees in a framework of weak institutions. Therefore, one can argue that in the case of the palm expansion the rapacity effect over new lands was stronger than possible labor market effects.
    Keywords: Income shocks, Conflict, Commodity prices, Natural resources, Forced displacement.
    JEL: D74 F14 O13 O15 Q17
    Date: 2020–01
  37. By: Jason Bram; Richard Deitz
    Abstract: It’s tempting to compare the economic fallout from the coronavirus pandemic to prior business cycle downturns, particularly the Great Recession. However, such comparisons may not be particularly apt—as evidenced by the unprecedented surge in initial jobless claims over the past three weeks. Recessions typically develop gradually over time, reflecting underlying economic and financial conditions, whereas the current economic situation developed suddenly as a consequence of a fast-moving global pandemic. A more appropriate comparison would be to a regional economy suffering the effects of a severe natural disaster, like Louisiana after Hurricane Katrina or Puerto Rico after Hurricane Maria. To illustrate this point, we track the recent path of unemployment claims in the United States, finding a much closer match with Louisiana after Katrina than the U.S. economy following the Great Recession.
    Keywords: disaster; pandemic; Katrina; coronavirus; jobless claims; COVID-19
    JEL: J0 R10
    Date: 2020–04–10
  38. By: Aude Ducroquet (UFR Ingénierie du Tourisme, du Bâtiment et des Services - ESTHUA, Angers); Pierre Louart (IAE Lille - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises - Lille - Université de Lille, Sciences et Technologies)
    Abstract: Pour sortir de crise l'ancien bassin minier du Nord-Pas de Calais, des acteurs locaux profitent de l'implantation d'un établissement culturel prestigieux (le Louvre-Lens). Ils veulent développer le tourisme, et transformer le territoire en écosystème innovant. Afin d'y parvenir ils se servent d'actions collectives et de dispositifs structurants qui fonctionnent comme des leviers d'activation. Après sept ans, certains effets sont visibles et prometteurs. Mais il existe encore des freins, des tensions et des blocages que les théories sur les écosystèmes et l'intermédiation permettent d'expliquer. Ces théories offrent aussi des solutions potentielles pour améliorer le processus en cours et augmenter le potentiel touristique du territoire.
    Date: 2019–05–13
  39. By: Florence Jacquet (UMR MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Nathalie Delame (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AgroParisTech); Alizee Thoueille (UMR MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Xavier Reboud (Agroécologie [Dijon] - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - UB - Université de Bourgogne - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement - UBFC - Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté [COMUE]); Christian Huyghe (INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Sylvie Colleu (CODIR - Collège de Direction); Stéphanie Drusch (GOTH RI UERI - Unité de Recherches Intégrées - Gotheron - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique)
    Abstract: Alternatives au glyphosate en arboriculture. Evaluation économique des pratiques de désherbage
    Date: 2020
  40. By: Lorena Olmos
    Abstract: Este artículo analiza los factores determinantes de la generación de residuos municipales para el caso de las comarcas de Catalunya durante el periodo 2002-2018. La identificación de estos factores es esencial para diseñar correctamente las tasas y precios públicos aplicados al servicio de recogida de basuras. La estimación del modelo de panel de datos muestra que la generación de residuos per cápita no depende de patrones de comportamiento de la población como el porcentaje de reciclaje o el consumo de agua y puede explicarse, principalmente, con la evolución económica y otras características demográficas como la densidad de población.
    Date: 2020–04
  41. By: David F. Hendry (Dept of Economics, Institute for New Economic Thinking at the Oxford Martin School and Climate Econometrics, Nuffield College, University of Oxford); Felix Pretis (University of Victoria, Canada)
    Abstract: Comparisons between alternative scenarios are used in many disciplines from macroeconomics to climate science to help with planning future responses. Differences between scenario paths are often interpreted as signifying likely differences between outcomes that would materialise in reality. However, even when using correctly specified statistical models of the in-sample data generation process, additional conditions are needed to sustain inferences about differences between scenario paths. We consider two questions in scenario analyses: First, does testing the difference between scenarios yield additional insight beyond simple tests conducted on the model estimated in-sample? Second, when does the estimated scenario difference yield unbiased estimates of the true difference in outcomes? Answering the first question, we show that the calculation of uncertainties around scenario differences raises difficult issues since the underlying in-sample distributions are identical for both ‘potential’ outcomes when the reported paths are deterministic functions. Under these circumstances, a scenario comparison adds little beyond testing for the significance of the perturbed variable in the estimated model. Resolving the second question, when models include multiple covariates, inferences about scenario differences depend on the relationships between the conditioning variables, especially their invariance to the interventions. Tests for invariance based on automatic detection of structural breaks can help identify in-sample invariance of models to evaluate likely constancy in projected scenarios. Applications of scenario analyses to impacts on the UK’s wage share from unemployment and agricultural growth from climate change illustrate the concepts.
    Date: 2020–04–22
  42. By: Stefan Borsky (University of Graz, Austria); Hannah B. Hennighausen (University of Graz, Austria)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the influence of public risk mitigating activities on individuals' decisions to privately mitigate their disaster risks. We exploit heterogeneity in measures under the Community Rating System in the U.S. to empirically demonstrate that government investment in flood risk communication activities crowd-in private flood insurance demand while activities that lower the flood hazard residents face crowd-out private flood insurance demand. We also give evidence that flood insurance abides by the law of demand: as communities receive price discounts on their insurance policies, demand increases. Our results imply that governments can amplify the price effect by investing in additional risk communication activities, or dilute it by investing in hazard mitigation. This paper contributes to the discussion of the efficacy of disaster risk mitigation strategies and who ultimately bears the costs of natural disasters.
    Keywords: Community Rating System (CRS), flood insurance, behavioral response, risk perception, risk mitigation
    JEL: D12 D83 Q54
    Date: 2020–04
  43. By: Tomohiro Kitamura (Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University)
    Date: 2020–04
  44. By: Thomas Douenne (PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics, IPP - Institut des politiques publiques)
    Abstract: Bien que plébiscitée par les économistes, la taxe carbone peine à se faire une place dans l'agenda des décideurs publics. Une des raisons de son lent développement est la crainte qu'elle puisse générer d'importants effets redistributifs, et en particulier pénaliser les ménages les plus modestes. Cette note présente les résultats d'une évaluation ex ante des effets redistributifs sur les ménages des réformes de la fiscalité environnementale en France en 2018. La taxe carbone est en elle-même régressive, mais génère des recettes supplémentaires. En transférant de manière neutre ce revenu à tous les ménages, on obtiendrait une réforme progressive. Toutefois, même dans cette situation la réforme génèrerait d'importants effets redistributifs au sein des groupes de revenu. Ces transferts horizontaux, plus difficiles à corriger, suggèrent que d'autres outils sont nécessaires pour réduire l'impact de la réforme sur les plus vulnérables. Dans une perspective de long terme, il apparaît comme essentiel d'investir dans l'amélioration des performances énergétiques des logements et des transports. Ces politiques répondent non seulement à des exigences environnementales, mais aussi au besoin de réduire la vulnérabilité des ménages les plus modestes à l'augmentation future des prix de l'énergie.
    Date: 2018–07

This nep-env issue is ©2020 by Francisco S. Ramos. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.