nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2020‒04‒20
forty-nine papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Pareto-Improving Carbon-Risk Taxation By Laurence J. Kotlikoff; Felix Kubler; Andrey Polbin; Simon Scheidegger
  2. Carbon taxes and trade spillovers within Europe By Saptorshee Kanto Chakraborty; Massimiliano Mazzanti
  3. Prospects of Integrating Biodiversity Offsets in Japan’s Cooperation Projects: A Review of Experience from Developing Countries By Tetsuya Kamijo
  4. Analytical Modeling Framework to Assess the Economic and Environmental Impacts of Residential Deliveries, and Evaluate Sustainable Last-Mile Strategies By Jaller, Miguel; Pahwa, Anmol
  5. Foreign Direct Investments and Regional Specialization in Environmental Technologies By Davide Castellani; Giovanni Marin; Sandro Montresor; Antonello Zanfei
  6. First in, First out: Econometric Modelling of UK Annual CO_2 Emissions, 1860–2017 By David F. Hendry
  7. Regional governments represent an increasingly relevant component in climate change policies, which showcase a high interest in the climate change sphere and provide several benefits connected with their governance. This study aims to shed light on this scale of governance by describing the climate change policies of 61 regions from all over the world and by analysing the possible connections between the regional environmental policy instruments and the level of mitigation and adaptation commitment. The results show that the regional governments of this work appear to be an active component in climate policy, since they all have their own GHG emission reduction targets, devise their own climate policies and instruments and participate in international climate networks. All regions have reported mitigation and adaptation commitments, with different levels of ambition. In addition, it is observable that while some regions (mainly the North) focus mostly on mitigation targets, other (the South) focus on adaptation. Finally, there does not seem to be a connection between the level of climate commitment and the preference for some policy instruments. By Giulia Gadani; Ibon Galarraga; Elisa Sainz de Murieta
  8. Do we need to be educated to have Green concerns? By Magali Jaoul-Grammare; Anne Stenger
  9. A European carbon border tax- much pain, little gain By Ben McWilliams; Georg Zachmann
  10. Environmental Efficiency, Productive Performance and Spillover Effects under heterogeneous Environmental Awareness Regimes By Nikos Chatzistamoulou; Phoebe Koundouri
  11. Real-time electricity pricing to balance green energy intermittency By Ambec, Stefan; Crampes, Claude
  12. The relationship between country and individual household wealth and climate change concern: The mediating role of control By Fielding, Kelly; Nauges, Céline; Wheeler, Sarah Ann
  13. Environmental Preferences and Technological Choices: Is Market Competition Clean or Dirty? By Philippe Aghion; Roland Bénabou; Ralf Martin; Alexandra Roulet
  14. What California Gains from Reducing Car Dependence By Handy, Susan
  15. Integrative Economic Evaluation of an Infrastructure Project as a Measure for Climate Change Adaptation: A Case Study of Irrigation Development in Kenya By Daiju Narita; Ichiro Sato; Daikichi Ogawada; Akiko Matsumura
  16. N-shaped Environmental Kuznets Curve: A Note on Validation and Falsification By Sinha, Avik; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Balsalobre, Daniel
  17. Greta Thunberg und das Klimaproblem. Wie kann eine sozial-ökologische Transformation gelingen? By Faber, Malte; Frick, Marc; Manstetten, Reiner
  18. Les bulles de filtre menacent-elles les contenus RSE dans le secteur des médias ? L'exemple du changement climatique By Maria Mercanti-Guérin
  19. Reducing Car Dependence Has Economic, Environmental, and Social Benefits By Handy, Susan
  20. Exploring Feedback Loops between Performance Measures. Energy and Environmental Efficiency under heterogeneous Eco-Innovation groups By Nikos Chatzistamoulou; Phoebe Koundouri
  21. The Economics of Adopting Biodegradable Plastic Mulch Films By Velandia, Margarita; Smith, Aaron; Wszelaki, Annette; Galinato, Suzette; Marsh, Thomas
  22. Effective alleviation of rural poverty depends on the interplay between productivity, nutrients, water and soil quality By Sonja Radosavljevic; L. Jamila Haider; Steven J. Lade; Maja Schluter
  23. COVID-19 Outbreak and Air Pollution in Iran: A Panel VAR Analysis By Mozhgan Asna-ashary; Mohammad Reza Farzanegan; Mehdi Feizi; Saeed Malek Sadati
  24. The public costs of climate-induced financial instability By Francesco Lamperti; Valentina Bosetti; Andrea Roventini; Massimo Tavoni
  25. Uncertain Penalties and Compliance By Marcelo Caffera; Carlos Chávez; Carol Luengo
  26. The innovativeness of green sector enterprises By Adam Sulich; Małgorzata Rutkowska; Jerzy Tutaj
  27. New Ecological Paradigm meets behavioral economics: On the relationship between environmental values and economic preferences By Andreas Ziegler
  28. A Spatial Equilibrium Analysis of Air Pollution in China By Eiji Yamada
  29. The Green Jobs and the Industry 4.0. By Grzegorz Michalski; Małgorzata Rutkowska; Adam Sulich; Robert Rohe
  30. The green management in the context of regional development. By Małgorzata Rutkowska; Adam Sulich
  31. Classifying Economics for the Common Good: Connecting Sustainable Development Goals to JEL Codes By Heikkilä, Jussi
  32. Collective action in a fragmented world By Jean Pisani-Ferry
  33. Pro-environmental interventions and behavioral spillovers: Evidence from organic waste sorting in Sweden By Alacevich, Caterina; Bonev, Petyo; Söderberg, Magnus
  34. The mediating effect of environmental policy on the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty in the hotel industry By Dimitiradis, Efstathios D.; Kamenidou, Irene; Mamalis, Spyridon; Bara, Evangelia - Zoi
  35. More market, more efficiency? Water market impacts on water use efficiency in the Australian agricultural sector By Simon de Bonviller; Phu Nguyen-Van; Anne Rozan
  36. Classifying economics for the common good: Connecting sustainable development goals to JEL codes By Jussi T. S. Heikkil\"a
  37. Propagation des chocs dans les chaînes de valeur internationales : le cas du coronavirus By Elie Gerschel; Alejandra Martinez; Isabelle Mejean
  38. The PCL Framework: A strategic approach to comprehensive risk management in response to climate change impacts By Youssef Nassef
  39. Spatial Spillovers in the Implicit Market Price of Soil Erosion: An Estimation using a Spatio-temporal Hedonic Model By Marcelo Caffera; Felipe Vásquez; Daniel Rodríguez; Leonidas Carrasco-Letelier; José Ignacio Hernández; Mariela Buonomo
  40. Macroeconomic Fluctuations Under Natural Disaster Shocks in Central America and he Caribbean By Allan Wright; Patrice Borda
  41. Abrupt declines in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide over China after the outbreak of COVID-19 By Fei Liu; Aaron Page; Sarah A. Strode; Yasuko Yoshida; Sungyeon Choi; Bo Zheng; Lok N. Lamsal; Can Li; Nickolay A. Krotkov; Henk Eskes; Ronald van der A; Pepijn Veefkind; Pieternel Levelt; Joanna Joiner; Oliver P. Hauser
  42. Speed control of brushless DC motor by DC-DC boost and buck converters using GaN and SiC transistors for implementing the electric vehicles By Rahmani, Fatemeh; Quispe, David; Agarwal, Tanushree
  43. The methane footprint of nations: Stylized facts from a global panel dataset By Fernández-Amador, Octavio; Francois, Joseph; Oberdabernig, Doris; Tomberger, Patrick
  44. Konjunktur im Euroraum im Frühjahr 2020 - Euroraum: Corona-Virus zwingt Währungsunion in die Rezession By Boysen-Hogrefe, Jens; Fiedler, Salomon; Groll, Dominik; Kooths, Stefan; Stolzenburg, Ulrich
  45. Applications of the Coase Theorem By Tatyana Deryugina; Frances C. Moore; Richard S.J. Tol
  46. From climate change to cyber attacks- Incipient financial-stability risks for the euro area By Zsolt Darvas; Marta Domínguez-Jiménez; Guntram B. Wolff
  47. Applications of the Coase Theorem By Tatyana Deryugina; Frances Moore; Richard S. J. Tol
  48. Bridging the Gaps in Infrastructure Investment for Flood Protection in Asia By Mikio Ishiwatari; Daisuke Sasaki
  49. Remittance Investment Climate Analysis: Framework and Methods to Ascertain the Local Development Potential of Overseas Remittances By Jeremaiah M. Opiniano; Alvin P. Ang

  1. By: Laurence J. Kotlikoff; Felix Kubler; Andrey Polbin; Simon Scheidegger
    Abstract: Anthropogenic climate change produces two conceptually distinct negative economic externalities. The first is an expected path of climate damage. The second, which is this paper's focus, is an expected path of economic risk. To isolate the climate-risk problem, we consider mean-zero, symmetric shocks in our 12-period, overlapping generations model. These shocks impact dirty energy usage (carbon emissions), the relationship between carbon concentration and temperature, and the connection between temperature and damages. Our model exhibits a de minimis climate problem absent its shocks. But due to non-linearities, symmetric shocks deliver negatively skewed impacts, including the potential for climate disasters. As we show, Pareto-improving carbon taxation can dramatically lower climate risk, in general, and disaster risk, in particular. The associated climate-risk tax, which is focused exclusively on limiting climate risk, can be as large or larger than the carbon average-damage tax, which is focused exclusively on limiting average damage.
    JEL: F0 F20 H0 H2 H3 J20
    Date: 2020–04
  2. By: Saptorshee Kanto Chakraborty (University of Ferrara, Italy); Massimiliano Mazzanti (University of Ferrara; SEEDS, Italy)
    Abstract: Carbon taxation has been suggested among the market based policies to tackle climate change since the early 90’s, often associated to ecological tax reforms rationales. Before the advent of emission trading in the EU, some countries introduced forms of carbon taxation, which is still used to deal with non EU ETS sectors. Due to this historical evolution of environmental policies over the last decades, in presence of a ‘federal system’ that assigns to EU countries the governance of energy and fiscal issues, an heterogeneous set of country driven carbon/energy policy settings is present, which can determine effects on growth and trade. We investigate the possible existence of asymmetries among the European Carbon area countries reaction to the policy adoption responsible to combat climate change via carbon usage reduction.
    Keywords: carbon taxation, spillovers, trade
    Date: 2020–04
  3. By: Tetsuya Kamijo
    Abstract: Abstract Development-induced biodiversity losses continue unabated because most developments invariably result in some residual biodiversity loss. Mitigation measures in traditional environmental impact assessment (EIA) can rarely achieve the goal of No Net Loss (NNL). Biodiversity offsets are applied to the field of international development assistance to achieve NNL in accordance with mitigation hierarchy. However, there are few available references for planning offset projects for the aid practitioners in charge of cooperation projects in developing countries. The purpose of this working paper is to present a practical approach for incorporating offsets in Japan’s cooperation projects. The paper is based on a review of publications in academic journals and experience drawn from the four recent case studies on preparation of offset projects in developing countries. The paper advocates the need to integrate offset planning within the EIA framework. Based on the analysis of the case studies, prospects of biodiversity offsets in achieving NNL are analysed. The paper concludes that the introduction of offset policy, the political will for policy operation, and the long-term support to developing countries are important for the success of biodiversity offsets in cooperation projects. Japan’s initiatives toward biodiversity offsets can positively influence in promoting conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services in developing countries.
    Keywords: Biodiversity offsets, cooperation projects, No Net Loss, environmental impact assessment, ecosystem services
    Date: 2020–03
  4. By: Jaller, Miguel; Pahwa, Anmol
    Abstract: In the last decade, e‐commerce has grown substantially, increasing business‐to‐business, business‐to‐consumer, and consumer‐to‐consumer transactions. While this has brought prosperity for the e-retailers, the ever-increasing consumer demand has brought more trucks to the residential areas, bringing along externalities such as congestion, air and noise pollution, and energy consumption. To cope with this, different logistics strategies such as the introduction of micro-hubs, alternative delivery points, and use of cargo bikes and zero emission vehicles for the last mile have been introduced and, in some cases, implemented as well. This project, hence, aims to develop an analytical framework to model urban last mile delivery. In particular, this study will build upon the previously developed econometric behavior models that capture e-commerce demand. Then, based on continuous approximation techniques, the authors will model the last-mile delivery operations. And finally, using the cost-based sustainability assessment model (developed in this study), the authors will estimate the economic and environmental impacts of residential deliveries under different city logistics strategies. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Engineering, Last mile delivery, City logistics, Continuous approximation, Cargo consolidation, Alternate fuel vehicles
    Date: 2020–03–01
  5. By: Davide Castellani (Henley Business School, University of Reading, UK); Giovanni Marin (Department of Economics, Society, Politics, University of Urbino, Italy; SEEDS); Sandro Montresor (Gran Sasso Science Institute, Italy); Antonello Zanfei (Department of Economics, Society, Politics, University of Urbino, Italy)
    Abstract: The paper builds on (eco-)innovation geography and international business studies to investigate the effects of MNEs on regional specialisation in green technologies. Combining the OECD-REGPAT and the fDi Markets datasets with respect to 1,050 European NUTS3 regions over the period 2003-2014, we find that MNEs can positively impact on regions’ specialisation in environmental technologies, when their Foreign Direct Investments (FDIs) occur in industries with a green technological footprint. The effect of green FDIs is further reinforced if they involve R&D activities. We also find that the relatedness of environmental technologies to pre-existing regional specialisations exerts a negative moderating effect on the role of green R&D FDIs in shaping patterns of specialisation. In particular, green R&D FDIs have a larger effect in regions whose prior knowledge base is highly unrelated to environmental technologies. This result is consistent with the idea that MNEs inject the host region with external knowledge, which makes the development of green-technologies less place-dependent.
    Keywords: green regional specialisation; MNEs; FDIs; environmental innovation
    JEL: O31 O33 R11 R58
    Date: 2020–04
  6. By: David F. Hendry (Institute for New Economic Thinking at the Oxford Martin School and Climate Econometrics, Nuffield College, University of Oxford)
    Abstract: The United Kingdom was the first country into the Industrial Revolution in the mid-18th Century. 250 years later, real income levels in the UK are about 7-10 fold higher per capita, even greater elsewhere, many killer diseases have been tamed, and longevity has approximately doubled. However, such beneficial developments have led to a global explosion in anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. Following the Climate Change Act of 2008, the UK is now one of the first countries out, with annual CO_2 emissions per capita below 1860’s levels. We develop an econometric model of its highly non-stationary emissions process over the last 150 years, confirming the key roles of reduced coal use and of the capital stock, which embodies the vintage of technology at its construction. Major shifts and outliers must be handled to develop a viable model, and the advantages of doing so are detecting the impacts of important policies and improved forecasts. Large reductions in all CO_2 sources will be required to meet the 2050 target of an 80% reduction from 1970 levels, and their near elimination for a net-zero level.
    Keywords: UK CO2 Emissions; Model Selection; Saturation Estimation; Autometrics; Climate Change Act; Climate Policy Implications.
    JEL: C51 Q54
    Date: 2020–02–07
  7. By: Giulia Gadani (University of Ferrara, Italy); Ibon Galarraga (BC3 - Basque Centre for Climate Change); Elisa Sainz de Murieta (BC3 - Basque Centre for Climate Change)
    Keywords: Climate change governance, regional climate change policy, climate change commitment, mitigation, adaptation
    JEL: Q54 R11 Q58
    Date: 2020–05
  8. By: Magali Jaoul-Grammare; Anne Stenger
    Abstract: In the Unesco’s report (2014), an essential role is given to education in the preservation of the environment, by improving understanding on environment deterioration or modifying individuals’ behaviors. Indeed, many papers analyzed the importance of education on environmental sensitivity. However, they generally focus on only one environmental concern. The originality of our study is that it takes into account a large range of green concerns. We lead an exploratory analysis in order to try to answer to the following problematic: what are the effects of educational level and socio demographic characteristics on various green concerns? Preliminary results tend to confirm and highlight some relationships between education and environmental concerns. We especially underline that the more educated, the more open to global issues like biodiversity or climate change issues.
    Keywords: Education, Environmental concerns, socio demographic characteristics.
    JEL: C38 I20 Q53 Q54
    Date: 2020
  9. By: Ben McWilliams; Georg Zachmann
    Abstract: The European Green Deal has set a target of reducing European Union carbon emissions by about 40 per cent over the next ten years. Reaching this target is likely to involve a significant increase in carbon prices. Theoretically, higher carbon prices can lead to carbon leakage, or the relocation of industrial activity and its accompanying emissions out of economies with high carbon prices and into economies with low carbon prices....
    Date: 2020–03
  10. By: Nikos Chatzistamoulou (AUEB); Phoebe Koundouri
    Abstract: In this paper we explore whether environmental efficiency at a global scale is affected by the existence of heterogeneous environmental awareness and implementation regimes. By adopting a first stage non parametric metafrontier framework to handle technological heterogeneity the bias corrected productive performance of each country economy as well as the environmental efficiency via the Directional Distance Functions approach are calculated for each of the 104 country economies considered from 2006 through 2014, on an annual basis. In the second stage, we employ a fractional probit model to investigate the variability of environmental efficiency. Findings indicate that productive performance appears to be a driver of environmental efficiency only for the environmentally aware country economies. Absorptive capacity seems to play a crucial role too. A rebound effect is also observed for the universal technology as well as for the environmentally aware country economies. The less environmentally aware country economies do not seem to respond the same way to the same set of factors, indicating that there exist mechanisms that cannot be captured by observed characteristics.
    Keywords: Environmental Efficiency, Sustainable Development Goals, Metafrontier & Heterogeneity, Productive Performance, Spillover Effects
    Date: 2020–04
  11. By: Ambec, Stefan; Crampes, Claude
    Abstract: The presence of consumers able to respond to changes in wholesale electricity prices facilitates the penetration of renewable intermittent sources of energy such as wind or sun power. We investigate how adapting demand to intermittent electricity supply by making consumers price-responsive - thanks to smart meters and home automation appliances - impact the energy mix. We show that it always reduces carbon emissions. Furthermore, when consumers are not too risk-averse, demand response is socially beneficial because the loss from exposing consumers to volatile prices is more than offset by lower production and environmental costs. However, the gain is decreasing when the proportion of reactive consumers increases. Therefore, depending on the costs of the necessary smart hardware, it may be non-optimal to equip the whole population.
    Keywords: electricity; intermittency; renewable dynamic pricing; demand response; smart; meters.
    JEL: D24 D62 Q41 Q42 Q48
    Date: 2020–04
  12. By: Fielding, Kelly; Nauges, Céline; Wheeler, Sarah Ann
    Abstract: Although past findings are inconclusive, there is evidence of a negative relationship between wealth—at the household and country level—and climate change concern. One explanation for this relationship is that wealth provides a buffer against the risks of climate change, leading people in wealthy countries or wealthy households to perceive a greater sense of control over climate change impacts which in turn results in lower levels of concern. We tested this hypothesis with data sourced from the OECD Environment Directorate which conducted a detailed household survey in 2011 of 11 OECD countries (N=10,162). Our results accord with past studies showing a significant negative relationship between country and household wealth and individuals’ perceptions of the seriousness of climate change. Moreover, our findings suggest that this relationship is mediated through sense of control, measured at the country level by the readiness index and at the household level by the extent of adoption of energy efficiency improvements. These findings raise the question of how best to incentivise action on climate change amongst those with the ability - but not necessarily the motivation - to respond.
    Keywords: climate change concern; wealth; control; country wealth; household wealth.
    Date: 2020–04
  13. By: Philippe Aghion; Roland Bénabou; Ralf Martin; Alexandra Roulet
    Abstract: This paper investigates the joint effect of consumers' environmental concerns and product-market competition on firms' decisions whether to innovate “clean” or “dirty”. We first develop a step-by-step innovation model to capture the basic intuition that socially responsible consumers induce firms to escape competition by pursuing greener innovations. To test and quantify the theory, we bring together patent data, survey data on environmental values, and competition measures. Using a panel of 8,562 firms from the automobile sector that patented in 42 countries between 1998 and 2012, we indeed find that greater exposure to environmental attitudes has a significant positive effect on the probability for a firm to innovate in the clean direction, and all the more so the higher the degree of product market competition. Results suggest that the combination of historically realistic increases in prosocial attitudes and product market competition can have the same effect on green innovation as major increase in fuel prices.
    JEL: D21 D22 D62 D64 H23 O3 O31
    Date: 2020–04
  14. By: Handy, Susan
    Abstract: Cars provide an unparalleled level of mobility but have negative financial, public health, environmental, and social impacts. Reducing the need for driving in California would produce a range of household- and community-level benefits. Driving is associated with adverse health effects (e.g., obesity, high blood pressure, depression, injuries, fatalities), while commuting by walking or biking provides numerous physical and mental health benefits. A reduction in driving would also improve public health by decreasing air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. It would save substantial sums of money: households spend about $9,000/year or 16% of their expenses on private vehicle ownership (2017 data) and the state spends over $500 million per year on highway maintenance. A less car-dependent society would also be more equitable for those with limited income or limited physical abilities who cannot drive, to the benefit not just of those individuals but the community as a whole. While it is not realistic in the foreseeable future for most Californians to live without their cars, it is possible to decrease car dependence. Doing so requires a shift away from a century-old prioritization of the goal of reducing vehicle delays over other important goals. Creating a less car-dependent world is not necessarily more costly to the public and can be achieved over time through changes in land use and transportation planning practices. Answers to many of the frequently asked questions about such efforts are provided. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, Automobile travel, sustainable transportation, sustainable development, infill, automobile dependence
    Date: 2020–04–01
  15. By: Daiju Narita; Ichiro Sato; Daikichi Ogawada; Akiko Matsumura
    Abstract: Abstract As climate change adaptation is becoming a recognized policy issue, the need is growing for quantitative economic evaluation of adaptation-related public investment, particularly in the context of climate finance. Irrigation, which enhances and stabilizes water supplies for farming, is a potential means of climate change adaptation, but attempts at economic evaluation of its effectiveness as an adaptation measure are few, in part because such assessments require an integration of various types of simulation analyses. Against this background, we conduct a case study of a Kenyan irrigation development project using a combination of simulation models to evaluate the effectiveness of that project for climate change adaptation. The results show that despite the uncertainties in precipitation trends, increased temperatures due to climate change have a general tendency to reduce rice yields, and that irrigation development will mitigate income impacts from the yield loss, i.e., will likely be effective as a means for climate change adaptation.
    Keywords: climate change adaptation, economic assessment, irrigation, agriculture, downscaling, runoff analysis, Africa
    Date: 2020–03
  16. By: Sinha, Avik; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Balsalobre, Daniel
    Abstract: The empirical testing of Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis plays a significant role in designing a macroeconomic model for sustainable economic development. In doing so, we have chosen the N-shaped EKC, i.e., cubic specification of EKC, and have shown the validation criteria by checking the first order differentiation of the empirical model(s). Then, we have selected several studies in which these particular validation criteria have not been followed and have shown how the models derived in those studies are falsified. This research note may have a significant implication for studies to be carried out based on the EKC hypothesis by ensuring a certain level of model validation, which is sometimes ignored by researchers.
    Keywords: Environmental Kuznets Curve, Validation, Falsification
    JEL: Q5
    Date: 2018–04–04
  17. By: Faber, Malte; Frick, Marc; Manstetten, Reiner
    Abstract: With the Swedish student Greta Thunberg, the protest for the environment has taken on a personal face. Her central statement is: "Politicians are doing far too little for climate protection. This is irresponsible towards the youth." Something new has happened: Suddenly young people have become the driving force behind social-ecological change. The urge and perceived urgency to counteract environmental destruction is initially strong. Then, however, one realises that the successes seem small compared to the expectations. Over time, this perceived lack of success leads to people becoming more skeptical, less committed or even resigned. The young of today are the old of tomorrow. When youth is over, a trend towards disappointment and resignation seems inevitable. Can this be countered, and if so, how? Here it is worth drawing attention to the experiences of older people who, contrary to this trend, have shown passionate commitment throughout their lives. In order to be successful in terms of environmental policy, it is first necessary to find out what constitutes a social-ecological transformation. Once this has been clarified, older people can help the younger ones; for they can point out orientation marks for the path of a social-ecological transformation. Four of these orientation marks are examined in more detail here: (i) interdisciplinarity, (ii) time and patience, (iii) trust and (iv) public spirit. From these considerations follows a fifth message: Those who advocate social-ecological transformation must not focus solely on ecological and economic goals, but must look at society as a whole and its relationships. Preserving and promoting the public spirit is essential for the success of major changes.
    Keywords: climate change; social-ecological transformation; youth; age; movement of the yellow vests; interdisciplinarity; sense of time; patience; trust; commercial spirit; public spirit; water legislation; recovery of water quality; Rhine; Lake Constance
    Date: 2020–04–06
  18. By: Maria Mercanti-Guérin (IAE Paris - Sorbonne Business School)
    Abstract: Cette recherche porte sur l'effet des bulles de filtre sur le changement climatique. Une étude utilisant un outil de Social Listening (écoute des réseaux sociaux) montre que la viralité des contenus climato-sceptiques est plus forte que la viralité des contenus alertant sur le changement climatique. Une expérimentation visant à créer une bulle de filtres sur ce sujet permet de mieux comprendre les mécaniques virales et sociales d'une bulle de filtres climato-sceptique. Abstract This research focuses on the effect of filter bubbles on climate change. A study using a Social Listening tool (listening to social networks) shows that the virality of climate-sceptic content is stronger than the virality of content alerting about climate change. An experiment aimed at creating a filter bubble on this subject allows a better understanding of the viral and social mechanics of a climate-sceptic filter bubble.
    Keywords: social media listening,RSE,changements climatiques,algorithmes de recommandation,médias digitaux,bulles de filtre
    Date: 2020–07–09
  19. By: Handy, Susan
    Abstract: Californians live in a car-dominant society. Decades of transportation and land use planning practices have created communities in which driving is a virtual necessity to access most destinations. Personal vehicles provide mobility benefits, but they also have many negative financial, public health, environmental, and social impacts. Technological innovations such as vehicle electrification can lessen some, but not all, of these impacts. A more comprehensive approach is to shape communities in a manner that gives people viable options other than a personal vehicle—such as walking, bicycling, or transit—to get where they need to go. Researchers at UC Davis reviewed published studies to summarize the range of household- and community-level benefits that can be realized by reducing car dependence in California. This policy brief summarizes the findings of that work. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, Automobile travel, sustainable transportation, sustainable development, infill, automobile dependence
    Date: 2020–04–01
  20. By: Nikos Chatzistamoulou (AUEB); Phoebe Koundouri
    Abstract: By following a two-stage analysis, we explore whether resource efficiency measures are interconnected through feedback loops under heterogeneous eco-innovation regimes. In the first stage we adopt the bootstrap Data Envelopment Analysis and a Directional Distance Function approach to estimate productive performance, energy and environmental efficiency of each country under a metafrontier total factor productivity framework accounting for technological heterogeneity and input complementarities. In the second, we employ the potential of the identification through heteroskedasticity estimator to tackle endogeneity concerns surrounding performance measures, we seek the drivers of resource efficiency measures. We comprise a unique balanced panel for the EU-28 from 2010 through 2014 including the eco-innovation index and hand-collected data on the global competitiveness index. Findings indicate that resource efficiency measures despite those are interconnected through feedback loops, they act either as closely related measures i.e. blood brothers or as loosely related ones i.e. distant relatives. This is particularly relevant for policy design. In this line, findings indicate that there is not a one-size-fits-all policy as the eco-innovation group each country belongs to should be considered as well since the latter respond in an asymmetric manner to candidate drivers.
    Keywords: Resource Efficiency, Environmental & Energy Efficiency, Productive Performance, Eco-Innovation Index, Sustainability, Metafrontier & Heterogeneity, Feedback loop
    Date: 2020–04
  21. By: Velandia, Margarita; Smith, Aaron; Wszelaki, Annette; Galinato, Suzette; Marsh, Thomas
    Abstract: Biodegradable plastic mulch films (BDM) are an alternative to conventional polyethylene (PE) mulches. Like PE mulches, BDM offer multiple benefits for specialty crop production such as weed control, soil moisture conservation and yield improvement, with the additional benefit of being 100 percent biodegradable, with no formation of toxic residues (Miles et al., 2018). BDM do not have to be removed; rather, they will be tilled into the soil at the end of the season. These additional benefits offset challenges faced when using PE mulches such as 1) the negative environmental impacts associated with the way PE mulches are traditionally disposed of (e.g., landfilling, on-farm burning and stockpiling); and 2) costs associated with end-of-season activities such as plastic mulch removal and disposal. The disposal of PE mulches in landfills raises some concerns as the complete decomposition of these mulches in the soils could take more than 300 years, and this process could potentially form chemical byproducts that are harmful to the environment (Ghimire et al., 2018). Also, the disposal of PE mulches by open burning on the farm can release carcinogenic substances and other toxic particles into the air that are harmful to the environment and human health (Moore and Wszelaki, 2016). It is also important for farmers to understand the short-run economic implications of adopting BDM for their farm enterprises. Some of the economic information growers need to gather before making the decision to adopt BDM are listed below.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2018–05–01
  22. By: Sonja Radosavljevic; L. Jamila Haider; Steven J. Lade; Maja Schluter
    Abstract: Most of the world poorest people come from rural areas and depend on their local ecosystems for food production. Recent research has highlighted the importance of self-reinforcing dynamics between low soil quality and persistent poverty but little is known on how they affect poverty alleviation. We investigate how the intertwined dynamics of household assets, nutrients (especially phosphorus), water and soil quality influence food production and determine the conditions for escape from poverty for the rural poor. We have developed a suite of dynamic, multidimensional poverty trap models of households that combine economic aspects of growth with ecological dynamics of soil quality, water and nutrient flows to analyze the effectiveness of common poverty alleviation strategies such as intensification through agrochemical inputs, diversification of energy sources and conservation tillage. Our results show that (i) agrochemical inputs can reinforce poverty by degrading soil quality, (ii) diversification of household energy sources can create possibilities for effective application of other strategies, and (iii) sequencing of interventions can improve effectiveness of conservation tillage. Our model-based approach demonstrates the interdependence of economic and ecological dynamics which preclude blanket solution for poverty alleviation. Stylized models as developed here can be used for testing effectiveness of different strategies given biophysical and economic settings in the target region.
    Date: 2020–04
  23. By: Mozhgan Asna-ashary (Ferdowsi University of Mashhad); Mohammad Reza Farzanegan (Philipps-University Marburg); Mehdi Feizi (Ferdowsi University of Mashhad); Saeed Malek Sadati (Ferdowsi University of Mashhad)
    Abstract: The new Coronavirus pandemic has extensive negative socioeconomic impacts. However, its effects on climate change and in particular air pollution, at least at the beginning of the outbreak, is not clear. Fear of getting the Coronavirus in crowded public spaces increased the use of personal cars, while prevention policies that seek to decrease population movement reduced their usage. This paper investigates the relationship between the outbreak of COVID-19, measured by the number of infected cases, and air pollution, measured by PM2.5, in 31 Iranian provinces over the 19 February 2020 to 11 March 2020 period. We employ a panel vector autoregressive (PVAR) approach along with impulse response functions (IRFs), variance decomposition, and Granger causality tests. The analysis shows negative responses of the PM pollution to positive shock in COVID-19 cases in Iran.
    Keywords: COVID-19, Iran, panel vector autoregressive model, air pollution.
    JEL: I18 Q53
    Date: 2020
  24. By: Francesco Lamperti; Valentina Bosetti; Andrea Roventini; Massimo Tavoni
    Abstract: Recent evidence suggests that climate change will significantly affect macro-economic growth and several productive elements of modern economies, such as workers and land [Dell et al., 2009, Burke et al., 2015, Carleton and Hsiang, 2016]. Although historical records indicate that economic shocks lead to financial instability, few studies have focused on the impacts of climate change on the financial system [Dietz et al., 2016, Dafermos et al., 2018]. This paper evaluates a global economy where multiple banks provide credit to production activities exposed to climate damages. We use an agent based climate-macroeconomic model calibrated on stylized facts, future scenarios and climate impact functions [Nordhaus, 2017] affecting labour and capital. Results indicate that climate change will increase the frequency of banking crises (+26-148%). The public costs of rescuing insolvent banks will cause an additional burden of about 5-to-15% of GDP per year, and an increase of public debt to GDP by a factor of 2. We estimate that around 20% of such effects are caused by the deterioration of banks' balance-sheets. Macroprudential regulation attenuates bailout costs, but only moderately. Our results show that leaving out the financial system from climate-economy integrated assessment may lead to an underestimation of climate impacts, and that financial regulation can play a role in mitigating them.
    Keywords: Climate Change; Climate Impacts; Financial Crises; Public Debt; Macroprudential Policy.
    Date: 2019–12–31
  25. By: Marcelo Caffera; Carlos Chávez; Carol Luengo
    Abstract: We present the results of a series of laboratory economic experiments designed to study compliance behavior of polluting firms when information on the penalty is uncertain. The experiments consist of a regulatory environment in which university students face emission standards and an enforcement mechanism composed of audit probabilities and penalties (conditional on detection of a violation). We examine how uncertainty on the penalty affects the compliance decision and the extent of violation under two enforcement levels: one in which the regulator induces perfect compliance and another one in which it does not. Our results suggest that in the first case, uncertain penalties increase the extent of the violations of those firms with higher marginal benefits. When enforcement is not sufficient to induce compliance, the uncertain penalties do not have any statistically significant effect on compliance behavior. Overall, the results suggest that a cost-effective design of emission standards should consider including public and complete information on the penalties for violations.
    Keywords: uncertainty, penalty, emission standard, economic experiment
    JEL: C91 L51 Q58 K42
    Date: 2019
  26. By: Adam Sulich; Małgorzata Rutkowska; Jerzy Tutaj
    Abstract: This article is devoted to the analysis of innovativeness of green sector enterprises. Based on the literature review, the essence of green economy was pointed out and the green sector in Poland was analyzed. Further on, innovation and its importance for the green sector are discussed.
    Keywords: Innovations; Green economy; Green sector; Green enterprises
    JEL: O31 Q56
    Date: 2019–02–07
  27. By: Andreas Ziegler (University of Kassel)
    Abstract: This paper empirically examines whether environmental values are correlated with economic preferences from behavioral economics and considers possible consequences when independence is assumed. The data for this analysis stem from a large-scale computer-based survey among more than 3700 German citizens. Our indicators for environmental values are based on the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP), which is a standard instrument in social and behavioral sciences and increasingly common in economic studies. The econometric analysis with Generalized Poisson regression models reveals strong correlations between two NEP scales and several economic preferences, which are based on established experimental measures: While social preferences (measured in an incentivized dictator game) and positive reciprocity are significantly positively correlated, trust and (less robust) negative reciprocity are significantly negatively correlated with the NEP scales, respectively. Only risk and time preferences (also measured in an incentivized experiment) are not robustly significantly correlated with the NEP scales. These estimation results strongly recommend the additional inclusion of economic preferences in econometric analyses that use a NEP scale as explanatory factor of main interest for environmentally relevant behavior. In particular, not considering social preferences, trust, and positive and negative reciprocity can lead to strong distortions due to omitted variable biases. This conclusion is illustrated in an empirical example that reveals biased estimation results for the effect of a NEP scale on donation activities if not all relevant economic preferences are included as control variables.
    Keywords: Environmental values, New Ecological Paradigm (NEP), economic prefer-ences, individual behavior, artefactual field experiments
    JEL: Q50 D01 D91 Q57 A13
    Date: 2020
  28. By: Eiji Yamada
    Abstract: Abstract Weconstructaspatialequilibriummodelwithendogenousairpollutionasaby-productof production andconsumption,wherespatiallymobileskilledandunskilledworkersareaffected negativelybutheterogeneouslybyairpollution.Usingacalibratedversionofthemodelbased on dataforChinain2010,weshowthatstrictregulationcanbea centripetal forcethatattracts workersandproductiontowardtheregulatedplace,whilereducingthelocalandoverallemission of pollutants.Thisresultisincontrasttotheinsightsoftraditionaltheoriesthatseeenviron- mental regulationasa centrifugal forceforthelocaleconomy.Themigrationofworkerswho care environmentalquality,input-outputlinkagesindomestictradenetworks,andopennessto internationaltrade,workinthemechanismdeliveringthisresult.Wethenconsiderahypothetical policy toreducenationalindustrialemissionby10percentandcomparestrategiesonhowto allocate reductionresponsibilitiesacrosscities.Wefindthatconcentratingresponsibilityina limited numberofrichcitiesmayoutperformamoreequalallocationintermsofwelfareand economic output.
    Keywords: China, AirPollution, Domesticmigration, Spatialequilibriummodel, Environmental
    Date: 2020–04
  29. By: Grzegorz Michalski; Małgorzata Rutkowska; Adam Sulich; Robert Rohe
    Abstract: This paper presents and discusses The Industry 4.0 and the “green jobs” definitions and their mutual relations. The Industry 4.0 is a synonym for a new age of technological jump based on digitization and extended Internet connection between devices. Next to this progress also important are a sustainable development and its measurable implementation in labour market – green jobs. Green jobs are decent jobs, either in traditional sectors or in the new green ones, which contribute to preserving or restoring a sustainable environment. This combination of innovation and progress approach can be interesting solution not only for business but also for non-profit organisations which are the subject of the research in this paper. Furthermore, the role of non-profit organizations is examined and described in aspect of changes in green economy and The Industry 4.0 with special emphasis on the maintenance of their capital structure.
    Keywords: Industry 4.0; Green economy; Green jobs
    JEL: O31 Q56
    Date: 2020–04–08
  30. By: Małgorzata Rutkowska; Adam Sulich
    Abstract: This article is devoted to the analysis of innovativeness of green sector enterprises. Based on the literature review, the essence of green economy was pointed out and the green sector in Poland was analyzed. Further on, innovation and its importance for the green sector are discussed.
    Keywords: Green management; Regional development
    JEL: Q01 R11
    Date: 2019–08–15
  31. By: Heikkilä, Jussi
    Abstract: How does economics research help in solving societal challenges? This brief note sheds additional light on this question by providing ways to connect Journal of Economic Literature (JEL) codes and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations. These simple linkages illustrate that the themes of SDGs have corresponding JEL classification codes. As the mappings presented here are necessarily imperfect and incomplete, there is plenty of room for improvements. In an ideal world, there would be a JEL classification system for SDGs, a separate JEL code for each of the 17 SDGs.
    Keywords: JEL codes; social development goals; Agenda 2030; keyword search
    JEL: A11 O20 Q01
    Date: 2020–04–05
  32. By: Jean Pisani-Ferry
    Abstract: The issue There is a greater need than ever for international collective action. From climate preservation to financial stability and internet security, heightened interdependence calls for common responses to global threats. Obstacles to global collective action are no less formidable. Beyond President Trump’s stance and worldwide concerns over sovereignty, the China-US rivalry and the emergence of a multipolar world are impediments of a structural nature. The legal and institutional architecture...
    Date: 2019–09
  33. By: Alacevich, Caterina; Bonev, Petyo; Söderberg, Magnus
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the spillover effect of a pro-environmental policy that introduced organicwaste sorting bins on a non-targeted behavior: total household waste. Using an administrativedataset on household waste from Sweden, we find large reductions in waste due to (i) information about the benefits of organic waste recycling and (ii) the provision of organicwaste bins. Our empirical strategy utilises spatial random variation in the administrative implementation of the reform. Our findings are compatible with attention spillovers in a framework with limited attention.
    Keywords: Behavioral spillovers, environmental policy, limited attention, household waste, staggered difference-in-difference
    JEL: D01 D04 D12 D83 D9 H41 O31 Q5
    Date: 2020–03
  34. By: Dimitiradis, Efstathios D.; Kamenidou, Irene; Mamalis, Spyridon; Bara, Evangelia - Zoi
    Abstract: Customer satisfaction and loyalty, according to the literature, are influenced by many factors such as perceived value, corporate image, perceived quality, trust, communication etc. This study investigates the mediating effect of environmental policy in the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty. For this purpose, empirical research on Greek hotels’ customers, with the use of a structured questionnaire, was conducted. In data analysis, the S.P.S.S 20 and LISREL software were used. The results indicate that the degree of perceived, by customers, environmental policy is not related to satisfaction, and moreover to their loyalty towards the hotel.
    Keywords: Environmental Policy, Hotel industry, Satisfaction, Loyalty, Tourism marketing management
    JEL: L83 M31 Q56
    Date: 2018–10–28
  35. By: Simon de Bonviller; Phu Nguyen-Van; Anne Rozan
    Abstract: Water markets emerged as economic tools to deal with water scarcity. By reallocating existing water resources instead of using costly engineering projects to extend the existing supply, they are expected to increase the efficiency of water resources allocation. In this article we question empirically the impacts of water markets on the efficiency of agricultural production, as defined by a stochastic frontier approach. Using regional data on agricultural production and climatic factors, we analyze the link between the existence of water markets, the intensity of water trade and the efficiency of agricultural production in Australia, home to some of the most developed water markets in the world. We find that the existence of water markets in a region is associated with higher agricultural production efficiency, but no significant relationship is identified between the intensity of water trade and efficiency.
    Keywords: water markets; stochastic frontier; technical efficiency in agricultural production; Murray-Darling Basin.
    JEL: Q56 Q25 Q15
    Date: 2020
  36. By: Jussi T. S. Heikkil\"a
    Abstract: How does economics research help in solving societal challenges? This brief note sheds additional light on this question by providing ways to connect Journal of Economic Literature (JEL) codes and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations. These simple linkages illustrate that the themes of SDGs have corresponding JEL classification codes. As the mappings presented here are necessarily imperfect and incomplete, there is plenty of room for improvements. In an ideal world, there would be a JEL classification system for SDGs, a separate JEL code for each of the 17 SDGs.
    Date: 2020–04
  37. By: Elie Gerschel (IPP - Institut des politiques publiques); Alejandra Martinez (IPP - Institut des politiques publiques); Isabelle Mejean (CREST - Centre de Recherche en Économie et Statistique - ENSAI - Ecole Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Analyse de l'Information [Bruz] - X - École polytechnique - ENSAE ParisTech - École Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Administration Économique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IPP - Institut des politiques publiques)
    Abstract: Avant de se propager à l'échelle mondiale, l'épidémie de coronavirus est apparue dans la province du Hubei. Pour contenir la propagation du virus, le gouvernement chinois a imposé des mesures de quarantaine, entraînant un ralentissement de l'activité économique. Nous étudions ici la manière dont ce ralentissement de la production, initialement limité à la province de Hubei, se diffuse à l'économie mondiale via les chaînes de valeur internationales. La dépendance à l'égard des intrants chinois a augmenté de manière spectaculaire depuis le début des années 2000. De ce fait, la plupart des pays sont exposés au ralentissement de l'activité en Chine, à la fois directement via leurs importations de produits intermédiaires chinois et indirectement, du fait de la valeur ajoutée chinoise incorporée à d'autres intrants à la production. Cette note quantifie l'exposition totale de la France comparée à celle d'autres pays. Dans un premier temps, nous calculons la part de la valeur ajoutée chinoise dans la production française. Ensuite, nous utilisons des données au niveau des pays et des secteurs pour quantifier l'impact des mesures de quarantaine sur le PIB français.
    Date: 2020–03
  38. By: Youssef Nassef
    Abstract: The PCL framework provides a comprehensive climate risk management approach grounded in the assessment of societal values of financial and non-financial loss tolerability. The framework optimizes response action across three main clusters, namely preemptive adaptation (P) or risk reduction, contingent arrangements (C), and loss acceptance (L); without a predetermined hierarchy across them. The PCL Framework aims at including the three clusters of outlay within a single continuum, and with the main policy outcome being a balanced portfolio of actions across the three clusters by way of an optimization module, such that the aggregate outlay is optimized in the long-term. It is proposed that the approach be applied separately for each hazard to which the target community is exposed. While it is currently applied to climate-related risk management, the methodology can be repurposed for use in other contexts where societal buy-in is central.
    Date: 2020–04
  39. By: Marcelo Caffera; Felipe Vásquez; Daniel Rodríguez; Leonidas Carrasco-Letelier; José Ignacio Hernández; Mariela Buonomo
    Abstract: We estimate the implicit market price of soil erosion, fitting a spatio-temporal hedonic price model using quarterly data of 3,563 agricultural farms traded in Uruguay between 2000 and 2014. A unique feature of our estimation is that we allow for possible spatial spillovers. We find evidence of a negative and statistically significant association between erosion and land values. A 1% increase in own topsoil loss due to own erosion is associated with a decrease of 0.22% in the per-hectare price of agricultural land (p-value: 0.013, 95% CI: -0.0039, -0.0005). This is equivalent to a decrease of 7.7 USD in the average price per hectare and USD 1,040 in the price of the average farm (134 hectares). This value increases to USD 1,277 when we add the average cross marginal effect of erosion in nearby farms. Our estimates are sensitive to our measure of erosion and our specification of the spatio-temporal weighting matrix. We also find evidence consistent with our hypothesis that farms entering a governmental erosion control plan sent a valuable signal to the market regarding soil management. An indicator of whether the farm has at least one parcel under the government erosion control plans is associated with a 29% increase in the farm´s per-hectare price (p-value: 0.000, 95% CI: 16.26%, 41.53%) higher than those with no parcel under these plans. The average total marginal effect (own plus cross effects) of the erosion control plans is 35.37% (p-value: 0.000, 95% CI: 20.33%, 50.40%).
    Keywords: spatial spillovers, spatio-temporal hedonic model, soil erosion, farmland values,Uruguay
    Date: 2019
  40. By: Allan Wright; Patrice Borda (CREDDI - Centre de Recherche en Economie et en Droit du Développement Insulaire - UA - Université des Antilles)
    Date: 2020–04–04
  41. By: Fei Liu; Aaron Page; Sarah A. Strode; Yasuko Yoshida; Sungyeon Choi; Bo Zheng; Lok N. Lamsal; Can Li; Nickolay A. Krotkov; Henk Eskes; Ronald van der A; Pepijn Veefkind; Pieternel Levelt; Joanna Joiner; Oliver P. Hauser
    Abstract: China's policy interventions to reduce the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 have environmental and economic impacts. Tropospheric nitrogen dioxide indicates economic activities, as nitrogen dioxide is primarily emitted from fossil fuel consumption. Satellite measurements show a 48% drop in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide vertical column densities from the 20 days averaged before the 2020 Lunar New Year to the 20 days averaged after. This is 20% larger than that from recent years. We relate to this reduction to two of the government's actions: the announcement of the first report in each province and the date of a province's lockdown. Both actions are associated with nearly the same magnitude of reductions. Our analysis offers insights into the unintended environmental and economic consequences through reduced economic activities.
    Date: 2020–04
  42. By: Rahmani, Fatemeh; Quispe, David; Agarwal, Tanushree
    Abstract: Significant improvements of the DC-DC converters create the straightforward method to control the speed of the DC motor. One of the important DC motors is the Brushless DC motor which is utilized in various electrical fields. This paper focuses on the control at different speeds for a Brushless DC motor. In order to make the proper voltage to run the motor, two DC-DC converters (Boost and Buck) are tested using two different switches (GaN and SiC transistors). After making the Simulink model and connecting to dSPACE to send the suitable pulse to the transistor of the converter, the DC motor starts working by applying the DC voltage to the converter. This process includes modeling in MATLAB Simulink, dSPACE, and an experimental setup to run the DC motor. Furthermore, the performance of GaN and SiC switches in Boost and Buck converters are compared to each other in this project in terms of output parameters, efficiency, and providing the accurate speed for DC motor.
    Keywords: Boost converter, Brushless DC motor, Buck converter, GaN transistor, SiC transistor
    JEL: L63 L86
    Date: 2020–03–24
  43. By: Fernández-Amador, Octavio; Francois, Joseph; Oberdabernig, Doris; Tomberger, Patrick
    Abstract: Abstract We develop a global dataset of methane inventories derived from production, supply use (final production), and consumption activities for 1997–2014, disaggregated to 78 countries/regions. Our dataset extends existing data on methane emissions to 2014 and allows to trace emissions embodied in international trade in intermediates and in final goods. Anthropogenic emissions are quantitatively important for global warming and increased by about 18% from 1997 to 2014. The bulk of produced emissions is attributable to developing economies, though a considerable amount is exported mainly via manufactured goods to high income countries, which are net-importers of methane. Trade-embodied emissions increased by 8% more than nationally produced emissions during 1997–2014, with the strongest increase experienced by China, India, and Indonesia. Decompositions of the growth rate of emissions over this period suggest that methane efficiency improved, but the effect of these efficiency gains on total emissions was outweighed by the effect of economic and population growth in low- and middle-income countries. In high-income countries, by contrast, methane efficiency gains were larger the effect of economic and population growth.
    Date: 2020–04–14
  44. By: Boysen-Hogrefe, Jens; Fiedler, Salomon; Groll, Dominik; Kooths, Stefan; Stolzenburg, Ulrich
    Abstract: Die Ausbreitung des Corona-Virus stellt die Wirtschaft im Euroraum vor große Herausforderungen. Stimmungsindikatoren, die bis in den Februar hinein vorliegen, deuten zwar auf eine vermeintlich bevorstehende leichte Belebung der zuvor mäßigen konjunkturellen Dynamik hin. Allerdings waren diese bereits vor dem weiträumigen Ausbruch des CoronaVirus in Europa erhoben worden; sie können daher die Wirkung der Epidemie und der Maßnahmen zu ihrer Eindämmung nicht abbilden. Wirtschaftliche Aktivität ist überall dort akut gefährdet, wo Menschen auf engem Raum aufeinander treffen, und der internationale Gütertausch und Reiseverkehr werden empfindlich gestört. Absagen von zahlreichen Großveranstaltungen und gestrichene Flugverbindungen lassen einen erheblichen wirtschaftlichen Flurschaden befürchten. Die Situation ist äußerst unübersichtlich; es herrscht große Unsicherheit über die weitere Entwicklung der Epidemie und über die konjunkturellen Folgewirkungen. Wir unterstellen, dass - bis auf einzelne stärker betroffene Regionen - eine Verlangsamung der Epidemie bis in die Sommermonate gelingt, wenn wärmeres Wetter die Ausbreitung zusätzlich bremst; und dass sich die wirtschaftliche Aktivität in der zweiten Jahreshälfte allmählich wieder normalisiert. Eine Rezession - insbesondere in Italien, aber auch im Durchschnitt der Währungsunion - scheint dennoch unvermeidbar. Das Bruttoinlandsprodukt im Euroraum dürfte im laufenden Jahr um 1 Prozent schrumpfen und im kommenden Jahr wieder um 2,3 Prozent zulegen. Die Erwerbslosenquote wird vorerst wieder steigen, und der zuletzt moderate Verbraucherpreisanstieg wird sich im laufenden Jahr wohl verlangsamen.
    Keywords: Euroraum,Europäische Währungsunion,Frühindikatoren,Fiskalpolitik,Produktion
    Date: 2020
  45. By: Tatyana Deryugina (Center for Business and Public Policy, College of Business, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign); Frances C. Moore (Environmental Science and Policy, University of California Davis); Richard S.J. Tol (Department of Economics, University of Sussex, Falmer, United Kingdom)
    Abstract: The Coase Theorem has a central place in the theory of environmental economics and regulation. But its applicability for solving real-world externality problems remains debated. In this paper, we first place this seminal contribution in its historical context. We then survey the experimental literature that has tested the importance of the many, often tacit assumptions in the Coase Theorem in the laboratory. We discuss a selection of applications of the Coase Theorem to actual environmental problems, distinguishing between situations in which the polluter or the pollutee pays. While limited in scope, Coasian bargaining over externalities offers a pragmatic solution to problems that are difficult to solve in any other way.
    Keywords: Coase Theorem, externalities, property rights, bargaining
    JEL: C78 H23 Q50
    Date: 2020–04
  46. By: Zsolt Darvas; Marta Domínguez-Jiménez; Guntram B. Wolff
    Abstract: This Policy Contribution was prepared for the European Parliament’s Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON) as an input to the Monetary Dialogue of 6 February 2020 between ECON and the President of the European Central Bank. The original paper is available on the European Parliament’s webpage (here). Copyright remains with the European Parliament at all times. • First, the assessment of risks in the housing market should be more...
    Date: 2020–02
  47. By: Tatyana Deryugina; Frances Moore; Richard S. J. Tol
    Abstract: The Coase Theorem has a central place in the theory of environmental economics and regulation. But its applicability for solving real-world externality problems remains debated. In this paper, we first place this seminal contribution in its historical context. We then survey the experimental literature that has tested the importance of the many, often tacit assumptions in the Coase Theorem in the laboratory. We discuss a selection of applications of the Coase Theorem to actual environmental problems, distinguishing between situations in which the polluter or the pollutee pays. While limited in scope, Coasian bargaining over externalities offers a pragmatic solution to problems that are difficult to solve in any other way.
    Date: 2020–04
  48. By: Mikio Ishiwatari; Daisuke Sasaki
    Abstract: Abstract Investment is crucial in mitigating damage caused by flooding and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) emphasizes it as a priority action. Policy makers need estimates of financial impact to consider investing in DRR, but such estimates are rarely available. This paper aims to estimate the financial gaps relating to infrastructure for flood protection in Asia and proposes polices and approaches to filling these gaps. It was found that nine major flood-prone economies in the region invested USD33.6 billion in flood protection, or 0.21 percent of their GDP, in 2015. Regression analysis suggests that the annual demand for flood protection infrastructure in developing Asia will be USD94.5 billion, or USD98.4 billion with climate change effects, for the period 2016-2030. The financing gap between future needs and current investment levels is around USD61 billion, USD65 billion with climate change effects annually, or around 0.24 percent of GDP in developing Asia. Developing economies thus need to turn flood disasters into opportunities for expanding this type of investment. By reviewing the past experience of the People’s Republic of China, the Philippines, and Japan, it is clear that integrating flood protection in national development planning and formulating sectoral long-term plans are effective in securing commitment to investment. Increasing finance for climate change adaptation and mobilizing the financial resources of the private sector can be used as other sources. Also, innovative approaches are needed to decrease costs and achieve sustainability.
    Keywords: Disaster risk reduction, multiple regression analysis, Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, national development plan
    Date: 2020–03
  49. By: Jeremaiah M. Opiniano; Alvin P. Ang
    Abstract: ABSTRACT This paper presents the integrated mixed methods results and findings of four community-based studies on the local development potential of overseas remittances. We developed a Remittance Investment Climate (ReIC) analytical framework that outlines what the rural origins of overseas migrants need to see for their remittances to make productive contributions locally. This ReIC framework was piloted through a mixed methods tool called the Remittance Investment Climate Analysis in Rural Hometowns (RICART) and was conducted over a four-year period in four rural municipalities in the Philippines. The interactions between remittance owners (remitters abroad and their families) and their rural hometowns’ investment climate conditions were analyzed. The results and findings on remittances being saved, invested and parked as operational enterprises locally are contextualized per municipality. We find that the interventions by local authorities to improve investment conditions are important actions, but so are improving rural residents’ financial literacy levels, and their practices surrounding financial inclusion and financial functioning. The local development potential of remittances thus rests on conjoint actions to improve local investment climate conditions and regulations, and the financial capabilities of rural residents.
    Keywords: Overseas remittances, migration and development, hometown investing, Remittance Investment Climate Analysis in Rural Hometowns, mixed methods
    Date: 2020–04

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