nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2020‒04‒06
fifty papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Environmental Pollution, Economic Growth and Institutional Quality: Exploring the Nexus in Nigeria By Samuel Egbetokun; Evans S. Osabuohien; Temidayo Akinbobola; Olaronke Onanuga; Obindah Gershon; Victoria Okafor
  2. Central Bank Mandates, Sustainability Objectives and the Promotion of Green Finance By Simon Dikau; Ulrich Volz
  3. Climate change and the cost-effective governance mode for biodiversity conservation By Schöttker, Oliver; Wätzold, Frank
  4. Pollution emission and institutions nexus in Africa By Mignamissi, Dieudonné
  5. Banks' climate commitments and credit to brown industries: new evidence for France By Jean-Stéphane Mésonnier
  6. Long-term growth impact of climate change and policies: the Advanced Climate Change Long-term (ACCL) scenario building model By Claire Alestra; Gilbert Cette; Valérie Chouard; Rémy Lecat
  7. A WTO-compatible Border Tax Adjustment for the ETS to Finance the EU Budget By Alexander Krenek; Mark Sommer; Margit Schratzenstaller
  8. Environmental catastrophes and mitigation policies in a multiregion world By Besley, Timothy; Dixit, Avinash
  9. CO2 Mitigation Policy for Indian Thermal Power Sector-Potential Gains from Emission Trading By Surender Kumar; Shunsuke Managi; Rakesh Kumar Jain
  10. Macroeconomics and the Environment: A Selective Survey By Partha Sen
  11. Freshwater: The importance of freshwater for providing ecosystem services By Stella Apostolaki; Ebun Akinsete; Phoebe Koundouri; Panagiotis Samartzis
  12. Long-term low emissions development strategies: Cross-country experience By Aimée Aguilar Jaber; Brilé Anderson; Daniel Nachtigall; Fatoumata Ngom
  13. Worker mobility and the purchase of low CO2 emission vehicles in France: a datamining approach By Raphaël Homayoun Boroumand; Stéphane Goutte; Thomas Péran; Thomas Porcher
  14. Enhancing Governance for Environmental Sustainability in Sub-Saharan Africa By Simplice A. Asongu; Nicholas M. Odhiambo
  15. Deforestation and Resource Conflicts in Papua New Guinea By John Gibson
  16. Folk perceptions for avian scavengers in a tropical megacity: implications for biocultural conservation By Gupta, Urvi; Qureshi, Qamar; Kumar, Nishant
  17. Reserve management and sustainability: the case for green bonds? By Ingo Fender; Mike McMorrow; Vahe Sahakyan; Omar Zulaica
  18. A Spatiotemporal Framework for the Analytical Study of Optimal Growth Under Transboundary Pollution By Raouf Boucekkine; Giorgio Fabbri; Salvatore Federico; Fausto Gozzi
  19. Payment and policy consequentiality in dichotomous choice contingent valuation: Experimental design effects on self-reported perceptions By Tobias Börger; Tenaw G. Abate; Margrethe Aanesen; Ewa Zawojska
  20. Linkages between Globalisation, Carbon dioxide emissions and Governance in Sub-Saharan Africa By Simplice A. Asongu; Rexon T. Nting; Joseph Nnanna
  21. Evaluating the Economic Cost of Coastal Flooding By Klaus Desmet; Robert E. Kopp; Scott A. Kulp; Dávid Krisztián Nagy; Michael Oppenheimer; Esteban Rossi-Hansberg; Benjamin H. Strauss
  22. Weather Shocks By Ewen Gallic; Gauthier Vermandel
  23. Climate Change Impacts on Sustainable Maize Production in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review By Mulungu, Kelvin; Ng'ombe, John
  24. Understanding Heterogeneous Consumer Preferences in Chinese Milk Markets: A Latent Class Approach By Xiang Wu; Bin Hu; Jie Xiong
  25. Aspects of Civil Rights and Their Integration into International Social and Environmental Legislation By Anatoliy Kostruba
  26. Measuring marginal abatement costs in the Indian thermal power sector: A by-production approach By Sushama Murty; Resham Nagpal
  27. Kernel density decomposition with an application to the social cost of carbon By Richard S.J. Tol
  28. CO2-Preis & Klimaschutz: CO2-Steuer oder Emissionshandel – wie lassen sich Klimaziele am besten erreichen? By König, Jörg
  29. Enacting Environments: An Ethnography of the Digitalisation and Naturalisation of Emissions By Lippert, Ingmar
  30. Climate shocks, coping responses and gender gap in human development By Haile, Kaleab; Tirivayi, Nyasha; Nillesen, Eleonora
  31. Estimation of a Hedonic Price Equation with instruments for Chicken Meat in the UK: Does the Organic Attribute matter? By Eduardo Ribeiro; Adelina Gschwandter; Cesar Revoredo-Giha
  32. How to fill the ‘financing gap’ for the transition to low-carbon energy in Europe? By F.H.J. Polzin; M.W.J.L. Sanders
  33. An experimental study of charity hazard : The effect of risky and ambiguous government compensation on flood insurance demand By Peter John Robinson; W.J.W. Botzen; F. Zhou
  34. New Evidence on the Soft Budget Constraint: Chinese Envronmental Policy Effectiveness in Private versus SOEs By Mathilde Maurel; Thomas Pernet
  35. The Double Fence: Overlapping Institutions and Deforestation in the Colombian Amazon By Camilo De Los Rios Rueda
  36. Never Waste a Good Crisis: For a Sustainable Recovery from CONVID-19 By Phoebe Koundouri
  37. Sustainable agriculture's networks in Greece By Athanassios Papageorgiou
  38. КРЪГОВА ИКОНОМИКА И УСТОЙЧИВО РАЗВИТИЕ – СЪВМЕСТИМОСТ By Santiago Perez; Nadège Troussier; Tatiana Reyes
  39. Une nouvelle tarification des réseaux pour favoriser la transition énergétique By Axel Gautier; Julien Jacqmin
  40. A spatial agent based model for simulating and optimizing networked eco-industrial systems By J. Raimbault; J. Broere; M. Somveille; J. M. Serna; E. Strombom; C. Moore; B. Zhu; L. Sugar
  41. From Firm to Global-Level Pollution Control: the Case of Transboundary Pollution By Raouf Boucekkine; Giorgio Fabbri; Salvatore Federico
  42. Household fuel choice and use: A multiplediscrete-continuous framework By Melkamu Daniel , Aemiro
  43. Faced with the risks of free trade, agricultural policies necessary for the development of sustainable and resilient farming systems-Application to the dairy sector and prospects for the post-2020 CAP By Jacques LOYAT
  44. Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity By Ebun Akinsete; Stella Apostolaki; Osiel Gonzalez Davila; Amerissa Giannouli; Stavros Gavroglou; Alice Guittard; Phoebe Koundouri; Eleftherios Levantis; Elisavet Mouslech; Vasileios Pergamalis; Nikitas Pittis; Dimitrios Reppas; Vassilis Skianis; Ioannis Souliotis; Stella Tsani
  45. Automated Vehicles are Expected to Increase Driving and Emissions Without Policy Intervention By Rodier, Caroline; Jaller, Miguel; Pourrahmani, Elham; Pahwa, Anmol; Bischoff, Joschka; Freedman, Joel
  46. From theory to implementation in the mitigation hierarchy: avoid or legitimise the loss of biodiversity? By Charlotte Bigard; Baptiste Regnery; Sylvain Pioch; John Thompson
  47. Les économistes et l'environnement en Europe By Antoine Missemer
  48. Maintaining legitimacy in contested mature markets through discursive strategies: the case of corporate environmentalism in the French automotive industry By Alain Debenedetti; Déborah Philippe; Damien Chaney; Ashlee Humphreys
  49. Certified Corona-Immunity as a Resource and Strategy to Cope with Pandemic Costs By Reiner Eichenberger; Rainer Hegselmann; David Savage; David Stadelmann; Benno Torgler
  50. Choice of models for emission-generating technologies and designing technical efficiency improvements By Sushama Murty; Resham Nagpal

  1. By: Samuel Egbetokun (CEPDeR, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria); Evans S. Osabuohien (CEPDeR, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria); Temidayo Akinbobola (Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria); Olaronke Onanuga (CEPDeR, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria); Obindah Gershon (CEPDeR, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria); Victoria Okafor (CEPDeR, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria)
    Abstract: The interaction between environmental pollution and economic growth determines the achievement of the green growth objective of developing economies. An economy turns around the inverted U-shaped Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) when pollution is effectively dampened by social, political and economic factors as such economy grows. Thus, this study examines the EKC considering the impact of institutional quality on six variables of environmental pollution [carbon dioxide (CO2), Nitrous Oxide (N2O), Suspended Particulate Maters (SPM), Rainfall, Temperature and Total Green House Emission (TGH)] using the case of Nigeria. The EKC model includes population density, education expenditure, foreign direct investment, and gross domestic investment as control variables, and it was analysed using the Auto Regressive Distribution Lag (ARDL) econometric technique, which has not been applied in the literature on Nigeria. The results, inter alia, indicate that there is EKC for CO2 and SPM. This implies that the green growth objective can be pursued in Nigeria with concerted efforts. Other environmental pollution indicators did not exert significant influence on economic growth. Therefore, it is recommended that Nigeria’s institutional quality be strengthened to limit environmental pollution in light of economic growth.
    Keywords: EKC, Economic Growth, Environmental Pollution, Institutional Quality
    JEL: C52 O38 O40 O55 P37
    Date: 2019–01
  2. By: Simon Dikau (Gratham Research Institute, London School of Economics and Political Science & Department of Economics, SOAS University of London); Ulrich Volz (Department of Economics & SOAS Centre for Sustainable Finance, SOAS University of London)
    Abstract: This paper examines the extent to which addressing climate-related risks and supporting sustainable finance fit into the current set of central bank mandates and objectives. To this end, we conduct a detailed analysis of central bank mandates and objectives, using the IMF’s Central Bank Legislation Database, and compare these to current arrangements and sustainability-related policies central banks have adopted in practice. To scrutinise the alignment of mandates with climate-related policies, we differentiate between the impact of environmental factors on the conventional core objectives of central banking and a potential supportive role of central banks with regard to green finance and sustainability. Of the 135 central banks in our sample, only 12% have explicit sustainability mandates, while another 40% are mandated to support the government’s policy priorities, which in most cases include sustainability goals. However, given that climate risks can directly affectcentral banks’traditional core responsibilities, most notably monetary and financial stability, even central banks without explicit or implicit sustainability objectives ought to incorporate climate-related physical and transition risks into their core policy implementation frameworks in order to efficiently and successfully safeguard macro-financial stability.
    Keywords: Central banks, central bank mandates, green finance
    JEL: Q5 E5
    Date: 2020–03
  3. By: Schöttker, Oliver; Wätzold, Frank
    Abstract: Optimal planning of biodiversity conservation and habitat location is paramount for the cost-effective implementation of nature and biodiversity conservation measures. Established approaches for land use planning and conservation site selection however might not be optimal in a world with changing climatic conditions. Generally, conservation organizations can choose one of two main governance modes: (1) buy land to implement conservation measures themselves on their land, or (2) compensate landowners for their voluntary provision of conservation measures on their land. We analyse in a conceptual ecological-economic simulation four different conservation site selection strategies in either of the two governance modes. Afterwards, we investigate the ecological and economic effectiveness of each governance-mode-strategy combination in a climatically changing environment, and in particular the influence of climate change characteristics. We show that the choice of the two governance modes and four patch selection strategies influences the cost-effectiveness of the implementation, generally suggesting that buying land, combined with the a species targeting patch selection strategy generates the highest cost-effectiveness.
    Keywords: agri-environment scheme; biodiversity; conservation payments; cost-effectiveness; land acquisition; make-or-buy decision; payments for environmental services; modes of governance
    JEL: Q19 Q54 Q57 Q58
    Date: 2020–03–10
  4. By: Mignamissi, Dieudonné
    Abstract: This paper tests the pollution emissions and institutions quality nexus in Africa, through political regime and governance indicators. We apply the system GMM estimator on a dynamic panel of 50 African countries over the period 1990-2014. The key finding suggests that a reinforcement of legislation through the improvement of institutional quality has a negative and significant effect on pollution emissions. Moreover, the findings validate the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis in Africa. The results call for some policy recommendations in environmental regulation for African economies, including strengthening of institutional quality, adoption of specialized investment promotion agencies on the attractiveness of green FDI, implementation of incentive mechanisms in favour of companies that have adopted greening program of their activities
    Keywords: Pollution emissions, institutions, Africa
    JEL: Q52 Q56
    Date: 2020–03
  5. By: Jean-Stéphane Mésonnier
    Abstract: In this paper, I investigate whether and how banks align green words with deeds in terms of credit allocation across more or less carbon-intensive industries in France. I use a rich dataset of bank credit exposures across some fifty industries and two size classes of borrowing firms for the main banking groups operating in France, which I merge with information on industries' greenhouse gas emission intensities and a score for banks' self-reported climate-related commitments over 2010-2017. I find evidence that higher levels of self-reported climate commitments by banks are associated with less lending to large corporates in the five brownest industries. However, lending to SMEs across more or less carbon-intensive industries remained unrelated to banks' commitments to green their business. Since SMEs are not required to report on their carbon emissions, while large firms are, these findings suggest that devising an appropriate carbon reporting framework for small firms is likely to enhance the decarbonization of bank lending.
    Keywords: : Green banks, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Climate Change.
    JEL: G21 Q54
    Date: 2019
  6. By: Claire Alestra (Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS, EHESS, Ecole Centrale, AMSE, Marseille, France); Gilbert Cette (Banque de France and Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS, EHESS, Ecole Centrale, AMSE); Valérie Chouard (Banque de France); Rémy Lecat (Banque de France)
    Abstract: This paper provides a tool to build climate change scenarios to forecast Gross Domestic Product (GDP), modelling both GDP damage due to climate change and the GDP impact of mitigating measures. It adopts a supply-side, long-term view, with 2060 and 2100 horizons. It is a global projection tool (30 countries / regions), with assumptions and results both at the world and the country / regional level. Five different types of energy inputs are taken into account according to their CO2 emission factors. Full calibration is possible at each stage, with estimated or literature-based default parameters. In particular, Total Factor Productivity (TFP), which is a major source of uncertainty on future growth and hence on CO2 emissions, is endogenously determined, with a rich modeling encompassing energy prices, investment prices, education, structural reforms and decreasing return to the employment rate. We present four scenarios: Business As Usual (BAU), with stable energy prices relative to GDP price; Decrease of Renewable Energy relative Price (DREP), with the relative price of non CO2 emitting electricity decreasing by 2% a year; Low Carbon Tax (LCT) scenario with CO2 emitting energy relative prices increasing by 1% per year; High Carbon Tax (HCT) scenario with CO2 emitting energy relative prices increasing by 3% per year. At the 2100 horizon, global GDP incurs a loss of 12% in the BAU, 10% in the DREP, 8% in the Low Carbon Tax scenario and 7% in the High Carbon Tax scenario. This scenario exercise illustrates both the "tragedy of the horizon", as gains from avoided climate change damage net of damage from mitigating policies are negative in the medium-term and positive in the long-term, and the "tragedy of the commons", as climate change damage is widely dispersed and particularly severe in developing economies, while mitigating policies should be implemented in all countries, especially in advanced countries modestly affected by climate change but with large CO2 emission contributions.
    Keywords: climate, global warming, energy prices, government policy, growth, productivity, long-term projections
    JEL: H23 Q54 E23 E37 O11 O47 O57 Q43 Q48
    Date: 2020–03
  7. By: Alexander Krenek; Mark Sommer (WIFO); Margit Schratzenstaller
    Abstract: One element of the proposed European Green Deal is a border carbon adjustment mechanism. The introduction of a BCA would allow the EU to phase out current carbon leakage provisions of the ETS and to auction off all emission allowances, thus rendering the ETS a more effective unilateral tool to price and reduce carbon emissions. In theory a BCA would be a perfect instrument to ensure a level playing field for domestic and foreign producers, thus avoiding potential carbon leakage. Until now, however, the legal and administrative issues of implementation have been deemed too huge to overcome. We derive a WTO-compatible (full) border tax adjustment (BTA) design that could be implemented in the near future, and we estimate potential EU BCA and BTA revenues using a dynamic new Keynesian (DYNK) model. The BTA design of our choice would generate substantial and stable revenues that could be used as innovative sustainability-oriented own resource to finance the EU budget. We find that estimated revenues would suffice to finance between 5 and 7 percent of the EU's expenditure in the coming Multiannual Financial Framework period 2021-2027 and up to 16 percent in the year 2050. This new revenue source would allow member states to reduce their current contributions to the EU budget accordingly and would thus create space to cut other more distortionary taxes at the national level, enabling an EU-wide supranational sustainability-enhancing tax shift. Thus, a BTA could contribute to tackle both environmental and fiscal challenges currently facing the EU.
    Keywords: EU budget, sustainability-oriented taxation, border carbon adjustment, border tax adjustment, EU revenue system, EU own resources, emission trading system, carbon pricing
    Date: 2020–03–25
  8. By: Besley, Timothy; Dixit, Avinash
    Abstract: In this paper we present a simple model for assessing the willingness to pay for reductions in the risk associated with catastrophic climate change. The model is extremely tractable and applies to a multiregion world but with global externalities and has five key features: (i) Neither the occurrence nor the costs of a catastrophic event in any one year are precisely predictable; (ii) the probability of a catastrophe occurring in any one year increases as the levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere increase; (iii) greenhouse gases are a worldwide public bad with emissions from any one country or region increasing the risks for all; (iv) there is two-sided irreversibility; if nothing is done and the problem proves serious, the climate, economic activity, and human life will suffer permanent damage, but if we spend large sums on countermeasures and the problem turns out to be minor or even nonexistent, we will have wasted resources unnecessarily; and (v) technological progress may yield partial or even complete solutions. The framework that we propose can give a sense of the quantitative significance of mitigation strategies. We illustrate these for a core set of parameter values.
    Keywords: catastrophic climate risk; climate change mitigation; global stock externality
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2019–03–19
  9. By: Surender Kumar (Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics); Shunsuke Managi (Urban Institute & Departments of Urban and Environmental Engineering,Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku,Fukuoka); Rakesh Kumar Jain (Department of Business Economics South Campus, University of Delhi & Indian Railways, New Delhi India)
    Abstract: This study shows potential cost savings by adoption of emission trading in India. At the Paris Agreement, India pledged to reduce CO2 emissions intensity by about 30-35 percent by 2030 relative to 2005. Applying joint production function of electricity and CO2 emissions, we find that India could have saved about US$ 5 to 8 billion, if she had constituted an emission trading system, with the provision of banking and borrowing over the study period of 5 years. To our knowledge, this is the first study measuring foregone gains due to absence of a nationwide carbon emission-trading program in coal fired thermal power sector, using an ex-post analysis.
    JEL: Q54 Q56 O13
    Date: 2019–12
  10. By: Partha Sen
    Abstract: Macroeconomics deals with economics at the aggregate level. This could be at a national level or the interaction between nations. Production of output necessarily involves pollution and degrading the environment. Therefore, environmental issues enter inevitably. Some problems that have been highlighted in the literature are surveyed here. It has been argued that a poor country deliberately lowers its environmental standards that enables it to steal jobs from other countries. What is the theoretical underpinning and the evidence for this assertion? The evidence is very weak in support of this. Also, in the fight against climate change, the poorer countries claim exemption from tightening their emissions norms, because of their poverty. Although equity demands this, it could pose serious challenges to fighting climate change – oil producers would pump oil faster, if they foresee it becoming useless. A piecemeal approach is thus infeasible. A more basic question is how to introduce natural resource use in national income accounts to give meaning to the notion of sustainability? National income accounts do not take into account non-market activities. Some progress has been made in the theory and empirical implementation of sustainability by including non-market activities. A lot of work has been done but a lot more still needs to be done here.
    Keywords: macroeconomics and environment, trade and environment, green paradox, genuine saving, comprehensive wealth
    JEL: Q50 F10 F20
    Date: 2020
  11. By: Stella Apostolaki; Ebun Akinsete (ICRE8); Phoebe Koundouri; Panagiotis Samartzis
    Abstract: Freshwater ecosystems, whether surface, groundwater or in the form of ice caps are fundamental for human life and for supporting the vast biodiversity, natural processes and cycling. They provide ecosystem services, thus, benefits for humans and their societies obtained from nature, in all four categories: provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting. The importance of sustaining ecosystem integrity via protecting the ecosystem services, is undeniable. However, it comprises a big challenge provided the human-induced degradation of the natural environment that, in turn, affects the earth�s natural capital: natural resources, associated services with the supporting processes.
    Keywords: Biodiversity,Ecosystem services, Ecosystem-based approach,Freshwater, Groundwater, Human well-being, Ice caps Natural processes, Surface water, Threats
    Date: 2019–01
  12. By: Aimée Aguilar Jaber (OECD); Brilé Anderson (OECD); Daniel Nachtigall (OECD); Fatoumata Ngom (OECD)
    Abstract: The Paris Agreement invites signatory countries to formulate and communicate long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategies (LT-LEDS). This report compares the experience of three developed countries that have communicated LT-LEDS within the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC): France (Stratégie National Bas-Carbone), Germany (Klimaschutzplan 2050) and the United Kingdom (Clean Growth Strategy). The report analyses the three stages of the LT-LEDS process in detail: a) the institutional and technical process to create the LT-LEDS; b) the document strategy resulting from the process; and c) the design of specific mechanisms to facilitate implementation of the LT-LEDS. While LT-LEDS will reflect countries own "common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances", it is hoped that the lessons and messages included in this report can be useful to other developed and developing countries interested in creating and implementing LT-LEDS.
    Keywords: Climate Change, LT-LEDS, Paris Agreement, UNFCCC
    JEL: H23 O44 Q01 Q52 Q54 Q56 Q58 R11
    Date: 2020–04–02
  13. By: Raphaël Homayoun Boroumand (City University London); Stéphane Goutte (LED - Laboratoire d'Economie Dionysien - UP8 - Université Paris 8 Vincennes-Saint-Denis); Thomas Péran (Paris School of Business); Thomas Porcher (ESG Research Lab - ESG Management School)
    Abstract: This paper seeks to pattern a non-driven geographical classication of French departmental territorial units based on both mobility behavior and passenger car eet composition. With no mathematical regression analysis but applying datamining methodology to behavior, consumption and geography variables, we have grouped French territorial units into 8 clusters with similar characteristics. The main results reveal that commuters' behavior with respect to the choice of transport mode varies substantially across clusters (rural and highly rural, urban and highly urban clusters, ...). Conversely, the structure of the French vehicle eet and French car purchases in terms of engines, tax horsepower and CO2 emissions are similar. this nding should enable state organizations to implement dierentiated public policies for environmental and industrial sectors. Alternatively, our paper should help industrial groups to better deploy their economic strategies in line with environmental concerns.
    Keywords: Datamining,Cluster,CO2 emissions,Worker mobility,Passenger cars,France
    Date: 2019
  14. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaounde, Cameroon); Nicholas M. Odhiambo (Pretoria, South Africa)
    Abstract: This study assesses whether improving governance standards affects environmental quality in 44 countries in sub-Saharan Africa for the period 2000-2012. The empirical evidence is based on Generalised Method of Moments. Bundled and unbundled governance dynamics are used notably: (i) political governance (consisting of political stability and “voice & accountability†); (ii) economic governance (entailing government effectiveness and regulation quality), (iii) institutional governance (represented by the rule of law and corruption-control) and (iv) general governance (encompassing political, economic and institutional governance dynamics). The following hypotheses are tested: (i) Hypothesis 1 (Improving political governance is negatively related to CO2 emissions); (ii) Hypothesis 2 (Increasing economic governance is negatively related to CO2 emissions) and (iii) Hypothesis 3 (Enhancing institutional governance is negatively related to CO2 emissions. Results of the tested hypotheses show that: the validity of Hypothesis 3 cannot be determined based on the results; Hypothesis 2 is not valid while Hypothesis 1 is partially not valid. The main policy implication is that governance standards need to be further improved in order for government quality to generate the expected unfavorable effects on CO2 emissions.
    Keywords: CO2 emissions; Governance; Economic development; Sustainable development; Africa
    JEL: C52 O38 O40 O55 P37
    Date: 2019–01
  15. By: John Gibson (University of Waikato)
    Abstract: Conflicts over natural resources are common in developing countries, due to poorly defined property rights and limited state capacity for preventing conflict and because environmental incomes matter more to livelihoods than in rich countries. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), for example, the subject of the current study, almost one-quarter of households had land disputes in the previous 12 months, with disputes over agricultural and forestry resources, over development projects, and tribal fighting also frequently experienced. About seven percent of the land disputes and 40 percent of the tribal fights resulted in deaths. In this paper, geo referenced household survey data on disputes and conflicts, and remote sensing observations on forest losses in the local area over the prior ten years are used to show the frequency of conflict over natural resources, the distributional incidence of this conflict – whether rich or poor areas are more at risk – and the effect of large-scale environmental change, specifically deforestation, on the subsequent risk of conflict. A sharp increase in log exports, which saw PNG become the largest exporter to China as other countries withdrew from the tropical logs trade, represents an exogenous shock that helps to identify effects of deforestation on conflict rather than the reverse relationship.
    Keywords: conflict; deforestation; household survey; land resources; Papua New Guinea
    JEL: Q34 Q56
    Date: 2020–03–30
  16. By: Gupta, Urvi; Qureshi, Qamar; Kumar, Nishant
    Abstract: 1. Inductive generalisations based on folk perceptions for animals complement anthropogenic impacts that affect non-human species in myriad ways. Despite the surge in research on urban ecosystems, there is a poor understanding of the importance of human perceptions that affect animal-guilds subsisting on urban food-subsidies. 2. We studied the cultural salience of representative commensal avian species that opportunistically thrive on anthropogenic resources and religious sentiments translating in ritual feeding in Delhi. We investigated people’s perceptions of representative avian scavengers, to understand the importance citizens attributed to their ecosystem services. We anticipated homogenising urban impacts over folk perceptions people registered for species-specific-interactions in tropical megacities. For this, we explored the prevalence of people-scavenger interactions or experiences represented in local terminology/folk taxonomy and systematics about black kites Milvus migrans, house crows Corvus splendens, and critically endangered vultures. 3. Folk perceptions varied across various stakeholders and were based on bird morphology and behaviour, and corresponding socio-cultural legends. People have coexisted with opportunistic scavengers, long before the advent of Linnaean systematics, implying a dynamic relationship under the purview of biocultural coevolution. Additionally, cultural values for these commensals, evident in ritual feeding practices, were crucial for the prevalence of inductive characterization, zoomorphism, and anthropomorphism. 4. The social-technological impacts on folk perceptions for animals we associate with rapid urban changes can potentially affect the political ecologies urban human-animal interface. Mediatisation and misinformation can mimetically evolve the existing trade-offs, pertinent to the human patronage and the practice of harnessing informal garbage-consumption by companion animals that are the culprit of conflicts and diseases. Frequently reported affective relationships of Indians for animals varied across the stakeholders likely due to urban-sprawl, demographic parameters, refuse management, and religio-cultural folktales. 5. Individually, scientific approaches lack scope concerning the scale of evidence for instinctive animal responses to the diverse, inductive folk practices of native stakeholders. Expansion of the purview of citizen science that factors integration of human socio-cultural estimates within scientific studies is, therefore, vital for human-animal coexistence. We suggest conservation implications of local and indigenous perception pathways about backyard biodiversity and rapidly homogenizing biophilic relationships in megacities.
    Date: 2020–03–12
  17. By: Ingo Fender; Mike McMorrow; Vahe Sahakyan; Omar Zulaica
    Abstract: Central banks' frameworks for managing foreign reserves have traditionally balanced a triad of objectives: liquidity, safety and return. Pursuing these objectives involves explicit trade-offs. More of an emphasis on returns, for instance, may require central banks to sacrifice some of the safety and liquidity of their overall holdings. Most recently, central banks have shown significant interest in incorporating environmental sustainability considerations into their policy frameworks, including their reserve management. This paper first explores whether sustainability considerations would support a tetrad of reserve management objectives, by drawing on the results of a recent BIS Survey on Reserve Management and Sustainability. It then illustrates how central banks might analyse (and weigh) all four objectives in allocating part of their foreign exchange reserves to green bonds using currently available market data.
    Keywords: central banks, green bonds, reserve management, sustainability
    JEL: E58 F31 G11 G17
    Date: 2020–03
  18. By: Raouf Boucekkine; Giorgio Fabbri; Salvatore Federico; Fausto Gozzi
    Abstract: We construct a spatiotemporal frame for the study of optimal growth under transboundary pollution. Space is continuous and polluting emissions originate in the intensity of use of the production input. Pollution ows across locations following a diffusion process. The objective functional of the economy is to set the optimal production policy over time and space to maximize welfare from consumption, taking into account a negative local pollution externality and the diffusive nature of pollution. Our framework allows for space and time dependent preferences and productivity, and does not restrict diffusion speed to be spaceindependent. This provides a comprehensive setting to analyze pollution diffusion with a close account of geographic heterogeneity. The involved optimization problem is infinite-dimensional. We propose an alternative method for an analytical characterization of the optimal paths and the asymptotic spatial distributions. The method builds on a deep economic concept of pollution spatiotemporal welfare effect, which makes it denitely useful for economic analysis
    Keywords: Optimal growth, spatiotemporal modelling, transboundary pollution,infinite dimensional optimal control
    JEL: Q53 R11 C61 R12 O41
    Date: 2019–10
  19. By: Tobias Börger (Economics Division, University of Stirling); Tenaw G. Abate (NORCE Norwegian Research Centre AS, Siva Innovasjonssenter); Margrethe Aanesen (Norwegian College of Fishery Science, UiT – Arctic University of Norway); Ewa Zawojska (Faculty of Economics Sciences, University of Warsaw)
    Abstract: Although the contingent valuation literature emphasises the importance of controlling for respondents’ consequentiality perceptions, this literature has rarely accounted for the difference between payment and policy consequentiality. We examine the influence of the randomly assigned tax amount on consequentiality self-reports and their potential endogeneity using data from a single dichotomous choice survey about reducing marine plastic pollution in Norway. Results show that consequentiality perceptions are a function of the tax amount, with payment consequentiality decreasing and policy consequentiality increasing with higher tax amounts. We discuss the challenge of finding valid instruments to address potential endogeneity of consequentiality perceptions.
    Keywords: Contingent valuation, single dichotomous choice, payment consequentiality, policy consequentiality, endogeneity, marine plastic pollution
    JEL: Q51
    Date: 2020
  20. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé/Cameroon); Rexon T. Nting (London, UK); Joseph Nnanna (The Development Bank of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria)
    Abstract: This study investigates linkages between environmental degradation, globalisation and governance in 44 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa using data for the period 2000-2012. The Generalised Method of Moments is employed as empirical strategy. Environmental degradation is proxied by carbon dioxide emissions whereas globalisation is appreciated in terms of trade openness and net foreign direct investment inflows. Bundled and unbundled governance indicators are used, namely: political governance (consisting of political stability/no violence and “voice & accountability†), economic governance (encompassing government effectiveness and regulation quality), institutional governance (entailing corruption-control and the rule of law) and general governance (a composite measurement of political governance, economic governance and institutional governance). The following main finding is established. Trade openness modulates carbon dioxide emissions to have positive net effects on political stability, economic governance, the rule of law and general governance.
    Keywords: Carbon dioxide emissions; Economic development; Africa
    JEL: C52 O38 O40 O55 P37
    Date: 2019–01
  21. By: Klaus Desmet; Robert E. Kopp; Scott A. Kulp; Dávid Krisztián Nagy; Michael Oppenheimer; Esteban Rossi-Hansberg; Benjamin H. Strauss
    Abstract: Sea-level rise and ensuing permanent coastal inundation will cause spatial shifts in population and economic activity over the next 200 years. Using a highly spatially disaggregated, dynamic model of the world economy that accounts for the dynamics of migration, trade, and innovation, this paper estimates the consequences of probabilistic projections of local sea-level changes under different emissions scenarios. Under an intermediate greenhouse gas concentration trajectory, permanent flooding is projected to reduce global real GDP by an average of 0.19% in present value terms, with welfare declining by 0.24% as people move to places with less attractive amenities. By the year 2200 a projected 1.46% of world population will be displaced. Losses in many coastal localities are more than an order of magnitude larger, with some low-lying urban areas particularly hard hit. When ignoring the dynamic economic adaptation of investment and migration to flooding, the loss in real GDP in 2200 increases from 0.11% to 4.5%. This shows the importance of including dynamic adaptation in future loss models.
    Date: 2019–12
  22. By: Ewen Gallic (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Gauthier Vermandel (Université Paris Dauphine-PSL, France Stratégie, Services du Premier Ministre)
    Abstract: How much do weather shocks matter? The literature addresses this question in two isolated ways: either by looking at long-term effects through the prism of calibrated theoretical models, or by focusing on both short and long terms through the lens of empirical models. We propose a framework that reconciles these two approaches by taking the theory to the data in two complementary ways. We first document the propagation mechanism of a weather shock using a Vector Auto-Regressive model on New Zealand Data. To explain the mechanism, we build and estimate a general equilibrium model with a weather-dependent agricultural sector to investigate the weather's business cycle implications. We find that weather shocks: (i) explain about 35% of GDP and agricultural output fluctuations in New Zealand; (ii) entail a welfare cost of 0.30% of permanent consumption; (iii) critically increases the macroeconomic volatility under climate change, resulting in a higher welfare cost peaking to 0.46% in the worst case scenario of climate change.
    Keywords: Agriculture,Business Cycles,Climate Change,Weather Shocks
    Date: 2020
  23. By: Mulungu, Kelvin; Ng'ombe, John (Oklahoma State University)
    Abstract: Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the commonly grown grain crops and remains a source of staple food and food security for most countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). But climate change threatens agricultural potential in SSA thereby risking food security especially that most maize production is rain-fed in these countries. Thus, numerous studies have examined impacts of climate change on maize production and productivity resulting in several adaption strategies being promoted to mitigate the negative effects of climate change. But to the best of our knowledge, there has not been any studies in literature that provide a review of impacts of climate change on maize production and productivity in SSA. This chapter therefore provides a review of empirical climate change impacts on maize production and its productivity in SSA. We chose SSA because most countries in SSA are underdeveloped and therefore more vulnerable to climate change effects. This is important because this review will provide an easier access of such results for both scholars and policy makers in search of empirical impacts of climate change on maize production and productivity in SSA.
    Date: 2019–11–29
  24. By: Xiang Wu (HUST - Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Wuhan]); Bin Hu (HUST - Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Wuhan]); Jie Xiong (ESC Rennes School of Business)
    Abstract: We examine heterogeneous consumer preferences in Chinese milk markets. Using a discrete choice experiment, we examine how the brand, quality certification, traceability label and price influence consumers' milk choices. We identify four consumer segments using a latent class model: price conscious (9.8%), balanced thinking (19.8%), health conscious (57.5%), and environment conscious (12.9%) consumers. These four segments have distinct preferences: price conscious consumers prefer green certification; balanced thinking consumers have the highest willingness to pay for traceability labels; health conscious consumers have strong brand awareness; and environment conscious consumers prefer organic certification and traceability labels and use price as a quality signal. Such diversity of consumer preference can be explained by four psychological factors: price consciousness, food safety concerns, health consciousness and environmental concerns.
    Keywords: Heterogeneous preference,psychological factors,milk consumption,latent class model,choice experiment,China
    Date: 2020
  25. By: Anatoliy Kostruba (Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University)
    Abstract: The paper examines the aspects of the formation of a legal situation in which civil rights and obligations can not only emerge but also modify and terminate on various grounds. The relevance of the study is determined by the fact that civil rights and responsibilities usually rely on basic normative acts, which formalize the structure of public relations. The problem calls for further investigation of the doctrinal aspects of the emergence, modification and termination of civil rights and obligations. Within regulation of social relations rights and responsibilities can also emerge in the absence of a relevant framework and get shaped in the course of the development of the legal system of the state. The purpose of the article is to offer classifications and to discuss the sustainable ways of regulation of civil rights and obligations for the state and participants of the legal process. The subject of the study is civil rights and duties within the legal environment for their implementation. Our interest is in the description of the conditions for improving the structure of the legal environment and the sustainable development of civil society in the future. The results of the research describe the directions and the forms of development of long-term legal regulation in the social state system and its integration into international social and environmental legislation.
    Keywords: civil rights and duties,the emergence,modification,termination,legal facts
    Date: 2018–09–14
  26. By: Sushama Murty (Jawaharlal Nehru University); Resham Nagpal (Jawaharlal Nehru University)
    Abstract: This paper estimates the marginal abatement costs (MACs) for CO2 emission in the Indian coal-based thermal power sector employing a non-parametric by-production approach. The estimates so obtained are compared with those from weak and joint-disposabilitybased approaches. In contrast to the other two approaches, by-production approach computes the MAC as the reduction in electricity generation necessitated by a reduction in coal (heat) input when emission generation is reduced by one unit. Under this approach, the estimates of the reduction in heat input per-unit reduction in emission generation lie in a small range around the same computed for the true data-generating process. The MACs varied widely between 58.92 to 102.28 USD/metric-ton of CO2, with a mean value of 85 USD/metric-ton in 2015, indicating a tremendous potential for emission-trading or a Pigouvian tax as policy tools for correcting the allocative ineciencies in this sector.
  27. By: Richard S.J. Tol (Department of Economics, University of Sussex, Falmer, United Kingdom)
    Abstract: A kernel density is an aggregate of kernel functions, which are itself densities and could be kernel densities. This is used to decompose a kernel into its constituent parts. Pearson's test for equality of proportions is applied to quantiles to test whether the component distributions differ from one another. The proposed methods are illustrated with a meta-analysis of the social cost of carbon. Different discount rates lead to significantly different Pigou taxes, but not different growth rates. Estimates have not varied over time. Different authors have contributed different estimates, but these differences are insignificant. Kernel decomposition can be applied in many other fields with discrete explanatory variables.
    Keywords: social cost of carbon, kernel density, decomposition, discrete explanatory variables
    JEL: C14 Q54
    Date: 2020–03
  28. By: König, Jörg
    Abstract: 98 Prozent des weltweiten CO2-Ausstoßes findet außerhalb Deutschlands statt - Tendenz steigend. Klimaschutz als globales öffentliches Gut sollte demnach möglichst weltweit, zumindest europaweit, koordiniert werden. Nationale Alleingänge wie die deutsche Energiewende helfen wenig und können sogar kontraproduktiv wirken. Die Herausgeber des Wall Street Journal betitelten, den parallelen Kern- und Kohleausstieg vor Augen, die deutsche Energiewende Anfang 2019 als "world's dumbest energy policy". Nach zwei Jahrzehnten deutscher Planwirtschaft in der Energie- und Klimapolitik muss zwingend umgesteuert werden, sollen die Klimaschutzziele - ohne Wohlstandseinbußen, Bevormundung und Zwangsaskese - zielsicher und kosteneffizient erreicht werden.
    Keywords: Energie
    Date: 2019
  29. By: Lippert, Ingmar (Museum für Naturkunde Berlin)
    Abstract: The PhD thesis and its related publications address how a carbon footprint of a multinational company was enacted. Related publications draw out a range of implications of this analysis for, inter alia, the sociology of the environment, Science and Technology Studies (STS), social studies of Big Data, the sociology of numbers and quantification.
    Date: 2020–04–01
  30. By: Haile, Kaleab (UNU-MERIT); Tirivayi, Nyasha (UNU-MERIT); Nillesen, Eleonora (UNU-MERIT, and SBE, Maastricht University)
    Abstract: This study examines the impact of drought on child health and schooling outcomes and investigates the contemporaneous relationship between these two main building blocks of human capital. We merge childlevel longitudinal data from the Ethiopia Rural Socioeconomic Survey (ERSS) with geo-referenced climate data. Our findings from within-child variation estimators reveal that drought has a detrimental impact on the highest grade completed of female children. We show that the negative effect of drought on a female child's completed years of formal schooling is channelled, albeit not entirely, through ill health. Our result is robust to using recursive bivariate estimation with exclusion restriction to correct for biases associated with the endogeneity of child health due to time-varying heterogeneities. Gender bias in the household explains why the direct and mediated schooling e ects of drought are concentrated only on female children. We find that households respond to drought-induced income shocks by decreasing the allocation of resources for the medical treatment of an ill female child. Moreover, households also increase the use of female child labour for non-agricultural activities, which is consistent with a disproportionate increase in school absenteeism of older girls during drought. We discuss how gender-responsive policy design and implementation may help alleviate gender inequality in human development in the face of climate change.
    Keywords: Drought, coping capacity, human capital, human development, gender bias, sub-Saharan Africa, Ethiopia
    JEL: D13 I31 J16 O15 Q54
    Date: 2019–12–31
  31. By: Eduardo Ribeiro; Adelina Gschwandter; Cesar Revoredo-Giha
    Abstract: Chicken meat consumption has increased substantially in the last decades due to farming and processing intensification and due to perceived health and environmental benefits for consumers. Organic chicken additionally, is perceived to have better taste, lead to higher animal welfare and additional benefits for the environment. Thus understanding consumers' preferences for organic chicken is central for policy-making and market strategies that can shape this market in the future. This paper uses a comprehensive data set of scanned shoppings from UK consumers, to show that they are willing to pay an average premium of 135% for the organic attribute in the case of chicken. In addition, this paper contributes to the literature of environmental valuation, demonstrating that household characteristics can be used as instruments into a GMM approach to a hedonic price model, to address the endogeneity issues usually ignored in this literature.
    Keywords: Hedonic Pricing Method; Instrumental Variables; Organic Food
    JEL: C26 Q18 Q51
    Date: 2019–12
  32. By: F.H.J. Polzin; M.W.J.L. Sanders
    Abstract: In models exploring energy transition pathways, existing investment flows are contrasted with predictions for investments needs to indicate a ‘financing-gap’ for the European energy transition. The authors draw on an in-depth analysis and comparison of the main scenarios being employed to forecast investments until 2050 as well as an analysis of the literature on the sources of finance for renewable energy. Long-term projections do not capture the supply or demand of specific sources of finance needed to cover the whole innovation chain. Our analysis reveals that under the individual investment and lending criteria/mandates the money is available. However, policy uncertainty strongly distorts investment decision making. Especially institutional investors and lenders such as pension funds and banks shy away from investments in the energy transition because of expected (policy) discontinuities and the risk of stranded assets. Moreover, more risk-bearing equity capital to finance the early stages of innovative clean energy technologies is needed to complement existing large-scale investments in existing technologies to allow for an effective and efficient mitigation that is in line with the major scenarios. Based on the analysis we develop a matrix that indicates the role for different sources of finance and new intermediation channels in the energy transition and how they need to be engaged..
    Keywords: Clean energy investments, mitigation pathways, sources of finance, financial system, empirical review
    Date: 2019–08
  33. By: Peter John Robinson; W.J.W. Botzen; F. Zhou
    Abstract: This paper examines the problem of “charity hazard†, which is the crowding out of private insurance demand by government compensation. In the context of flood insurance and disaster financing, charity hazard is particularly worrisome given current trends of increasing flood risks as a result of climate change and more people choosing to locate in high-risk areas. We conduct an experimental analysis of the influence on flood insurance demand of risk and ambiguity preferences and the availability of different forms of government compensation for disaster damage. Certain and risky government compensation crowd out demand, confirming charity hazard, but this is not observed for ambiguous compensation. Ambiguity averse subjects have higher insurance demand when government compensation is ambiguous relative to risky. Policy recommendations are discussed to overcome charity hazard
    Keywords: Ambiguity preferences, charity hazard;, economic experiment;, flood insurance demand, risk preferences
    Date: 2019–10
  34. By: Mathilde Maurel (CNRS - Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne - Université Paris 1 panthéon-Sorbonne;; Thomas Pernet (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne;
    Abstract: This paper analyses the efficiency of a set of environmental measures introduced by the 11th FYP (Five Years Plan) in China 2006, using a rich and unique dataset borrowed from the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) and from the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA). The objective is to provide new evidence of the Soft Budget Constraint (SBC), which is a key concept coinced by Janos Kornai. The main finding is that TCZ (Two Control Zone) cities are successful in bringing down the emission of SO2, and more importantly that this success is driven by the private sector. Sectors dominated by State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs) are less sensitive to the environmental target-based evaluation system, by a factor of 42%. We also find that one channel, through which this adjustment takes place, is Total Factor Productivity (TFP), but not in the case of SOEs. We interpret these results as pointing to the evidence of a still ongoing SBC surrounding Chinese SOEs
    Keywords: Environmental regulation; China; Kornai; Soft Budget Constraint
    JEL: Q53 Q56 P2 R11
    Date: 2020–02
  35. By: Camilo De Los Rios Rueda
    Abstract: There is evidence that suggests that both the creation of Protected Areas (PAs) and indigenous Reserves (IRs) has helped to reduce deforestation. Nevertheless, there are some overlapping zones between these institutions in the Colombian Amazon that have not been studied. Are these overlaps affecting the deforestation in the IRs? How are the indigenous communities responding to these overlaps? In this paper I estimate the impacts of these overlaps on the deforestation inside the IRs using a Propensity Score Matching (PSM) methodology. I use important determinants of the location of PAs and deforestation to create a valid counterfactual within the IRs. My results suggest that the overlap significantly reduces the deforestation, but that there is a differential effect depending on the IR’s size. These results suggest that the extra legal restriction imposed by the central government, favor the territorial control inside the IRs. This paper provides a starting point to analyze the current relationship between the central government, the indigenous communities and how it affects deforestation
    Keywords: deforestation, Indigenous Reserves, Protected Areas, Amazon
    JEL: Q2 Q5 R5
    Date: 2020–02–14
  36. By: Phoebe Koundouri
    Date: 2020–04
  37. By: Athanassios Papageorgiou
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2020–03–28
  38. By: Santiago Perez (CREIDD - Centre de Recherches et d'Etudes Interdisciplinaires sur le Développement Durable - ICD - Institut Charles Delaunay - UTT - Université de Technologie de Troyes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Nadège Troussier (UTT - Université de Technologie de Troyes); Tatiana Reyes (UTT - Université de Technologie de Troyes)
    Keywords: Balkans contemporains,Durabilité du développement territorial,Economie Circulaire,Objectifs de développement durable
    Date: 2019–07–01
  39. By: Axel Gautier (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE)); Julien Jacqmin (ULiège - LCII)
    Abstract: La transition énergétique modifie la manière de produire, consommer, stocker et échanger l’énergie. Dans cette transition, les prix doivent orienter les choix et donner des signaux corrects aux consommateurs. Dans ce numéro de Regards économiques, nous analysons le comportement des prosumers, les ménages qui sont à la fois producteurs et consommateurs d’énergie. Nous montrons que les tarifs en place ne donnent pas de bons signaux et qu’il faut les faire évoluer.
    Keywords: Consommation, prix et pouvoir d’achat, Environnement et développement durable
    Date: 2019–03–14
  40. By: J. Raimbault; J. Broere; M. Somveille; J. M. Serna; E. Strombom; C. Moore; B. Zhu; L. Sugar
    Abstract: Industrial symbiosis involves creating integrated cycles of by-products and waste between networks of industrial actors in order to maximize economic value, while at the same time minimizing environmental strain. In such a network, the global environmental strain is no longer equal to the sum of the environmental strain of the individual actors, but it is dependent on how well the network performs as a whole. The development of methods to understand, manage or optimize such networks remains an open issue. In this paper we put forward a simulation model of by-product flow between industrial actors. The goal is to introduce a method for modelling symbiotic exchanges from a macro perspective. The model takes into account the effect of two main mechanisms on a multi-objective optimization of symbiotic processes. First it allows us to study the effect of geographical properties of the economic system, said differently, where actors are divided in space. Second, it allows us to study the effect of clustering complementary actors together as a function of distance, by means of a spatial correlation between the actors' by-products. Our simulations unveil patterns that are relevant for macro-level policy. First, our results show that the geographical properties are an important factor for the macro performance of symbiotic processes. Second, spatial correlations, which can be interpreted as planned clusters such as Eco-industrial parks, can lead to a very effective macro performance, but only if these are strictly implemented. Finally, we provide a proof of concept by comparing the model to real world data from the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register database using georeferencing of the companies in the dataset. This work opens up research opportunities in interactive data-driven models and platforms to support real-world implementation of industrial symbiosis.
    Date: 2020–03
  41. By: Raouf Boucekkine; Giorgio Fabbri; Salvatore Federico
    Abstract: We study the joint determination of optimal investment and optimal depollution in a spatiotemporal framework where pollution is transboundary. Pollution is controlled at a global level. The regulator internalizes that: (i) production generates pollution, which is bad for the wellbeing of population, and that (ii) pollution flows across space driven by a diffusion process. We solve analytically for the optimal investment and depollution spatiotemporal paths and characterize the optimal long-term spatial distribution when relevant. We finally explore numerically the variety of optimal spatial distributions obtained using a core/periphery model where the core differs from the periphery either in terms of input productivity, depollution efficiency or self-cleaning capacity of nature. We also compare the distributions with and without diffusion. Key aspects in the optimal policy of the regulator are the role of aversion to inequality, notably leading to smoothing consumption across locations, and the control of diffusive pollution adding another smoothing engine
    JEL: Q53 R11 C61 R12 O41
    Date: 2020–01
  42. By: Melkamu Daniel , Aemiro (CERE - the Center for Environmental and Resource Economics)
    Abstract: This paper provides a joint analysis of multiple fuel types and use choices and explores the socio-demographic and housing characteristics that affect household fuel use decisions. Using household survey data from urban Ethiopia, this paper estimates a mixed multiple discretecontinuous extreme value (MMDCEV) model. The results indicate that households with a female head are more likely to combine traditional biomass fuels (firewood and charcoal) and electricity for different uses, while households with less-educated heads, larger families, and poorer living conditions (fewer rooms) tend to rely on traditional biomass fuels. The results also show that households with an individual electricity meter are significantly less likely to use charcoal. Further, the results show that the satiation effect from increased use of a fuel is relatively higher for firewood and lower for electricity. The findings in this paper can be useful to inform energy policy, including more effective targeting of subsidies for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) purchases and private electricity meter installations, and for interventions that promote adoption of improved biomass cookstoves.
    Keywords: Energy expenditure; fuel choice; fuel substitution; multiple fuel use
    JEL: C25 D13 O13 Q23 Q42 R21
    Date: 2020–03–27
  43. By: Jacques LOYAT
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2020–03–28
  44. By: Ebun Akinsete (ICRE8); Stella Apostolaki; Osiel Gonzalez Davila; Amerissa Giannouli; Stavros Gavroglou; Alice Guittard (ICRE8); Phoebe Koundouri; Eleftherios Levantis; Elisavet Mouslech; Vasileios Pergamalis; Nikitas Pittis (University of Piraeus, Greece); Dimitrios Reppas; Vassilis Skianis; Ioannis Souliotis; Stella Tsani (Athens University of Economics and Business)
    Date: 2019–01
  45. By: Rodier, Caroline; Jaller, Miguel; Pourrahmani, Elham; Pahwa, Anmol; Bischoff, Joschka; Freedman, Joel
    Abstract: Researchers at UC Davis explored what an automated vehicle future in the San Francisco Bay Area might look like by simulating: 1) A 100% personal automated vehicle future and its effects on travel and greenhouse emissions. 2) The introduction of an automated taxi service with plausible per-mile fares and its effects on conventional personal vehicle and transit travel. The researchers used the Metropolitan Transportation Commission’s activity-based travel demand model (MTC-ABM) and MATSim, an agent-based transportation model, to carry out the simulations. This policy brief summarizes the results, which provide insight into the relative benefits of each service and automated vehicle technology and the potential market for these services. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Engineering, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Intelligent vehicles, Multi-agent systems, Multimodal transportation, Public transit, Ridesharing, Simulation, Traffic simulation, Travel behavior, Travel demand, Value of time
    Date: 2020–03–01
  46. By: Charlotte Bigard (CEFE - Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive - UM3 - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - EPHE - École pratique des hautes études - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - IRD [France-Sud] - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier, Montpellier Méditerranée Métropole); Baptiste Regnery (Agence Régionale de la Biodiversité Nouvelle-Aquitaine); Sylvain Pioch (CEFE - Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive - UM3 - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - EPHE - École pratique des hautes études - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - IRD [France-Sud] - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); John Thompson (CEFE - Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive - UM3 - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - EPHE - École pratique des hautes études - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - IRD [France-Sud] - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier)
    Abstract: La séquence Éviter-Réduire-Compenser (ERC) est devenue un instrument réglementaire important visant à concilier aménagement et préservation de l'environnement. Le succès de son application dépend notamment de l'interprétation des textes normatifs nationaux par les acteurs du territoire. Dans cet article, nous nous intéressons à l'interprétation des définitions des étapes ERC inscrites dans la doctrine nationale. L'analyse de 42 études d'impact permet de montrer qu'il existe une forte hétérogénéité d'interprétation : 60 % des mesures proposées ne correspondent pas aux définitions normatives. Ces confusions pouvant réduire l'efficacité écologique de la séquence, nous suggérons des voies d'amélioration en faveur d'une plus grande cohésion entre les définitions et les mesures proposées.
    Keywords: Etude d'impact sur l'environnement,Sequence ERC,Biodiversité,Normes
    Date: 2018–03–30
  47. By: Antoine Missemer (CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Depuis le XVIII° siècle, les économistes ont entretenu des rapports ambivalents avec les enjeux environnementaux. C'est en Europe qu'ont été pensées pour la première fois les questions d'épuisement des ressources et d'externalités liés aux pollutions industrielles. Aujourd'hui, la discipline économique, très internationalisée, est amenée à se réinventer face au défi du changement climatique.
    Date: 2020
  48. By: Alain Debenedetti (UNIV GUSTAVE EIFFEL - Université Gustave Eiffel, IRG - Institut de Recherche en Gestion - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12); Déborah Philippe (HEC Lausanne - Faculté des Hautes Etudes Commerciales (HEC Lausanne)); Damien Chaney (ESC Troyes - ESC Troyes); Ashlee Humphreys (Northwestern University [Evanston])
    Abstract: Market-level studies based on institutional theory have gained prominence in recent marketing research seeking to investigate legitimation dynamics. Although these studies have paid particular attention to how organizations build legitimacy in new markets, they have rarely explored legitimations strategies in mature markets, which mostly remain the prerogative of organizational theory. Such emphasis on new markets is thus limiting our understanding of legitimation dynamics in general and legitimacy maintenance in particular, especially since new and mature markets have different characteristics. When markets are well established, they tend to become the target of a growing number of contestations by actors seeking to introduce new societal issues. Once these issues have been institutionalized, organizations must address them to maintain their legitimacy. In this study, we investigate the discursive strategies used by the French carmakers when environmental considerations gained prominence between 2006 and 2008. In contrast to prior works in organizational theory which assume that organizations respond to institutional pressures in an undifferentiated way, our results show that organizations adopt differentiated legitimation strategies by adapting their discourse to their different stakeholders. Paradoxically, we find evidence of industry-wide isomorphism, where rather than developing idiosyncratic discourses, organizations adopt conventional discursive strategies.
    Keywords: Legitimacy,Discursive strategies,Environmentalism,Contested markets,Mature markets,Institutional theory 2
    Date: 2020
  49. By: Reiner Eichenberger; Rainer Hegselmann; David Savage; David Stadelmann; Benno Torgler
    Abstract: A pandemic is not only a biological event and a public health disaster, but it also generates impacts that are worth understan ding from a societal, historical, and cultural perspective. In this contribution, we argue that as the disease spreads, we are able to harness a valuable key resource, namely people who have immunity to Corona. This vital resource must be employed effectively, it must be certified, it must be searched for, it must be found, and it may even be actively produced. We discuss why this needs to be done and how this can be achieved. Our arguments not only apply to the current pandemic, but also to any future rapidly spreading, infectious disease epidemics. In addition, we argue for awareness of a secondary non-biological crisis arising from the side effects of pandemic reactions. There is a risk that the impacts of the secondary crisis could outweigh that of the biological event from a health and societal perspective.
    Date: 2020–03
  50. By: Sushama Murty (Jawaharlal Nehru University); Resham Nagpal (Jawaharlal Nehru University)
    Abstract: Theoretical and empirical comparisons of weak-disposability(WD), joint-disposability(JD), by-production(BP), and input(I)-based approaches to modelling emission-generating technologies are made. Under constant or non-increasing returns, BP-based model satisfies JD, but stands unique in the class of DEA technologies, where graph-based indexes of technical efficiency improvements (TEIs) are identical for WD, JD, and I-based approaches, which are nested. Multi-relations-based BP approach is more successful in capturing the true data-generating process, and TEIs in input-usage result in an intuitive trade-o? between optimal TEIs in good and bad output-production, not seen under other approaches. A table covering all configurations of optimal TEIs is derived for BP-approach and applied to study di?erences in optimal TEIs for non-performing production-units.

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