nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2020‒02‒10
43 papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. On the induced impacts of French pesticide policies: some macroeconomic assessments By François Bareille; Alexandre Gohin
  2. Public Perceptions of Biofuels - Case Study: Frames of Biofuel Discussion in the Finnish Context By Siivari, Elina; Safrutin, Ilia; Mozaffari, Khalil; Käyhkö, Esa; Jouttijärvi, Risto
  3. How econometrics can help us understand the effects of climate change on crop yields: the case of soybeans. By Hildegart Ahumada; Magdalena Cornejo
  4. Greening the Economy Through Voluntary Private Sector Initiatives or Government Regulation? A Public Opinion Perspective By Kolcava, Dennis; Bernauer, Thomas
  5. "Can We Afford the Green New Deal?" By Yeva Nersisyan; L. Randall Wray
  6. Folgenabschätzung für Maßnahmenoptionen im Bereich Landwirtschaft und landwirtschaftliche Landnutzung, Forstwirtschaft und Holznutzung zur Umsetzung des Klimaschutzplans 2050 By Osterburg, Bernhard; Heidecke, Claudia; Bolte, Andreas; Braun, Julian; Dieter, Matthias; Dunger, Karsten; Elsasser, Peter; Fischer, Richard; Flessa, Heinz; Fuß, Roland; Günter, Sven; Jacobs, Anna; Offermann, Frank; Rock, Joachim; Rösemann, Claus; Rüter, Sebastian; Schmidt, Thomas G.; Schröder, Jobst-Michael; Schweinle, Jörg; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Weimar, Holger; Welling, Johannes; de Witte, Thomas
  7. The joint effects of energy prices and carbon taxes on environmental and economic performance: Evidence from the French sector By Damien Dussaux
  8. Emission of bioaerosols from livestock facilities: Methods and results from available bioaerosol investigations in and around agricultural livestock farming By Clauß, Marcus
  9. Economic evaluation of catch-and-release salmon fishing: impact on anglers’ willingness to pay By Carole Ropars-Collet; Philippe Le Goffe
  10. Financial Dependencies, Environmental Regulation and Pollution Intensity: Evidence From China By Mathilde Maurel; Thomas Pernet; Zhao Ruili
  11. Renewable Energy, Trade Performance and the Conditional Role of Finance and Institutional Capacity of sub-Sahara African Countries By Opeyemi Akinyemi; Uchenna Efobi; Simplice A. Asongu; Evans S. Osabuohien
  12. Valuing Rural Residents' Attitude Regarding agri-environmental Policy in China: A Best-worst Scaling Analysis By Qinxin Guo; Junyi Shen
  13. Inequality, Information Failures, and Air Pollution By Catherine Hausman; Samuel Stolper
  14. Institutional Investors’ Views and Preferences on Climate Risk Disclosure By Emirhan Ilhan; Philipp Krueger; Zacharias Sautner; Laura T. Starks
  15. Reducing the health risks of the copper, rare earth and cobalt industries: Transition to a circular low-carbon economy By Mike Holland
  16. Low and zero emissions in the steel and cement industries: Barriers, technologies and policies By Chris Bataille
  17. What are Households Willing to Pay for Better Tap Water Quality? A Cross-Country Valuation Study By Olivier Beaumais; Anne Briand; Katrin Millock; Céline Nauges
  18. Impacts of agricultural policies on productivity and sustainability performance in agriculture: A literature review By Gwendolen DeBoe
  19. Is migration drought-induced in Mali? An empirical analysis using panel data on Malian localities over the 1987-2009 period By Dimitri Defrance; Esther Delesalle; Flore Gubert
  20. Who benefits from the return of the rains? The case of the Ferlo breeders in Senegal By Catherine Araujo Bonjean; Alioune N’diaye; Olivier Santoni
  21. Economic and environmental sustainability performance of environmental policies in agriculture By Gwendolen DeBoe
  22. What Caused Racial Disparities in Particulate Exposure to Fall? New Evidence from the Clean Air Act and Satellite-Based Measures of Air Quality By Janet Currie; John Voorheis; Reed Walker
  23. Can Food Waste Reduction in Europe Help to Increase Food Availability and Reduce Pressure on Natural Resources Globally? By Jafari, Yaghoob; Britz, Wolfgang; Dudu, Hasan; Roson, Roberto; Sartori, Martina
  24. Social Cost of Carbon: What Do the Numbers Really Mean? By Nikolay Khabarov; Alexey Smirnov; Michael Obersteiner
  25. The Impact of Infrastructure development on Foreign Direct Investment in Cameroon By Stéphane Mbiankeu Nguea
  26. The Differences between EU Countries for Sustainable Development Indicators: It is (mainly) the Economy! By J.-P. CLING; S. EGHBAL-TEHERANI; M. ORZONI; C. PLATEAU
  27. Approches d’Intelligence Artificielle et Technologies 4.0 (IoT) pour des Ecolabels Intelligents (Smart Ecolabel): Vers une Consommation Verte et Intelligente By Samia Chehbi-Gamoura
  28. Social Cost of Carbon under stochastic tipping points: when does risk play a role? By Nicolas Taconet; Céline Guivarch; Antonin Pottier
  29. Approche d'Intelligence Artificielle (AI) et Big Data (une des Technologies 4.0) pour des Ecolabels Tagués (Eco-Tagged label) Vers une Consommation Verte et Intelligente By Chehbi Gamoura Chehbi
  30. Challenges of decentralized electrification for economic development: lessons from experience By Jean-Claude Berthelemy
  31. Information Aggregation in Emissions Markets with Abatement By Estelle Cantillon; Aurelie Slechten
  32. Chapter 13 - Sharing strategies: carsharing, shared micromobility (bikesharing and scooter sharing), transportation network companies, microtransit, and other innovative mobility modes By Shaheen, Susan PhD; Cohen, Adam; Chan, Nelson; Bansal, Apaar
  33. Efficient Taxation of Fuel and Road Use By Geir H. M. Bjertnaes
  34. Short-term health effects of public transport disruptions: air pollution and viral spread channels By A. GODZINSKI; M. SUAREZ CASTILLO
  35. Measuring the Economic Risk of Epidemics By Ilan Noy; Nguyen Doan; Benno Ferrarini; Donghyun Park
  36. Next-generation Visitation Models using Social Media to Estimate Recreation on Public Lands By Wood, Spencer A; Winder, Samantha; Lia, Emilia; White, Eric; Crowley, Christian; Milnor, Adam
  37. The fiscal implications of the low-carbon transition By Assia Elgouacem; Håvard Halland; Enrico Botta; Gurtegh Singh
  38. Approche d'Intelligence Artificielle (AI) (Machine Learning) pour un Système d'Orientation des Consommateurs des Produits Ecolabel (Smart Eco-Adviser) Vers une Consommation Verte et Intelligente By Chehbi Gamoura Chehbi
  40. Pursuing More Sustainable Energy Consumption by Analyzing Sectoral Direct and Indirect Energy Use in Malaysia: An Input-Output Analysis By Mukaramah Harun
  41. Editorial By Jean-Louis Rastoin
  42. Intelligence Artificielle et Technologies 4.0 pour une Consommation Plus Ecologique Vers une Consommation Verte et Intelligente By Chehbi Gamoura Chehbi
  43. Produits bio et locaux à la cantine : du potentiel et des résistances By Gilles Maréchal; Thomas Bréger; Charlène Nicolay; Blaise Berger; Valentine Bossu; Doriane Guennoc

  1. By: François Bareille; Alexandre Gohin
    Abstract: The applications of synthetic pesticides by farmers generate fierce debates in France. This paper offers an original macroeconomic quantification of their economic and environmental impacts. We first reveal the statistically significant influence of the prices of crops and pesticides on these application. This influence is lower for cereals than other crops. We then simulate some economic and environmental impacts of future potential French policies. We find, as expected, that a simple tax policy reduces pesticide use and hurts the economic situation of French farmers and food processors. The French livestock sectors are also negatively impacted. We also find that such a simple policy will increase nitrogen pollution and greenhouse gas emissions due to global land use changes. Finally, policy insights regarding these macroeconomic results are discussed.
    Keywords: agriculture, pesticide taxation scheme, land-use change, carbon emissions Agriculture
    JEL: Q11 Q18
    Date: 2020
  2. By: Siivari, Elina; Safrutin, Ilia; Mozaffari, Khalil; Käyhkö, Esa; Jouttijärvi, Risto
    Abstract: Biofuels are fuels made of biological materials and they can be used in cars, trucks and other engines. The EU's policy and regulatory framework for bioeconomy and biofuels is seen as a multi-layered and complex issue. Policies around biofuels have developed recently in the EU. Renewable Energy Directive II established a binding target for the use of renewable energy across the European Union by 2030 to be 32% of the total energy production. Finland is a country where the utilization of forest biomass has traditions ranging back centuries and continues in the present day with bioenergy holding a central role in the Finnish energy matrix. Our case study is focused on examining the public perceptions of biofuels in Finland and is linked to the discussion about climate change, global warming, and sustainable development. We used a stakeholder approach and mapped key stakeholders in the biofuel sector in Finland from six stakeholder categories: corporations, governmental actors, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), municipalities, universities, and the media. We selected 59 online publications for our analysis from a time period between 2010-2019. Frame analysis was conducted using three pairs of polarised frames: environmental positive and negative, economic positive and negative, and technological positive and negative. The results show that for the most part the framing of biofuel discussion in Finland is positive and emphasizes the environmentally and economically positive aspects. The negative aspects that came to front are especially in the notions of economic costs and in arguments for environmental calculations. The EU legislation itself is seen as a background to all this discussion and is itself not scrutinized extensively by the various stakeholders.
    Date: 2019–11–28
  3. By: Hildegart Ahumada; Magdalena Cornejo
    Abstract: Climate econometrics is a new field which is providing a fruitful approach to give a rigorous basis for many hypotheses related to climate change. With this aim, this chapter illustrates how econometrics can help understand the effects of climate change on the time behavior of crop yields at a country-level scale. We discuss different issues which empirical studies should address such as the non-stationarity nature of climate variables, the exogeneity of the variables used for modelling crop yields, the existence of non-linearities, the presence of extreme events, disentangling short and dealing with long-run effects of climate change, and collinearities in a multivariate framework. The incorporation of new lands to production or the rise of crop yields on existing lands to meet increasing demand for food and energy may be threatened by global climate change. However, there are several factors that have reduced the harmful impacts of climate change: adaptation, trade, the declining share over time of agriculture in the economy and carbon fertilization. In particular, the CO2 fertilization eect should be taken into account for certain crops. As an example, we focus on soybeans in the main producer and exporter countries: Brazil and United States, and particularly in Argentina, as an interesting case of mitigation and adaptation processes due to global and local climate changes.
    Keywords: climate change; econometrics; crop yields; soybeans; Argentina
    Date: 2019
  4. By: Kolcava, Dennis; Bernauer, Thomas
    Abstract: Societal efforts towards greening the economy are typically accompanied by controversy over whether voluntary initiatives by firms or government regulation are more effective to that end. Recent research shows that public opinion plays an important role in this regard because citizens’ preferences are crucial when democratic policy-makers decide. We investigate whether and how citizens’ general attitudes regarding the relationship between the private sector and government can help explain their policy preferences. We argue that whether citizens perceive the firms-state relationship as synergistic or antagonistic has an effect on their support for private sector self-regulation or government regulation respectively. We assess this argument based on information from a representative survey (N=1677) in Switzerland that covers four green economy issues: environmental impacts of consumption of peat, plastic packaging, climate- (un)friendly pension fund investments, and consumption of clothing. We find that citizens who regard the firms-state relationship in environmental policy-making as synergistic favor private sector self-regulation (with government rules potentially serving as a floor standard). In contrast, citizens who regard the firms-state relationship as antagonistic prefer either self-regulation or government intervention. We also observe that views on whether firms engage in self-regulation to gain a competitive economic advantage shape the perception of a synergistic firms-state relationship. Our findings are relevant to current green economy debates as policy-makers in Europe and elsewhere are trying to move beyond the ‘either firms or the state’ paradigm in regulatory environmental politics.
    Date: 2020–02–03
  5. By: Yeva Nersisyan; L. Randall Wray
    Abstract: In this policy brief, Yeva Nersisyan and Senior Scholar L. Randall Wray argue that assessing the "affordability" of the Green New Deal is a question of whether there are suitable and sufficient real resources than can be mobilized to implement this ambitious approach to climate policy. Only after a careful resource accounting can we address the question of whether taxes and other means might be needed to reduce private spending to avoid inflation as the Green New Deal is phased in. Nersisyan and Wray provide a first attempt at resource budgeting for the Green New Deal, weighing available resources--including potential excess capacity and resources that can be shifted away from existing production--against what will be needed to implement the major elements of this plan to fight climate change and ensure a just transition to a more sustainable economic model.
    Date: 2020–01
  6. By: Osterburg, Bernhard; Heidecke, Claudia; Bolte, Andreas; Braun, Julian; Dieter, Matthias; Dunger, Karsten; Elsasser, Peter; Fischer, Richard; Flessa, Heinz; Fuß, Roland; Günter, Sven; Jacobs, Anna; Offermann, Frank; Rock, Joachim; Rösemann, Claus; Rüter, Sebastian; Schmidt, Thomas G.; Schröder, Jobst-Michael; Schweinle, Jörg; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Weimar, Holger; Welling, Johannes; de Witte, Thomas
    Abstract: Im vorliegenden Bericht wird dargestellt, welche Instrumente und Maßnahmen zur Erreichung der Sektorziels des Klimaschutzplans 2050 (KSP 2050) bis zum Jahr 2030 für die Landwirtschaft und zur Minderung von Emissionen und Steigerung der Senkenleistung im Bereich LULUCF notwendig sind. Dabei stehen Maßnahmen auf der Bundesebene im Mittelpunkt. Für die verschiedenen Handlungsfelder und Maßnahmen werden Instrumente zu deren Umsetzung diskutiert, die THG-Minderungspotentiale dargestellt, und Folgen auf Wirtschaft, Beschäftigung, Umwelt und Gesundheit abgeschätzt. Die analysierten Maßnahmen- und Ausgestaltungsoptionen sollen die Informationsgrundlage für die geplante Aufstellung des Maßnahmenprogramms zur Umsetzung des KSP 2050 verbessern. Der Bericht gibt den Arbeitsstand vom Sommer 2019 wieder. Eine Aktualisierung der Folgenabschätzung für die mittlerweile erfolgte Konkretisierung im Klimaschutzprogramm 2030 der Bundesregierung zur Umsetzung des Klimaschutzplans 2050 (Bundestagsdrucksache 19/ 13900 vom 11.10.2019) erfolgt in diesem Bericht nicht, dies bliebt darauf aufbauenden Arbeiten vorbehalten.
    Keywords: Klimaschutz,Landwirtschaft,LULUCF,Maßnahmen,Folgenabschätzung,Treibhausgase,climate mitigation,agriculture,LULUCF,measures,impact analysis,greenhouse gas emissions
    Date: 2019
  7. By: Damien Dussaux
    Abstract: The paper estimates the effect of energy prices and carbon taxation on firms’ environmental and economic performance. The analysis uses data on 8 000 firms that are representative of the French manufacturing sector and observed during 2001-2016. The paper shows that (i) even though a 10% increase in energy prices causes a decline in energy use by 6% at the firm level, this increment has no effect on net employment at the industry level, but it motivates a reallocation of production and workers from energy-intensive to energy-efficient firms. Simulations shows also that (ii) the current carbon tax rate reduced manufacturing CO2 emissions in 2018 by 5% or 3.6 Mt of CO2 compared to a no-tax scenario, and that (iii) a further increase of carbon tax in France from its current rate of 45€ to 86€ per tonne of CO2 would induce a reduction in carbon emissions by 8.7% or 6.2 Mt of CO2 and a job reallocation for 0.24% of the workforce in the manufacturing sector. Our conclusion calls for complementary labour market policies that minimise costs on affected workers and ease between-firms adjustments in employment.
    Date: 2020–02–04
  8. By: Clauß, Marcus
    Abstract: The present report reviews literature from throughout the world on methods and results of bioaerosol investigations in and around agricultural livestock farming and summarises the most important points. The global trend towards intensification and industrialisation of animal production, with regional concentration of livestock facilities and increasing numbers of animals and greater stock densities, has led to an increase in bioaerosol emissions to the environment in certain areas and to increasing concern about health impairment of the population in the vicinity. The main sources of the bioaerosols are the animals and their faeces, the litter and feed. If the particles become airborne, they can be emitted from the stables into the environment. Hundreds of different viruses, bacteria and moulds have been detected in agricultural livestock farming worldwide. The bacterial group of the Staphylococcaceae appears to be most suitable for animal husbandry as a specific indicator or guiding parameter. Bioaerosols can be measured online with particle spectrometers and offline using classical methods, i.e. sampling on site with subsequent evaluation by means of culture-based or molecular biological methods in the laboratory. The classical detection methods are best suited to the complexity of bioaerosols in agricultural livestock farming. The sampling of bioaerosols should be carried out as far as possible using standardised systems that have high physical and biological collection efficiency, in order to ensure comparability of the data. The selection of a suitable collection system should primarily depend on the issue in question. After the bioaerosols have been collected in a sample, evaluation is usually carried out via cultivation and / or various biochemical and molecular biological methods. Especially the latter, in combination with the classical culture-based methods, enable a detailed insight into the composition of bioaerosols. However, further standardisation of the methods for bioaerosols is necessary here. Endotoxins, on the other hand, are predominantly detected using the LAL test, although this test remains relatively susceptible to disturbances. Most data on bioaerosol measurements in agricultural livestock farming available for this review are from the USA and Germany. Here, the concentrations of bacteria, moulds and endotoxins were measured in the stalls of pigs, cattle and chickens. The highest concentrations of airborne bacteria were found in stalls for chickens, followed by turkeys, ducks, sheep, goats, pigs, cattle, horses and rabbits, with the different husbandry and production stages having a significant influence. Emission factors published for airborne microorganisms also differ in part considerably depending on the animal species and the type of keeping, also as a result of different sampling conditions, collection methods and different methods for determination of the concentrations. The concentrations of the airborne bacteria in livestock during the day and night can deviate by a factor of ten. The deviation may further increase by a factor of 1000 if emission factors are calculated on the basis of the specific volumetric flow rates. This must be taken into account in the calculation of annual average values of emission factors. During transportation, i.e. the transport of bioaerosols via the air, the microorganisms are largely exposed to wind and weather. The extent to which they are carried is primarily dependent on two parameters: the tenacity, i.e. the ability to survive the airborne condition, and the size and composition of the bioaerosol particles, i.e. how quickly they sediment. How long microorganisms are viable in the air is dependent on very many factors and, due to the relatively unsuitable test systems used in the past, this aspect has not been studied sufficiently. Regarding particle size, most of the airborne microorganisms found in livestock farming have a significantly larger particle size or mass fraction than would be expected from the size of the individual cells of the organisms. 30% to 70% of the bacteria can be found in mass fractions larger than PM10, whereby the distribution of the different bioaerosol components can vary considerably and is not uniformly correlated with the distribution of the dust fractions. The immission concentrations of bioaerosols exponentially decrease with the distance from the emission source, mainly depending on the particle size and meteorological conditions. Instead of carrying out complex measurements, the spread of bioaerosols can also be simulated with computer models. Up to now, however, these models have often overestimated the emissions, since night reduction, particle size distributions and death rates of the microorganisms are still not taken into account. [...]
    Keywords: Bioaerosols,agriculture,animal husbandry,emissions,review,methods
    Date: 2020
  9. By: Carole Ropars-Collet (SMART - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AGROCAMPUS OUEST); Philippe Le Goffe (SMART - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AGROCAMPUS OUEST)
    Abstract: Catch-and-release (C&R) could be an interesting management tool in recreational fisheries as long as mortality remains low and the anglers' well-being does not drop. We used a choice experiment to examine the potential of C&R angling as a monitoring tool for the salmon recreational fishery in Brittany (France). Anglers were asked to choose between hypothetical fishing day trips differing in terms of their combination of relevant attributes and levels. From the analysis of respondents' trade-offs between the fishing trip's attributes, willingness-to-pay were estimated for each level of attribute. Our results show that anglers prefer unrestrictive regulations. All in all, the majority of the anglers nonetheless hold a positive valuation of a C&R fishing day, which could therefore be used to generate economic returns for the river once the TAC is reached. Lastly, the fishing season, and especially the level of river use, impact more on the value of fishing than C&R.
    Abstract: La remise à l'eau des prises peut être une mesure de gestion intéressante dans le cas de la pêche récréative tant que la mortalité demeure faible et que le bien-être des pêcheurs ne diminue pas. Une enquête a été conduite en 2017 auprès des pêcheurs de saumons des trois départements de l'ouest breton, dans le but de leur faire révéler leur consentement à payer pour différents paramètres de gestion de la pêche : saison, total autorisé de capture (TAC), mode de pêche, no-kill, fréquentation. Il était demandé aux pêcheurs de choisir entre des destinations de pêche hypothétiques différant par la combinaison des paramètres de gestion et la distance pour s'y rendre. En moyenne, on observe que le no-kill a un effet dépressif sur la valorisation de la journée de pêche. Cependant, certaines CSP valorisent positivement le no-kill. Au total, il faut retenir que la majorité des pêcheurs conservent néanmoins une valorisation positive de la journée de pêche en no-kill, ce qui permettrait donc de valoriser la rivière après la clôture du TAC. Enfin, la saison de pêche et surtout la fréquentation impactent davantage la valeur de la pêche que le no-kill.
    Keywords: recreational activity,salmon fishing,catch and release,choice experiment,activité récréative,pêche au saumon,no-kill,expérience de choix
    Date: 2020
  10. By: Mathilde Maurel (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Thomas Pernet (UP1 UFR02 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - UFR d'Économie - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne, CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Zhao Ruili (SUIBE - Shangai University of International Business and Economics)
    Abstract: We study how a bank's involvement in a firm's financing may be in line with environmental policies pursued by the Chinese central government. Specifically, we evaluate the effectiveness of credit reallocation away from polluting projects when the government imposes stringent environmental policies. We combine the industries' financial dependencies with time, including cross-cities variation in policy intensity to identify the causal effect on the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission. We find that SO2 emissions are lower in industries with high reliance on credits and stricter environmental regulations. Furthermore, our results suggest that locations with strong environmental policies lead firms to seek funding in less regulated areas, which confirms the pollution haven hypothesis.
    Keywords: Banks,Financial Dependency,Environmental regulation,China
    Date: 2019–12
  11. By: Opeyemi Akinyemi (CEPDeR, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria); Uchenna Efobi (CEPDeR, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon); Evans S. Osabuohien (CEPDeR, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria)
    Abstract: The paper investigates the dynamic relationship between renewable energy usage and trade performance in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), while considering the conditioning role of corruption control, regulatory quality, and the private sector access to finance. Focusing on 42 SSA countries for the period 2004-2016, and engaging the System generalized method of moments (GMM) technique for its estimation, this study found a negative relationship between renewable energy usage and the indicators of trade performance. However, with corruption control, improved regulatory framework, and better finance for the private sector, there are potentials for a positive net impact of renewable energy usage on manufacturing export. For renewable energy and total trade nexus, we find that improved regulatory framework and better finance for the private sector are important conditioning structures. These findings are significant because they highlight the different important structures of SSA countries that improve the effect of renewable energy use on trade outcomes. For instance, the consideration of the financial, institutional and regulatory frameworks in SSA countries in conditioning the renewable energy-trade nexus stipulates a clear policy pathway for countries in this region as the debate for transition to the use of renewable energy progresses.
    Keywords: Environment; Green growth; Trade performance; Pollution; Renewable energy; sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: C5 F1 Q4 Q5
    Date: 2019–01
  12. By: Qinxin Guo (Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University, Japan); Junyi Shen (Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration (RIEB), Kobe University, Japan)
    Abstract: In this study, a stated choice survey was conducted in Anhui Province, China. The best-worst scaling method, an alternative method to the discrete choice experiment, was used to value rural residents' attitude toward agri-environmental policy. Using the multinomial logit and random parameter logit model, the results showed that respondents thought the best policy included protecting underground water quality as the objective, straw recycling as the method, technological support provided by the government, a supervision level of 30% of farmers, and a 6,000 RMB subsidy directly disbursed by the government. Conversely, respondents thought the worst policy included protecting biodiversity as the objective, purchasing pesticides and fertilizers from the prescribed list as the method, no technological support provided by the government, an increased supervision level of 50% of farmers, and a 4,500 RMB subsidy requiring a contract with the government. The results of the latent class logit model suggested the respondents who are older, have fewer children under middle school age, less agree with the rural environment will have a large impact on agriculture production, have more knowledge of agricultural and environmental 2 protection would show more sensitivity to the attributes of agri-environmental policies.
    Keywords: Agri-environmental policy; Best-worst scaling; Latent class model; Random parameter logit model; Multinomial logit model
    Date: 2020–01
  13. By: Catherine Hausman; Samuel Stolper
    Abstract: Research spanning several disciplines has repeatedly documented disproportionate pollution exposure among the poor and communities of color. Among the various proposed causes of this pattern, those that have received the most attention are income inequality, discrimination, and firm costs (of inputs and regulatory compliance). We argue that an additional channel – information – is likely to play an important role in generating disparities in pollution exposure. We present multiple reasons for a tendency to underestimate pollution burdens, as well as empirical evidence that this underestimation can disproportionately affect low-income households. Using a model of housing choice, we then derive conditions under which “hidden” pollution leads to an inequality – even when all households face the same lack of information. This inequality arises because households sort according to known pollution and other disamenities, which we show are positively correlated with hidden pollution. To help bridge the gap between environmental justice and economics, we discuss the relationship between hidden information and three different distributional measures: exposure to pollution; exposure to hidden pollution; and welfare loss due to hidden pollution.
    JEL: D63 D83 Q53 Q56 R21
    Date: 2020–01
  14. By: Emirhan Ilhan (Frankfurt School of Finance & Management); Philipp Krueger (University of Geneva - Geneva Finance Research Institute (GFRI); Swiss Finance Institute); Zacharias Sautner (Frankfurt School of Finance & Management gemeinnützige GmbH; European Corporate Governance Institute (ECGI)); Laura T. Starks (University of Texas at Austin - Department of Finance)
    Abstract: We survey institutional investors on firms’ climate risk disclosures. Many investors believe climate risk reporting to be as important as traditional financial reporting and that it should be mandatory and more standardized. However, they also view current quantitative and qualitative disclosure on climate risks as being insufficient and imprecise. The belief that current climate-related disclosure is deficient derives more from investors that believe climate risks are underpriced in equity markets. We complement the survey analysis with archival data showing that greater institutional ownership is associated with a higher propensity of firms to voluntarily disclose their carbon emissions.
    Keywords: climate finance, climate risk disclosure, transparency, institutional investors
    JEL: G11 G3 Q54
    Date: 2019–08
  15. By: Mike Holland (Imperial College)
    Abstract: This paper considers the health and environmental burdens and impacts of the extraction and refining of selected metals (copper, rare earth elements and cobalt) and how impacts can be reduced through the transition to a circular, low-carbon economy. Performance in the global industry is extremely variable. Some businesses operate to high standards within a framework that facilitates the re-use and recycling of metals and other materials. Others cause significant harm to workers (including child labour) and the people and environment around their facilities. Mining for metal ore remains a highly hazardous occupation in some countries. Pollutant emission standards vary substantially between regions. Life cycle analysis has repeatedly demonstrated the benefits of recycling metals. The report includes a number of recommendations to policy makers and the metals and manufacturing industries.
    Date: 2020–01–31
  16. By: Chris Bataille (Institut du Développement Durable et des Relations Internationales)
    Abstract: This paper discusses the main barriers and possible solutions to the decarbonisation of steel and cement industries. First, the paper details the economic, regulatory, technological and political economy barriers that impede a low carbon transition. Then, it addresses the role of material efficiency and enhanced recycling in greening these industries, and reviews the emerging and near commercial low- and zero- emissions production technologies. Finally, the policy packages that could contribute to trigger demand and supply decarbonisation of steel and cement are discussed.
    Date: 2020–01–31
  17. By: Olivier Beaumais (LISA - Lieux, Identités, eSpaces, Activités - UPP - Université Pascal Paoli - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Anne Briand (LASTA - Laboratoire d'Analyse des Sociétés, Transformations et Adaptations - UNIROUEN - Université de Rouen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université); Katrin Millock (PSE - Paris School of Economics); Céline Nauges (LERNA-INRA - TSE - Toulouse School of Economics - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: We estimate willingness to pay (WTP) for better quality of tap water on a unique cross-section sample from 10 OECD countries. On the pooled sample, households are willing to pay 7.5% of the median annual water bill to improve the tap water quality. The highest relative WTP for better tap water quality was found in the countries with the highest percentage of respondents being unsatisfied with tap water quality because of health concerns. The expected WTP increased with income, education, environmental concern, and health and taste concerns with the tap water.
    Date: 2020–01–07
  18. By: Gwendolen DeBoe (OECD)
    Abstract: This report reviews the evidence base on how agricultural policies impact environmental sustainability and productivity of the agriculture sector, including the potentially contradictory signals policies may send. It considers impacts for specific policy types, classified according to the OECD’s Producer Support Estimate (PSE) classification for agricultural support. At the farm level, key pathways for environmental impacts identified in the literature are firstly incentivising a change in agricultural production at the intensive margin, extensive margin or entry-exit margin, and secondly the dynamic impacts of land use choice. Beyond this, policies can also affect agriculture’s environmental performance by stimulating (or stifling) the provision of environmental services. Environmental impacts from agricultural policy depend on several factors. Individual responses to economic incentives created by agricultural policies vary, producing variations in environmental impacts. Variation also occurs due to location-specific physical factors, including landscape characteristics, as well as the cumulative effects of decisions across actors and across time. Finally, impacts may differ across scales.
    JEL: Q15 Q18
    Date: 2020–02–05
  19. By: Dimitri Defrance (Espace-Dev, Université Montpellier, IRD, Université Guyane, Université Réunion, Université Antilles, Université Avignon); Esther Delesalle (IRES/LIDAM, UCLouvain, and IRD, UMR LEDa-DIAL); Flore Gubert (IRD, UMR DIAL, PSL, Université Paris-Dauphine)
    Abstract: This paper combines population census data and climate data to estimate the volume of migrations induced by the drought events that have hit Mali since the late 1980s. The results show that the droughts that have unevenly aected the regions of Mali have had the eect of increasing migration from rural to urban areas. This is true for both men and women, regardless of the age group considered. Between 1998 and 2009, droughts translate into an additional net outow of 7,134 male and 6,281 female rural migrants per year. The eect of drought episodes, however, diers according to localities and rural households' capacity to adapt to climatic constraints: it fades in localities characterized by more diversied crops and in those located in the Sudano-Sahelian and Sudano-Guinean zones that receive more rainfall on average. Climate shocks also had an impact on international mobility: over the 2004-2009 period, around 2,000 additional departures per year can be attributed to the dry episodes that hit Mali during the 2000s. We forecast that, under dierent climate scenarios and population growth projection, internal and international mobility induced by droughts events will substantially grow in the next decades.
    Keywords: Climate change, Migration, Mali.
    JEL: Q54 Q15 F22 O55
    Date: 2020–01
  20. By: Catherine Araujo Bonjean (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - Clermont Auvergne - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Alioune N’diaye (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - Clermont Auvergne - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR SELMET - Systèmes d'élevage méditerranéens et tropicaux - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Olivier Santoni (FERDI - Fondation pour les Etudes et Recherches sur le Développement International)
    Abstract: The return of more abundant rainfall in the Sahel region since the early 2000s raises questions about the consequences of this change for breeders in the Ferlo region of Senegal. A detailed analysis of precipitation data shows that with the return of a more humid rainfall regime, the climatic risk has changed in nature but remains present. The increase in annual precipitations and in the lengthening of the rainy season is offset by an increase in rainfall aggressiveness and in the number of dry spells. In the end, the efficiency of precipitations in terms of vegetation growth does not increase or even decreases. The data collected in 2015 for a representative sample of farmers makes it possible to assess the impact of the monsoon characteristics on milk production and animal sales. The results, based on the analysis of livestock breeders' behavior in the dry and wet seasons, show the sensitivity of milk production to rainfall and vegetation conditions. They also show that adverse rainfall conditions lead farmers to increase livestock's sales, but they do not support the income-smoothing hypothesis.
    Abstract: Le retour à un régime de précipitations plus abondantes au Sahel à partir des années 2000 conduit à s'interroger sur les conséquences de ce changement pour les éleveurs du Ferlo sénégalais. Une analyse fine des données de précipitations montre qu'avec le retour d'un régime pluviométrique plus humide, le risque climatique a changé de nature mais reste présent. L'augmentation des précipitations et l'allongement de la saison des pluies sont compensés par une augmentation de l'agressivité des pluies et du nombre d'épisodes secs. Au final, l'efficacité des pluies en termes de croissance de la végétation n'augmente pas, voire diminue. Les données collectées en 2015, pour un échantillon représentatif d'éleveurs, permettent d'évaluer l'impact de ces différents paramètres sur la production laitière et les ventes d'animaux. Les résultats, basés sur l'analyse du comportement des éleveurs en saison sèche et en saison humide, montrent la sensibilité de la production laitière aux pluies et à l'état de la végétation. Ils soulignent aussi que des conditions pluviométriques défavorables entrainent un déstockage d'animaux, conséquence des difficultés des éleveurs à entretenir leur cheptel plutôt que d'une stratégie de lissage de leur revenu.
    Keywords: Climate change,Pastoralism,Senegal,Changement climatique,pastoralisme,Sénégal
    Date: 2019–12–19
  21. By: Gwendolen DeBoe (OECD)
    Abstract: This report reviews the literature on the effects of agri-environmental policies on environmental sustainability and economic performance in agriculture. Examining these twin impacts is essential for understanding the scope for “win-win” policies which improve both types of performance, and where trade-offs between economic and environmental objectives may arise. The review considers findings on several underlying questions: i) whether agri-environmental policy instruments successfully deliver on their objectives to improve the environmental performance of agriculture, and ii) whether agri-environmental policy instruments slow down productivity growth or if they contribute to stimulating productivity growth and improved environmental outcomes. As part of this latter question, this review considers the impacts of agri-environmental policies on innovation, economic performance and structural change in agriculture. It brings together literature from across a range of disciplines, including evidence from over 160 papers. As a whole, the reviewed literature identifies significant “room for improvement” in both the effectiveness of agri-environmental policies for improving agricultural sustainability and their economic efficiency, particularly in relation to hybrid instruments (e.g. cross-compliance) and voluntary agri-environmental schemes (AES).
    Keywords: AES, agri-environmental policy, economic performance, environmental sustainability, innovation, Porter Hypothesis
    JEL: Q15 Q18
    Date: 2020–02–04
  22. By: Janet Currie; John Voorheis; Reed Walker
    Abstract: Racial differences in exposure to ambient air pollution have declined significantly in the United States over the past 20 years. This project links restricted-access Census Bureau microdata to newly available, spatially continuous high resolution measures of ambient particulate pollution (PM2.5) to examine the underlying causes and consequences of differences in black-white pollution exposures. We begin by decomposing differences in pollution exposure into components explained by observable population characteristics (e.g., income) versus those that remain unexplained. We then use quantile regression methods to show that a significant portion of the "unexplained" convergence in black-white pollution exposure can be attributed to differential impacts of the Clean Air Act (CAA) in non-Hispanic African American and non-Hispanic white communities. Areas with larger black populations saw greater CAA-related declines in PM2.5 exposure. We show that the CAA has been the single largest contributor to racial convergence in PM2.5 pollution exposure in the U.S. since 2000, accounting for over 60 percent of the reduction.
    JEL: H4 I14 J18 Q5 Q53
    Date: 2020–01
  23. By: Jafari, Yaghoob; Britz, Wolfgang; Dudu, Hasan; Roson, Roberto; Sartori, Martina
    Abstract: In recent years, reducing food waste and loss has become a policy priority in the European Union, but little is known about impacts of related measures in the EU and beyond. This study informs the debate on food waste reduction through a quantitative analysis. It considers adjustment costs for reducing food waste in food processing industries and impacts on food availability, pressure on land and water, and other environmental consequences. The results suggest that the leakage effects of global trade may offset almost all benefits of food waste reduction in the EU. We thus conclude that costly efforts to reduce food waste in the EU cannot be motivated by larger contributions to global food availability and environmental benefits. This highlights the need for global coordination of such policies and/or more targeted actions in the EU which focus on specific production chains, where losses can be reduced and environmental gains obtained at a relatively low cost.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Land Economics/Use, Political Economy, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2020–02–05
  24. By: Nikolay Khabarov; Alexey Smirnov; Michael Obersteiner
    Abstract: The Social Cost of Carbon (SCC) is estimated by integrated assessment models and is widely used by government agencies to value the climate impacts of rulemakings, however, the core discussion around SCC so far was focused on validity of obtained numerical estimates and related uncertainties while largely neglecting a deeper discussion of the SCC applicability limits stemming from the calculation method. This work provides a conceptual mathematical background and the economic interpretation that is behind the SCC calculation in the three widely used integrated assessment models. Policy makers need to be aware of a subtle, but decisive difference between the actual and the commonly implied meanings of SCC that substantially limits its applicability as compared to the current practice.
    Date: 2020–01
  25. By: Stéphane Mbiankeu Nguea (LAREFA, Faculty of Economics and Management, University of Dschang, Cameroon)
    Abstract: Better access to improved infrastructure services is one of the components of a favourable investment climate for foreign investors and an important engine for sustainable economic growth. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of communication, energy and transport infrastructures development on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Cameroon. This study employs autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration and an error correction model based on ARDL approach using time series data for the period 1984-2014. The results revealed that communication infrastructure has a positive and significant impact on FDI in both the long run and the short run. Findings also revealed a negative impact of energy infrastructure in attracting FDI in the long run and in the short run while an insignificant impact of transport infrastructure on FDI is registered in both the long run and the short run. The results suggest that the improvement of business climate trough better infrastructures play a major role in attracting FDI in Cameroon.
    Keywords: ARDL,FDI,Cameroon JEL Classification: H41,R42,F21,E22,Infrastructure
    Date: 2020–01–21
  26. By: J.-P. CLING (Insee); S. EGHBAL-TEHERANI (Insee); M. ORZONI (Insee); C. PLATEAU (Insee)
    Abstract: The United Nations adopted In September 2015 the 2030 Agenda, which is broken down into 17 goals and 169 targets. It covers the three traditional dimensions of sustainable development: the economic, social and environmental. The European Union (EU) has developed its own dashboard involving 100 indicators, derived from the global Sustainable Development Indicators. Our study is based on the EU’s dashboard indicators. The statistical methods used to analyse the data show that the differences between the EU countries lie primarily in their economic and social indicators: income/poverty; health; education/employment. A fourth category regarding governance also distinguishes EU countries from each other to a certain extent. In contrast, the indicators relating to the environment in a broad sense are much more heterogeneous. On the basis of this analysis, two groups of countries can be identified within the EU. On the one hand, the countries of Western and Northern Europe, and on the other, the countries of East and Southern Europe. While France belongs to the first group of countries, it is closest to the EU 28 average for these indicators overall.
    Keywords: 2030 Agenda, Sustainable development, Indicators, European Union, France
    JEL: C14 F64 I10 I20 I30 K00 O52
    Date: 2019
  27. By: Samia Chehbi-Gamoura (Humanis - Hommes et management en société / Humans and management in society - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - EM Strasbourg - Ecole de Management de Strasbourg)
    Abstract: Dans le domaine de la consommation écologique, les données des systèmes d'informations proviennent de deux sources principales : Les produits éco-labélisés et les consommateurs des produits éco-labélisés, qui eux cherchent toujours à accéder facilement à leurs offres de produits. Parmi les principales problématiques liées à ces systèmes d'informations nous identifions l'optimisation, la sélection personnalisée et la véracité des informations. Ce qui constitue également une complexité majeure dans la gestion des données du fait de la complexité des flux et des process de certifications des produits. Au vu de la littérature académique actuelle qui peine à trouver des leviers efficaces à ces problèmes, nous faisons appel dans ce travail aux approches de l'Intelligence Artificielle (IA) conjointement avec les IoT (Internet of Things) qui relèvent des Technologies 4.0 afin d'en apporter une solution innovante.
    Keywords: Consommation écologique,écolabel,Intelligence Artificielle,IoT,Technologie 40,Data management
    Date: 2019–12–17
  28. By: Nicolas Taconet (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Céline Guivarch (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Antonin Pottier (EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales)
    Date: 2019–12–13
  29. By: Chehbi Gamoura Chehbi (EM Strasbourg - Ecole de Management de Strasbourg)
    Abstract: En consommation écologique dite 'verte' ou encore 'responsable', les systèmes d'information prennent une place importante dans la traçabilité et l'optimisation du flux. Cependant la complexité des flux qui se croisent et la multiplicité des organismes qui délivrent les labels, rendent le rôle de ces systèmes très complexe. La recherche scientifique elle, se trouve contrainte de trouver des approches et outils d'analytique avancée afin de rendre cette complexité intelligible aux managers et analystes. Ces dernières années, l'un des domaines les plus puissants servant l'analytique des données est Intelligence Artificielle (IA). L'IA venant des sciences dures tend à se trouver une place dans le milieu du management mais avec un rythme ralenti pour cause de la nature des outils employés venant des sciences dites exactes. Cette difficulté se fait constatée également dans le monde de la consommation malgré les applications multiples qui voient le jour. Dans ce travail, nous essayons de trouver une issue à cette difficulté où nous employons conjointement l'IA avec l'une des autres Technologie 4.0 qui est la technologie des Big Data en exploitant le cycle de vie du produit dans le système de l'éco-labélisation (Life Cycle Assessment-LCA). Mots Clés : Consommation écologique, écolabel, tag, traçabilité, Intelligence Artificielle, Big Data, Technologie 4.0, Cycle de vie du produit éco-labélisé, Life Cycle Assessment-LCA.
    Date: 2019–12–21
  30. By: Jean-Claude Berthelemy (FERDI - Fondation pour les Etudes et Recherches sur le Développement International, Université de Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne (Université de Paris))
    Abstract: This paper uses a meta-analysis to investigate the challenges of decentralized electrification for economic development. It uses an original database which has evaluation data on more than 400 projects. Technological innovations, notably for solar energy, are opening new space for electrification policy, based on off-grid systems, which are particularly relevant for remote rural areas. However there are two main challenges. Firstly due to the threshold effects associated with the size of the projects based on nano size systems, typically the popular Solar Home Systems (SHS). Nano systems do not reliably lead to the transformation effects which are necessary to ensure economic sustainability. This may lead to a poverty trap. Secondly the bigger the system, the bigger the need to organize collective action for planning, installation, and management. This collective action requires proper governance structures, which can be designed using Ostrom's framework for the management of common pools of resources.
    Keywords: Decentralized electrification,sustainable development,impact assessment,meta-analysis,poverty traps,common pool of resource
    Date: 2019–11–04
  31. By: Estelle Cantillon; Aurelie Slechten
    Abstract: A key policy argument in favor of emissions markets (relative to command-and-control types of regulation) is their ability to aggregate dispersed information and generate price signals to guide firms' trading and abatement decisions. We investigate this argument in a multi-period model where firms receive noisy private signals about their current period emissions and privately observe their previous period emissions before this information is made public to the rest of the market. Firms respond to information by trading and abating emissions. We show that there exists a rational expectations equilibrium that fully aggregates firms' private information, justifying the policy argument in favor of emissions markets, in the absence of other frictions. We also derive predictions about how prices should be reacting to new private or public information and show that the possibility of abatement dampens the impact of shocks on prices. Finally, we show that the information aggregation result breaks down if firms' abatement costs are also private information.
    Keywords: Information Aggregation, Efficient Market Hypothesis, Price Formation, Emissions Trading
    Date: 2018–12–15
  32. By: Shaheen, Susan PhD; Cohen, Adam; Chan, Nelson; Bansal, Apaar
    Abstract: Shared mobility—the shared use of a vehicle, bicycle, or other mode—is an innovative transportation strategy that enables users to gain short-term access to transportation modes on an “as-needed” basis. It includes various forms of carsharing, bikesharing, scooter sharing, ridesharing (carpooling and vanpooling), transportation network companies (TNCs), and microtransit. Included in this ecosystem are smartphone “apps” that aggregate and optimize these mobility options, as well as “courier network services” that provide last mile package and food delivery. This chapter describes different models that have emerged in shared mobility and reviews research that has quantified the environmental, social, and transportation-related impacts of these services.
    Keywords: Engineering, shared mobility, innovative mobility, sharing economy, business models, sustainable transportation
    Date: 2020–01–01
  33. By: Geir H. M. Bjertnaes
    Abstract: This study calculates efficient taxes on gasoline and road use designed to combat driving related externalities when motorists avoid taxes due to an excessive economic driving-style. The efficient tax on gasoline is reduced below the Pigouvian rate due to such avoidance. The current US tax rate on gasoline is below the efficient tax rate while the current UK rate is slightly above the efficient rate in this case. A GPS-based road user charge prevents such avoidance. The efficient GPS-based road user charge should be combined with a tax on gasoline which promotes an economic driving-style that lowers accidents.
    Keywords: transportation, optimal taxation, environmental taxation, global warming
    JEL: H20 H21 H23 Q58 R48
    Date: 2019
  34. By: A. GODZINSKI (Insee); M. SUAREZ CASTILLO (Insee)
    Abstract: When public transport supply decreases, urban population health may be strongly affected. First, as ambient air pollution increases, respiratory diseases may be exacerbated during a few days. Second, reduced interpersonal contacts may lead to a slower viral spread, and therefore, after a few incubation days, lower morbidity. We evidence these two channels, using a difference-in-differences strategy, considering public transport strikes in the ten most populated French cities over the 2010-2015 period. On the two days following the strike, we find less emergency hospital admissions for influenza and gastroenteritis. In spite of the existence of this contagion channel, which tends to mitigate the increase of admissions for respiratory diseases, we also evidence a substantial air pollution channel. On the strike day, we find more admissions for acute diseases of the upper respiratory system, while on the following day of the strike, more abnormalities of breathing. Our results suggest that urban population daily transportation choices do matter as they engender dynamic spillovers on health.
    Keywords: Dynamic health effects, transport strike, air pollution, contagion, difference-in-differences
    JEL: I12 I18 C23 L91 Q53 R41
    Date: 2019
  35. By: Ilan Noy; Nguyen Doan; Benno Ferrarini; Donghyun Park
    Abstract: We measure the economic risk of epidemics at a geo-spatially detailed resolution. In addition to data about the epidemic hazard prediction, we use data from 2014-2019 to compute measures for exposure, vulnerability, and resilience of the local economy to the shock of an epidemic. Using a battery of proxies for these four concepts, we calculate the hazard (the zoonotic source of a possible epidemic), the principal components of exposure and vulnerability to it, and of the economy’s resilience (its ability of the recover rapidly from the shock). We find that the economic risk of epidemics is particularly high in most Africa, the Indian subcontinent, China, and Southeast Asia. These results are consistent when comparing an ad-hoc (equal) weighting algorithm for the four components of the index, with one based on an estimation algorithm using Disability-Adjusted Life Years associated with communicable diseases.
    Keywords: epidemic, influenza, risk measurement, economic impact
    JEL: E01 Q54
    Date: 2019
  36. By: Wood, Spencer A (University of Washington); Winder, Samantha; Lia, Emilia; White, Eric; Crowley, Christian; Milnor, Adam
    Abstract: Outdoor recreation is an economically important industry and valuable ecosystem service, yet managers lack high quality data on the spatial and temporal extent and nature of recreation activities. Social media is a promising source of data to fill information gaps because the amount of recreational use is positively correlated with social media activity. However, despite the implication that these correlations could be employed to accurately estimate visitation, there are no known transferable models parameterized for use with multiple social media data sources. This study tackles these issues by examining the relative value of multiple sources of social media in models that estimate visitation at unmonitored sites and times across multiple destinations. Using a novel dataset of over 30,000 social media posts and 286,383 observed visits, from two regions in the United States, we compare multiple competing statistical models for estimating visitation based on social media and other controlling variables such as time of year and weather. We measure the marginal benefits of social media data sources and explore whether our results are generalizable across regions. To conclude, we discuss the implications of our findings for recreation research and visitor management.
    Date: 2020–01–07
  37. By: Assia Elgouacem (OECD); Håvard Halland (OECD); Enrico Botta (OECD); Gurtegh Singh (OECD)
    Abstract: Fossil fuels play an important role in the budget of several governments. On the one hand, half of the countries identified as resource-rich derived 50% or more of their government revenue from fossil-fuel resources. On the other hand, fossil fuel consumption in road transport is an important tax base for several countries. This fiscal entanglement creates specific challenges for countries in preparing for a low carbon future. In addition to the traditional challenges of volatility and unpredictability of resource revenues, resource-rich countries are increasingly exposed to the risk of stranded assets. While energy demand is estimated to grow under current and announced policies, a dramatic reshuffle in the world energy mix will need to take place. In this context, this paper reviews the evidence on the role of fossil fuels in government budget (section 2) and the best practice for the management of resource revenues, including the role of sovereign wealth funds and strategic investment funds (section 3). Section 4 discusses the role of green tax reform in preparing the tax system for the low-carbon transition.
    Date: 2020–01–31
  38. By: Chehbi Gamoura Chehbi (EM Strasbourg - Ecole de Management de Strasbourg)
    Abstract: Dans le secteur de consommation écologique des produits écolabel, l'orientation des consommateurs vers les produits recherchés soulève une complexité non négligeable face aux chercheurs et industriels. Les espaces spatiaux des magasins et la multiplicité des produits disposés ainsi que le manque de repérage des consommateurs forme un système complexe dynamique nécessitant des heuristiques exploratoires avancées. Dans cet article, nous proposons une approche basée sur l'apprentissage automatique (Machine Learning), un des sous-domaines appartenant à la classe des algorithmes de recommandation (recommendation systems). L'objectif étant de pouvoir orienter les consommateurs des produits écolabel dans un espace spatial d'exposition (magasin ou grande surface). L'idée de base est celle de joindre-dans un seul espace de données exploratoires-les données provenant des consommateurs profilés (Data-Consumers) et les données provenant des produits éco-labellisés (Data-products). Le matching intelligent entre les deux se fait donc via le Machine Learning par recommandation. Les systèmes intelligents par recommandation sont les systèmes d'Intelligence Artificielle les plus utilisées dans les modèles applicatifs dans les industries et notamment dans le commerce. Nous pensons que cette approche aurait un rôle très clé dans l'orientation du choix du consommateur de l'écolabel. L'Intelligence Artificielle considéré aujourd'hui comme le nouvel Eldorado des Technologies 4.0 en plein boom applicatif actuellement nous ouvre le potentiel de recherche de solutions efficaces en consommation écologique dans une démarche que nous initions et que nous appelons 'la consommation verte et intelligente'.
    Keywords: écolabel,profil consommateur,orientation consommateur,Intelligence Artificielle,Consommation écologique,Machine Learning,Technologie 40,recommendation system
    Date: 2019–12–24
  39. By: D. Desbois (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AgroParisTech)
    Abstract: Without being bothered by too many social or environmental constraints, certified futurologists are surfing on technological prowess to hold out the promise of renewed economic growth thanks to investment in technical innovations. Based on the adage of "Winner takes all", an economic fact stylized by Sherwin Rosen in his "tournament theory" to analyze the economy of the star system, the doctrine of the "technological unicorn" celebrating enterprise 2.0 is distilled at Technology, Entertainment and Design (TED) conferences by digital media "opinion leaders", organized by strategy consulting firms and funded by asset managers in this "new economy". Rather than having to challenge certain rules of the economic game, these facilitators of a "renewed business ethics" call for sustainable entrepreneurship, philanthropic capitalism and artificial intelligence to bring out solutions with "socio impact - significant economic "in a context of globalized markets.
    Abstract: Sans guère s'embarrasser de trop de contraintes sociales ou environnementales, des futurologues patentés surfent sur les prouesses technologiques pour faire miroiter la promesse d'un regain de croissance économique grâce à l'investissement dans les innovations techniques. Basée sur l'adage du « Winner takes all », fait économique stylisé par Sherwin Rosen dans sa « théorie du tournoi » pour analyser l'économie du star system, la doctrine de la « licorne technologique » célébrant l'entreprise 2.0 est distillée lors de conférences Technology, Entertainment and Design (TED) prononcées par les « leaders d'opinion » des médias numériques, organisées par les cabinets de consultants en stratégie et financées par les gestionnaires d'actifs de cette « nouvelle économie ». Plutôt que de devoir remettre en cause certaines règles du jeu économique, ces facilitateurs d'une « éthique renouvelée des affaires » en appellent à l'entrepreneuriat durable, au capitalisme philanthropique et à l'intelligence artificielle pour faire émerger des solutions à « impact socio-économique significatif » dans un contexte de marchés globalisés.
    Date: 2019–12
  40. By: Mukaramah Harun
    Abstract: Malaysia is experiencing ever increasing domestic energy consumption. This study is an attempt at analyzing the changes in sectoral energy intensities in Malaysia for the period 1995 to 2011. The study quantifies the sectoral total, direct, and indirect energy intensities to track the sectors that are responsible for the increasing energy consumption. The energy input-output model which is a frontier method for examining resource embodiments in goods and services on a sectoral scale that is popular among scholars has been applied in this study.
    Date: 2020–01
  41. By: Jean-Louis Rastoin (UMR MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier)
    Abstract: As the divide between rural areas and large cities continues to widen and the pressure of social, environmental and/or economic crises affects a majority of countries in the world, innovative business models must be imagined. Territorialized circular bioeconomy clusters made up of networks of responsible and sustainable enterprises could constitute the bedrock of food systems capable of revitalizing the rural world.
    Abstract: Alors que la fracture entre espaces ruraux et grandes métropoles ne cesse de se creuser et que la pression des crises sociales, environnementales et/ou économiques touche une majorité de pays dans le monde, des modèles innovants d'entreprises doivent être imaginés. Les clusters de bioéconomie circulaire territorialisés formés de réseaux d'entreprises responsables et durables pourraient constituer le socle de systèmes alimentaires capables de redynamiser le monde rural.
    Keywords: Bioeconomy,territory,food system,rural development,Bioéconomie,territoire,système alimentaire,développement rural
    Date: 2019–12–04
  42. By: Chehbi Gamoura Chehbi (EM Strasbourg - Ecole de Management de Strasbourg)
    Date: 2019–12–17
  43. By: Gilles Maréchal (ESO - Espaces et Sociétés - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UM - Le Mans Université - UA - Université d'Angers - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - UR2 - Université de Rennes 2 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - IGARUN - Institut de Géographie et d'Aménagement - UN - Université de Nantes); Thomas Bréger (Programme ERC Lascaux - IRDP - Institut de recherche en droit privé - UFR DSP - Université de Nantes - UFR Droit et Sciences Politiques - UN - Université de Nantes); Charlène Nicolay; Blaise Berger (FRCIVAM Bretagne - Fédération Régionale des Centres d'Initiatives pour Valoriser l'Agriculture et le Milieu Rural de Bretagne); Valentine Bossu; Doriane Guennoc (Pacte, Laboratoire de sciences sociales - UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - Grenoble 2 - UJF - Université Joseph Fourier - Grenoble 1 - IEPG - Sciences Po Grenoble - Institut d'études politiques de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes)
    Abstract: Dans ce texte publié en ligne par la revue Sésame, les auteurs mobilisent leur expérience de terrain pour analyser les difficultés d'approvisionnement des cantines par des produits et locaux. Ils empruntent une approche par les acteurs, avec leurs systèmes de contraintes et de valeurs qui peinent à s'articuler. Ils proposent une analogie avec la loi d'Ohm, considérant la fréquente confusion entre les produits potentiellement disponibles dans un territoire et ceux qui sont mobilisables en pratique.
    Date: 2019–12–09

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