nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2020‒02‒24
thirty-one papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Projecting the effect of climate change-induced increases in extreme rainfall on residential property damages: A case study from New Zealand By Jacob Pastor-Paz; Ilan Noy; Isabelle Sin; Abha Sood; David Fleming-Munoz; Sally Owen
  2. Can Carbon Offset Trading Promote Economic Development in Forest-Dependent and First Nations Communities? By G. Cornelis van Kooten
  3. The effects on growth of El Nino and La Nina:local weather conditions matter By Remi Generoso; Cécile Couharde; Olivier Damette
  4. Application of Systems Approach to Achieving Cleaner and Sustainable Environment: A study of Waste Dumping Issue on Idiroko Road, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria By Daniel E. Ufua; Odunayo P. Salau; Joseph A. Dada; Mosunmola O. Adeyeye
  5. Looking Back at Fifty Years of the Clean Air Act By Joseph E. Aldy; Maximilian Auffhammer; Maureen L. Cropper; Arthur G. Fraas; Richard Morgenstern
  6. THE GROWTH EFFECTS OF EL NIÑO AND LA NIÑA: LOCAL WEATHER CONDITIONS MATTER By Cécile Couharde; Olivier Damette; Rémi Generoso; Kamiar Mohaddes
  7. The Impact of Air Pollution on Attributable Risks and Economic Costs of Hospitalization for Mental Disorders By Wu, Ziting; Chen, Xi; Li, Guoxing; Tian, Lin; Wang, Zhan; Xiong, Xiuqin; Yang, Chuan; Zhou, Zijun; Pan, Xiaochuan
  8. Cooperation in a dynamic setting with asymmetric environmental valuation and responsibility By Francisco Cabo; Mabel Tidball
  9. Going Green in China: Firms’ Responses to Stricter Environmental Regulations By Fan, Haichao; Graff Zivin, Joshua; Kou, Zonglai; Liu, Xueyue; Wang, Huanhuan
  10. Can We Rely on VIIRS Nightlights to Estimate the Short-Term Impacts of Natural Disasters ? By Skoufias,Emmanuel; Strobl,Eric; Tveit,Thomas Breivik
  11. Is migration drought-induced in Mali? An empirical analysis using panel data on Malian localities over the 1987-2009 period By Dimitri Defrance; Esther Delesalle; Flore Gubert
  12. The future of European development finance: Institutional reforms for sustainable solutions By Erforth, Benedikt; Kaplan, Lennart
  13. Wirtschaftspolitische Herausforderungen 2020 By Sebastian Dullien; Sebastian Gechert; Alexander Herzog-Stein; Christoph Paetz; Katja Rietzler; Ulrike Stein; Silke Tober; Andrew Watt
  14. Adaptive Safety Nets for Rural Africa : Drought-Sensitive Targeting with Sparse Data By Baez,Javier E.; Kshirsagar,Varun; Skoufias,Emmanuel
  15. Pollution, Mortality and Time Consistent Abatement Taxes By Aditya Goenka; Lin Liu; William Pouliot
  16. Mental Health, Schooling Attainment and Polygenic Scores: Are There Significant Genetic-Environmental Associations? By Vikesh Amin; Jere R. Behrman; Jason M. Fletcher; Carlos A. Flores; Alfonso Flores-Lagunes; Hans-Peter Kohler
  17. How does the EU ETS reform impact allowance prices? The role of myopia, hedging requirements and the Hotelling rule By Bocklet, Johanna; Hintermayer, Martin
  18. Children Need Clean Water to Grow : E. Coli Contamination of Drinking Water and Childhood Nutrition in Bangladesh By Joseph,George; Haque,Sabrina Sharmin; Moqueet,Nazia Sultana; Hoo,Yi Rong
  19. Open Access in Scientific Information: Sustainability Model and Business Plan for the Infrastructure and Organisation of OpenAIRE By Phoebe Koundouri; Nikos Chatzistamoulou; Osiel Gonzalez Davila; Amerissa Giannouli; Nikolaos Kourogenis; Anastasios Xepapadeas; Peter A. Xepapadeas
  20. Third-Country Effects of Regional Trade Agreements : A Firm-Level Analysis By Lee,Woori; Mulabdic,Alen; Ruta,Michele
  21. Crisis Chronicles: The Hamburg Crisis of 1799 and How Extreme Winter Weather Still Disrupts the Economy By Donald P. Morgan; David R. Skeie; James Narron
  22. Magnitude and Distribution of Electricity and Water Subsidies for Households in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia By Cardenas,Helena; Whittington,Dale
  23. L’importance de l’Objectif de développement durable relatif à l’éducation (ODD 4) pour les pays de l’OCDE By OCDE
  24. Index Insurance : A Viable Solution for Irrigated Farming? By Arandara,Rathnija; Gunasekera,Shanuki; Mookerjee,Agrotosh
  25. The palm oil dilemma: Policy tensions among higher productivity, rising demand, and deforestation By Wiebe, Keith D.; Sulser, Timothy; Pacheco, Pablo; De Pinto, Alessandro; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; Dermawan, Ahmad; Thomas, Timothy S.; Li, Man; Robinson, Sherman; Dunston, Shahnila
  26. Ostrom's common goods governance model : which adapation to inland waterway transport ? By Antoine Kauffmann
  27. I Spot, I Adopt! Peer Effects and Visibility in Solar Photovoltaic System Adoption of Households By Rode, Johannes; Müller, Sven
  28. New Evidence on the Soft Budget Constraint: Chinese Environmental Policy Effectiveness in Private versus SOEs By Mathilde Maurel; Thomas Pernet-Coudrier
  29. El comercio internacional como incentivo a la sostenibilidad: la experiencia de la Red Latinoamericana y del Caribe de la Huella Ambiental del Café By Olmos, Ximena
  30. Automated Analysis of Wildlife-Vehicle Conflict Hotspots Using Carcass and Collision Data By Shilling, Fraser
  31. Zero-Emission Medium- and Heavy-duty Truck Technology, Markets, and Policy Assessments for California By Burke, Andrew PhD; Miller, Marshall PhD

  1. By: Jacob Pastor-Paz (Victoria University of Wellington); Ilan Noy (Victoria University of Wellington); Isabelle Sin (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); Abha Sood (National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA)); David Fleming-Munoz (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO)); Sally Owen (Victoria University of Wellington)
    Abstract: New Zealand’s public insurer, the Earthquake Commission (EQC), provides residential insurance for some weather-related damage. Climate change and the expected increase in intensity and frequency of extreme weather-related events are likely to translate into higher damages and thus an additional financial liability for the EQC. We project future insured damages from extreme precipitation events associated with future projected climatic change. We first estimate the empirical relationship between extreme precipitation events and the EQC’s weather-related insurance claims based on a complete dataset of all claims from 2000 to 2017. We then use this estimated relationship, together with climate projections based on future greenhouse gases concentration scenarios from six different dynamically downscaled Regional Climate Models, to predict the impact of future extreme precipitation events on EQC liabilities for different time horizons up to the year 2100. Our results show predicted adverse impacts that vary -increase or decrease over time and space. The percent change between projected and past damages—the climate change signal—ranges between an increase of 7% and 8% higher in the period 2020 to 2040, and between 9% and 25% higher in the period 2080 to 2100. We also provide detail caveats as to why these quantities might be mis-estimated. The projected increase in the public insurer’s liabilities could also be used to inform private insurers, regulators, and policymakers who are assessing the future performance of both the public and private insurers that cover weather-related risks in the face of climatic change. We combine firm-level innovation data with area-level Census data to examine the relationship between local workforce characteristics, especially the presence of immigrants and local skills, and the likelihood of innovation by firms. We examine a range of innovation outcomes, and test the relationship for selected subgroups of firms. We find a positive relationship between local workforce characteristics and average innovation outcomes in labour market areas, but this is accounted for by variation in firm characteristics such as firm size, industry, and research and development expenditure. Controlling for these influences, we find no systematic evidence of an independent link between local workforce characteristics and innovation.
    Keywords: Insurance, precipitation, climate change, extreme weather-events, loss projection
    JEL: Q54
    Date: 2020–02
  2. By: G. Cornelis van Kooten
    Keywords: carbon accounting; climate mitigation and forestry; forest-dependent rural communities
    JEL: R11 Q23 Q01 C61
    Date: 2018–03
  3. By: Remi Generoso; Cécile Couharde; Olivier Damette
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the climate-economy literature by analysing the role of weather patterns in in uencing the transmission of global climate cycles to economic growth. More speci cally, we focus on El Ni~no Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events and their interactions with local weather conditions, taking into account the heterogeneous and cumulative e ects of weather patterns on economic growth and the asymmetry and nonlinearity in the global in uence of ENSO on economic activity. Using data on 75 countries over the period 1975{2014, we provide evidence for the negative growth e ects of ENSO events and show that there are substantial di erences between its warm (El Ni~no) and cold (La Ni~na) phases and between climate zones. These di erences are due to the heterogeneity in weather responses to ENSO events, known as teleconnections, which has so far not been taken into account by economists, and which will become more im-portant in the climate-economy relationship given that climate change may substantially strengthen long-distance relationships between weather patterns around the world. We also show that the negative growth e ects associated with these teleconnections are robust to the de nition of ENSO events and more important over shorter meteorological onsets
    Keywords: economic growth, ENSO events, weather shocks, climate change
    JEL: C33 O40 Q54
    Date: 2020–01–29
  4. By: Daniel E. Ufua (CEPDeR, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria); Odunayo P. Salau (Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria); Joseph A. Dada (Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria); Mosunmola O. Adeyeye (Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria)
    Abstract: This research explores waste management activities and the strive to achieve a cleaner environment for man’s habitation. The work applies a case study approach andthe use of observation method was applied in the data collection along with a description of the case of waste dumping issue on Idiroko Road, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria. This study suggests the application of systems approach to enhance a participatory waste management practice, that embraces the involvement and active consultation of the concerned stakeholders for effective and sustainable waste management practice. The research also highlights the need for further research to consider the application of other data collection tools such asinterview and workshop to have a broaderdata needed to further explore the research area.
    Keywords: Clean environment; Environmental pollution; Systems approach; Waste management
    Date: 2020–01
  5. By: Joseph E. Aldy; Maximilian Auffhammer; Maureen L. Cropper; Arthur G. Fraas; Richard Morgenstern
    Abstract: Since 1970, transportation, power generation, and manufacturing have dramatically transformed as air pollutant emissions have fallen significantly. To evaluate the causal impacts of the Clean Air Act on these changes, we synthesize and review retrospective analyses of air quality regulations. The geographic heterogeneity in regulatory stringency common to many regulations has important implications for emissions, public health, compliance costs, and employment. Cap-and-trade programs have delivered greater emission reductions at lower cost than conventional regulatory mandates, but policy practice has fallen short of the cost-effective ideal. Implementing regulations in imperfectly competitive markets have also influenced the Clean Air Act’s benefits and costs.
    JEL: Q53 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2020–01
  6. By: Cécile Couharde (Université Paris Nanterre); Olivier Damette (Université de Lorraine and Climate Economic Chair Paris associate); Rémi Generoso (Université de Lille); Kamiar Mohaddes (4 Judge Business School, University of Cambridge)
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the climate-economy literature by analysing the role of weather patterns in influencing the transmission of global climate cycles to economic growth. More specifically, we focus on El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events and their interactions with local weather conditions, taking into account the heterogeneous and cumulative effects of weather patterns on economic growth and the asymmetry and nonlinearity in the global influence of ENSO on economic activity. Using data on 75 countries over the period 1975- 2014, we provide evidence for the negative growth effects of ENSO events and show that there are substantial differences between its warm (El Niño) and cold (La Niña) phases and between climate zones. These differences are due to the heterogeneity in weather responses to ENSO events, known as teleconnections, which has so far not been taken into account by economists, and which will become more important in the climate-economy relationship given that climate change may substantially strengthen long-distance relationships between weather patterns around the world. We also show that the negative growth effects associated with these teleconnections are robust to the definition of ENSO events and more important over shorter meteorological onsets
    Date: 2019–11–20
  7. By: Wu, Ziting; Chen, Xi; Li, Guoxing; Tian, Lin; Wang, Zhan; Xiong, Xiuqin; Yang, Chuan; Zhou, Zijun; Pan, Xiaochuan
    Abstract: This study aims to fill the gap in our understanding about exposure to particulate matters with diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and attributable risks and economic costs of mental disorders (MDs). We identify the relationship between PM2.5 and risk of hospital admissions (HAs) for MDs in Beijing and measure the attributable risk and economic cost. We apply a generalized additive model (GAM) with controls for time trend, meteorological conditions, holidays and day of the week. Stratified analyses are performed by age, gender and season. We further estimate health and economic burden of HAs for MDs attributable to PM2.5. A total of 17,252 HAs for MDs are collected. We show that PM2.5 accounts for substantial morbidity and economic burden of MDs. Specifically, a 10 μg/m3 daily increase in PM2.5 is associated with a 3.55% increase in the risk of HAs for MDs, and the effect is more pronounced for older males in colder weather. According to the WHO's air quality guidelines, 15.12 percent of HAs and 16.19 percent of related medical expenses for MDs are respectively attributable to PM2.5.
    Keywords: Attributable risk,Economic cost,Hospital admissions,Mental disorders,PM2.5
    JEL: Q51 Q53 I24 I31 G11 J24
    Date: 2020
  8. By: Francisco Cabo (Universitad de Valladolid); Mabel Tidball (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier)
    Abstract: We analyze a dynamic environmental agreement between two regions. We assume that the agreement is jointly protable, because the eort associated with emission reductions is overcompensated by a cleaner environment in the future The two regions are asymmetric in two respects: their value of a cleaner environment is dierent, and they are responsible for the initial environmental problem in dierent ways. Because the benets of a cleaner environment cannot be transferred, we propose a mechanism on how to share the eorts of lowering current emissions, satisfying two main properties. The rst property is a benets pay principle: the greater one region's relative benet from cooperation, the greater must be its relative contribution. The second property is, a polluter pay principle: a region's relative contribution increases with its responsibility. Moreover, the sharing scheme must be time consistent. At any intermediate time, no country can do better by deviating from cooperation. *
    Keywords: Cooperative dierential game,Distribution procedure,Time consistency,Polluter pay principle,Benets pay principle
    Date: 2020
  9. By: Fan, Haichao; Graff Zivin, Joshua; Kou, Zonglai; Liu, Xueyue; Wang, Huanhuan
    Date: 2019–12–01
  10. By: Skoufias,Emmanuel; Strobl,Eric; Tveit,Thomas Breivik
    Abstract: Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) nightlights are used to model damage caused by earthquakes, floods, and typhoons in five Southeast Asian countries (Indonesia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam). The data are used to examine the extent to which for each type of hazard there is a difference in nightlight intensity between affected and nonaffected cells based on (i) case studies of specific disasters, and (ii) fixed effect regression models akin to the double difference method to determine any effect that the different natural hazards might have had on the nightlight value. The results show little to no significance regardless of the methodology used, most likely due to noise in the nightlight data and the fact that the tropics have only a few days per month with no cloud cover.
    Date: 2019–10–31
  11. By: Dimitri Defrance (Espace-Dev, Université Montpellier, IRD, Université Guyane, Université Réunion, Université Antilles, Université Avignon); Esther Delesalle (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES)); Flore Gubert (IRD, UMR LEDa-DIAL, PSL, Université Paris-Dauphine, CNRS, and PSE)
    Abstract: This paper combines population census data and climate data to estimate the volume of migrations induced by the drought events that have hit Mali since the late 1980s. The results show that the droughts that have unevenly affected the regions of Mali have had the effect of increasing migration from rural to urban areas. This is true for both men and women, regardless of the age group considered. Between 1998 and 2009, droughts translate into an additional net outflow of 7,134 male and 6,281 female rural migrants per year. The effect of drought episodes, however, differs according to localities and rural households' capacity to adapt to climatic constraints: it fades in localities characterized by more diversified crops and in those located in the Sudano-Sahelian and Sudano-Guinean zones that receive more rainfall on average. Climate shocks also had an impact on international mobility: over the 2004-2009 period, around 2,000 additional departures per year can be attributed to the dry episodes that hit Mali during the 2000s. We forecast that, under different climate scenarios and population growth projection, internal and international mobility induced by droughts events will substantially grow in the next decades.
    Keywords: Climate change, Migration, Mali
    JEL: Q54 Q15 F22 O55
    Date: 2020–02–04
  12. By: Erforth, Benedikt; Kaplan, Lennart
    Abstract: Climate change, migration flows, security - growing challenges like these are calling for new responses from EU development policy. Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030 will in itself require additional financial resources of up to USD 2.5 trillion every year in middle- and low-income countries. Although the European Union (EU) and its Member States are already the biggest donors worldwide, the amount of public funds available is not enough to reach the SDGs. In their search for solutions, therefore, state and non-state actors are focusing squarely on linking public- and private-sector funding. Faced with ambitious climate targets and China's growing involvement in development finance, the current debate on the EU's future external financing is centred around reforming the institutional architecture. Such reforms are intended to boost green energy and employment in the partner countries and communicate a coherent European model of socioeconomic development to the outside world. While all actors agree that the EU's external financing architecture should be simpler, more visible and more efficient (European Commission, 2018), views on how this could actually be achieved vary widely. This led the Council of the EU to task a high-level Wise Persons Group with formulating various scenarios for creating an EU Development Bank. EU development financing is plagued by conflicting national and supranational interests and often sees institutional concerns prioritised over matters of content. Against this backdrop, we argue that institutional and content-related interests need to be better aligned if development financing is to be made more efficient and more sustainable. In particular, a reformed architecture for the EU's external financing has to do more to reconcile European sustainability and development goals with the needs of partners. Measuring impact against uniform standards will both help to achieve overarching objectives and convey a successful European development model. Given the importance of private capital for development finance, a reformed financial architecture should also consider the interests and rationales of the private sector. However, this will only be a winning formula if social, environmental and human rights standards do not take a back seat.
    Date: 2019
  13. By: Sebastian Dullien; Sebastian Gechert; Alexander Herzog-Stein; Christoph Paetz; Katja Rietzler; Ulrike Stein; Silke Tober; Andrew Watt
    Abstract: Die deutsche Wirtschaft befindet sich in einem konjunkturellen Abschwung. Zugleich werden strukturelle Herausforderungen durch die anstehende Dekarbonisierung deutlich, die auf nationaler und auch auf EU-Ebene enorme Anstrengungen erfordern. Eine wohlstandssichernde Klimawende bedarf massiver Investitionen. In Deutschland müssen ohnehin öffentliche Investitionen in Infrastruktur nachgeholt werden. Diese sollten zumindest teilweise kreditfinanziert werden. Eine entsprechende Änderung der deutschen und EU-Fiskalregeln ist überfällig. Darüber hinaus ist eine wirksame CO2-Bepreisung notwendig, kombiniert mit Maßnahmen des sozialen Ausgleichs. Der Europäische Green Deal der neuen EU-Kommission und das Klimapaket der deutschen Regierung gehen grundsätzlich in die richtige Richtung. Das Klimapaket ist allerdings deutlich zu zaghaft, beim Green Deal ist die konkrete Umsetzung noch offen. Eine grünere Politik der EZB sollte die allgemeine Wirtschaftspolitik flankieren.
    Keywords: Wirtschaftspolitische Herausforderungen, Konjunktur, EZB,
    Date: 2020
  14. By: Baez,Javier E.; Kshirsagar,Varun; Skoufias,Emmanuel
    Abstract: This paper combines remote-sensed data and individual child-, mother-, and household-level data from the Demographic and Health Surveys for five countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (Malawi, Tanzania, Mozambique, Zambia, and Zimbabwe) to design a prototype drought-contingent targeting framework that may be used in scarce-data contexts. To accomplish this, the paper: (i) develops simple and easy-to-communicate measures of drought shocks; (ii) shows that droughts have a large impact on child stunting in these five countries -- comparable, in size, to the effects of mother's illiteracy and a fall to a lower wealth quintile; and (iii) shows that, in this context, decision trees and logistic regressions predict stunting as accurately (out-of-sample) as machine learning methods that are not interpretable. Taken together, the analysis lends support to the idea that a data-driven approach may contribute to the design of policies that mitigate the impact of climate change on the world's most vulnerable populations.
    Date: 2019–12–02
  15. By: Aditya Goenka (University of Birmingham); Lin Liu (University of Liverpool); William Pouliot (University of Birmingham)
    Abstract: We study dynamically consistent policy in a neoclassical overlapping generations growth model where pollution externalities undermine health but are mitigated via tax-financed abatement. With arbitrarily constant taxation, two steady states arise: an unstable 'poverty trap' and a 'neoclassical' steady state near which the dynamics might either be monotonically convergent or oscillating. When the planner chooses a time consistent abatement path that maximises a weighted intergenerational sum of expected utility, the optimal tax is zero at low levels of capital and then a weakly increasing function of the capital stock. The non-homogeneity of the tax function along with its feedback effect on savings induces additional steady states, stability reversals and oscillations.
    Keywords: Time consistency, pollution, mortality, overlapping generations model, poverty traps, endogenous fluctuations, optimal environmental policy.
    JEL: O11 O13 O23 O44 E32 H21 H23
    Date: 2019–10
  16. By: Vikesh Amin (Central Michigan University); Jere R. Behrman (University of Pennsylvania); Jason M. Fletcher (University of Wisconsin-Madison); Carlos A. Flores (California Polytechnic State University); Alfonso Flores-Lagunes (Syracuse University); Hans-Peter Kohler (University of Pennsylvania)
    Abstract: We estimate associations between a polygenic score (PGS) for depressive symptoms, schooling attainment and genetic-environmental (GxE) associations with depressive symptoms and depression for 29 years old in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and 53 years old in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS). We find some suggestive evidence that the association of the PGS with mental health is lower for more-schooled older individuals in the WLS, but no evidence in Add Health. Quantile regression estimates also show that in the WLS the GxE associations are statistically significant only in the upper parts of the conditional depressive symptoms score distribution. We assess the robustness of the OLS results to possible omitted variable bias by estimating sibling fixed-effect regressions. The sibling fixed-effect results must be qualified, in part due to low statistical power. However, they show that college education is associated with fewer depressive symptoms in both datasets.
    Keywords: Schooling; Mental Health; Genetics; Gene-Environment Interactions
    JEL: I21 I10
    Date: 2020–02–05
  17. By: Bocklet, Johanna (Energiewirtschaftliches Institut an der Universitaet zu Koeln (EWI)); Hintermayer, Martin (Energiewirtschaftliches Institut an der Universitaet zu Koeln (EWI))
    Abstract: This paper uses a discrete-time partial equilibrium model of the European Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) to analyze the impact of the recent reform on allowance prices. By including bounded rationality such as myopia or hedging requirements, we find that the Hotelling price path is no longer visible ex-post even though the Hotelling price rule holds ex-ante in the decision making of the firms. Myopia and hedging requirements have little impact in the pre-reform market but strongly drive market outcomes after the reform. In the post-reform market, hedging requirements in combination with restrictive allowance supply may even cause a physical shortage of allowances. Yet, neither form of bounded rationality can fully explain the market outcomes in the third trading period of the EU ETS. If myopia and edging requirements are considered simultaneously, the price increase in the EU ETS can be attributed to the reform fundamentals.
    Keywords: Dynamic Optimization; EU ETS; Bounded Rationality; Hotelling; Hedging; Myopia
    JEL: D91 H32 Q58
    Date: 2020–02–19
  18. By: Joseph,George; Haque,Sabrina Sharmin; Moqueet,Nazia Sultana; Hoo,Yi Rong
    Abstract: Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions are increasingly recognized as essential for improving nutritional outcomes in children. Emerging literature describes the negative effects of poor sanitation on child growth. However, limited evidence has shown a link between water quality and nutritional outcomes. Similar to poor sanitation, it is plausible that water contaminated with E. coli could affect the nutritional status of children through various possible biological pathways, such as repeated episodes of diarrhea, environmental enteropathy, parasites, or other mechanisms that inhibit nutrient uptake and absorption. This study explores the relationship between contaminated water and stunting prevalence among children younger than age five years, using unique cross-sectional data from the 2012?13 Bangladesh Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, which was one of the first nationally representative surveys to include water quality testing for E. coli. E. coli contamination in drinking water is measured at household and source points. Stunting is measured using height-for-age z-scores for children under five, where a child is considered stunted when he or she is two or more standard deviations below the median of the World Health Organization reference population. The results of multiple probit regression models indicate a 6 percent increase in the prevalence of stunting in children who are exposed to highly contaminated drinking water at household point compared with those exposed to low-to-medium contamination. When contamination is measured at the source level, the association is greater, with a 9 percent increase in the likelihood of stunting when exposed to a high level of contamination.
    Keywords: Hydrology,Reproductive Health,Early Child and Children',Early Child and Children's Health,Nutrition,Small Private Water Supply Providers,Engineering,Water and Human Health,Health and Sanitation,Environmental Engineering,Sanitary Environmental Engineering,Water Supply and Sanitation Economics,Town Water Supply and Sanitation,Sanitation and Sewerage,Educational Sciences
    Date: 2019–11–07
  19. By: Phoebe Koundouri; Nikos Chatzistamoulou (AUEB); Osiel Gonzalez Davila; Amerissa Giannouli; Nikolaos Kourogenis (Department of Banking and Financial Management, University of Piraeus.); Anastasios Xepapadeas; Peter A. Xepapadeas
    Abstract: In 2008 European Commission launches the Open Access Infrastructure for Research in Europe project (OpenAIRE), supporting Open Access (OA) in scientific information and research output. In this paper, we assess the economic sustainability of the OpenAIRE project. The empirical strategy is developed through a Cost-Benefit Analysis framework to evaluate and compare the costs and benefits of OpenAIRE services to provide recommendations on the project's economic efficiency and sustainability, a non-market valuation method based on the results of a 'Choice Experiment' to calculate the Total Economic Value generated by OpenAIRE and a full preference ranking approach. Findings indicate that stakeholders prefer interoperability between research platforms and output, better access to scientific results and compliance to Open Access mandates. Furthermore, net social benefits for the basic services for 15 years are at least 5 times higher than costs' present value while the potential R&D effect from research suggests even larger benefits in the long run. Subscriptions based on the estimated willingness to pay and cost, institutional subsidies and public awareness are the main recommendations for the sustainable operation of OpenAIRE. This study contributes to the literature on monetary valuation of the benefits and costs of Open Access to scientific knowledge.
    Keywords: Open Access, OpenAIRE, Research and Economic Valuation, Choice Experiment, Rank-ordered Logit, Cost Benefit Analysis
    Date: 2020–02
  20. By: Lee,Woori; Mulabdic,Alen; Ruta,Michele
    Abstract: Do regional trade agreements negatively impact non-members? This paper revisits this long-standing trade policy question using firm-level data and detailed information on the content of trade agreements. Differently from the conventional view on trade diversion, the analysis identifies a positive spillover effect of regional trade agreements: they increase the probability of export and entry of third-country firms that previously exported to one of the member countries. This spillover effect is driven by deeper trade agreements, as they make member countries more"similar"in terms of the regulatory environment. Indeed, firms exporting regulation-intensive products benefit disproportionately more from deep trade agreements in destination markets, especially if the agreement includes nondiscriminatory provisions and addresses regulatory issues.
    Keywords: International Trade and Trade Rules,Energy and Mining,Trade Policy,Adaptation to Climate Change,Trade and Multilateral Issues
    Date: 2019–11–20
  21. By: Donald P. Morgan; David R. Skeie; James Narron (Executive Office)
    Abstract: With intermittent war raging across much of Western Europe near the end of the eighteenth century, by about 1795, Hamburg had replaced Amsterdam as an important hub for commodities trade. And from 1795 to 1799, Hamburg boomed. Prices for goods increased, the harbor was full, and warehouses were bulging. But when a harsh winter iced over the harbor, excess demand and speculation drove up prices. By spring, demand proved lower than supply, and prices started falling, credit tightened, and the decline in prices accelerated. So when a ship bound for Hamburg laden with gold sunk off the coast, an act meant to avert a crisis failed to do so. In this issue of Crisis Chronicles, we use some diverse sources from the American Machinist and Mary Lindemann?s Patriots and Paupers to explore the Hamburg crisis of 1799 and describe how harsh winter weather still impacts the economy today.
    Keywords: war; Amsterdam; Hamburg; contraction; storms; housing; harvest; winter; weather
    JEL: N2 E2
  22. By: Cardenas,Helena; Whittington,Dale
    Abstract: In Addis Ababa, an increasing block tariff has been used to calculate households'monthly bills for electricity and water services. This study estimates the magnitudes of the combined water and electricity subsidies received by households with private connections to the electricity grid and piped water network in 2016, and it evaluates the distribution of these subsidies among wealth groups. Customer billing data supplied by utility companies are matched with socioeconomic information collected through a household survey. It is the first detailed analysis of the combined effects of increasing block tariffs for electricity and water in an urban area in a developing country. The results show that the combined subsidies are large. The average household receives a subsidy of US$26 per month, about 6 percent of household income. The findings also show that electricity and water subsidies under the increasing block tariff disproportionately accrue to richer households, with even less targeting when both sectors are considered jointly. The poorest quintile receives 12 percent of the total subsidies for electricity and water services, while the richest quintile receives 31 percent. The water increasing block tariff's targeting of subsidies was somewhat worse than that of the electricity increasing block tariff.
    Keywords: Hydrology,Water Supply and Sanitation Policy, Legislation and Regulation,Economic Assistance,Services&Transfers to Poor,Access of Poor to Social Services,Energy Policies&Economics,Disability,Small Private Water Supply Providers,Water and Human Health,Environmental Engineering,Sanitary Environmental Engineering,Water Supply and Sanitation Economics,Engineering,Sanitation and Sewerage,Town Water Supply and Sanitation
    Date: 2019–09–26
  23. By: OCDE
    Abstract: Universel et ambitieux, le Programme de développement durable invite l’ensemble des pays de la planète à atteindre les Objectifs de développement durable d’ici à 2030, et c’est pour cette raison qu’il revêt une importance particulière pour les pays de l’OCDE. Dans ce contexte, le quatrième Objectif de développement durable livre des informations sur des enjeux politiques en matière d’éducation qui ne sont généralement pas inclus dans le programme d’action international en faveur du développement, malgré leur grande pertinence pour les pays membres ou partenaires de l’OCDE. L’ODD 4 insiste notamment sur l’importance d’assurer l’accès sur un pied d’égalité à l’éducation et à des opportunités d’apprentissage tout au long de la vie qui conduisent à des résultats d’apprentissage efficaces. Il met également l’accent sur la nécessité d’adapter le contenu des programmes d’éducation pour y inclure des sujets significatifs tels que les droits de l’homme et l’égalité entre les sexes. Toutefois, le défi actuel consiste désormais à collecter des données comparables et de qualité afin d’assurer le suivi d’une série d’indicateurs du quatrième Objectif de développement durable. La date butoir de 2030 approchant, les pays de l’OCDE peuvent jouer un rôle important en mettant en avant la nécessité de collecter davantage de données de meilleure qualité et en développant des méthodologies pour évaluer les systèmes d’éducation dans les pays de l’OCDE et autres pays du monde.
    Date: 2020–02–19
  24. By: Arandara,Rathnija; Gunasekera,Shanuki; Mookerjee,Agrotosh
    Abstract: This paper documents the practical experience of deploying index insurance in a tropical country whose agriculture is dependent on dual sources of water: rainfall and irrigation. The paper introduces an innovative hybrid index insurance product based on the authors'experience of piloting the concept. The hybrid product was created to address the higher basis risk of using a single rainfall trigger that ignores the hydrological conditions on the ground. The paper brings forth findings from a live pilot in selected locations -- with varied agro-climatic conditions?in Sri Lanka under the World Bank Group's Global Index Insurance Facility. The findings indicate that the new hybrid product performs better than the single trigger (rainfall-based) index insurance product, thereby reducing the basis risk faced by farmers. The paper also shares some of the practical limitations in deploying the product.
    Keywords: Hydrology,Natural Disasters,Food Security,Water and Food Supply,Town Water Supply and Sanitation,Small Private Water Supply Providers,Water Supply and Sanitation Economics,Water and Human Health
    Date: 2019–11–07
  25. By: Wiebe, Keith D.; Sulser, Timothy; Pacheco, Pablo; De Pinto, Alessandro; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; Dermawan, Ahmad; Thomas, Timothy S.; Li, Man; Robinson, Sherman; Dunston, Shahnila
    Abstract: Palm oil production has increased rapidly over the past two decades in response to rising demand for its use in food, energy, and industrial applications. Expansion of oil palm plantations presents a dilemma, as they can displace forests and peatlands, leading to biodiversity losses and increased greenhouse gas emissions. Although projections show that expansion of oil palm area will slow with faster yield growth, important concerns remain that will require careful attention from policymakers.
    Keywords: palm oils; productivity; supply balance; deforestation; yields; environment; prices; technological changes; markets; palm oil production; palm oil yields; IMPACT model
    Date: 2019
  26. By: Antoine Kauffmann (NIMEC - Normandie Innovation Marché Entreprise Consommation - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UNIROUEN - Université de Rouen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - ULH - Université Le Havre Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - IRIHS - Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire Homme et Société - UNIROUEN - Université de Rouen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université)
    Abstract: The governance of common goods is centered around a key notion : the tragedy of the commons. This paper proposes to examine the nature of this tragedy in a particular case : the transport and logistics infrastructure grouped around gateway corridors. After having characterised logistic infrastructure as a common good, this paper stucied the adaptation of Ostrom's (2010) common goods governance model to infrastructural common goods involved in the main French gateway corridors.
    Abstract: La gouvernance des biens communs s'articule autour d'une notion clé : la tragédie des biens communs. Cet article propose d'examiner la nature de cette tragédie dans un cas particulier : les infrastructures de transport et de logistique regroupées au sein des corridors logistico-portuaires. Après la caractérisation des infrastructures logistiques en tant que bien commun, ce papier étudie la transposabilité du modèle de gouvernance des biens communs de Ostrom (2010) au cas des communs infrastructurels mobilisés dans le transport fluvial sur les principaux corridors logistico-portuaires français.
    Keywords: Corridor,port,communs,infrastructure,fluvial,gouvernance
    Date: 2018–04–12
  27. By: Rode, Johannes; Müller, Sven
    Date: 2020–01–14
  28. By: Mathilde Maurel (CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne); Thomas Pernet-Coudrier (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the efficiency of a set of environmental measures introduced by the 11th FYP (Five Years Plan) in China in 2006, using a rich and unique dataset borrowed from the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) and from the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA). The objective is to provide new evidence of the Soft Budget Constraint (SBC), which is a key concept coined by Janos Kornai. The main finding is that TCZ (Two Control Zone) cities are successful in bringing down the emission of SO2, and more importantly that this success is driven by the private sector. Sectors dominated by State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs) are less sensitive to the environmental target-based evaluation system, by a factor of 42%. We also find that one channel, through which this adjustment takes place, is Total Factor Productivity (TFP), but not in the case of SOEs. We interpret these results as pointing to the evidence of a still ongoing SBC surrounding Chinese SOEs.
    Keywords: Environmental regulation,China Kornai,Soft Budget Constraint
    Date: 2020–02
  29. By: Olmos, Ximena
    Abstract: América Latina y el Caribe y la Unión Europea son los principales actores en el mercado global del café. La región es la mayor productora y exportadora del mundo, pero en ella varios millones de pequeños productores enfrentan una situación socioeconómica crítica, por causa de los bajos precios internacionales y la desigual distribución de las ganancias a lo largo de la cadena. A su vez, el mercado europeo es el mayor consumidor mundial de café, con un creciente aumento en sus exigencias respecto de la sostenibilidad de toda la cadena del café. La cooperación entre ambos actores es entonces clave. En este contexto, la CEPAL creó en 2014 la Red Latinoamericana y del Caribe de la huella ambiental del café, para incidir en la elaboración de un nuevo estándar europeo de sostenibilidad En esta publicación se busca sistematizar la experiencia de trabajo de la Red en los últimos cinco años. La evolución de su labor, los temas tratados, y las propuestas desarrolladas para mejorar y validar la sostenibilidad de los cultivos, pueden ser un aporte para otros sectores exportadores de la región que enfrentan retos similares.
    Date: 2020–02–06
  30. By: Shilling, Fraser
    Abstract: Wildlife-vehicle conflict (WVC) occurs when traffic coincides with a place where animals decide to cross the surface of a roadway. State departments of transportation have a consistent need to understand rates and locations of WVC but inconsistent access to tools to measure statistical significance of clusters of WVC which could need mitigation. This research brief summarizes the findings from the associated project, the objective of which was to develop a standard method for analyzing WVC “hotspots” (areas of concern) that any state could use to identify potential locations for WVC mitigation.
    Keywords: Engineering, Life Sciences, Databases, High risk locations, Road kill, Traffic conflicts, Web applications, Wildlife, Wildlife crossings
    Date: 2020–02–01
  31. By: Burke, Andrew PhD; Miller, Marshall PhD
    Abstract: This report assesses zero emissions medium- and heavy-duty vehicle technologies, their associated costs, projected market share, and possible policy mandates and incentives to support their adoption. Cost comparisons indicate that battery-electric transit buses and city delivery trucks are the most economically attractive of the zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs) based on their break-even mileage being a small fraction of the expected total mileage. These ZEVs using fuel cells are also attractive for a hydrogen cost of $5/kg. The most economically unattractive vehicle types for ZEV adoption are long-haul trucks and inter-city buses. Developing mandates for buses and trucks will be more difficult than for passenger cars for several reasons, including the large differences in the size and cost of the vehicles and the ways they are used in commercial, profit-oriented fleets. The best approach will be to develop separate mandates for classes of vehicles that have similar sizes, cost characteristics, use patterns, and ownership/business models. These mandates should be coupled to incentives that vary by vehicle type/class and by year or accumulated sales volume, to account for the effects of expected price reductions with time.
    Keywords: Education, Zero emission vehicles, electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, heavy duty vehicles, medium trucks, buses, operating costs, incentives, policy analysis
    Date: 2020–01–01

This nep-env issue is ©2020 by Francisco S. Ramos. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.