nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2020‒01‒27
53 papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Green House Gases: A Review of Losses and Benefits By Audi, Marc; Ali, Amjad; Kassem, Mohamad
  2. Climate Change and U.S. Agriculture: Accounting for Multi-dimensional Slope Heterogeneity in Production Functions By Timothy Neal; Michael Keane
  3. Probability Assessments of an Ice-Free Arctic: Comparing Statistical and Climate Model Projections By Francis X. Diebold; Glenn D. Rudebusch
  4. Do sustainable energy policies matter for reducing greenhouse gas emissions? By Donatella, Baiardi
  5. On the induced impacts of French pesticide policies: some macroeconomic assessments By Bareille, François; Gohin, Alexandre
  6. Disposal is Not Free: Fiscal Instruments to Internalize the Environmental Costs of Solid Waste By Thornton Matheson
  7. The Financial Development-Environmental Degradation Nexus in the United Arab Emirates: The Importance of Growth, Globalization and Structural Breaks By Shahbaz, Muhammad; Haouas, Ilham; Sohag, Kazi; Ozturk, Ilhan
  8. Climate, Urbanization, and Conflict: The Effects of Weather Shocks and Floods on Urban Social Disorder By Castells-Quintana , David; McDermott, Thomas K.J.
  9. The Links between Climate Change, Disasters, Migration, and Social Resilience in Asia: A Literature Review By Ober, Kayly
  10. Le mécanisme REDD+ et les projets pilotes à Madagascar : d’un idéal incitatif à la réalité des dispositifs de gestion By Laura Brimont; Maya Leroy
  11. Rethinking the Limits of Climate Change Adaptation By Jamero, Ma. Laurice; Esteban, Miguel; Chadwick, Christopher; Onuki, Motoharu
  12. Agricultural Offset Potential in the United States: Economic and Geospatial Insights By Proville, Jeremy; Parkhurst, Robert T.; Koller, Steven; Kroopf, Sara; Baker, Justin; Salas, William A
  13. Financial Dependencies, Environmental Regulation and Pollution Intensity: Evidence From China By Mathilde Maurel; Thomas Pernet; Zhao Ruili
  14. Effects of the Energy Innovation and Carbon Dividend Act on U.S. and Global Agricultural Markets By Jerome Dumortier; Amani Elobeid
  15. Study on trends in energy efficiency in selected Caribbean countries By Lapillone, Bruno
  16. Effects of energy consumption, economic growth and population growth on carbon dioxide emissions: a dynamic approach for African economies (1990-2011) By Ibrahim, Abdulrazaq
  17. Evidence from Measuring Community Flood Resilience in Asia By Laurien , Finn; Keating, Adriana
  18. The Effectiveness of China’s Plug-In Electric Vehicle Subsidy By Tamara Sheldon; Rubal Dua
  19. Projections and Recommendations for Energy Structure and Industrial Structure Development in China through 2030: A System Dynamics Model By Song Han; Changqing Lin; Baosheng Zhang; Arash Farnoosh
  20. Comparing Deep Neural Network and Econometric Approaches to Predicting the Impact of Climate Change on Agricultural Yield By Timothy Neal; Michael Keane
  21. Effectiveness and equity of Payments for Ecosystem Services: Real-effort experiments with Vietnamese land users By Loft, Lasse; Gehrig, Stefan; Le, Dung Ngoc; Rommel, Jens
  22. National energy efficiency monitoring report of Trinidad and Tobago By Indar, Delena
  23. The Effectiveness of EC Policies to Move Freight from Road to Rail: Evidence from CEE Grain Markets By Pittman, Russell; Jandova, Monika; Krol, Marcin; Nekrasenko, Larysa; Paleta, Tomas
  24. Understanding farmers' reluctance to reduce pesticide use: A choice experiment By Benoît Chèze; Maia David; Vincent Martinet
  25. The Health Costs of Coal-Fired Power Plants in India By Barrows, Geoffrey; Garg, Teevrat; Jha, Akshaya
  26. Disaster Insurance in Developing Asia: An Analysis of Market-Based Schemes By Surminski, Swenja; Panda, Architesh; Lambert, Peter John
  27. Role of Indigenous Women in Securing Sustainable Livelihoods in Western Himalayan Region, India By Jaimini Luharia; Haresh Sharma
  28. Study of International Regulatory Co-operation (IRC) arrangements for air quality: The cases of the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, the Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement, and co-operation in North East Asia By Céline Kauffmann; Camila Saffirio
  29. A Fuel Tax Decomposition When Local Pollution Matters By Stéphane Gauthier; Fanny Henriet
  30. The Growth Impact of Disasters in Developing Asia By Dagli , Suzette; Ferrarini, Benno
  31. Book Review: Reclaiming the Atmospheric Commons. The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative and a New Model of Emissions Trading by Leigh Raymond, MIT Press, 2016. By Houle, David
  32. Seychelles; Fourth Review Under the Policy Coordination Instrument and Request for Modification of Targets By International Monetary Fund
  33. What Caused Racial Disparities in Particulate Exposure to Fall? New Evidence from the Clean Air Act and Satellite-Based Measures of Air Quality By Janet Currie; John Voorheis; Reed Walker
  34. Transfer Pathways and Fluxes of Water-Soluble Pesticides in Various Compartments of the Agricultural Catchment of the Canche River (Northern France) By Angel Belles; Claire Alary; Agnès Rivière; Sophie Guillon; Edouard Patault; Nicolas Flipo; Christine Franke
  35. Einbeziehung des Agrarsektors in die CO2-Bepreisung By Isermeyer, Folkhard; Heidecke, Claudia; Osterburg, Bernhard
  36. Garden Therapy: The Health-Enabling Capacities of Nature Contact By Iva Pires; Dana Krivankova; Jana Dvorackova
  37. Measuring Sanitation Poverty: A Multidimensional Measure to Assess Delivery of Sanitation and Hygiene Services at the Household Level By Ricard Giné-Garriga and Agustí Pérez-Foguet
  38. Fundamental Utilitarianism and Intergenerational Equity with Extinction Discounting By Chichilnisky, Graciela; Hammond, Peter J.; Stern, Nicholas
  39. In Puerto Rico, excess deaths following Hurricane Georges persisted for three months By Santos-Lozada, Alexis R
  40. National-to-Local Aid and Recovery from Extreme Weather Events: Evidence from the Philippines By Abrigo , Michael R.M.; Brucal, Arlan
  41. Rural waste disposal issues within urban borders By MIHAI, Florin Constantin
  42. Land conflicts and land tenure effects on agriculture productivity in Chad By Djimoudjiel, Djekonbe; Tchoffo Tameko, Gautier
  43. Gender mainstreaming in national sustainable development planning in the Caribbean By Hosein, Gabrielle; Basdeo-Gobin, Tricia; Gény, Lydia Rosa
  44. The Impact of Typhoons on Economic Activity in the Philippines: Evidence from Nightlight Intensity By Strobl, Eric
  45. Regional Integration, International Tourism Demand and Renewable Energy Transition: Evidence from selected South Asia Economies By Murshed, Muntasir;
  46. Secession with Natural Resources By Dhillon, Amrita; Krishnan, Pramila; Patnam, Manasa; Perroni, Carlo
  47. Bosques para el agua: Integración del manejo forestal sostenible y el manejo de recursos hídricos By Carrasquilla, Octavio
  48. Improving Sustainable Development and National Security through Office Technology and Management Programme in Nigeria By Olukemi Josephine Omoniyi; Boluwaji Clement Elemure; Samuel Adebayo Abiodun
  49. European Emission Trading Scheme and competitiveness: A case study on the iron and steel industry By Dissemin, uploaded via; Demailly, Damien; Quirion, Philippe
  50. Sistem Informasi Pendeteksi Hama Penyakit Tanaman Padi Menggunakan Metode Fuzzy Tsukamoto Berbasis Android By Puryono, Daniel Alfa
  51. Weather-index drought insurance in Burkina-Faso: assessment of its potential interest to farmers By Dissemin, uploaded via; Berg, Alexis; Quirion, Philippe; Sultan, Benjamin
  52. Climate policies and skill-biased employment dynamics : Evidence from EU countries By Giovanni Marin; Francesco Vona
  53. Technical note: Water table mapping accounting for river-aquifer connectivity and human pressure By Mathias Maillot; Nicolas Flipo; Agnès Rivière; Nicolas Desassis; Didier Renard; Patrick Goblet; Marc Vincent

  1. By: Audi, Marc; Ali, Amjad; Kassem, Mohamad
    Abstract: This study provides a review of benefit and losses of greenhouse gases. For the last decades, the average global temperature is rising on the surface as well as on the oceans. There are a number of factors behind this rise, but the main cause of this rise is anthropogenic increase in greenhouse gases (GHG). The anthropogenic factors comprise of burning of fossil fuel, coal mining, industrialization etc. During the last century, the CO2 concentration increased by 391 PPM, CH4 and N2O have reached at warming levels. The rise in overall temperature is changing the living pattern of humans and it also damages the economy as well as ecosystem for other living species. The rising GHG concentration may also have some positive effects on the economy, but it has heavy costs as well. GHGs are responsible for the change in climate which include a rise in sea level, ice melting from ice sheets and ocean acidification and climate change is responsible for the other damages like low fresh water resources, damage to the coastal system, damage to human health and raise the issue of food security.
    Keywords: Greenhouse gases, health, food, natural resources
    JEL: P28 P36
    Date: 2019
  2. By: Timothy Neal (UNSW School of Economics); Michael Keane (UNSW School of Economics)
    Abstract: We study potential impacts of future climate change on U.S. agricultural productivity using county-level yield and weather data from 1950 to 2015. To account for adaptation of production to different weather conditions, it is crucial to allow for both spacial and temporal variation in the production process mapping weather to crop yields. We present a new panel data estimation technique, called mean observation OLS (MO-OLS) that allows for spatial and temporal heterogeneity in all regression parameters (intercepts and slopes). Both forms of heterogeneity are important: We find strong evidence that production function parameters adapt to local climate, and also that sensitivity of yield to high temperature declined from 1950-89. We use our estimates to project corn yields to 2100 using 19 climate models and three greenhouse gas emission scenarios. We predict unmitigated climate change will greatly reduce yield. Our mean prediction (over climate models) is that adaptation alone can mitigate 36% of the damage, while emissions reductions consistent with the Paris targets would mitigate 76%.
    JEL: C23 C54 D24 Q15 Q51 Q54 Q55
    Date: 2020–01
  3. By: Francis X. Diebold (Oliver Wyman Institute; National Bureau of Economic Research; University of Toronto; ebrary Inc; University of Pennsylvania; Federal Reserve Bank); Glenn D. Rudebusch
    Abstract: The downward trend in the amount of Arctic sea ice has a wide range of environmental and economic consequences including important effects on the pace and intensity of global climate change. Based on several decades of satellite data, we provide statistical forecasts of Arctic sea ice extent during the rest of this century. The best fitting statistical model indicates that overall sea ice coverage is declining at an increasing rate. By contrast, average projections from the CMIP5 global climate models foresee a gradual slowing of Arctic sea ice loss even in scenarios with high carbon emissions. Our long-range statistical projections also deliver probability assessments of the timing of an ice-free Arctic. These results indicate almost a 60 percent chance of an effectively ice-free Arctic Ocean sometime during the 2030s - much earlier than the average projection from global climate models.
    Keywords: Sea ice extent; climate models; climate change; climate trends; climate predition; cryospheric science
    JEL: Q54 C22 C53
    Date: 2020–01–11
  4. By: Donatella, Baiardi
    Abstract: Yes, they matter. To reply to this question, we assess the impact of energy efficiency and renewable energy policies on six different air pollutants: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxides (N2O), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), nitrogenoxides (NOx) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) in the case of the Italian provinces in the decade 2005-2015. The empirical analysis is performed in a panel data context by means of propensity score matching with multiple treatment, since our framework is characterized by the presence of two treatments, corresponding to the two different energy policies analyzed, i.e. energy efficiency policy and renewable policy. These two policies can be applied by each province as mutually exclusive strategies or as joint strategies. Our results show that renewable policies are the most effective in terms of climate goals especially when implemented on a local scale, while energy efficiency policies alone are in effective. Moreover, the success of these policies depends on the type of pollutant to be reduced. Finally, we note that the effect of these two policies was reinforced by the counter-cyclical fiscal policies implemented to contrast the Global Financial Crisis in 2008.
    Keywords: Energy efficiency policies; Renewable energy policies; Global air pollutants; Local air pollutants; Propensity score matching with multiple treatment; Italian provinces.
    JEL: Q50 Q40 Q53 Q58 Q48 Q20
    Date: 2020–01
  5. By: Bareille, François; Gohin, Alexandre
    Abstract: The applications of synthetic pesticides by farmers generate fierce debates in France. This paper offers an original macroeconomic quantification of their economic and environmental impacts. We first reveal the statistically significant influence of the prices of crops and pesticides on these application. This influence is lower for cereals than other crops. We then simulate some economic and environmental impacts of future potential French policies. We find, as expected, that a simple tax policy reduces pesticide use and hurts the economic situation of French farmers and food processors. The French livestock sectors are also negatively impacted. We also find that such a simple policy will increase nitrogen pollution and greenhouse gas emissions due to global land use changes. Finally, policy insights regarding these macroeconomic results are discussed.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2020
  6. By: Thornton Matheson
    Abstract: This paper provides an overview of global solid waste generation, its environmental costs, and fiscal instruments that can be used to encourage waste reduction and finance proper disposal. Countries—especially island nations--struggle to manage an ever-increasing volume of solid waste, generation of which is projected to exceed 2 billion tons a year by 2025. Although solid waste management is usually relegated to subnational governments, externalities from inadequate management, which include greenhouse gas emissions and ocean plastic pollution, reach global scale. National governments thus play a critical role in creating incentives for waste minimization and ensuring adequate resources for proper waste management. This paper evaluates potential fiscal instruments to achieve these goals, particularly in developing country policy environments.
    Date: 2019–12–20
  7. By: Shahbaz, Muhammad; Haouas, Ilham; Sohag, Kazi; Ozturk, Ilhan
    Abstract: This article revisits the nexus between financial development and environmental degradation by incorporating economic growth, electricity consumption and economic globalization in the CO2 emissions function for the period 1975QI-2014QIV in the United Arab Emirates. We apply structural break and cointegration tests to examine unit root and cointegration between the variables. Further, the article also uses the Toda-Yamamoto causality test to investigate the causal relationship between the variables and tests the linkages of the robustness of causality by following the innovative accounting approach. Our empirical analysis shows cointegration between the series. Financial development increases CO2 emissions. Economic growth is positively linked with environmental degradation. Electricity consumption improves environmental quality. Economic globalization affects CO2 emissions negatively. The relationship between financial development and CO2 emissions is U-shaped and inverted N-shaped. Further, financial development leads to environmental degradation and environmental degradation in turn leads to financial development in the Granger sense.
    Keywords: Financial development, environment, growth, electricity, globalization
    JEL: Q5
    Date: 2020–01–01
  8. By: Castells-Quintana , David (Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona); McDermott, Thomas K.J. (National University of Ireland Galway)
    Abstract: In this paper, we test the effect of weather shocks and floods on urban social disorder for a panel of large cities in developing countries. We focus on a particular mechanism, namely the displacement of population into (large) cities. We test this hypothesis using a novel dataset on floods—distinguishing those that affected large cities directly from those that occurred outside of our sample of large cities. Floods are found to be associated with faster growth of the population in the city, and in turn with a higher likelihood (and frequency) of urban social disorder events. Our evidence suggests that the effects of floods on urban social disorder occur (mainly) through the displacement of population, and the “push” of people into large cities. Our findings have important implications for evaluating future climate change, as well as for policies regarding adaptation to climate change and disaster resilience.
    Keywords: climate change; conflict; floods; migration; rainfall; social disorder; urbanization
    JEL: D90 I30 J60 O10 Q00 Q01 Q50
    Date: 2019–07–23
  9. By: Ober, Kayly (University of Bonn)
    Abstract: This working paper was written as input for the Asian Development Outlook 2019. It reviews the literature at the intersection of disasters and migration in Asia and details the story of how disasters may affect mobility, from displacement to voluntary migration to “trapped populations.” It also provides an overview of the “migration as adaptation” literature, which shows that planned and sustained movement may help individuals weather shocks and diversify income in the face of disaster, as well as the uneven outcomes of disaster-related remittances in Asia. In addition, it gives insight into predicted impacts on mobility because of climate-related disasters and delves into the likely trends. Ultimately, it aims to show the diverse ways in which disaster-related migration may affect economic growth and social resilience in Asia.
    Keywords: climate change; disasters; migration; remittances; resilience
    JEL: J60 O15 Q54
    Date: 2019–07–02
  10. By: Laura Brimont (IDDRI - Institut du Développement Durable et des Relations Internationales - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Paris); Maya Leroy (MRM - Montpellier Research in Management - UM1 - Université Montpellier 1 - UM3 - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - UM2 - Université Montpellier 2 - Sciences et Techniques - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - Groupe Sup de Co Montpellier (GSCM) - Montpellier Business School - UM - Université de Montpellier, AgroParisTech)
    Abstract: Performance-based payments and incentives are the core principles of the REDD+ mechanism. This characteristic leads many authors to consider REDD+ as a transposition of payment for environmental services (PES) at the international level. This article aims to put into perspective the discourse of political innovation conveyed by the incentive principle of REDD+ with the reality of REDD+ pilot projects, which until now are the main expression of "REDD+ in the making". Using a theoretical approach of management arrangements, we deconstruct three REDD+ pilot projects implemented in Madagascar. Our analysis is organized in three steps: (i) we analyze the logic guiding the creation of the projects, considering their relationship to the carbon market and the doctrine of the environmental NGOs in charge with their management; (ii) we compare their territorial arrangements, trying to figure out whether different logics of creation imply different arrangements; and (iii) we describe the concrete modalities of the implementation of the projects for the local population, ascertaining the place of incentive tools. Our analysis point out a gap between the economic ideal type of REDD+ international mechanism and its national implementation as a constraining conservation tool in Madagascar. This gap is mainly due to the existing unbalanced power relations between the local population and the project managers. Far from having initiated a new area of conservation policies based on incentives, REDD+ in Madagascar mainly serves to fund existing coercive policies.
    Abstract: La principale innovation du mécanisme de réduction des émissions issues de la déforestation et de la dégradation des forêts (REDD+) est de proposer un mécanisme de conservation des forêts par l'incitation économique basé sur les résultats. L'objectif de cet article est de mettre en perspective ce discours d'innovation politique avec la réalité des projets pilotes REDD+, en interrogeant la place qu'y occupe finalement le principe d'incitation économique. Nous analysons les projets pilotes REDD+ à Madagascar en mettant en évidence les logiques managériales qui les sous-tendent, les dispositifs territoriaux qu'ils produisent, et les modalités de mise en œuvre auprès des populations locales. Ce travail montre les décalages entre le mécanisme REDD+, vu comme un instrument économique incitatif, et son opérationnalisation en différents dispositifs de gestion aux modalités souvent très contraignantes, voire coercitives. Ces dispositifs, selon la doctrine gestionnaire qu'ils portent, mobilisent ce mécanisme comme un instrument de financement des politiques de conservation préexistantes, ou comme une incitation de développement économique agricole qui bénéficie à une élite.
    Keywords: environment,management arrangements,REDD+,Madagascar,environnement,dispositifs de gestion
    Date: 2018–07
  11. By: Jamero, Ma. Laurice (Ateneo de Manila University); Esteban, Miguel (Waseda University); Chadwick, Christopher (Liverpool John Moores University); Onuki, Motoharu (The University of Tokyo)
    Abstract: Using a case study approach, this research explores the various potential limiting factors of climate change adaptation, based on the experience of four low-lying islands in central Philippines. In the aftermath of the 2013 7.2-magnitude Bohol earthquake, the islands now become flooded even during normal spring tides. Results show that, while development problems can constrain adaptive capacity against climate hazards, the outlook of the affected communities about their future on their home islands may ultimately determine the limits of adaptation. As social factors may play a greater role in adaptation than environmental factors, climate-smart development is needed, as well as proper education regarding climate risks and available adaptation options.
    Keywords: agriculture; sampling methods
    JEL: Q00
    Date: 2019–06–06
  12. By: Proville, Jeremy (Environmental Defense Fund); Parkhurst, Robert T.; Koller, Steven; Kroopf, Sara; Baker, Justin; Salas, William A
    Abstract: Although agricultural greenhouse gases (GHGs) are emitted from a wide variety of activities and regions, many mitigation opportunities exist. This article describes efforts undertaken by the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) and partners (2007-present) to convert abatement opportunities into carbon offsets, with the aim of reducing GHGs in this sector and providing revenue to landowners. Analysis of emission-abating practices for rice, grasslands, almonds and corn demonstrate that abatement costs are significant for most practices, and accompanied by high break-even carbon prices – often due to the existence of large transaction costs. Nonetheless, total abatement potential is shown to be large for certain activities. For this reason, and given the large series of opportunities not yet explored, a focal point of subsequent efforts should be to reduce transaction costs and barriers to entry.
    Date: 2018–08–27
  13. By: Mathilde Maurel (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Thomas Pernet (UP1 UFR02 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - UFR d'Économie - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne, CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Zhao Ruili (SUIBE - Shangai University of International Business and Economics)
    Abstract: We study how a bank's involvement in a firm's financing may be in line with environmental policies pursued by the Chinese central government. Specifically, we evaluate the effectiveness of credit reallocation away from polluting projects when the government imposes stringent environmental policies. We combine the industries' financial dependencies with time, including cross-cities variation in policy intensity to identify the causal effect on the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission. We find that SO2 emissions are lower in industries with high reliance on credits and stricter environmental regulations. Furthermore, our results suggest that locations with strong environmental policies lead firms to seek funding in less regulated areas, which confirms the pollution haven hypothesis.
    Keywords: Banks,Financial Dependency,Environmental regulation,China
    Date: 2019–12
  14. By: Jerome Dumortier; Amani Elobeid (Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD))
    Abstract: We use a global agricultural outlook model to analyze changes in agricultural production,prices, trade, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land-use change triggered by a carbon tax in the United States. The carbon tax scenario is consistent with proposed U.S. legislation starting at $15 t-1 CO2-equivalent (CO2-e) and increasing annually by $10. The scenario covers carbon taxes from $15 to $105 over the 10-year projection period. Our results show that at the end of the projection period, the production cost for corn and soybeans increases by 16.4% and 11.9%, respectively at a carbon tax of $105 t-1 CO2-e. The increase in the cost of production is compensated in part by a slight increase in commodity prices and a contraction in area. Hence, the decrease in net returns for corn, soybeans, and wheat is 7.4%, 4.2%, and 8.0%,respectively, for the highest carbon price. Exports from the U.S. decrease for all commodities except rapeseed and wheat which experience an increase by 1.4% and 0.1%, respectively. Corn and soybean exports decrease by 5.0% and 0.8%, respectively. These changes in trade patterns also result in a re-allocation of land-use in the rest of the world leading to a slight increase in GHG emissions representing 0.6% of total U.S. emissions in 2017. It is important to note that our study only covers one particular sector of a carbon tax and the increase in emissions is small compared to the overall projected reduction.
    Date: 2020–01
  15. By: Lapillone, Bruno
    Abstract: High energy costs and fossil fuel dependency contribute to dampening Caribbean competitiveness and potential growth. In this scenario, energy efficiency has the potential to reduce energy consumption, ensure an adequate supply of energy, increase energy security, reduce negative environmental impacts and, at the global level, reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. However, it is important to have a clear understanding of macro energy sector conditions before implementing energy efficiency policies. In this study, we describe and compare energy efficiency trends in four countries in the Caribbean subregion: Barbados, Guyana, Saint Lucia and Trinidad and Tobago. The report is based on data and indicators prepared for the Energy Efficiency Indicator Database (BIEE) project, carried out by the Natural Resources Division of the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) under the umbrella of the Regional Observatory on Sustainable Energies, and in close cooperation with the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME).
    Date: 2019–12–30
  16. By: Ibrahim, Abdulrazaq
    Abstract: It has been established fact that growing energy use, specifically in the emerging economies, is associated with adverse economic, climatic and ecological effects through carbon emissions. In this regard, the study seeks to analyze the dynamics of energy consumption, economic growth and population growth on carbon dioxide emissions using panel data (1990-2011) for 9 leading African economies (including Nigeria, South Africa, Egypt, Algeria, Angola, Morocco, Sudan, Kenya, and Ethiopia respectively ) based on 2014 World Bank ranking.. To achieve its objectives the study employed panel data techniques such as IPS (1997) panel unit-root test, Pedroni (1997, 1999, and 2000) panel co-integration test, Kao and Chian (2000) panel dynamic least squares (DOLS) model, and Dumitrescu-Hurlin (2012) panel causality test. The results indicated that energy consumption is the most important factor contributing to environmental pollutions and that the African economy is very much unlikely to attain EKC turning point in the long-run. The paper recommends that Africa’s energy policy (specifically the panel’s energy policy) should be geared towards improving energy consumption efficiency rather than reducing energy consumption so as not to adversely affect development.
    Keywords: Energy Consumption, Economic Growth, Population Growth, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Dynamic OLS Panel Model
    JEL: Q53
    Date: 2020
  17. By: Laurien , Finn (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis); Keating, Adriana (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis)
    Abstract: Disaster risk and subsequent loss and damage in Asia are increasing at an alarming rate, threatening socioeconomic gains. Arresting this rapid increase in exposure requires risk-informed development and urban planning—a challenging proposition complicated by multiple economic and political incentives. To reduce these risks, action at the national and regional levels must be complemented by action at the community level. Measuring community disaster resilience can help lead to novel and systemic investments that build community resilience. Our analysis of community flood resilience data finds deficiencies and potential for substantial improvements in community flood resilience investment across the region, with different recommendations for urban, peri-urban, and rural locations. Our evidence from case studies shows that interventions prioritized by the measurement-informed process are more likely to succeed and be sustainable and have cobenefits for community development.
    Keywords: assets and livelihoods; decision making; disaster; flood; measurement; resilience; waste management
    JEL: C81 P25 Q54 Q57
    Date: 2019–10–28
  18. By: Tamara Sheldon; Rubal Dua (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: Subsidies for promoting plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) adoption are a key component of China’s overall plan for reducing local air pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from its light-duty vehicle sector. This paper explores the impact and cost-effectiveness of the Chinese PEV subsidy program. A vehicle choice model is estimated using a large random sample of individual-level data for new vehicle purchases in China for model year 2017.
    Keywords: China Electric Car Market, China New Energy Vehicle Policy, Subsidies for Electric Vehicle
    Date: 2019–12–29
  19. By: Song Han (Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People’s Republic of China); Changqing Lin (Chongqing University [Chongqing]); Baosheng Zhang (China University of Petroleum); Arash Farnoosh (IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles - IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles)
    Abstract: In this research, we established a System Dynamics Model named "E&I-SD" to study the development of the energy structure and industrial structure in China from 2000 to 2030 using Vensim Simulation Software based on energy economy theory, system science theory and coordinated development theory. We used Direct Structure Test, Structure-oriented Behavior Test, and Behavior Pattern Test to ensure the optimal operation of the system. The model's results showed that the indicators of total energy consumption, total added value of GDP after regulation, energy consumption per capita, and GDP per capita were on the rise in China, but emissions per unit of energy showed a downward trend. Separately, the model predicted average annual growth rates in China through 2030. Based on these findings, we proposed important policies for China's sustainable development. Firstly, short-and long-term policy measures should be implemented to replace fossil fuels with clean energy. Secondly, the utilization efficiency of raw coal should be appraised future. The planning should provide for steady development and improvement of the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors. Thirdly, the mid-and long-term plans for development and management of various industrial sectors and the corresponding energy consumption should be based on technological trends. Finally, a market-oriented pricing mechanism for energy should be established in China as soon as possible.
    Keywords: energy structure,industrial structure,coordinated development,system dynamics
    Date: 2019–09
  20. By: Timothy Neal (UNSW School of Economics); Michael Keane (UNSW School of Economics)
    Abstract: Predicting the impact of climate change on crop yield is difficult, in part because the production function mapping weather to yield is high dimensional and nonlinear. We compare three approaches to predicting yields: (i) deep neural networks (DNNs), (ii) traditional panel-data models, and (iii) a new panel-data model that allows for unit and time fixed-effects in both intercepts and slopes in the agricultural production function - made feasible by a new estimator developed by Keane and Neal (2020) called MO-OLS. Using U.S. county-level corn yield data from 1950-2015, we show that both DNNs and MO-OLS models outperform traditional panel data models for predicting yield, both in-sample and in a Monte Carlo cross-validation exercise. However, the MO-OLS model substantially outperforms both DNNs and traditional panel-data models in forecasting yield in a 2006-15 holdout sample. We compare predictions of all these models for climate change impacts on yields from 2016 to 2100.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Crop Yield, Panel Data, Machine Learning, Neural Net
    Date: 2020–01
  21. By: Loft, Lasse; Gehrig, Stefan; Le, Dung Ngoc; Rommel, Jens
    Abstract: Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) are widespread in conservation policy. In PES, environmental effectiveness and social equity are often perceived as conflicting goals. Empirical studies on the relationship between popular design features, such as payment differentiation and payment conditionality, and effectiveness and equity are scarce. Further, they struggle with measuring and separating ecological and equity outcomes. In this study, we combine two incentivized lab-in-the-field experiments with 259 land users from eight villages in North-Western Vietnam to assess both individual conservation effort and community-level equity perceptions under four different PES designs. Effort is measured in a real-effort task with real-world environmental benefits; equity perceptions about payment designs in the real-effort task are measured in a coordination game. We demonstrate that payment design affects both effort and equity perceptions. Payments which are differentiated and are solely conditional on individuals’ contributions of effort are perceived as most equitable. They are also more effective in motivating conservation effort than other designs, although the differences are small and not significant for all comparisons. By working out the positive correlation of effectiveness and equity across the four payment schemes, we show that these objectives are not necessarily conflicting goals in incentive-based conservation policy. Further, we can show that women exert greater conservation efforts. We discuss how greater equity and effectiveness could be achieved with reforms towards more input-based distribution criteria in Vietnam’s PES legislation and the limitations and opportunities of the experimental paradigm for research on PES.
    Date: 2018–06–26
  22. By: Indar, Delena
    Abstract: Trinidad and Tobago is heavily dependent on its oil and gas sector to support its economy and society. However, given the challenge of climate change, small economies of scale, and increased economic, social and environmental vulnerability, strategies are needed to ensure long-term sustainable development. A key aspect to be considered is the greater potential for the implementation of energy efficiency measurements, which would allow for energy security in the long term, a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and increased revenue and cost savings. In this report, the methodology of the Energy Efficiency Indicators Database (BIEE) is set out in chapter I and the background to energy efficiency in Trinidad and Tobago is discussed in chapter II. Trends in overall primary and final energy intensities are examined in chapter III. Lastly, chapters IV to VIII analyse the varying trends in energy and electricity consumption, as well as sectoral intensities.
    Date: 2019–12–30
  23. By: Pittman, Russell; Jandova, Monika; Krol, Marcin; Nekrasenko, Larysa; Paleta, Tomas
    Abstract: The European Commission years ago adopted a policy of encouraging the substitution of motor carrier haulage of freight with rail and water carrier haulage, as part of its “green” agenda of reducing fuel consumption, emission of pollutants, carbon intensity, and road congestion. Regarding railway freight in particular, one policy tool that the Commission has emphasized for this purpose is the restructuring of the rail sectors of member countries through the creation of competition for the incumbents by new train-operating companies (TOC’s) – on its face a less obvious policy choice than alternatives such as Pigouvian pricing measures or infrastructure subsidies. This paper focuses on one important commodity group – grain – in three EC member states and one non-member state – Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Ukraine – to examine the degree to which increased rail competition has been associated with increases in rail’s modal share, and more broadly to learn what appear to be the binding constraints to increases in rail’s share. Such constraints seem more closely related to shortages in infrastructure capacity than to a lack of competition among TOC’s. This suggests that other “models” of railway restructuring may be more effective in easing this constraint.
    Keywords: European Commission, railways competition, environmental protection, open access, motor carriers, intermodal competition
    JEL: L92 Q58 R11 R41 R42 R48
    Date: 2019–12–10
  24. By: Benoît Chèze (IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles - IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles, EconomiX - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AgroParisTech); Maia David (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AgroParisTech); Vincent Martinet (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AgroParisTech, EconomiX - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Despite reducing the use of pesticides being a major challenge in developed countries, dedicated agri-environmental policies have not yet proven successful in doing so. We analyze conventional farmers' willingness to reduce their use of synthetic pesticides. To do so, we conduct a discrete choice experiment that includes the risk of large production losses due to pests. Our results indicate that this risk strongly limits farmers' willingness to change their practices, regardless of the consequences on average profit. Furthermore, the administrative burden has a significant effect on farmers' decisions. Reducing the negative health and environmental impacts of pesticides is a significant motivator only when respondents believe that pesticides affect the environment. Farmers who earn revenue from outside their farms and/or believe that yields can be maintained while reducing the use of pesticides are significantly more willing to adopt low-pesticide practices. Policy recommendations are derived from our results.
    Abstract: La réduction de l'usage de produits phytosanitaires est devenu un défi majeur en France et dans la plupart des pays développés. L'essor récent du Bio en France (+20% de ventes en 2016, BioBaromètre 2017) montre une réelle prise de conscience du grand public et de nouvelles exigences des consommateurs. Plusieurs pratiques permettant de réduire le recours aux produits phytosanitaires tout en maintenant les profits semblent avoir émergé dans des réseaux pilotes (Lerchenet et al 2017) mais demeurent peu appliquées par la majorité des agriculteurs. Les politiques publiques mises en place jusqu'à présent ont abouti à des résultats décevants et l'utilisation de produits phytosanitaires continue d'augmenter (hausse d'environ 12% en France entre 2009 et 2014). Notre étude s'interroge sur les principaux freins et principales motivations des agriculteurs français à réduire leur utilisation de pesticides. Elle repose sur la méthode d'expérimentation par les choix (Discrete Choice Experiment) et permet de mesurer le poids relatif de différents facteurs de décision dans les choix de pratiques des agriculteurs. Elle permet également d'estimer des consentements et payer / à recevoir pour les éléments non monétaires associés à ces choix de pratiques agricoles. Nous montrons notamment que le rôle du risque-récolte est prépondérant dans la réticence des agriculteurs à réduire leur usage de produits phytosanitaires.
    Keywords: Q18,Q51,Q57,C35,industrial buildings,willingness to pay,Pesticides,Agricultural practices,Production risk,Discrete choice experiment JEL Classification: Q12,phytosanitaire,consentement à payer,risque,pesticide,pratique agricole,choix discret
    Date: 2020–01
  25. By: Barrows, Geoffrey (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris); Garg, Teevrat (University of California, San Diego); Jha, Akshaya (Carnegie Mellon University)
    Abstract: This paper estimates the effect of coal-fired power plants on infant mortality in India. We find that a one GW increase in coal-fired capacity corresponds to a 14% increase in infant mortality rates in districts near versus far from the plant site. This effect is 2-3 times larger than estimates from the developed world. Our effects are larger for: (1) older plants, (2) plants located in areas with higher baseline levels of pollution, and (3) plants burning domestic rather than imported coal. The environmental benefits from policy aimed at the power sector are thus likely to be substantially higher if targeted at older plants located in more polluted areas tailored to burn domestic rather than imported coal.
    Keywords: coal, electricity, India, air pollution, infant mortality, infrastructure
    JEL: I15 Q51 Q56 Q48
    Date: 2019–12
  26. By: Surminski, Swenja (London School of Economics and Political Science); Panda, Architesh (London School of Economics and Political Science); Lambert, Peter John (London School of Economics and Political Science)
    Abstract: In recent years, insurance against natural disasters has gained recognition as an important tool for climate risk management that could, if carefully implemented, help increase the resilience of those insured. In response, insurance solutions are increasingly tested and applied in many countries that have no prior experience with insurance or no existing market. This paper analyzes the status, types, and patterns of market-based disaster insurance schemes across emerging and developing countries in Asia. We provide a snapshot of the current use of insurance based on data from Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment’s Disaster Risk Transfer Scheme Database (2012–2018). Our analysis shows that although the use of insurance is expanding, there are many countries that still don’t have any kind of cover available. Where insurance mechanisms exist, they often rely on subsidies or bundling strategies. Although a mix of insurance schemes covering risks for governments (sovereign); or at meso (risk aggregators, cooperatives); and micro level currently operate to address a wide variety of climate and disaster risks, without demand-side support, many markets are likely to collapse or, at the very least, experience far lower penetration rates. We conclude with a discussion of the role of these insurance schemes in increasing resilience, which raises important questions for designing new and measuring and evaluating existing insurance schemes.
    Keywords: Asia; climate change; disaster insurance; resilience
    JEL: G22 G32 Q54
    Date: 2019–09–26
  27. By: Jaimini Luharia (Maharaja Sayajirao University, India); Haresh Sharma (Founder of non-profit Collective Efforts for Voluntary Action, India, current UNOHCHR Fellow)
    Abstract: The ecology in the Western Himalayan region transforms with the change in altitude. The current study focuses on women of indigenous communities of Pangi Valley which is located in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India. The valley is bifurcated into three different areas – Saichu, Hudan Bhatori, and Sural Bhatori valleys, and the altitude of the valley ranges from 2,000 m to 6,000 m above sea level. The Pangi valley is inhabited by ‘Pangwals’ and ‘Bhots’ tribes of the Himalayas who speak their local tribal language called’ Pangwali’. Due to the difficult geographical location, the daily lives of these people are constantly challenged and they are most of the time-deprived of benefits targeted through government programs. However, the indigenous communities earn their livelihood through livestock and forest-based produce while some of them migrate to nearby places for better work. The current study involves snowball sampling methodology for data collection along with in-depth interviews of women members of Self-Help Groups and women farmers. The findings reveal that the lives of these indigenous communities largely depend on forest-based products. So, it creates all the more significance of enhancing, maintaining and consuming natural resources sustainably. Under such circumstances, the women of the community play a significant role of guardians in the conservation and protection of the forests. They are into cultivation of products like ‘Hazelnut’, ‘Gucchi’ rare quality mushroom, medicinal plants exclusively found in the region thereby promoting long term sustainable conservation of agro-biodiversity of the Western Himalayan region (Sharma, 2019).
    Keywords: Forest Conservation, Indigenous women, Sustainable Livelihoods, Sustainable Development, Poverty Alleviation, Western Himalayas
    Date: 2019–11
  28. By: Céline Kauffmann (OECD); Camila Saffirio (OECD)
    Abstract: China, Japan and Korea have deployed a multiplicity of co-operation efforts at different levels of government to promote air quality and curb transboundary pollution. This paper identifies the existing arrangements for air quality co-operation in North East Asia and provides guidance to advance the co-operation required to face cross-border air pollution building on the experience of two long-standing co-operative agreements in this area: the Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement and UNECE’s Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. This paper finds that the multilateral arrangements existent in North East Asia are yet to produce a comprehensive science-based regional approach to address transboundary air pollution. Key suggestions for countries to capitalise on the stronger momentum for co-operation in this area include: i) building on the existing frameworks for international regulatory co-operation for air quality; ii) advancing a common understanding of transboundary air pollution across scientific regional arrangements; and iii) strengthening the domestic policy frameworks for air quality in each country as a key prerequisite.
    Keywords: air pollution, international regulatory co-operation, regulatory policy
    JEL: F53 F55 K32 K33 Q53 Q58
    Date: 2020–01–24
  29. By: Stéphane Gauthier (PSE - Paris School of Economics, CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Fanny Henriet (PSE - Paris School of Economics, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: We study the optimal design of consumption taxes when both global and local externalities matter. Local externalities make the social impact of the consumption of externality-generating commodities varying across consumers. A typical example involves the greater damage caused by pollution from urban fuel consumers. We provide a condition for the validity of the targeting principle according to which externality concerns should only fall on the taxes on externality-generating commodities. When this condition is satisfied, one can decompose the tax on an externality-generating commodity into equity/efficiency and Pigovian contributions. The Pigovian contribution should exceed the average social damage if the fuel consumption of the greatest polluters is more responsive to fuel price. In an empirical illustration we find that the fuel tax in France is mostly explained by Pigovian considerations.
    Keywords: Pigovian tax,targeting principle,local externality,pollution,commodity taxes
    Date: 2018–06
  30. By: Dagli , Suzette (Asian Development Bank); Ferrarini, Benno (Asian Development Bank)
    Abstract: This paper estimates the growth impact of disasters, with a focus on developing Asia and its subregions. It finds that severe disasters slow down annual growth in the Pacific island countries by between 1 and 2 percentage points on average. This should come as no surprise, given these economies’ extreme exposure, structural vulnerability, and small size relative to the footprint of major natural hazards. The growth impact is less clear for other regions and worldwide, mainly because disaster effects tend to be highly localized and get diluted in the context of cross-country regressions with nationwide growth as the unit of analysis.
    Keywords: developing Asia; disasters; economic growth; natural hazards
    JEL: O47 Q51 Q54
    Date: 2019–06–26
  31. By: Houle, David (Governmental sector)
    Abstract: This is a pre-print version of the following publication: Houle, David (2018), Reclaiming the Atmospheric Commons: The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative and a New Model of Emissions Trading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 256 pages. ISBN 9780262529303, $35.00 paperback. Leigh Raymond. 2016. Review of Policy Research, 35 (3): 491-493. doi:10.1111/ropr.12304.
    Date: 2018–05–16
  32. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: Economic developments since the completion of the 2019 Article IV consultation and the third review under the Policy Coordination Instrument (PCI) in June 2019 have been broadly in line with expectations. The program is largely on track. The 2020 budget recently submitted to the National Assembly is in line with the program and the major infrastructure and climate change related projects would be implemented within the fiscal parameters under the PCI.
    Date: 2019–12–23
  33. By: Janet Currie; John Voorheis; Reed Walker
    Abstract: Racial differences in exposure to ambient air pollution have declined significantly in the United States over the past 20 years. This project links restricted-access Census Bureau microdata to newly available, spatially continuous high resolution measures of ambient particulate pollution (PM2.5) to examine the underlying causes and consequences of differences in black-white pollution exposures. We begin by decomposing differences in pollution exposure into components explained by observable population characteristics (e.g., income) versus those that remain unexplained. We then use quantile regression methods to show that a significant portion of the “unexplained” convergence in black-white pollution exposure can be attributed to differential impacts of the Clean Air Act (CAA) in non-Hispanic African American and non-Hispanic white communities. Areas with larger black populations saw greater CAA-related declines in PM2.5 exposure. We show that the CAA has been the single largest contributor to racial convergence in PM2.5 pollution exposure in the U.S. since 2000 accounting for over 60 percent of the reduction.
    Date: 2020–01
  34. By: Angel Belles (MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Claire Alary (Mines Douai EMD - École des Mines de Douai - IMT - Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris]); Agnès Rivière (GEOSCIENCES - Centre de Géosciences - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University); Sophie Guillon (GEOSCIENCES - Centre de Géosciences - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University); Edouard Patault (GEOSCIENCES - Centre de Géosciences - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University); Nicolas Flipo (GEOSCIENCES - Centre de Géosciences - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University); Christine Franke (GEOSCIENCES - Centre de Géosciences - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University)
    Abstract: Five frequently used water-soluble pesticides (atrazine, diflufenican, metolachlor, pendimethalin, and ethofumesate) were monitored in surface water and groundwater of an agricultural catchment (Canche River) in Northern France for examining the edge-of-field pathways of substances and their characteristic time of transport. The study of surface water contamination was conducted in 2016 through two time scales: continuously over one year at a single location of the catchment and punctually during four seasons at 15 sampling locations along a longitudinal river profile. In addition, groundwater in winter and summer shows a generally low and relatively constant contamination level. Nevertheless, the outflow of pesticides from groundwater results in a background contamination of surface water. In addition to this, a contamination peak above the baseline level is observed in surface water subsequently to the period of substance application on the fields. Our results show that pesticides were essentially transported into the surface water by fast flow components (runoff water). Loss of pesticides during the contamination peak period and long-term monitoring were compared showing that the transport of substances within weeks after pesticides spreading dominates the annual flux of pesticides, except for atrazine which shows a constant background contamination pattern. Low frequency monitoring schemes provide only a partial picture of the contamination state and do not enable to evaluate the true contamination state of such rivers with regard to the fact that 3/4 of the annual load of pesticides are transported in the stream during only 2-3 months.
    Keywords: water-soluble pesticides,transfer pathways,Canche River watershed,agricultural catchment,runoff,surface water,groundwater,flux rate
    Date: 2019–07–11
  35. By: Isermeyer, Folkhard; Heidecke, Claudia; Osterburg, Bernhard
    Abstract: In diesem Arbeitspapier untersuchen wir, ob eine Einbeziehung des Agrarsektors in die CO2-Bepreisung möglich und sinnvoll wäre. Die CO2-Bepreisung wird in Europa bereits seit Jahren praktiziert. Im EU-Emissionshandelssystem (ETS) werden Emissionen von ca. 12.000 Großanlagen der Energiewirtschaft und der energieintensiven Industrie reguliert, außerdem die Emissionen des innereuropäischen Luftverkehrs. Das ETS umfasst damit fast die Hälfte der Treibhausgasemissionen Europas. Die politisch festgelegten Einsparungsziele werden im ETS-Bereich erreicht (wenngleich unter Mitwirkung verschiedener anderer klimapolitischer Instrumente), während sie im non-ETS-Bereich bisher verfehlt werden. Die deutsche Bundesregierung hat nun im Herbst 2019 ein Klimaschutzgesetz vorgelegt, das ein umfangreiches Maßnahmenbündel vorsieht. Zu den wichtigsten Maßnahmen gehört hierbei die Einbeziehung der fossilen Heiz- und Kraftstoffe in den Emissionshandel. Zwar wird hierfür zunächst nur ein Handelssystem auf nationaler Basis vorgesehen, und in der Startphase sollen die CO2-Preise niedrig gehalten werden. Die langfristige Wirkung dieses Systemwechsels kann jedoch erheblich sein: Demnächst werden ca. 85 Prozent der Treibhausgasemissionen Deutschlands in den Emissionshandel einbezogen sein, so dass hier die Emissionsmengen entlang eines einmal beschlossenen Minderungspfades schrittweise reduziert werden können, ohne dass die Politik hierfür ständig neue Beschlüsse erkämpfen muss. Im Emissionshandel fehlen dann neben bestimmten Emissionen aus Industrieprozessen im Wesentlichen noch die Bereiche Landwirtschaft und Landnutzung. Vor diesem Hintergrund ist es das Ziel des vorliegenden Arbeitsberichts, umfassend zu prüfen, ob nicht auch diese Bereiche einbezogen werden könnten. Zunächst zeigen wir auf Basis ökonomischer Theorie und politischer Erfahrung, worin die Vorteile der CO2-Bepreisung im Vergleich zu anderen klimapolitischen Optionen bestehen: (1) Die Emissionsminderungsziele werden entlang des politisch festgelegten Einsparungspfades erreicht. (2) Alle Unternehmen und alle Verbraucher werden über die Preise mit Knappheitssignalen versorgt, so dass auch alle Menschen ständig am 'Minderungs- und Innovationswettbewerb' teilnehmen. (3) Die Emissionsminderungen finden im Endeffekt dort statt, wo sie die geringsten volkswirtschaftlichen Kosten verursachen. (4) Das System basiert auf marktwirtschaftlichen Prinzipien, ist somit besonders gut anschlussfähig für eine weltweit abgestimmte Klimaschutzpolitik. Aus der theoretischen Diskussion lassen sich aber auch zwei große Herausforderungen ableiten, die eine Einbeziehung von Landwirtschaft und Landnutzung in den Emissionshandel erschweren können: (1) Die landwirtschaftlichen Emissionen stammen aus vielen diffusen Quellen. Daher ist es nicht leicht, Ansatzstellen für klimapolitische Maßnahmen zu finden, die sich rechtssicher und mit vertretbarem Aufwand administrieren lassen. (2) Land- und forstwirtschaftliche Produkte werden in großem Umfang international gehandelt. Daher kann eine CO2-Bepreisung in Europa dazu führen, dass emissionsintensive Produktionszweige in Drittstaaten verlagert werden und dort die Treibhausgasbilanz verschlechtern (Leakage-Effekte). Theoretisch bestünde das beste Politikkonzept darin, die 'einzelbetriebliche Treibhausgasbilanz' jedes einzelnen landwirtschaftlichen Betriebs (d. h. das Aggregat all seiner Emissionen abzüglich der langfristigen Kohlenstoffbindung auf seinen Flächen) als Steuerungsparameter zu verwenden. In der Praxis ist es aber nicht möglich, die hierfür benötigten Zahlen für die vielen Emittenten in der Landwirtschaft justiziabel und mit vertretbarem Aufwand zu ermitteln. Daher untersuchen wir im weiteren Verlauf des Beitrags für die verschiedenen Gruppen von Treibhausgasen (Lachgas, Methan, Kohlendioxid), wie eine Integration in eine CO2-Bepreisung gelingen könnte. [...]
    Keywords: Klimaschutz,Landwirtschaft,CO2-Bepreisung,Zertifikatehandel,Stickstoff,Methan,Moorböden
    Date: 2019
  36. By: Iva Pires (Cics.Nova, Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal); Dana Krivankova (LIPKA, Brno, Czech Republic); Jana Dvorackova (LIPKA, Brno, Czech Republic)
    Abstract: We live in a world where new information and knowledge technologies and increased mobility simplify everyday life. However, at the same time, contact with the natural environment is shrinking. More than half of the world's population lives in urban areas with high population densities and, in many cases, with a little or no access to the quality green spaces. One of the consequences is that there is an increasing disconnection from nature and its sensory stimuli while the noise, air and visual pollution negatively affects the health and reduces the quality of life in urban areas. The "healing" capacity of nature is being increasingly discussed as well as the need of reconnection with it and its therapeutic, spiritual and psychological benefits. The garden therapy defined as a treatment and relaxation through contact with nature is attracting more and more attention, both, from academic field as well as from practitioners of different areas. Among others, a social care and health care, particularly in the case of the children with autism, hyperactivity, with lack of relational capital, psychiatrists (in the case of dementia) but also an architectural landscaping (Which characteristics must the gardens have to fulfill these benefits?). An interdisciplinary approach is needed in order to discuss concepts, benefits, potentialities and ways to implement these therapies. We will be presenting the results of a research project - With Nature to Mutual Understanding - developed by a consortium of seven European countries, on the potentialities of garden therapies to develop communication, social and entrepreneurial skills of the target groups (e.g. minorities, people with learning disabilities and physical and mental health problems, migrants and refugees).
    Keywords: garden therapy, green care, reconnecting with nature, well-being
    Date: 2019–11
  37. By: Ricard Giné-Garriga and Agustí Pérez-Foguet
    Abstract: Water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) are at the core of sustainable development. As we embark on a new round of global goals, namely the Sustainable Development Goals, a top priority is to address a coherent framework for monitoring these services. In the coming years, the sector will witness the development of a variety of multidimensional monitoring measures, albeit from different perspectives. This paper reviews the relevant literature and discusses the adequacy and applicability of one approach that is increasingly adopted for multidimensional poverty measurement at the household level, the Alkire-Foster methodology. Drawing on this method, we identify and combine a set of direct household-related water and sanitation deprivations that batter a person at the same time. This new multidimensional measure is useful for gaining a better understanding of the context in which WaSH services are delivered. It captures both the incidence and intensity of WaSH poverty, and provides a new tool to support monitoring and reporting. For illustrative purposes, one small town in Mozambique is selected as the initial case study.
    Date: 2018–03
  38. By: Chichilnisky, Graciela (Columbia University); Hammond, Peter J. (University of Warwick); Stern, Nicholas (LSE)
    Abstract: Ramsey famously condemned discounting “future enjoyments” as “ethically indefensible”. Suppes enunciated an equity criterion which, when social choice is utilitarian, implies giving equal weight to all individuals’ utilities. By contrast, Arrow (1999a, b) accepted, perhaps reluctantly, what he called Koopmans’ (1960) “strong argument” implying that no equitable preference ordering exists for a sufficiently unrestricted domain of infinite utility streams. Here we derive an equitable utilitarian objective for a finite population based on a version of the Vickrey–Harsanyi original position, where there is an equal probability of becoming each person. For a potentially infinite population facing an exogenous stochastic process of extinction, an equitable extinction biased original position requires equal conditional probabilities, given that the individual’s generation survives the extinction process. Such a position is well-defined if and only if survival probabilities decline fast enough for the expected total number of individuals who can ever live to be finite. Then, provided that each individual’s utility is bounded both above and below, maximizing expected “extinction discounted” total utility — as advocated, inter alia, by the Stern Review on climate change — provides a coherent and dynamically consistent equitable objective, even when the population size of each generation can be chosen.
    Keywords: Discounting ; time perspective ; fundamental preferences ; fundamental utilitarianism ; consequentialization ; Vickrey–Harsanyi original position ; Suppes equity ; intergenerational equity ; sustainable preferences ; extinction discounting.
    JEL: D63 D70 D90 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2019
  39. By: Santos-Lozada, Alexis R (Pennsylvania State University)
    Abstract: The interruption in basic services such as electricity, drinkable water, and exposure to atypical circumstances following climate disasters increases mortality risk within the settings affected by these events. Recently, some members of academia have argued that no methodology exists to study excess deaths attributable to climate disasters. This study uses death records for Puerto Rico between 1990 and 1998 to assess excess deaths following Hurricane Georges by comparing death counts for 1998 with patterns of variation from the previous eight years. Because no population shift occurred in that decade, other than expected ones based on historical information, the average number of deaths is indicative of expected deaths and the confidence intervals are the ranges of accepted variation. If a count following a climate disaster exceeds the upper limit of the confidence interval these deaths could be considered above the historical ranges of variation and this excess could be associated with the climate disaster of interest. Death counts for September-November 1998 indicate that 819 deaths were in excess of historical ranges of variation. When the year in which Hurricane Hortense is excluded from the construction of the ranges of variation, the excess is 945 deaths. A total of 811 or 937 are missing in comparison to the official death count for this Hurricane. Considering that death counts data structures are comparable across the countries of the world, this method can be used to analyze the effect of other climate disasters.
    Date: 2018–06–04
  40. By: Abrigo , Michael R.M. (Philippine Institute for Development Studies); Brucal, Arlan (London School of Economics and Political Science)
    Abstract: We examine the link between extreme weather events and national aid and transfers at the municipal level in the Philippines between 1992 and 2015. Using local-level data of public income and expenditures, local precipitation, poverty incidence, and satellite-based night light luminosity, we find that the national government seems to exhibit strategic behavior by allocating more national aid and transfers during dry spells, in which damage is significantly higher and more prolonged compared to periods of higher-than-usual precipitation. Notwithstanding, the amount of national aid and transfers in these events were very small at about $2 per capita per affected municipality, suggesting that the lack of effectiveness of aid and transfers could be the result of a lack of capacity rather than poor government allocation of public funds.
    Keywords: aid and transfers; impact evaluation; natural disasters
    JEL: H84 O19 Q54
    Date: 2019–12–10
  41. By: MIHAI, Florin Constantin
    Abstract: The paper examines the waste management issues in the villages annexed to administrative-territorial units of the Romanian cities which have been frequently neglected by urban waste operators. The lack of waste collection services in such peri-urban communities favored the illegal waste disposal practices particularly prior to EU accession. The extension of waste collection services from main cities to such areas is compulsory in order to mitigate the environmental risks and the public health threats. The paper estimates the amounts of household waste susceptible to be uncontrolled disposed of by peri-urban villages in different geographical areas of North-East region with a particular focus on Neamt county. The paper points out that these rural settlements should receive the same attention concerning the municipal waste management services as the main urban areas. Traditional recovery of waste fractions at the household level (e.g., home composting) should be further promoted in such areas in order to avoid illegal dumping issue and to prevent the landfill of biodegradable waste as requested by EU regulations.
    Date: 2018–06–30
  42. By: Djimoudjiel, Djekonbe; Tchoffo Tameko, Gautier
    Abstract: The objective of this article is to measure the extent of land conflicts and climate change on agricultural productivity and yields in the most conflict-prone regions of Chad. We obtained the results that, the interaction of land conflicts in agricultural activity is a barrier to productivity and the improvement of agricultural yields. The effects of climate change on yields and productivity are dwindle by government reforms and subventions in the agriculture’ sector. Hence, we recommend government to promote customary land tenure to reduce conflict and in other hand to trace transhumance corridors in order to support the State's agricultural reform efforts.
    Keywords: Land conflicts, Land tenure, Agriculture productivity, Climate change
    JEL: Q15 Q16 Q54
    Date: 2019–12–18
  43. By: Hosein, Gabrielle; Basdeo-Gobin, Tricia; Gény, Lydia Rosa
    Abstract: This study assesses the status of gender mainstreaming in the policy framework of the 29 Caribbean member states and Associate Members of the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), which are also members of its subsidiary organ for the subregion: the Caribbean Development and Cooperation Committee (CDCC). The study defines and explains gender mainstreaming as a factor in national development planning and outlines the regional experiences and trends in mainstreaming gender. It highlights the frameworks and commitments that guide gender mainstreaming in national development planning, identifies how Caribbean States, including national machineries for the advancement of women across the subregion, can draw on each other’s experiences. Finally, it explains the goals and challenges of mainstreaming gender in planning and offers policy recommendations for advancing gender equality through effective mainstreaming of gender in national development planning and as part of the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the SDGs.
    Date: 2020–01–16
  44. By: Strobl, Eric (University of Bern)
    Abstract: We quantify the economic impact of typhoons in the Philippines. To this end we construct a panel data set of local economic activity derived from nightlight intensity satellite images and a cell level measure of typhoon damage constructed from storm track data, a wind field model, and a stylized damage function. Our econometric results reveal that there is a statistically and potentially economically significant, albeit short- lived, impact of typhoon destruction on local economic activity. Constructing risk profiles from a 60-year historical set of storms suggests that (near) future losses in economic activity for frequent (5-year return period) and rare (50-year return period) events are likely to range from between 1.0% and 2.5%.
    Keywords: economic impact; nightlights; Philippines; typhoons; wind field model
    JEL: O17 O44 Q54
    Date: 2019–07–30
  45. By: Murshed, Muntasir;
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to explore the international tourism demand-renewable energy consumption-intra-regional trade nexus across seven South Asian economies. The Emirmahmutoglu–Kose and Dumitrescu–Hurlin causality test results reveal unidirectional causalities stemming from tourist influx and intra-regional trade to renewable energy consumption. Moreover, bidirectional causality is found between tourism demand and regional trade. Thus, these results are anticipated to generate key policy implications.
    Keywords: tourism demand, renewable energy transition
    JEL: Q20 Q42
    Date: 2019
  46. By: Dhillon, Amrita (Kings College,London,and CAGE, University of Warwick); Krishnan, Pramila (University of Oxford and CEPR); Patnam, Manasa (CREST-ENSAE); Perroni, Carlo (University of Warwick, CAGE and CESIfo)
    Abstract: We look at the formation of new Indian states in 2001 to uncover the effects of political secession on the comparative economic performance of natural resource rich and natural resource poor areas. Resource rich constituencies fared comparatively worse within new states that inherited are relatively larger proportion of natural resources. We argue that these patterns reflect how political reorganisation affected the quality of state governance of natural resources. We describe a model of collusion between state politicians and resource rent recipients that can account for the relationships we see in the data between natural resource abundance and post-break up local outcomes.
    Keywords: Natural Resources and Economic Performance ; PoliticalSecession ; Fiscal Federalism
    Date: 2020
  47. By: Carrasquilla, Octavio
    Abstract: La disponibilidad y calidad del agua en muchas regiones del mundo está cada vez más amenazada por la contaminación del agua, así como por el uso excesivo y desordenado de ésta. En este contexto, es necesario reconocer la estrecha interrelación entre bosques y agua, por ello es ineludible establecer un compromiso político y técnico que permita a los países mantener este equilibrio y mejorar las funciones protectoras de los bosques. En este sentido, se presenta este documento que resume las perspectivas, retos, oportunidades y brechas a superar en pro del mantenimiento y conservación de las fuentes de agua que mantienen una relación estrecha con los bosques del planeta.
    Keywords: Agua y saneamiento, Ambiente, Cambio climático,
    Date: 2019
  48. By: Olukemi Josephine Omoniyi (The Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria); Boluwaji Clement Elemure (The Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria); Samuel Adebayo Abiodun (The Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria)
    Abstract: The development of skills, knowledge and competence through functional education which is the main focus of office technology and management cannot be over-emphasized. This study is undertaken to examine how sustainable development and national security can be improved through office technology and management.The survey research design was adopted while the population consists of stakeholders in office technology and management in Ekiti State. A sample size of 100 respondents was used. Two research questions guided the study and two hypotheses were formulated for the study. The research instrument used was the questionnaire and it was validated by experts in the field. The mean and standard deviation was used for the analysis of the data and chi-square was used for the hypotheses formulated.The study revealed that sustainable development and national security could be improved throughoffice technology and management if adequate attention is given to maintenance of standard and funding of the programme. It was therefore recommended that government at various levels and other stakeholders in education should give the needed attention to adequate funding of the programme to achieve better result.
    Keywords: sustainable development, national security, office technology and management
    Date: 2019–11
  49. By: Dissemin, uploaded via; Demailly, Damien; Quirion, Philippe
    Abstract: We quantify the impact of the European Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) on the two dimensions of competitiveness - production and profitability - for the iron and steel industry. Among those covered by the scheme, this sector is one of the most exposed, since it is both highly CO2-intensive and relatively open to international trade. We also examine the robustness of these results to various assumptions: marginal abatement cost curve, trade and demand elasticities, as well as pass-through rates and updating of allocation rules, of which the latter two are scarcely debated. We conclude that for this sector, competitiveness losses are small. We prove this conclusion to be robust. Hence arguments against tightening the environmental stringency of the ETS in Phase II are not justified on grounds of competitiveness loss. Our systematic sensitivity analysis allows us to identify the important assumptions for each output variable. It turns out that pass-through rates and updating rules are significant, despite being often implicit and least debated in existing analyses. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Date: 2018–03–15
  50. By: Puryono, Daniel Alfa
    Abstract: Technological change is currently growing very rapidly in every year. With the existence of information technology makes people can easily to dig information through the internet world. Especially with regard to agriculture, such as our research is how to detect pests in rice plants. Pest detection is a process of pest analysis to be observed. While the pest of rice plants are brown planthopper, stem borer, green leafhoppers, grasshoppers, ground bunnies, grayak caterpillar. The method used for the application of pest detection applications is the fuzzy tsukamoto method because this method has the precision to detect pests through digital images. The process of this method by knowing the pattern and shape of various pests then calculated using the stages that exist in fuzzy tsukamoto. This android based application is designed to facilitate and can know the type of pest, pest form, pest weakness and time of pest attack on rice plants. So that with the application penguna can easily know the ways of controlling pests and diseases that attack rice plants. Although this application has not provided recommendations to some of the parties of plant medicine
    Date: 2018–03–11
  51. By: Dissemin, uploaded via; Berg, Alexis; Quirion, Philippe; Sultan, Benjamin
    Abstract: By using a detailed agricultural and climate dataset over Burkina-Faso and simple assumptions regarding the form of an insurance contract, the authors investigate the potential economic efficiency for farmers of a weather-index insurance system in this country. To do so, the results of more than 3000 simulated contracts applied to 30 districts, 21 yr (1984–2004), and five crops (cotton, millet, sorghum, maize, and groundnut) are explored. It is found that such an insurance system, even based on a simple weather index like cumulative rainfall during the rainy season, can present a significant economic efficiency for some crops and districts. The determinants of the efficiency of such contracts are analyzed in terms of yield/index correlations and yield variability. As a consequence of these two main determinants, the farmer's gain from an insurance contract is higher in the driest part of the country. In the same way, maize and groundnuts are the most suitable to implement an insurance system since their respective yields show a large variance and a generally high correlation with the weather index. However, the implementation of a real weather-index insurance system in West Africa raises a number of key practical issues related to cultural, economic, and institutional aspects.
    Date: 2018–03–15
  52. By: Giovanni Marin (Università degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo); Francesco Vona (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques)
    Abstract: The political acceptability of climate policies is undermined by job-killing arguments, especially for the least-skilled workers. However, evidence of the distributional impacts for different workers remains scant. We examine the associations between climate policies, proxied by energy prices, and workforce skills for 14 European countries and 15 industrial sectors over the period 1995–2011. Using a shift-share instrumental variable estimator and controlling for the influence of automation and globalization, we find that climate policies have been skill biased against manual workers and have favoured technicians. The long-term change in energy prices accounted for between 9.2% and 17.5% (resp. 4.2% and 8.0%) of the increase (resp. decrease) in the share of technicians (resp. manual workers).
    Keywords: Climate policies; Workforce skills; Employment impact; Cluster analysis; Energy prices; Shift-share instruments
    JEL: J42 Q52
    Date: 2019–11
  53. By: Mathias Maillot (GEOSCIENCES - Centre de Géosciences - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University); Nicolas Flipo (GEOSCIENCES - Centre de Géosciences - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University); Agnès Rivière (GEOSCIENCES - Centre de Géosciences - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University); Nicolas Desassis (GEOSCIENCES - Centre de Géosciences - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University); Didier Renard (GEOSCIENCES - Centre de Géosciences - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University); Patrick Goblet (GEOSCIENCES - Centre de Géosciences - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University); Marc Vincent (Seine Grands Lacs - EPTB)
    Abstract: A water table mapping method that accounts for surface-water-groundwater (SW-GW) connectivity and human pressure, such as pumping and underground structures occurrence, has been elaborated and tested in the heavily urbanized Parisian area. The method developed here consists of two steps. First, hard data (hydraulic head) and soft data (dry wells) are used as conditioning points for the estimation of the SW-GW connection status. A disconnection criteria of 0.75 m is adjusted on observed unsaturated zone depth (UZD). It is a default value in areas where such data are missing. The second step consists of the final mapping of the water table. Given the knowledge of the disconnection criteria , the final map is achieved with an ordinary kriging of the UZD that integrates the surface water elevation without unsaturated zone where it is relevant. The methodology is demonstrated on two datasets of UZD observations that were collected under low-and high-flow conditions.
    Date: 2019

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