nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2020‒01‒06
53 papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. The Effect of Forest Fires and Oil Palm Plantations on Green House Gases (GHG) Emissions in Indonesia By Farida Yulistianingrum
  2. Happier with less? Members of European environmental grassroots initiatives reconcile lower carbon footprints with higher life satisfaction and income increases By Vita, Gibran; Ivanova, Diana; Dumitru, Adina; Mira, Ricardo García; Carrus, Giuseppe; Stadler, Konstantin; Krause, Karen; Wood, Richard; Hertwich, Edgar
  3. Going Green in China: Firms’ Responses to Stricter Environmental Regulations By Haichao Fan; Joshua S. Graff Zivin; Zonglai Kou; Xueyue Liu; Huanhuan Wang
  4. Role of Energy use in the Prediction of CO2 Emissions and Growth in India: An Application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) By K, Ashin Nishan M; ASHIQ, MUHAMMED V
  5. Evaluación e implementación de proyectos piloto de biodigestores en El Salvador By -
  6. The role of biomass gasification and methanisation in the decarbonisation strategies By Gabin Mantulet; Adrien Bidaud; Silvana Mima
  7. The criticality of growth, urbanization, electricity and fossil fuel consumption to environment sustainability in Africa By Simplice A. Asongu; Mary Oluwatoyin Agboola; Andrew Adewale Alola; Festus Victor Bekun
  8. China's Unconventional Nationwide CO 2 Emissions Trading System: The Wide-Ranging Impacts of an Implicit Output Subsidy By Lawrence H. Goulder; Xianling Long; Jieyi Lu; Richard D. Morgenstern
  9. Ex ante analysis to explore the provision to pay sustainable university services in the university city of Autonomous University of Coahuila, unit Torreón, Mexico By Rolando Ríos-Aguilar
  10. The role of an Environmental Goods Agreement in the quest to improve the regime complex for climate change By Jaime de Melo; Jean-Marc Solleder
  11. Children's Willingness to Pay for Environmental Protection By Valentino Dardanone; Carla Guerriero
  12. Enhancing Governance for Environmental Sustainability in Sub-Saharan Africa By Simplice A. Asongu; Nicholas M. Odhiambo
  13. Alternative-Fuel-Vehicle Policy Interactions Increase U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions By Jenn, Alan; Azevedo, Inês; Michalek, Jeremy Joseph
  15. Stranded assets and the financial system By Andreas A. Papandreou
  16. On Climate Agreements with Asymmetric Countries: Theory and Experimental Results By Charles Mason
  17. How often does random assignment fail? Estimates and recommendations By Goldberg, Matthew
  18. Foresight for sustainable energy policy in Egypt: results from a Delphi survey By Mohamed Ramadan A. Rezk; Amr Radwan; Nahed M. Salem; Mahmoud M. Sakr; Manuela Tvaronavičienė
  19. Moral Hazard, Wildfires, and the Economic Incidence of Natural Disasters By Patrick Baylis; Judson Boomhower
  20. From Fog to Smog: the Value of Pollution Information By Panle Jia Barwick; Shanjun Li; Liguo Lin; Eric Zou
  21. A Participatory Stakeholder Process for Evaluating Sustainable Energy Transition Scenarios By Höfer, Tim; Madlener, Reinhard
  22. Regional Trade Flows and Input Output Data for Europe By Olga Ivanova; d'Artis Kancs; Mark Thissen
  23. Low emission zones and population health By Margaryan, Shushanik
  24. Waste have effect: unwrapping the impact of environmental regulation By Thais NUNEZ-ROCHA
  25. Environmental Regulation and Chronic Condition: Evidence from China¡¯s Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan By Beomsoo Kim; Yang Zhao
  26. Entwaldungsfreie Agrarrohstoffe - Analyse relevanter Soja-Zertifizierungssysteme für Futtermittel By Hargita, Yvonne; Hinkes, Cordula; Bick, Ulrich; Peter, Günter
  27. Farm diversification and climate change: Implications for food security in Northern Namibia By Mulwa, Chalmers; Visser, Martine
  28. Understanding Macro and Asset Price Dynamics During the Climate Transition By Michael Donadelli; Patrick Grüning; Steffen Hitzemann
  29. Ease versus noise: long-run changes in the value of transport (dis)amenities By Ahlfeldt, Gabriel M.; Nitsch, Volker; Wendland, Nicolai
  30. Greenwashing and Environmental Communication: Effects on Stakeholders’ Perceptions By Torelli, Riccardo; Balluchi, Federica; Lazzini, Arianna
  31. Ecological compensation: how much and where? By Pascal GASTINEAU; Pascal MOSSAY; Emmanuel TAUGOURDEAU
  32. Infrastructure aid for resource trade? The crossroads of strategy and sustainable development By Hendrik KRUSE; Thais NUNEZ-ROCHA; Camélia TURCU
  33. Ecological compensation: how much and where? By Pascal Gastineau; Pascal Mossay; Emmanuelle Taugourdeau
  34. Privatization of a Tourism Event: Do Attendees Perceive it as a Risky Cultural Lottery? By Giuseppe Attanasi; Francesco Passarelli; Giulia Urso; Hana Cosic
  35. Subsoil mediations: Strategies of contention at the grassroots and the extraction of subsoil resources By Dueholm Rasch, Elisabet
  36. Klimaabkommen von Paris: Die vereinbarten dynamischen Anreize wirken kontraproduktiv By Gallier, Carlo; Kesternich, Martin; Sturm, Bodo
  37. Socioeconomic Determinants of Gender Specific Life Expectancy in Turkey: A Time Series Analysis By ŞENTÜRK, İsmail; Ali, Amjad
  39. Matters arising: Can transnational corporations leverage systemic change towards a "sustainable" future? By Schneider, Anselm; Hinton, Jennifer; Collste, David; González, Tais Sonetti; Calderon, Sofía Valéria Cortez; Aguiar, Ana Paula
  40. A Swedish market for sustainability-related and socially labelled bonds. Institutional investors as drivers By Nachesmon-Ekwall, Sophie
  41. Rainfall shocks and land cover change impact of farmers’ crop choice and crop diversification decision in Nigeria and Uganda By Amare, Mulubrhan
  42. Climate Change, Inequality, and Human Migration By Michal Burzynski; Christoph Deuster; Frédéric Docquier; Jaime de Melo
  43. Coopération internationale en Haïti: tensions et leçons. Les cas du Brésil, du Chili et du Mexique By -
  44. The Negative Impact of Social Media on Environmental Preservation, Activities of Tourism Marketing By Simon, Ian
  45. An assessment of the social costs and benefits of vehicle tax reform in Ireland By Lisa Ryan; Ivan Petrov; Andrew Kelly; Yulu Guo; Sarah La Monaca
  46. Índices climáticos, políticas de aseguramiento agropecuario y gestión integral de riesgos en Centroamérica y la República Dominicana: experiencias internacionales y avances regionales By -
  47. Social protection as a tool to address slow onset climate events: Emerging issues for research and policy By Aleksandrova, Mariya
  49. Patung Merlion Sebagai Daya Tarik Wisata Di Singapura By Yogyakarta, Perpustakaan STIPRAM; Hutami, Dicka Nungki
  50. What is the temperature of time? By Lobo, Matheus Pereira
  51. Human-induced or nature-induced climate change? Impact of the perception gap on the cooperation By Junichi Hirose; Koji Kotani; Yoshinori Nakagawa
  52. Sustainable rangeland management through public and private partnerships in communal areas of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa By Morokong, T.; Blignaut, J.N.
  53. Urban Air Mobility Market Study By Reiche, Colleen PhD; Goyal, Rohit; Cohen, Adam; Serrao, Jacqueline; Kimmel, Shawn PhD; Fernando, Chris; Shaheen, Susan PhD

  1. By: Farida Yulistianingrum (Master of Applied Economics, Padjadjaran University)
    Abstract: Indonesia had recorded a large amount of carbon emissions from forests and peatland fires in last decade. This study therefore, investigates the effect of forest fires and oil palm plantations on GHG (Green-House Gases) emissions in Indonesia using the econometrics approach. The statistical result indicates that fire incidences (hotspots) do have a positive significant effect on GHG emissions in Indonesia. This implies that people still use fire as medium for land clearing in the forest. The coefficients of oil palm plantation measurement on GHG emission are positive, implying that land clearing process in forest and peatland areas and converting them into oil palm plantations have increased GHG emissions. To establish a system for sustainable forest management, it will be crucial that the government maintain the enforcement of legal sanctions to every aspect who burning the forests deliberately.
    Keywords: forest fires, oil palm, green house gases, emissions Indonesia
    JEL: Q0
    Date: 2019–12
  2. By: Vita, Gibran; Ivanova, Diana; Dumitru, Adina; Mira, Ricardo García; Carrus, Giuseppe; Stadler, Konstantin; Krause, Karen; Wood, Richard; Hertwich, Edgar (Norwegian University of Science and Technology)
    Abstract: Scientists and policymakers recognize the need to address consumption and lifestyles in order to reconcile environmental and development agendas. Sustainability-oriented grassroots initiatives emerge bottom-up to create opportunities for sustainable lifestyles; yet no prior assessment has ascertained the efficacy of their members to reduce carbon footprints (CF) and enhance well-being. We compare the CF of non-members and members of grassroots initiatives in the domains of food, clothing, housing and transport. We further compare the groups by testing the influence of socio-economic variables that are typically associated with both footprint and well-being. Here we show that grassroots initiative members have 16% lower total carbon footprint, and 43% and 86% lower carbon footprints for food and clothing respectively, compared to their “non-member” regional sociodemographic counterparts. We find a higher adoption of some energy-saving behaviors for initiative members such as greater active travel distance and lower indoor temperatures in the winter, yet no significant differences in the CF of housing and transport. Interestingly, increases in income are not associated with increases in the total CF of members, while the influence of income is confirmed for the CF of the total sample. Instead, factors such as age, household size, and gender better explain the variation in the domain-specific CFs of initiative members. Finally, members show higher life satisfaction compared to non-members and are 11–13% more likely to evaluate their life positively. Our results suggest that initiative members uncover lifestyle features that not only enable lower emissions, but also reconcile emissions with income and well-being.
    Date: 2019–10–31
  3. By: Haichao Fan; Joshua S. Graff Zivin; Zonglai Kou; Xueyue Liu; Huanhuan Wang
    Abstract: This paper examines the effect of stringent environmental regulations on firms' environmental practices, economic performance, and environmental innovation. Reducing COD levels by 10% relative to 2005 levels is an aim of the Chinese 11th Five-Year Plan. Using a difference-in-differences framework based on a comprehensive firm-level dataset, we find that more stringent environmental regulations faced by firms are positively associated with a greater probability of reducing COD emissions; also, there exists an evident heterogeneous effect across industries with different pollution intensities. Stricter environmental regulations also account for the sharp decline in firms' profits, capital, and labor. After executing a complete chain of tests of the underlying mechanisms, we find that firms rely more on recycling and abatement investment than on innovations when meeting environmental requirements.
    JEL: D22 K32 O31 Q53
    Date: 2019–12
  4. By: K, Ashin Nishan M; ASHIQ, MUHAMMED V
    Abstract: The correspondence among energy use, carbon dioxide emissions and growth is a matter of discussion among policymakers, economists and researchers. It is not possible to deny that the concept of sustainable development inspires them for the enquiry into this arena. The primary aspiration of this work is to develop and use the machine learning technique in the prediction of carbon dioxide emissions and growth by taking energy use as the inputs variables. Our findings suggest that the prediction accuracy of the CO2 and growth can improve by using machine learning techniques. In this case, prediction using Adam optimisation is better than Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) in the context of carbon dioxide emissions and growth. Further, result highlights that movement from fossil fuel use to renewable energy use is a possible way to reduce carbon dioxide emissions without sacrificing economic growth.
    Date: 2019–12–08
  5. By: -
    Abstract: En este documento se presentan los resultados de una evaluación de sitios potenciales para implementar proyectos piloto de biodigestores en El Salvador. Fue preparada para el Consejo Nacional de Energía (CNE) de dicho país con el propósito de evaluar la viabilidad de biodigestores de pequeña escala en comunidades y centros escolares. Además de posibilitar el aprovechamiento moderno de la biomasa, la replicabilidad de dichos proyectos y su extensión a zonas rurales del país representa una opción para la diversificación de la matriz energética, con incidencia en la reducción de gases de efecto invernadero (en especial el metano). A partir de un listado de comunidades y centros escolares sugeridos por el país, un primer paso fue seleccionar los sitios que presentaban las mejores condiciones para el desarrollo de biodigestores. Una empresa especializada efectuó visitas y recopiló información; los datos obtenidos se utilizaron para evaluar la viabilidad de los proyectos en cada sitio. En el documento se incluyen aspectos generales del biogás y los biodigestores, el proceso seguido para seleccionar y evaluar las comunidades y centros escolares con potencial para implementar los proyectos piloto de biodigestores, la caracterización de los proyectos piloto de los biodigestores seleccionados y otras consideraciones para implementarlos, tales como posibles aplicaciones energéticas, limpieza y compresión del gas y riesgos y seguridad industrial.
    Date: 2019–12–19
  6. By: Gabin Mantulet (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes, IPNO - Institut de Physique Nucléaire d'Orsay - UP11 - Université Paris-Sud - Paris 11 - IN2P3 - Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules du CNRS - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Adrien Bidaud (IPNO - Institut de Physique Nucléaire d'Orsay - UP11 - Université Paris-Sud - Paris 11 - IN2P3 - Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules du CNRS - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Silvana Mima (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes)
    Abstract: The study explores future development of biomass uses across different climate policy scenarios and under different assumptions of biomass supply availability and technology performances. Broad bioenergy technology portfolios and generations provide flexibility to allocate bioenergy to supply a specific final energy mix and to remove carbon dioxide by combining bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration (BECCS). The paper aim is to perform a detailed and focused analysis of the availability of biomass gasification and methanisation and the role of these green gas energy carriers in the decarbonisation strategies using a model based approach to see how some countries technology appropriation evolves through the XXI st century. The results show that the future of bioenergy depends mostly on countries bioenergy supply and demand that are partly triggered by climate policies. Besides, very diverse local biomass end use patterns are highlighted depending on local resource availability, economic growth and climate policies. The majority of modern uses will be possible with a biomass transformation through the gas vector thanks to methanisation and gasification processes. Technology maturities and efficiencies are also essential for bioenergy development for the field competitiveness. In presence of climate policies, the deployment of biomass methanisation and gasification increases two or three times faster due to higher competitiveness compared to highly taxed fossil fuel. The possibility to implement CCS fosters even more the use of bioenergy for decarbonisation strategies in the long term and switching the allocation of the resource in favor of gasification with CCS.
    Keywords: Long-term energy modelling,decarbonisation,bioenergy,gasification,methanisation,biogas,CCS,flexibility 2
    Date: 2020–02
  7. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé/Cameroon); Mary Oluwatoyin Agboola (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia); Andrew Adewale Alola (Istanbul Gelisim University, Istanbul, Turkey); Festus Victor Bekun (Istanbul Gelisim University, Istanbul, Turkey)
    Abstract: While most African economies are primarily sandwiched with the seemingly unsurmountable task of attaining consistent economic growth and unhindered energy supply, the enormous threat posed by environmental degradation has further complicated the economic and environmental sustainability drive. In this context, the present study examines the effect of economic growth, urbanization, electricity consumption, fossil fuel energy consumption, and total natural resources rent on pollutant emissions in Africa over the period 1980-2014. By employing selected African countries, the current study relies on the Kao and Pedroni cointegration tests to cointegration analysis, the Pesaran’s Panel Pooled Mean Group-Autoregressive distributive lag methodology (ARDL-PMG) for long run regression while Dumitrescu and Hurlin (2012) is employed for the detection of causality direction among the outlined variables. The study traces long run equilibrium relationships b-etween examined indicators. The ARDL-PMG results suggest a statistical positive relationship between pollutant emissions and urbanization, electricity consumption and non-renewable energy consumption. Dumitrescu and Hurlin (2012) Granger causality test lends support to the long-run regression results. Bi-directional causality is observed between pollutant emissions, electricity consumption, economic growth and pollutant emissions while a unidirectional causality is apparent between total natural resources rent and pollutant emissions. Based on these results, several policy implications for the African continent were suggested. (a) The need for a paradigm shift from fossil fuel sources to renewables is encouraged in the region (b) The need to embrace carbon storage and capturing techniques to decouple pollutant emissions from economic growth on the continent’s growth trajectory. Further policy insights are elucidated.
    Keywords: non- renewable energy consumption; electricity consumption; economic growth; panel econometrics; Africa
    JEL: C32 Q40
    Date: 2019–01
  8. By: Lawrence H. Goulder; Xianling Long; Jieyi Lu; Richard D. Morgenstern
    Abstract: China is planning to implement the largest CO 2 emissions trading system in the world. To reduce emissions, the system will be a tradable performance standard (TPS), an emissions pricing mechanism that differs significantly from the emissions pricing instruments used in other countries, such as cap and trade (C&T) and a carbon tax. We employ matching analytically and numerically solved models to assess the cost-effectiveness and distributional impacts of China’s forthcoming TPS for achieving CO 2 emissions reductions from the power sector. We find that the TPS’s implicit subsidy to electricity output has wide-ranging consequences for both cost-effectiveness and distribution. In terms of cost-effectiveness, the subsidy disadvantages the TPS relative to C&T by causing power plants to make less efficient use of output-reduction as a way of reducing emissions (indeed, it induces some generators to increase output) and by limiting the cost-reducing potential of allowance trading. In our central case simulations, TPS’s overall costs are about 47 percent higher than under C&T. At the same time, the TPS has distribution-related attractions. Through the use of multiple benchmarks (maximal emission-output ratios consistent with compliance), it can serve distributional objectives. And because it yields smaller increases in electricity prices than a comparable C&T system, it implies less international emissions leakage.
    JEL: H23 Q43 Q48 Q5 Q54
    Date: 2019–12
  9. By: Rolando Ríos-Aguilar (Faculty of Fiscal and Finance Administration, Autonomous University Of Coahuila)
    Abstract: Sustainable campuses have become one of the main objectives of university agendas as a result of the impacts generated by the activities that take place there and that affect the environment. Therefore, there are environmental management systems, which are the set of practices, procedures, processes and resources needed to comply with environmental regulations in companies and are focused on the reduction of impacts on the environment and the efficiency of processes. In Universities, even when considered as companies, these systems do not work efficiently, which makes it necessary and urgent that a model of environmental management system is adequate and that, through teaching and research, society is helped to achieve the transition to sustainable lifestyles.Universities generate an impact directly and indirectly on the environment and can be considered small cities, because of their size and population and because of the multiple activities that take place within them that can affect the environment. They are very complex structures, with numerous subcultures, styles, contrasts, experiences of all kinds, with great differences among students, faculties and community in general, which leads to rethink the decisions to be made within the system.Given the above, one of the objectives of these educational centers should be to achieve a better use of their resources with the sole purpose of making the campus environmentally sustainable. Each university is then conceived as an institution that is concerned with mitigating the impacts generated by its activities and by generating institutional policies that are a model to be followed by other universities in the city, in each country and in other countries.In order to know the sensitivity of the student community about the environmental problems of the university campus and their awareness to solve the environmental problems present on the campus, an experiment was designed under the theoretical framework of the contingent valuation method (provision to pay) in order to explore the possibility of accepting a special annual quota aimed at improving environmental services and expanding facilities dedicated to culture, coexistence and recreation of the university community.The results of the field work carried out from August to November 2018 are presented, as well as recommendations for the university authorities regarding a sustainable management model for the university campus.
    Keywords: Sustainable development, environmental economics, provision to pay, sustainable campus
    JEL: Q01 Q50 Q59
    Date: 2019–10
  10. By: Jaime de Melo (FERDI - Fondation pour les Etudes et Recherches sur le Développement International); Jean-Marc Solleder (UNIGE - Université de Genève)
    Abstract: The environment-trade nexus requires action. Environmentalists have claimed that the interests of the trade community, as represented at the WTO, would trump environmental concerns while trade specialists have claimed that an open trading system is key to meet the environmental challenge facing us. After a decade-long negotiation at the WTO on the reduction of tariffs on environmental goods (EGs) failed to produce an agreement, in 2014 a group of 14 countries entered plurilateral negotiations aiming for an Environmental Goods Agreement (EGA) that would have substantially reduced or eliminated tariffs on a long list of EGs. This also failed. This paper discusses the hurdles faced by these negotiations, the resulting stalemate, and avenues for reviving the negotiations. We argue that conclusion of the EGA negotiations under the current narrow agenda would help build trust to go further but would produce only very modest gains. Extending the agenda to include non-tariff barriers (NTBs) and environmental services remains the acid test for an EGA to address meaningfully the climate-change challenge.
    Keywords: Environmental Goods,WTO,Climate Change
    Date: 2019–09–16
  11. By: Valentino Dardanone (Università di Palermo); Carla Guerriero (Università di Napoli Federico II and CSEF)
    Abstract: Young generations will bear the cost of present natural capital degradation and, as the recent wave of school climate strikes for climate change proved, do not want their voices to be ignored. Discrete Choice Experiments are increasingly being used for the valuation of environmental goods, nevertheless, they have never been conducted with children. We designed and administered a discrete choice experiment to elicit children, aged 8-19 years, willingness to pay (WTP) for environmental protection projects. Our results suggest that children marginal WTP is higher for projects targeting natural protection in their own country (Italy) and that the utility of environmental protection is greater for females and for older children. Furthermore, we find that individual attitude towards environment negatively affect the probability of choosing the status quo alternative. Given recent findings on transfer of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards environmental protection from children to parents, these results are important to support policy makers decisions on how to deal with the issues of natural capital degradation.
    Keywords: Discrete Choice Experiment; Children; Natural Capital; Environmental Protection; Willingness to Pay
    JEL: C93 Q51 D83
    Date: 2019–12–17
  12. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé/Cameroon); Nicholas M. Odhiambo (Pretoria, South Africa)
    Abstract: This study assesses whether improving governance standards affects environmental quality in 44 countries in sub-Saharan Africa for the period 2000-2012. The empirical evidence is based on Generalised Method of Moments. Bundled and unbundled governance dynamics are used notably: (i) political governance (consisting of political stability and “voice & accountability”); (ii) economic governance (entailing government effectiveness and regulation quality), (iii) institutional governance (represented by the rule of law and corruption-control) and (iv) general governance (encompassing political, economic and institutional governance dynamics). The following hypotheses are tested: (i) Hypothesis 1 (Improving political governance is negatively related to CO2 emissions); (ii) Hypothesis 2 (Increasing economic governance is negatively related to CO2 emissions) and (iii) Hypothesis 3 (Enhancing institutional governance is negatively related to CO2 emissions. Results of the tested hypotheses show that: the validity of Hypothesis 3 cannot be determined based on the results; Hypothesis 2 is not valid while Hypothesis 1 is partially not valid. The main policy implication is that governance standards need to be further improved in order for government quality to generate the expected unfavorable effects on CO2 emissions.
    Keywords: CO2 emissions; Governance; Economic development; Sustainable development; Africa
    JEL: C52 O38 O40 O55 P37
    Date: 2019–01
  13. By: Jenn, Alan; Azevedo, Inês; Michalek, Jeremy Joseph
    Abstract: The transportation sector is currently the largest contributor of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States, and light-duty vehicles produce the majority of transportation emissions. Federal standards for fleet-averaged vehicle GHG emission rates and their corresponding corporate average fuel economy standards cap GHG emissions of the US light-duty vehicle fleet. In addition, two key policies aim to encourage a future fleet transition to alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) technologies: (1) incentives that treat AFVs favorably in the federal GHG standard, and (2) state zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) policy, which mandates AFV sales in some states. While each of these AFV policies can encourage AFV adoption, we show that net GHG emissions increase when both policies are present simultaneously. Specifically, we estimate changes in life cycle GHG emissions and gasoline consumption, relative to a pure federal fleet GHG standard (without AFV incentives or mandates), resulting from the introduction of (1) AFV incentives in federal fleet GHG policy, (2) state ZEV mandates, and (3) the combination of the two. We find that under fairly general conditions the combined AFV policies produce higher GHG emissions than either policy alone. This result is a consequence of state mandates increasing AFV sales in the presence of federal incentives that relax the fleet GHG standard when AFVs are sold. Using AFV sales projections from the Energy Information Administration and the California Air Resources Board, we estimate that the combined policies produce an increase on the order of 100 million tons of CO2 emissions cumulatively for new passenger cars sold from 2012 through 2025 relative to a pure GHG standard. AFV incentives in the GHG standard conflate policy goals by encouraging AFV adoption at the cost of higher fleet GHG emissions, and they permit even higher fleet GHG emissions when other policies, such as the ZEV mandate, increase AFV adoption.
    Date: 2019–06–01
  14. By: Yogyakarta, Perpustakaan STIPRAM; Iriyanti, Ayu
    Abstract: Maron River,Pacitan, is a river tour with the natural scenery. The river water is very clear and overgrown with coconut trees on the river side. The depth of the river reaches 20 meters, for the deepest part. Because of the clarity of the water, some local people use it as a daily necessity. The river is filled with red snapper. The atmosphere in the river area is very calm and cool. The view of the green trees on the side of the river makes this tour feels like being down the Amazon River.
    Date: 2019–06–12
  15. By: Andreas A. Papandreou (National and Kapodistrian University of Athens)
    Abstract: There has been a burgeoning interest and literature on the risks associated with stranded assets. This paper aims to present an overview of this literature with a focus on the risks to the financial system associated with stranded assets and why these risks need to be a concern to central banks. It considers various definitions of stranded assets and its expanding scope while focusing more narrowly on climate-related risks and how these affect the financial system. Two main channels of climate-related risks are discussed in depth: risks of physical impacts from climate change and risks associated with the transition to a low-carbon economy. Reasons why the financial system may inadequately account for these risks are presented along with corrective policies on the part of investors and central banks. The paper also considers the special challenges and threats to financial stability associated with the historically unique sustainability transition needed to achieve the targets set by the Paris Agreement.
    Keywords: stranded assets; climate change;financial stability
    JEL: G2 Q54
    Date: 2019–12
  16. By: Charles Mason (University of Wyoming)
    Abstract: I model International climate agreements among asymmetric countries, each of whom must select a profile of CO2 emissions over time. Predictions from this model imply larger reductions by "large" countries, but larger proportional reductions by "small" countries. I then analyze experimental data that sheds light on this issue. In contrast to the theoretical predictions, I find that smaller countries do not reduce emissions proportionately to their Nash level, and so the burden falls mostly on larger countries. Moreover, combined emissions are indistinguishable from the one-shot Nash emissions. This pessimistic outcome extends the commonly-found result in the literature that negotiations in similar repeated games (but with symmetric players) generally do not offer much hope for meaningful agreements, unless the effects are modest. One possible explanation for this pattern of results is inequality aversion.
    Keywords: Climate Negotiations, Repeated Game, Experiments
    JEL: D8 L15
    Date: 2019–12
  17. By: Goldberg, Matthew
    Abstract: A fundamental goal of the scientific process is to make causal inferences. Random assignment to experimental conditions has been taken to be a gold-standard technique for establishing causality. Despite this, it is unclear how often random assignment fails to eliminate non-trivial differences between experimental conditions. Further, it is unknown to what extent larger sample sizes mitigates this issue. Chance differences between experimental conditions may be especially important when investigating topics that are highly sample-dependent, such as climate change and other politicized issues. Three studies examine simulated data (Study 1), three real datasets from original environmental psychology experiments (Study 2), and one nationally-representative dataset (Study 3) and find that differences between conditions that remain after random assignment are surprisingly common for sample sizes typical of social psychological scientific experiments. Methods and practices for identifying and mitigating such differences are discussed, and point to implications that are especially relevant to experiments in social and environmental psychology.
    Date: 2019–04–05
  18. By: Mohamed Ramadan A. Rezk (Academy of Scientific Research & Technology); Amr Radwan (Academy of Scientific Research & Technology); Nahed M. Salem (Academy of Scientific Research & Technology); Mahmoud M. Sakr (Academy of Scientific Research & Technology); Manuela Tvaronavičienė (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University)
    Abstract: This paper presents energy opportunities, particular areas of high potential and reflections on energy challenges in Egypt by the year 2040. Energy foresight significantly contributes in the effective review and formulation of national energy policies and strategies. In this work, 350 experts participated in real-time Delphi survey and responded to a set of structured and cross-linked questionnaires that aim to assess and provide future dimension to the energy sector in Egypt. Priorities are presented across 14 energy cluster-areas with 180 identified topics. The two-round Delphi study with an iterative process was performed to determine and measure the expectations of the different stakeholders with specific emphasis on the prospects of renewable energy and energy efficiency. The designed cross-linkages between survey components allowed the systematic pooling and convergence of knowledge in addition to the technical insights and different perspectives. About 50% of Egypt's energy demand was foresighted to be met by renewable energies around 2030. The results showed that all types of energy would not only provide economic and environmental benefits but also improve living standards. This work demonstrates that involving large diversity of expertise and different stakeholders, comprising heterogeneous groups, in foresight studies would potentiate the forecasting power, reduce the polarization effect, and enhance the reliability of the foresight exercise.
    Keywords: science policy,foresight,Delphi survey,energy,sustainable development,renewable energy
    Date: 2019–12–15
  19. By: Patrick Baylis; Judson Boomhower
    Abstract: This study measures the degree to which large public expenditures on wildfire protection subsidize development in harm's way. Using administrative firefighting data, we calculate geographically-differentiated implicit subsidies to homeowners throughout the western USA. We first examine how the presence of homes affects firefighting expenditures. These results are used to reconstruct the implied historical cost of protecting each home and to perform an actuarial calculation of expected future protection cost. The expected net present value of this subsidy can exceed 20% of a home's value. It increases with fire risk and decreases surprisingly steeply with development density. A simple model is used to explore effects on expansion of developed areas, density, and private risk-reducing investments. These results demonstrate how policy and institutions influence the costs imposed by a changing climate.
    JEL: H22 H23 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2019–12
  20. By: Panle Jia Barwick; Shanjun Li; Liguo Lin; Eric Zou
    Abstract: During 2013-2014, China launched a nation-wide real-time air quality monitoring and disclosure program, a watershed moment in the history of its environmental regulations. We present the first empirical analysis of this natural experiment by exploiting its staggered introduction across cities. The program has transformed the landscape of China's environmental protection, substantially expanded public access to pollution information, and dramatically increased households' awareness about pollution issues. These transformations, in turn, triggered a cascade of behavioral changes in household activities such as online searches, day-to-day shopping, and housing demand when pollution was elevated. As a result, air pollution's mortality cost was reduced by nearly 7% post the program. A conservative estimate of the annual benefit is RMB 130 billion, which is at least one order of magnitude larger than the cost of the program and the associated avoidance behavior. Our findings highlight considerable benefits from improving access to pollution information in developing countries, many of which are experiencing the world's worst air pollution but do not systematically collect or disseminate pollution information.
    JEL: D80 I10 Q53 Q58
    Date: 2019–12
  21. By: Höfer, Tim (E.ON Energy Research Center, Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN)); Madlener, Reinhard (E.ON Energy Research Center, Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN))
    Abstract: This paper presents an evaluation of four energy transition scenarios under consideration of multiple stakeholder opinions. We construct a multi-criteria group decision model that applies Value-Focused Thinking to construct a holistic objective system and Multi-Attribute Utility Theory to evaluate the energy transition scenarios. Although the individual scenario evaluations show that the opinions of the stakeholders towards a sustainable energy transition differ largely, we are able to derive three main strands of opinions among the considered stakeholders. For this, we apply a clustering technique to identify and bundle the stakeholders into three groups. This bundling of stakeholder interests enables the identification of the most important policy recommendations for a sustainable energy transition. For the case of Germany, these are to reduce GHG and pollutant emissions and at the same time enable citizens’ participation, limit the visual impact on landscapes, and ensuring internationally comparable energy-related political frameworks for the economy. For the case of a sustainable energy transition in Germany, we find that the stakeholders considered prefer either the highly ambitious climate protection scenario (Scenario B) or the Pan-European scenario (Scenario C). The reference scenario, which was developed by the German Transmission System Operators (TSOs), turns out to be relatively unpopular.
    Keywords: Value-Focused Thinking; Group Decision Making; MAUT; Energy Scenarios
    JEL: D70 D81 O52 Q48
    Date: 2019–05–01
  22. By: Olga Ivanova; d'Artis Kancs; Mark Thissen
    Abstract: The Regional Trade Flows and Input output Data for Europe are constructed at the regional NUTS2 level with sectoral NACE2 detail and developed for spatial macroeconomic modelling and social-economic analysis for answering a wide-range of policy questions, including policies related to investments in innovation, human capital, green infrastructure and Sustainable Development Goals. The Regional Trade Flows and Input output Data for Europe are particularly well suited for structural modelling such as spatial computable general equilibrium models, as all data are fully internally consistent. In the Regional Trade Flows and Input output Data all European regions are connected with each other via inter-regional trade flows, input use and output supply in form of regional trade matrices, input output tables and supply-use tables. This data base is result of a joint collaborative effort over a decade of several research institutes across Europe, including the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL), the European Commission (DG JRC) and the University of Groningen (Ivanova, Kancs and Stelder 2009, Thissen et al. 2014, Thissen et al. 2018, Ivanova, Kancs and Thissen 2019). Among others, the new EU Economic Modelling System (EU-EMS) developed within the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation makes use of the Regional Trade Flows and Input output Data for Europe.
    Keywords: Inter-Regional Trade Flows, Input output Tables, data, Europe, spatial spillovers, SCGE, modelling.
    JEL: C68 D58 F12 R13 R30
    Date: 2019–10–06
  23. By: Margaryan, Shushanik
    Abstract: Air pollution has a major detrimental impact on population health but little is known about the effectiveness of policy measures targeting pollution. I exploit the staggered implementation of low emission zones in large cities in Germany as a nat-ural experiment to asses their health impact. Using outpatient and inpatient health care data, I demonstrate that low emission zones reduce the number of patients with cardiovascular diagnoses by 2-3 percent. This effect is particularly pronounced for the elderly above 65.
    Date: 2019
  24. By: Thais NUNEZ-ROCHA
    Keywords: , Hazardous waste, waste haven effect, international trade, international environmental agreements, difference-in-differences, log-linear and ppml gravity model
    Date: 2019
  25. By: Beomsoo Kim (Department of Economics, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Yang Zhao (Department of Economics, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea)
    Abstract: The Chinese government passed the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan (APPCAP) in 2013 to improve air quality. Subsequently, local governments implemented their own action plans following APPCAP in different time. We use difference-in-differences model to evaluate the impact of the APPCAP on health outcomes. Unlike the literature focusing on mortality, we measure health outcomes based on air-pollution-related chronic conditions, respiratory diseases, and circulatory system diseases based on the medical literature. The China Family Panel Studies (CFPS 2012, 2014, 2016), a representative survey of China, collects detailed information on doctor-diagnosed chronic diseases over the last 6 months. We found that the APPCAP reduced respiratory diseases and circulatory system diseases by 23 percent and 20 percent respectively for all adults. The effects vary across subsets of the population. The low-income strata and old people benefitted most from the APPCAP regarding respiratory diseases. Furthermore, females and old people received large benefits from the APPCAP for circulatory system diseases.
    Keywords: assortative, random, auction, subscription, revenue maximization, complementarity
    Date: 2019
  26. By: Hargita, Yvonne; Hinkes, Cordula; Bick, Ulrich; Peter, Günter
    Abstract: The production of soy is an important driver for the deforestation of primary forests, especially in Brazil. The European Union, and in particular Germany, is a relevant importer of soy and thereby indirectly contributes to the ongoing deforestation. With the Amsterdam Declaration in 2015, the German government together with other European countries declared their willingness to support the private sector’s goal to eliminate deforestation from agricultural supply chains by 2020. Usually companies use certification schemes to ensure deforestation-free sourcing and in general the compliance with social or ecological requirements. Our analysis of those soy certification schemes that are compliant with the Soy Sourcing Guidelines of the European Feed Manufacturers' Federation has shown that requirements between the schemes are quite different. The evaluation of standards related to the conservation of natural ecosystems, good agricultural practice, social criteria, auditing and traceability systems, identified ISCC PLUS and ISCC EU as the schemes with the highest overall scores. Donau Soja/Europe Soya, ProTerra, BFA SS, CRS-CEFETRA and RTRS have high requirements in place, as well. These certification schemes are in line with the political goals of the Amsterdam Declaration, but also with the voluntary commitments of relevant private sector organizations and business networks, such as the Consumer Goods Forum.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2019–12–18
  27. By: Mulwa, Chalmers; Visser, Martine
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2019–09
  28. By: Michael Donadelli (University of Brescia, Research Center SAFE); Patrick Grüning (Bank of Lithuania, Vilnius University); Steffen Hitzemann (Rutgers Business School)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the transition to a low-carbon economy and its effects on macroeconomic quantities and asset prices. Empirically, we document that the relative valuation of fossil fuel firms has significantly declined with the rise of climate change risk awareness. We develop a macro asset pricing model for the climate transition that matches this empirical fact and allows us to characterize the dynamics of macroeconomic aggregates and asset prices during and after the transition. In particular, we analyze (i) firm valuation dynamics, (ii) climate policy risk premia, (iii) capital reallocation between sectors, and (iv) the behavior of oil prices.
    Keywords: Climate change, Policy risk, General equilibrium, Risk premia, Oil market
    JEL: E2 E3 G12 Q43
    Date: 2019–12–27
  29. By: Ahlfeldt, Gabriel M.; Nitsch, Volker; Wendland, Nicolai
    Abstract: For a complete cost-benefit analysis of durable infrastructures, it is important to understand how the value of non-market goods such as transit time and environmental quality changes as incomes rise in the longrun. We use difference-in-differences and spatial differencing to estimate the land price capitalization effects of metro rail in Berlin, Germany today and a century ago. Over this period, the negative effect of rail noise tripled in percentage terms. Our results imply long-run income elasticities of the value of noise reduction and transport access of 2.2 and 1.4, substantially exceeding cross-sectional contingent valuation estimates.
    JEL: R12 R14 R41 N73 N74
    Date: 2019–06
  30. By: Torelli, Riccardo; Balluchi, Federica; Lazzini, Arianna
    Abstract: Since the first Earth Day in the 1970s, corporate environmental performance has increased dramatically, and cases of greenwashing have increased sharply. The term greenwash refers to a variety of different misleading communications that aim to form overly positive beliefs among stakeholders about a company's environmental practices. The growing number of corporate social responsibility claims, whether founded or not, creates difficulties for stakeholders in distinguishing between truly positive business performance and companies that only appear to embrace a model of sustainable development. In this context, through the lens of legitimacy and signalling theory, we intend to understand and assess the different influences that various types of misleading communications about environmental issues have on stakeholders' perceptions of corporate environmental responsibility and greenwashing. Stakeholder responses to an environmental scandal will also be assessed. The hypotheses tested through a four‐for‐two design experiment reveal that different levels of greenwashing have a significantly different influence on stakeholders' perceptions of corporate environmental responsibility and stakeholders' reactions to environmental scandals.
    Date: 2019–08–13
  31. By: Pascal GASTINEAU (IFSTTAR, AME, EASE, Bouguenais, France.); Pascal MOSSAY (School of Economics and Trade, Kyungpook National University, Korea. CORE, Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium.); Emmanuel TAUGOURDEAU (CNRS, CREST, ENSAE, Ecole Polytechnique, ENS Paris-Saclay, Institut Polytechnique de Paris,F-91128 Palaiseau ,France.)
    Abstract: We propose a spatial framework to study ecological compensation. The policy-maker implements a No Net Loss policy that meets the No Worse-Off principle as well as a location constraint on the offset. This determines both the location and the level of compensation that minimize the total cost of restoration. We describe the additional ecological cost induced by the No Worse-Off principle and how the spatial distribution of individuals, the environment and land costs affect the compensation location. The location constraint is shown to introduce a trade-off between the compensation cost and inequality.
    Keywords: Ecological compensation, no net loss policy, welfare, inequality
    JEL: I3 Q5 R1
  32. By: Hendrik KRUSE; Thais NUNEZ-ROCHA; Camélia TURCU
    Keywords: , , Foreign Aid, Resource exports, Political Economy, Trade costs, Infrastructure
    Date: 2019
  33. By: Pascal Gastineau (IFSTTAR, AME, EASE, Bouguenais, France.); Pascal Mossay (School of Economics and Trade, Kyungpook National University, Korea.); Emmanuelle Taugourdeau (CNRS, CREST, ENSAE, Ecole Polytechnique, ENS Paris-Saclay, Institut Polytechnique de Paris, F-91128 Palaiseau, France.)
    Abstract: We propose a spatial framework to study ecological compensation. The policy-maker implements a No Net Loss policy that meets the No Worse-Off principle as well as a location constraint on the offset. This determines both the location and the level of compensation that minimize the total cost of restoration. We describe the additional ecological cost induced by the No Worse-Off principle and how the spatial distribution of individuals, the environment and land costs affect the compensation location. The location constraint is shown to introduce a trade-off between the compensation cost and inequality.
    Keywords: ecological compensation, no net loss policy, welfare, inequality
    JEL: I3 Q5 R1
    Date: 2019–12
  34. By: Giuseppe Attanasi (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - UCA - Université Côte d'Azur - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Francesco Passarelli (University of Turin, Bocconi University [Milan, Italy]); Giulia Urso (Gran Sasso Science Institute (GSSI)); Hana Cosic (Institute of Economics, Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Individuals might have different views about the benefits and the costs of privatizing a cultural event. On the one hand, privatization may increase the quality of the event due to expanding investments. On the other hand, it may lead to the dissipation of important cultural and traditional connotations. Since benefits and costs are uncertain, we frame an individual's choice regarding privatization as a lottery choice, where risk aversion and other individual traits play a role. We empirically investigate attendees' preferences for privatizing a mass gathering festival in Italy. The festival is attended by almost 100,000 tourists each year. Over a three-year period, we collected a large dataset of survey questions. We find that willingness to accept privatization is decreasing in tourists' risk aversion, while it is increasing in their sensitivity to the festival's quality. Cultural tourists perceive a higher risk of commodification in the case of privatization. Authenticity-seeking tourists act as gatekeepers of the genuine roots of local traditions. They demand original values, ultimately contributing to the festival's cultural sustainability. The purpose of attracting visitors is in fact commonly assumed to alter local culture, resulting in a staged authenticity; and privatization of cultural goods is often associated with commodification.
    Keywords: willingness to pay,risk aversion,festival ownership,cultural tourism,sustainable tourism,authenticity
    Date: 2019
  35. By: Dueholm Rasch, Elisabet
    Abstract: In this working paper, I argue that the ways in which communities engage in strategies of contention are mediated by what I call 'subsoil imaginaries': how peoples and communities imagine and give meaning to the subsoil and its extraction. In so doing, I approach the subsoil as a site on and through which strategies of contention gain form and content, and at the same time as a resource that is produced through such (political) discursive and practical activities. It is on this site that this paper explores strategies of contention as a negotiation of rights between political subjects and the state that is mediated by subsoil imaginaries. Strategies of contention are mediated by subsoil imaginations in two dimensions. First, conflicts and contestations over resource use are often rooted in different ideas and imaginaries of resource use and the subsoil. Natural resources can be valued as indigenous territory, as a part of livelihood, in terms of biodiversity, and as combinations thereof. Such meanings clash with the monetary valuations on which most extractive projects are based. Second, extractive projects cause conflicts over distribution, as well as over recognition and participation; it is not only about the environmental consequences of subsoil extraction but also (if not foremost) about power, democracy and citizenship. These claims of social justice, as I will show, are also shaped by imaginaries of the subsoil. The paper builds on research on resistance, citizenship and subsoil extraction since 2010 in Latin America, the Philippines and the Netherlands.
    Keywords: subsoil extraction,knowledge,repertoires of contention,imaginaries,Untergrundgewinnung,Wissen,Strategien der Auseinandersetzung,Vorstellungen,Katasterkartierung
    Date: 2019
  36. By: Gallier, Carlo; Kesternich, Martin; Sturm, Bodo
    Abstract: Das Pariser Klimaabkommen von 2015 ist mit der großen Hoffnung verbunden, die globale Erwärmung auf das vereinbarte 2-Grad-Ziel zu beschränken. Dazu sind substanzielle Klimaschutzbeiträge unabdingbar. Ein zentraler Baustein des Abkommens ist ein dynamisches Anreizsystem, das sogenannte "Ratcheting". Es gibt den Vertragsstaaten vor, ihre Beiträge zum Klimaschutz in regelmäßigen Abständen transparent darzulegen und über die Zeit schrittweise zu erhöhen. Die Auswirkungen dieses Anreizmechanismus auf das Verhalten der beteiligten Akteure sind jedoch weitestgehend unklar. Unklar ist somit auch, ob sich die in Paris vereinbarte neue Vorgehensweise überhaupt als ein gangbarer Weg erweist, um das 2-Grad-Ziel zu erreichen. Das vorliegende ZEW policy brief greift Ergebnisse eines ökonomischen Laborexperiments auf, das den Effekt des "Ratcheting" unter kontrollierten Bedingungen systematisch untersucht hat. Die gewonnenen Einsichten geben wenig Anlass zu Optimismus. Finanziert wurde das Laborexperiment im Rahmen des Projekts "Incentives, Fairness and Compliance in International Environmental Agreements (InFairCom)" vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF).
    Keywords: Klimaabkommen,Ratcheting,Klimaschutz
    Date: 2019
  37. By: ŞENTÜRK, İsmail; Ali, Amjad
    Abstract: This paper has tried to analyze the socioeconomic determinants of total as well as gender specific life expectancy in Turkey from 1971 to 2017. Data stationarity has been checked by ADF, PP and DFGLS unit root tests and cointegration has been checked with the help of the ARDL bound testing method. The estimated results show that the overall level of education, purchasing power and economic development have a significant role in deciding total average life expectancy in Turkey. Whereas, population growth and environmental degradation have an insignificant contribution in deciding total average life expectancy in Turkey. Estimates show environmental degradation, purchasing power and level of male education have contributed significantly in male life expectancy in Turkey. Economic development and share of the male population have an insignificant role in deciding life expectancy of male in Turkey. Environmental degradation, the level of female education, fertility rates and female population significantly effected female life expectancy, but purchasing power has an insignificant role in deciding life expectancy of female in Turkey. The results recommend that the government of Turkey should enhance the level of education and try to stable purchasing power and sustainable development with controlled fertility rates for higher level life expectancy.
    Keywords: life expectancy, education, environmental degradation, population growth
    JEL: O1 Q0
    Date: 2019
  38. By: Yogyakarta, Perpustakaan STIPRAM; SUKAMTO, KHARISMA PRIYANING
    Abstract: At the puncak becici has more value to enjoy the charm of nature, the atmoshphere of the forest is peaceful and calm, refresh the brain from all the problems that exist by enjoying the beauty, the freshness of air that is free from pollution.
    Date: 2019–08–13
  39. By: Schneider, Anselm; Hinton, Jennifer; Collste, David; González, Tais Sonetti; Calderon, Sofía Valéria Cortez; Aguiar, Ana Paula
    Abstract: Matters arising: Can transnational corporations leverage systemic change towards a "sustainable" future? Response to Folke et al. Transnational corporations and the challenge of biosphere stewardship. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 3, 1396-1401 (2019).
    Date: 2019–12–09
  40. By: Nachesmon-Ekwall, Sophie (Marketing and Strategy)
    Abstract: The report examines the role that Swedish institutional investors might play in the development of a Swedish market for sustainability-related and socially labelled bonds. Engagement by the financial sector is seen as a necessity for society’s ability to cope with the growing stress on welfare systems and the demands presented in the 17 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). While Sweden has been in the foreground with green bonds, the country is lagging behind many other western liberal market economies on social bonds. A point of departure for this research has been to better understand SDG 11, on the development of sustainable cities and communities, and what are viewed in Sweden as run-down and socio-economically weak suburbs. Drawing on international experience of sustainability-related and socially labelled bonds as well as previous experience of Swedish impact investing, the report analyses the drivers of and forces constructing this virgin market, zooming in on the role taken of three parties: institutional investors and the issuers, mainly local governments and property developers, with the financial sector acting as intermediary. The report finds that the institutional investors have taken a variety of approaches to social bond investing, which is an indicator of a lack of guidance from both the individual investor-organizations’ boards as well as the Swedish public. In the few cases where investments have been made, previous experience of both green investing and foreign social bonds were used as stepping stone. Overall, knowledge is weak, in relation to both evaluating risk and return and understanding the impact metrics linked to the bonds’ use of proceeds. Furthermore, potential Swedish issuers are yet to come forward. As is the case in other western countries, Swedish public financial institutions – such as the export agency and a government sponsored mortgage lender, appears to be at the forefront. Nonetheless, Swedish local governments, which play a central role in the high-tax economy’s delivery of public services, remains hesitant, prevented by the limited successes of previous experi-mentation with social financial instruments such as public social investment funds and social impact bonds. This is compounded by restrictive accountancy practices, organizational silos and a culture that shuns public-private collaborations. The report makes recommendations on how to help the socially labelled bond-market achieve take-off, such as enhancing the development of financial vehicles, private as well as government-sponsored, and speeding up the work with the development of standardized metrics. In addition, institutional investors need to step up, and be braver than they are currently – at least if they claim to take all the SDGs seriously. A key message to the issuers is not to ask for too much in relation to risk-sharing – socially labelled bonds must not be too complex in structure or too complicated to evaluate for investors. However, the grand message from the report, is just the spreading of knowledge of the value of developing a market for socially labelled bonds, and the role that domestic institutional investors can play, if they decide to increase their commitment.
    Keywords: Institutional investors; impact investing; socially labelled bonds; sustainable development goals; Sweden; social democratic welfare state
    Date: 2019–12–20
  41. By: Amare, Mulubrhan
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2019–09
  42. By: Michal Burzynski (CREA - Center for Research in Economic Analysis - - Université du Luxembourg, LISER - Luxembourg Institute of Socio-Economic Research - Luxembourg Institute of Socio-Economic Research); Christoph Deuster (UCL IRES - Institut de recherches économiques et sociales - UCL - Université Catholique de Louvain); Frédéric Docquier (UCL IRES - Institut de recherches économiques et sociales - UCL - Université Catholique de Louvain, FERDI - Fondation pour les Etudes et Recherches sur le Développement International, LISER - Luxembourg Institute of Socio-Economic Research - Luxembourg Institute of Socio-Economic Research); Jaime de Melo (FERDI - Fondation pour les Etudes et Recherches sur le Développement International, UNIGE - Université de Genève)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the long-term implications of climate change on local, interregional, and international migration of workers. For nearly all of the world's countries, our micro-founded model jointly endogenizes the effects of changing temperature and sea level on income distribution and individual decisions about fertility, education, and mobility. Climate change intensifies poverty and income inequality creating favorable conditions for urbanization and migration from low-to high-latitude countries. Encompassing slow-and fast-onset mechanisms, our projections suggest that climate change will induce the voluntary and forced displacement of 100 to 160 million workers (200 to 300 million climate migrants of all ages) over the course of the 21st century. However, under current migration laws and policies, forcibly displaced people predominantly relocate within their country and merely 20% of climate migrants opt for long-haul migration to OECD countries. If climate change induces generalized and persistent conflicts over resources in regions at risk, we project significantly larger cross-border flows in the future.
    Keywords: Climate change,Migration,Inequality,Urbanization,Conflicts JEL Classification: E24
    Date: 2019–09–18
  43. By: -
    Abstract: Haïti est un cas emblématique, une situation in extremis pour analyser et discuter sur la Coopération internationale pour le développement. Après le séisme de janvier 2010, la communauté internationale mobilisa d’importantes ressources pour aider à affronter la situation d’urgence à travers l’aide humanitaire et des projets de coopération pour le développement. Qu’en est-il maintenant? Qu’est-ce que ces actions ont vraiment représenté? Est-ce que des processus de développement réellement durable ont été déclenchés en Haïti? Qu’en pensent les acteurs haïtiens? Ce livre aborde les portées, les limitations et les problématiques de la coopération offerte par le Brésil, le Chili et le Mexique durant la période 2010 2015. Des projets et des initiatives spécifiques sont étudiés et documentés afin d’analyser quels sont les acteurs publics et privés qui y ont participé, le type d’aide apportée et les mécanismes de collaboration, le montant des ressources investis, le genre de pratiques développées ainsi que les résultats obtenus. Les innovations et les pratiques sont aussi analysées sous l’optique des principes de la coopération Sud Sud, en contraste à la coopération traditionnelle, tout en se demandant s’il s’agit vraiment d’une coopération différente. Par ailleurs, les cas sont analysés à partir des critères et principes de l’efficacité de la coopération au développement.
    Date: 2019–12–23
  44. By: Simon, Ian
    Abstract: The use of social media to promote tourism is evidently showing a significant and important role in the industry. Most research studies focus in the areas of social media marketing and its impact on tourism industry, without giving more emphases its negative effect on environmental preservation.
    Date: 2019–03–31
  45. By: Lisa Ryan (University College, Dublin); Ivan Petrov (University College, Dublin); Andrew Kelly (EnvEcon Decision Support); Yulu Guo (University College, Dublin); Sarah La Monaca (Columbia University)
    Abstract: This paper presents the results of an ex post evaluation of the impacts of a vehicle tax reform in Ireland, by carrying out a full social cost benefit analysis of a vehicle tax reform that began in Ireland in 2008 and shows that whilst successful in improving the fuel economy of new passenger cars, it may also have caused unintended effects, such as an increased proliferation of diesel vehicles in the passenger car fleet. These outcomes have mitigated the overall benefits. In addition to quantifying the scale of the various effects and outcomes, this paper clearly demonstrates the importance of broad scope policy design.
    Keywords: benefit-cost analysis, economic policy instruments, environmental economics, environmental tax reform, vehicle taxation
    JEL: D61 H23 Q51 Q53 R48
    Date: 2019–12–20
  46. By: -
    Abstract: Esta publicación es producto de la Comunidad de práctica sobre seguros agropecuarios y gestión integral de riesgos en el marco del programa de trabajo conjunto entre los Ministerios de Agricultura de los países miembros del Consejo Agropecuario Centroamericano (CAC) del Sistema de la Integración Centroamericana (SICA) y la Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), en coordinación con la Secretaría Ejecutiva del CAC y su Grupo técnico de cambio climático y gestión integral de riesgos.
    Date: 2019–12–19
  47. By: Aleksandrova, Mariya
    Abstract: This discussion paper aims to further awareness of opportunities to address loss and damage caused by climate change-related slow onset events (SOEs) through social protection. The analysis is based on a review of interdisciplinary theoretical and empirical literature. The findings suggest that designing comprehensive, climate-responsive social protection strategies can strongly support proactive measures to avoid, minimise and address the complex, long-term impacts of SOEs on human health, livelihoods, poverty and inequality. This entails improving the effectiveness and extending the coverage of existing social protection systems; mainstreaming climate concerns, including risks associated with SOEs, into national social protection frameworks; integrating social protection with broader climate and development policies and strategies; and developing innovative and transformational approaches to social protection. To this end, several issues for research and policy are discussed. Overall, the paper attempts to set the groundwork for an advanced research and policy agenda on social protection and climate change as well as emphasise the need for wider consideration of social protection in global climate change debates. In addition, the study aims to inform the future work of the Executive Committee of the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts in the working areas of SOEs and comprehensive risk management approaches.
    Date: 2019
  48. By: NIRWAN, SAEPUDIN (Politeknik Pos Indonesia)
    Abstract: This Project discuss assembling about application portal knowledge management in higher university, like we know about in higher university is location to interaction for people studied. Various to follow open knowledge. The higher university have had competition level and high demand form stakeholder, that is increase quality although transparency in management organization. With competition is very expert, the higher university must have skill to absorb knowledge that had civitas academic, in order that knowledge who there is in area university can kept with explicit, shaped to make dissemination knowledge. To reach necessity about that project so did program architecture knowledge management for system to used in tools as support management knowledge management in higher university. Knowledge management had facilities to made collaboration, repository and dissemination knowledge who have in every civitas academic, in example is case Politeknik Pos Indonesia. The planning started with observe necessity system, specification and software and grow up prototype where able bridge between running system to resource data with knowledge management portal is development.
    Date: 2018–08–25
  49. By: Yogyakarta, Perpustakaan STIPRAM; Hutami, Dicka Nungki
    Abstract: Merlion Park is one of the tourist destinations in Singapore that must be visited by tourists. Merlion Park as icon or characteristic of country of Singapore. Many tourists come to see this Merlion Park. The tourist spend time to walk, relax, enjoy the scenery around this Merlion Park. Merlion park overlooking Marina Bay Sands. At night there is very amazing to be seen. The beauty of the Merlion Park is perfect for a vacation with family. The tourists can get around using the boat that is on this Singapore River.
    Date: 2019–07–30
  50. By: Lobo, Matheus Pereira (Federal University of Tocantins)
    Abstract: This is a minimalist article exploring the relation between time and temperature.
    Date: 2019–05–19
  51. By: Junichi Hirose (Kochi University); Koji Kotani (School of Economics and Management, Kochi University of Technology); Yoshinori Nakagawa (School of Economics and Management, Kochi University of Technology)
    Abstract: Climate change is a serious problem that requires people’s cooperation for its solution, while it is realized that there have been perception gaps about its causes. However, little is known about what causes people to perceive that climate change is human-induced or nature-induced as well as the linkage between the perception and cooperative attitude. We empirically analyze the determinants for the human-induced or nature-induced perception as well as the impact of the perception gap on cooperative attitudes toward climate change by conducting questionnaire surveys and a climate donation game with 400 Japanese subjects. First, the analysis finds an importance of people’s scientific literacy to explain the perception gap in that those with high levels of scientific literacy tend to have the perception of human-induced climate change. Second, people are identified to be cooperative toward climate change as they have prosocial value orientation, high scientific literacy and the perception of human-induced climate change, demonstrating that scientific literacy plays two important roles as not only a direct determinant but also an indirect one through affecting people’s perceptions for climate change cooperation. Overall, the results suggest that enhancement of scientific literacy and prosociality through some policies, such as educational programs, shall be key to induce people to cooperate for climate change via the perception of human-induced climate change.
    Keywords: Human-induced or nature-induced climate change, scientific literacy, donation game, prosociality
    Date: 2019–12
  52. By: Morokong, T.; Blignaut, J.N.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2019–09
  53. By: Reiche, Colleen PhD; Goyal, Rohit; Cohen, Adam; Serrao, Jacqueline; Kimmel, Shawn PhD; Fernando, Chris; Shaheen, Susan PhD
    Abstract: The Booz Allen Team explored market size and potential barriers to Urban Air Mobility (UAM) by focusing on three potential markets – Airport Shuttle, Air Taxi, and Air Ambulance. We found that the Airport Shuttle and Air Taxi markets are viable, with a significant total available market value in the U.S. of $500 billion, for a fully unconstrained scenario. In this unconstrained best-case scenario, passengers would have the ability to access and fly a UAM at any time, from any location to any destination, without being hindered by constraints such as weather, infrastructure, or traffic volume. Significant legal and regulatory, weather, certification, public perception, and infrastructure constraints exist, which reduce the market potential for these applications to only about 0.5% of the total available market, or $2.5 billion, in the near term. However, we determined that these constraints can be addressed through ongoing intra-governmental partnerships, government and industry collaboration, strong industry commitment, and existing legal and regulatory enablers. We found that the Air Ambulance market is not a viable market if served by electric vertical takeoff and landing (eVTOL) vehicles due to technology constraints but may potentially be viable if a hybrid VTOL aircraft are utilized.
    Keywords: Engineering
    Date: 2018–11–21

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