nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2019‒12‒16
74 papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Optimal forest rotation under carbon pricing and forest damage risk By Tommi Ekholm
  2. Valuing the loss and damage from climate change: a review of some current issues By Jean-Michel Salles
  3. Trade, Emissions, and Regulatory (Non-)Compliance: Implications of Firm Heterogeneity By Juin-Jen Chang; Yi-Ling Cheng; Shin-Kun Peng
  4. Altruistic Foreign Aid and Climate Change Mitigation By Antoine Bommier; Amélie Goerger; Arnaud Goussebaïle; Jean-Philippe Nicolaï
  5. Leakage in Regional Climate Policy? Implications of Electricity Market Design By Brittany Tarufelli; Ben Gilbert
  6. Beyond the Paris Agreement: Intellectual Property, Innovation Policy, and Climate Justice By Rimmer, Matthew
  7. Do natural disasters make sustainable growth impossible? By Lee H. Endress; James A. Roumasset; Christopher A. Wada
  8. Information-theoretic Portfolio Decision Model for Optimal Flood Management By Convertino, Matteo; Annis, Antonio; Nardi, Fernando
  9. The Structural Equation Models Of Environmental Concern and Knowledge To Green Trust and Green Purchase Intention Towards Green Products (Guideliness) By zulfikar, rizka
  10. Twenty Key Questions in Environmental and Resource Economics By Lucas Bretschger; Karen Pittel
  12. A comprehensive climate history of the last 800 thousand years By Krapp, Mario; Beyer, Robert; Edmundson, Stephen L.; Valdes, Paul J; Manica, Andrea
  13. Higher potential compound flood risk in Northern Europe under anthropogenic climate change By Bevacqua, Emanuele; Maraun, Douglas; Vousdoukas, Michalis I.; Voukouvalas, Evangelos; Vrac, Mathieu; Mentaschi, Lorenzo; Widmann, Martin
  15. Environmental Kuznets Curve for Environmental Quality in Indonesia: A Spatial Econometric Approach By Nani Sumarni
  16. Learning about climate change uncertainty enables flexible water infrastructure planning By Fletcher, Sarah Marie; Lickley, Megan; Strzepek, Kenneth
  17. The challenge of meeting climate change goals while avoiding trade protectionism: A South African case of potentially increasing non-tariff measures through carbon tax By Mmatlou, Kalaba; Sifiso, Ntombela; Bohlmann, Heinrich
  18. Forestry and agriculture policy governance regarding water contestation in State Production Forest (Case of Margo and Ngiyom spring water in Begal forest, Ngawi Regency) By ARISTO, Jurnal; Istyaningrum, Anna
  19. Assessment of food crop farmers’ indigenous strategies to climate change mitigation and adaptation in Imo state, Nigeria By Chidiebere-Mark, N.M.; Ejike, R.U.; Ibe, G.O.
  20. The economic cost of air pollution: Evidence from Europe By Antoine Dechezleprêtre; Nicholas Rivers; Balazs Stadler
  21. Can Clean Technology Exports Affect CO2 Emissions for Partners? Evidence from China. By Shaker, Saber Adly
  22. Can harmful events be another source of environmental traps? By Can Askan Mavi
  23. Factors influencing choice of climate change adaptation methods among underutilised indigenous vegetable farmers in Southwest Nigeria By Ekemini, Richard-Mbossoh; Ayanwale, Adeolu Babatunde; Adelegan, Janet Olatundun
  25. Proceedings: 3rd International Conference on Food and Agricultural Economics: VULNERABILITY OF SUGARCANE CROP PRODUCTION TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN PAKISTAN: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION By Shakoor, Usman; Rashid, Mudassar; Iftikh-ul-Husnain, Muhammad; Arif, Tahir
  26. Stranded Fossil Fuel Reserves and Firm Value By Christina Atanasova; Eduardo S. Schwartz
  27. Understanding the nexus of households’ attributes and climate change mitigation behavior: empirical evidence from Nsukka area of Nigeria By NwaJesus, Onyekuru Anthony; Okokon, Nfonobong; ChukwumaOtum, Ume
  28. Proceedings: 3rd International Conference on Food and Agricultural Economics: THE EFFECT OF SPIRULINA PLATENSIS (GOMONT) GEITLER EXTRACTS ON SEED GERMINATION OF LACTUCA SATIVA L. By Akgul, Fusun; Akgul, Riza
  29. Smart hedging against carbon leakage By Christoph Böhringer; Knut Einar Rosendahl; Halvor Briseid Storrøsten
  30. Improving farm environmental performance through technical assistance: empirical evidence on pesticide use By Margaux Lapierre; Alexandre Sauquet; Subervie Julie
  31. Carbon Taxation: A Tale of Three Countries By Patrick Criqui; Mark Jaccard; Thomas Sterner
  32. Why do people continue to live near polluted sites? Empirical evidence from Southwestern Europe By Pierre Levasseur; Katrin Erdlenbruch; Christelle Gramaglia
  33. The Interaction Of Climate And Economy As A Factor Of Collectivism In The Regions Of Russia By Ekaterina Maklasova; Alexander Tatarko
  34. Trade Liberalization Policies and Renewable Energy Transition in Low and Middle-Income Countries? An Instrumental Variable Approach By Murshed, Muntasir
  35. Implications of uncertain Antarctic ice sheet dynamics for managing future coastal erosion: a probabilistic assessment By Verschuur, Jasper; Le Bars, Dewi; Drijfhout, Sybren; Katsman, Caroline; de Vries, Sierd; Ranasinghe, Roshanka; Aarninkhof, Stefan
  36. Revenue implications associated with climate change for sugar producers in Eswatini By Nalley, Lawton; Anderson, Brooke; Price, Heather; Dalmini, Thula
  37. A Critical Review of the Business Agility Literature in the Advancement of Information and Communication Technology By Setiawan, Budi
  38. Climate Change and Economic Efficiency of Yam Farmers in Ekiti State, Nigeria By Akinola, A.A.; Oke, J.T.O.; Adesiyan, A.T.; Famuyini, C.A.
  39. No clue about bioplastics By Erik Ansink; Louise Wijk; Frederiek Zuidmeer
  40. Trends of hydroclimatic intensity in Colombia By Mesa, Oscar; Urrea, Viviana; Ochoa, Andrés
  41. Tornado damage ratings estimated with cumulative logistic regression By Elsner, James B.; Schroder, Zoe
  42. Paradoxical impact of sprawling intra-Urban Heat Islets: Reducing mean surface temperatures while enhancing local extremes By Shreevastava, Anamika; Bhalachandran, Saiprasanth; McGrath, Gavan; Huber, Matthew; Rao, P. Suresh C.
  43. An evaluation of the impact of soil carbon enhancing practices on farm output in Western Kenya By Ng'ang'a, Stanley Karanja; Jalang'o, Dorcas Anyango; Girvetz, Evan
  44. Are Detected Trends in Flood Magnitude and Shifts in the Timing of Floods of A Major River Basin in India, Linked To Anthropogenic Stressors? By Rama, Nandamuri Yamini; Ganguli, Poulomi; Chatterjee, Chandranath
  46. A simplified seasonal forecasting strategy, applied to wind and solar power in Europe By Bett, Philip E; Thornton, Hazel E.; Troccoli, Alberto; De Felice, Matteo; Suckling, Emma; Dubus, Laurent; Saint-Drenan, Yves-Marie; Brayshaw, David J.
  48. TEORI PEMBANGUNAN SUMBERDAYA MANUSIA: Human Capital Theory, Human Investment Theory, Human Development Theory, Sustainable Development Theory, People Centered Development Theory By Nurkholis, Afid
  49. Long-term weather variability, portfolio diversification and household welfare: evidence from rural Togo By Weyori, Alirah Emmanuel; Liebenehm, Sabine; Waibel, Hermann
  50. Lessons Learned for Designing Programs to Charge for Road Use, Congestion, and Emissions By Jenn, Alan
  51. Remote Sensing in Support of Disasters with a Focus on Wildland Fire By Hinkley, Everett
  52. Determinants of factors affecting adaptation strategies to climate change in cassava processing in South West, Nigeria By Ogunpaimo, Oyinlola Rafiat; Ogbe, Agatha; Edewor, Sarah
  53. Rapid Damage Assessment using FAS's Global Agricultural and Disaster Assessment System - GADAS By Tetrault, Bob
  54. Energy Outlooks Compared: Global and Regional Insights By Dawud Ansari; Franziska Holz; Hashem al-Kuhlani
  55. Renewable Energy and Employment: The Experience of Egypt, Jordan and Morocco By Sylvain Cote
  56. Can economic and environmental benefits associated with agricultural intensification be sustained at high population densities? a farm level empirical analysis By Willy, Daniel Kyalo; Muyanga, Milu; Jayne, Thomas
  57. Economic Impact of Pesticides and Bio security Mechanism for Agriculture Development in Merauke Border Area RI and PNG By Widiastuti, Maria Maghdalena Diana
  58. Kajian Faktor Kesiapan Lingkungan Dalam Rangka Peningkatan Implementasi E-Goverment Indonesia Yang Lebih Baik By Yuliana, Rika; Irawan, Dasapta Erwin
  59. Near Real-Time Disaster Monitoring of Agriculture using Remote Sensing and Geospatial Data By Boryan, Claire G.; Yang, Zhangwei; Sandborn, Avery; Willis, Patrick
  60. The impact of renewable versus non-renewable natural capital on economic growth By Gasmi, Farid; Couvet, Denis; Recuero Virto, Laura
  61. Farmers' organisation and its contribution to the adoption of soil conservation practices: A case study of smallholder farmers in Oyo State, Nigeria By Kehinde, M.A.; Kehinde, A.D.; Akinola, A.A.
  62. Das EU-Budget 2021 bis 2027 – Optionen für eine Stärkung des europäischen Mehrwerts By Julia Bachtrögler; Angela Köppl; Atanas Pekanov; Margit Schratzenstaller; Franz Sinabell
  63. Status of implementation in South America of the Vienna Programme of Action for Landlocked Developing Countries for the Decade 2014-2024 By Pérez, Gabriel; Sánchez, Ricardo
  64. Exploring the pathways: Regulatory experiments for Sustainable Development - An interdisciplinary approach By Bauknecht, Dierk; Bischoff, Thore; Bizer, Kilian; Heyen, Dirk Arne; Führ, Martin; Gailhofer, Peter; Proeger, Till; von der Leyen, Kaja
  65. Proceedings: 3rd International Conference on Food and Agricultural Economics: EFFECT OF DRIP IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT ON YIELD AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF TOMATO GROWN IN AN UNHEATED POLYETHYLENE TUNNEL-TYPE GREENHOUSE By patamanska, Galina; Grancharova, Elena; Kostadinov, Georgi; Gigova, Antoaneta
  67. USDA Biotech Labeling Regulations By Vaden, Stephen Alexander
  68. Effects of transaction costs and discount rate on the banking decision of emission permits trading By Karima Fredj; Alain Jean-Marie; Guiomar Martín-Herrán; Mabel Tidball
  69. Evaluating the decadal-to-centennial evolution of a new proxy-based NAO reconstruction during the Common Era By Hernández, Armand; Sánchez-López, Guiomar; Pla-Rabes, Sergi; Comas-Bru, Laia; Parnell, Andrew; Cahill, Niamh; Geyer, Adelina; Trigo, Ricardo M; Giralt, Santiago
  70. Liên kết đại học – công nghiệp trong thúc đẩy chuyển giao công nghệ: nghiên cứu tại các trường đại học công nghệ và kĩ thuật Việt Nam By Le Ngoc Anh, Hoang; Ho, Toan Manh
  71. Proceedings: 3rd International Conference on Food and Agricultural Economics: THE EFFECT OF SPIRULINA PLATENSIS (GOMONT) GEITLER EXTRACTS ON SEED GERMINATION OF CAPSICUM ANNUUM L. By Akgul, Fusun; Akgul, Riza
  72. Hai loại sáng tạo, hai giai đoạn đời người (được giải Nobel) By Ho, Toan Manh
  73. Ressources naturelles, innovation et développement économique : vers une nouvelle approche By Mounir Amdaoud
  74. Uncertainty in sea level rise projections due to the dependence between contributors By Le Bars, Dewi

  1. By: Tommi Ekholm
    Abstract: Forests will have two notable economic roles in the future: providing renewable raw material and storing carbon to mitigate climate change. The pricing of forest carbon leads to longer rotation times and consequently larger carbon stocks, but also exposes landowners to a greater risk of forest damage. This paper investigates optimal forest rotation under carbon pricing and forest damage risk. I provide the optimality conditions for this problem and illustrate the setting with numerical calculations representing boreal forests under a range of carbon prices and damage probabilities. The relation between damage probability and carbon price towards the optimal rotation length is nearly linear, with carbon pricing having far greater impact. As such, increasing forest carbon stocks by lengthening rotations is an economically attractive method for climate change mitigation, despite the forest damage risk. Carbon pricing also increases land expectation value and reduces the economic risks of the landowner. The production possibility frontier under optimal rotation suggests that significantly larger forests carbon stocks are achievable, but imply lower harvests. However, forests' societally optimal role between these two activities is not yet clear-cut; but rests on the future development of relative prices between timber, carbon and other commodities dependent on land-use.
    Date: 2019–11
  2. By: Jean-Michel Salles (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - UM - Université de Montpellier - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique)
    Abstract: From an economic perspective, damage and loss valuation aims first at justifying climate change mitigation efforts. But the difficulties related to the heterogeneity of the damage and the time horizon of the impacts make the results very contingent of the computation hypotheses.The debate thus focused on the social cost of carbon, driven by the idea of basing climate change policies on emission pricing. But damage assessment could also be used as a basis for compensating victims. Although the idea of climate justice is struggling to establish the basis for this compensation, international negotiations have begun to lay the groundwork for it through the Warsaw Mechanism, which remains however far from this goal.
    Abstract: Dans une perspective économique, l'évaluation des pertes et dommages vise d'abord à justifier les efforts d'atténuation du changement climatique. Mais les difficultés liées à l'hétérogénéité des dommages et l'horizon temporel des impacts rendent les résultats très contingents des hypothèses de calcul. Le débat s'est ainsi focalisé sur le coût social du carbone, porté par l'idée de baser les politiques de lutte contre le changement climatique sur une tarification des émissions. Mais l'évaluation des dommages pourrait aussi servir de base à une compensation des victimes. Même si l'idée d'une justice climatique peine à établir les bases de cette compensation, les négociations internationales ont commencé à en poser des jalons à travers le Mécanisme de Varsovie qui reste cependant loin de cet objectif.
    Keywords: eEconomic valuation,Climate change,Compensation,Economic valuation,Loss and damage,Social cost of carbon,coût social du carbone,pertes et préjudices,évaluation économique,changement climatique
    Date: 2019
  3. By: Juin-Jen Chang (Institute of Economics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan); Yi-Ling Cheng (National Sun Yat-sen University); Shin-Kun Peng (Institute of Economics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan)
    Abstract: This paper provides the implications of firm heterogeneity for the global environment and trade liberalization in a trade model with endogenous markups and regulatory non-compliance. We show that firms with heterogeneous productivities respond differently to a uniform environmental regulation (emission taxation), which changes the market competition structure within a country and across countries, and disentangles the interaction effects of environmental regulations and trade liberalization. In autarky, raising emission tax generates an average productivity gain and favors efficient firms in the sense that they can expand output but may produce more emissions via non-compliance to escape the regulation and maintain competitiveness. In a symmetric two-country open economy, trade liberalization can break the trade-off between output and environment, not only increasing worldwide output but also decreasing global pollution emissions. Under asymmetric environmental regulations, a unilateral increase in the emission tax decreases average productivity in this country if openness to trade is substantially high, which contrasts with the e§ect under autarky. Our welfare analysis shows a U-shaped relationship between the optimal emission tax and openness to trade regardless of whether under tax harmonization or tax competition. Trade liberalization unambiguously decreases global pollution emissions under tax harmonization but it may increase global pollution emissions under tax competition.
    Keywords: : Firm heterogeneity, environmental regulation, trade liberalization, pollution haven e§ect, environmental tax harmonization and competition
    JEL: F12 F18 Q56 R13
    Date: 2019–11
  4. By: Antoine Bommier (ETH Zurich); Amélie Goerger (ETH Zurich); Arnaud Goussebaïle (ETH Zurich); Jean-Philippe Nicolaï (Université Paris Nanterre)
    Abstract: This paper emphasizes the value of jointly addressing environmental and development objectives. We consider one altruistic developed country and several heterogeneous developing countries. We demonstrate that the lack of coordination between countries in tackling climate change finds a simple solution if developing countries can expect to receive development aid transfers from the developed country. The timing of the decision is central to the mechanism: development aid transfers should be determined after pollution abatement levels. The main restriction of our result is that it only holds if the developed country is altruistic enough to make positive development aid transfers to developing countries. Nevertheless, even from a purely selfish point of view, it may be profitable for the developed country to be more altruistic, leading to higher welfare for all countries.
    Keywords: Public good provision, Altruism, Climate change, Development aid
    JEL: D6 Q5 O1
    Date: 2019–12
  5. By: Brittany Tarufelli (Louisiana State University); Ben Gilbert (Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines)
    Abstract: We study how the expansion of a centralized real-time electricity market affects emissions leakage from a regional cap-and-trade program. We find the expansion caused modest leakage increases, despite relatively small trading volumes. Natural gas plants just outside the cap-and-trade region increasingly balance intermittent renewables. Generation from these plants increases at night when average wind generation is high. These same plants systematically ramp down in response to unexpected solar generation because of friction between how the day-ahead and real-time markets commit resources. Our results suggest that reduced transactions costs in trade between regulated and unregulated regions may exacerbate leakage.
    Keywords: Electricity market design, Carbon leakage, Emissions, Solar power
    JEL: L1 H23 Q48 Q52
    Date: 2019–11
  6. By: Rimmer, Matthew (Queensland University of Technology)
    Abstract: The multidisciplinary field of climate law and justice needs to address the topic of intellectual property, climate finance, and technology transfer to ensure effective global action on climate change. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 1992 (UNFCCC) established a foundation for the development, application and diffusion of low-carbon technologies. Against this background, it is useful to analyse how the Paris Agreement 2015 deals with the subject of intellectual property, technology transfer, and climate change. While there was discussion of a number of options for intellectual property and climate change, the final Paris Agreement 2015 contains no text on intellectual property. There is text, though, on technology transfer. The Paris Agreement 2015 relies upon technology networks and alliances in order to promote the diffusion and dissemination of green technologies. In order to achieve technology transfer, there has been an effort to rely on a number of formal technology networks, alliances, and public–private partnerships—including the UNFCCC Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN); the World Intellectual Property Organization’s WIPO GREEN; Mission Innovation; the Breakthrough Energy Coalition; and the International Solar Alliance. There have been grand hopes and ambitions in respect of these collaborative and co-operative ventures. However, there have also been significant challenges in terms of funding, support, and operation. In a case of innovation policy pluralism, there also seems to be a significant level of overlap and duplication between the diverse international initiatives. There have been concerns about whether such technology networks are effective, efficient, adaptable, and accountable. There is a need to better align intellectual property, innovation policy, and technology transfer in order to achieve access to clean energy and climate justice under the framework of the Paris Agreement 2015. At a conceptual level, philosophical discussions about climate justice should be grounded in pragmatic considerations about intellectual property and technology transfer. An intellectual property mechanism is necessary to provide for research, development, and deployment of clean technologies. There is a need to ensure that the technology mechanism of the Paris Agreement 2015 can enable the research, development, and diffusion of clean technologies at a scale to address the global challenges of climate change.
    Date: 2019–02–18
  7. By: Lee H. Endress (University of Hawai‘i at Manoa, UHERO); James A. Roumasset (Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Hiroshima University; University of Hawai‘i at Manoa, Department of Economics; UHERO); Christopher A. Wada (UHERO,)
    Abstract: We consider the prospects for sustainable growth using expected utility models of optimal investment under threat from natural disasters. Adoption of a continuous time, stochastic Ramsey growth model over an infinite time horizon permits the analysis of sustainability under uncertainty regarding adverse events, including both one-time and recurrent disasters. As appropriate to small economies, we consider adaptation to the risk of disaster. Natural disasters reduce capital stocks and disrupt the optimal consumption and felicity paths. While the time path of inter-temporal welfare might consequently shift downward, the path may still be non-decreasing over time, even without adding strong or weak sustainability constraints. Prudent disaster preparedness includes precautionary investment in productive capital, programs of adaptation to disaster risk, and avoiding distortionary policies undermining the prospects of optimality and sustainability.
    Keywords: sustainable growth, natural disaster, expected utility, golden rule, Ramsey
    JEL: O11 O44 Q20 Q28
    Date: 2019–12
  8. By: Convertino, Matteo; Annis, Antonio; Nardi, Fernando
    Abstract: The increasing impact of flooding urges more effective flood management strategies to guarantee sustainable ecosystem development. Recent catastrophes underline the importance of avoiding local flood management, but characterizing large scale basin wide approaches for systemic flood risk management. Here we introduce an information-theoretic Portfolio Decision Model (iPDM) for the optimization of a systemic ecosystem value at the basin scale by evaluating all potential flood risk mitigation plans. iPDM calculates the ecosystem value predicted by all feasible combinations of flood control structures (FCS) considering environmental, social and economical asset criteria. A multi-criteria decision analytical model evaluates the benefits of all FCS portfolios at the basin scale weighted by stakeholder preferences for assets' criteria as ecosystem services. The risk model is based on a maximum entropy model (MaxEnt) that predicts the flood susceptibility, the risk of floods based on the exceedance probability distribution, and its most important drivers. Information theoretic global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is used to select the simplest and most accurate model based on a flood return period. A stochastic optimization algorithm optimizes the ecosystem value constrained to the budget available and provides Pareto frontiers of optimal FCS plans for any budget level. Pareto optimal solutions maximize FCS diversity and minimize the criticality of floods manifested by the scaling exponent of the Pareto distribution of flood size that links management and hydrogeomorphological patterns. The proposed model is tested on the 17,000 $km^2$ Tiber river basin in Italy. iPDM allows stakeholders to identify optimal FCS plans in river basins for a comprehensive evaluation of flood effects under future ecosystem trajectories.
    Date: 2019–06–27
  9. By: zulfikar, rizka
    Abstract: This research aims to find a structural equation model that can explain the relationship and influence of the environmental concern and Environmental Knowledge to green trust and green purchase intention towards green product. This study is a survey research using questionnaires as an instrument. Population and sample used in this study is public of South Kalimantan Province and taken as many as 150 respondents using non-purposivesampling method. The analysis technique used are : the instruments test, the construct validity and reliability test, the suitability of the model based on the goodness of fit index, pathways analysis and the Influence test according to the model of SEM that complies with the goodness of fit index to determine the effect of variable perception value and risk to public trust. The study found that: (1) Structural equation model of the correlation between the environmental concern and Environmental Knowledge to green trust and green purchase intention towards green product are comply with the criteria and standards of goodness of fit index, (2) (3) (4)
    Date: 2018–06–15
  10. By: Lucas Bretschger (Center of Economic Research (CER-ETH), ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Karen Pittel (ifo Institute, ifo Center for Energy, Climate and Resources, and LMU Munich)
    Abstract: Economic and ecological systems are closely interlinked at a global and a regional level, offering a broad variety of challenging research topics in environmental and resource economics. The successful identi?cation of key questions for current and future research supports development of novel theories, empirical applications, and appropriate policy designs. It allows establishing a future- oriented research agenda whose ultimate goal is an efficient, equitable, and sustainable use of natural resources. The paper aims to identify fundamental topics, current trends, and major research gaps to motivate further development of academic work in the ?field.
    Keywords: Environmental and resource economics; survey; key research topics
    JEL: Q00 Q2 Q3 Q5
    Date: 2019–12
  11. By: Gutierrez, Nicolas; Ferraro, Bruno
    Abstract: Global population is expected to reach 9.7 billionon 2050(UN). This will requireincreasing food production by approximately 70%. Therefore, the performance of agricultural production systems and processes should be improved. The growing food demand anticipated for 2050is expected to increase the impact of agricultural production on the environment (Davis et al., 2016). Consequently, robust public policy frameworks will be required to oversee relevant environmental issues (Albright et al., 2016).In this context, the concept of sustainable agricultural intensification has been adopted in the last decade by the major international organizations (FAO, CGIAR, World Bank, etc). Under these changing circumstances the organizational system around agriculture and food production will face the challenge of designing and implementing robust policies aimed at promoting sustainable intensification. From their side, R&D organizations are called to generate the knowledge required to ensure the sustainability of production systems. The present study contributesto understanding the interactiondynamics between agri-food research and public policy-makingin order to strengthen sustainable intensification processes. The methodological approach involved two main components: (i)a survey of public policies promoting sustainable intensification in Uruguay, and (ii) an in-depth study of a single policy that required intensive use of scientific knowledge as well as a fluent interaction between public research organizations and policy-makers during the whole policy process. Particular attention was placed on such interaction and the dynamics of the use of scientific knowledge as the basis of policy-making processes. The results showed an increasing implementation of policies intended to promote sustainable agricultural intensification. Moreover, we founda marked trend towards the use of some types of policy instruments, particularlyPublic Support Programs, Hence, there was small diversity of in therange of policy instruments designed and implemented by policy-making organizations. Compared to other studies, there is space for a greater use of other policy mechanisms such asdirected economic incentives for the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices. The is a need for more coordinated policy cycles involving greater interactionand common agendas between policy-makers and research organizations. The identified policies address different dimensions of sustainability; greater attention is required on freshwater use and conservation. In addition, we found scarce knowledge generation intended to develop policy monitoring and evaluation mechanisms, as well as to assessing the impact of production systems on natural resources and their long-term sustainability.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2019–04
  12. By: Krapp, Mario (University of Cambridge); Beyer, Robert; Edmundson, Stephen L.; Valdes, Paul J; Manica, Andrea (University of Cambridge)
    Abstract: A detailed and accurate reconstruction of past climate is essential in understanding the drivers that have shaped species, including our own, and their habitats. However, spatially-detailed climate reconstructions that continuously cover the Quaternary do not yet exist, mainly because no paleoclimate model can reconstruct regional-scale dynamics over geological time scales. Here we develop a new approach, the Global Climate Model Emulator (GCMET), which reconstructs the climate of the last 800 thousand years with unprecedented spatial detail. GCMET captures the temporal dynamics of glacial-interglacial climates as an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity would whilst resolving the local dynamics with the accuracy of a Global Climate Model. It provides a new, unique resource to explore the climate of the Quaternary, which we use to investigate the long-term stability of major habitat types. We identify a number of stable pockets of habitat that have remained unchanged over the last 800 thousand years, acting as potential long-term evolutionary refugia. Thus, the highly detailed, comprehensive overview of climatic changes through time delivered by GCMET provides the needed resolution to quantify the role of long term habitat fragmentation in an ecological and anthropological context.
    Date: 2019–01–18
  13. By: Bevacqua, Emanuele; Maraun, Douglas; Vousdoukas, Michalis I.; Voukouvalas, Evangelos; Vrac, Mathieu; Mentaschi, Lorenzo; Widmann, Martin
    Abstract: Compound flooding (CF) is an extreme event taking place in low-lying coastal areas as a result of co-occurring high sea level and large amounts of runoff, caused by precipitation. The impact from the two hazards occurring individually can be significantly lower than the result of their interaction. Both the risk of storm surges and heavy precipitation, as well as their interplay is likely to change in response to anthropogenic global warming. Despite CF relevance, a comprehensive risk assessment beyond individual locations at the country scale is missing. In particular, no studies have examined possible future CF risk. Here we estimate the potential CF risk along the European coasts both for present and future climate according to the business-as-usual (RCP8.5) scenario. Under current climate conditions, the locations experiencing the highest risk are mostly located along the Mediterranean Sea. However, future climate projections show emerging risk along parts of the Atlantic coast and the North Sea. The increase of the risk is mostly driven by an intensification of precipitation extremes. In several European regions, increasing CF risk should be considered as a potential hazard aggravating the risk caused by the mean sea level rise (SLR).
    Date: 2018–07–18
  14. By: Kurniawan, Putu Sukma (Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha)
    Abstract: Currently there is a change in the paradigm of business. Business concepts that run the corporate should be followed by corporate social and environmental responsibility. Corporate are required to pay attention to social and environmental impacts of corporate activities. Accounting practices also undergo a change which is currently emerging concept of social and environmental accounting. Social and environmental accounting tries to incorporate social factors and environmental factors into accounting practices. The concept of corporate social and environmental responsibility and social and environmental accounting is a form of application of enterprise theory. Key words: corporate social and environmental responsibility, social and environmental accounting, enterprise theory
    Date: 2018–01–04
  15. By: Nani Sumarni (Master of Applied Economics, Padjadjaran University)
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis in Indonesia between economic growth and environmental quality by employing panel data for 33 provinces for the period of 2011-2017. We use the Environmental Quality index (EQI) as an integrated environmental indicator, which is composed of Water Quality Index (WQI), Air Quality Index (AQI) and Forest Cover Index (FCI). Moreover, spatial regression models are applied to investigate the dependence of environmental conditions in negihboring areas. The findings are: (1) while the existence of Environmental Kuznets Curve is found for EQI, AQI and FCI, the AQI continues to decrease with the increase in GDP per capita within the ranre of the current levels; (2) the presence of spatial interactions among variables is identified for WQI, AQI and FCI; (3) population density contributes positively to WQI and negatively to AQI. The findings suggest that the government should positively take policy instruments to mitigate a decline in environmetal quality with economic growth. In addition, the government should not rely on the evidence that supports the EKC relationship for a specific single indicator when making a decision on environmental policy. Moreover, spatial effects should be taken into consideration in environmental policy-making process and involving citizens in environmental programs is also suggested.
    Keywords: environmental kuznets curve, Indonesia
    JEL: Q0
    Date: 2019–12
  16. By: Fletcher, Sarah Marie; Lickley, Megan; Strzepek, Kenneth
    Abstract: Water resources planning requires making decisions about infrastructure development under substantial uncertainty in future regional climate conditions. However, uncertainty in climate change projections will evolve over the 100-year lifetime of a dam as new climate observations become available. Flexible strategies in which infrastructure is proactively designed to be changed in the future have the potential to meet water supply needs without over-building expensive infrastructure. Evaluating tradeoffs between flexible and traditional robust planning approaches requires extension of current scenario-based paradigms for water resources planning under climate uncertainty which take a static view of uncertainty. We develop a new dynamic planning framework that assesses the potential to learn about regional climate change over time and evaluates flexible approaches. We demonstrate it on a reservoir planning problem in Mombasa, Kenya. This approach identifies opportunities to reliably use flexible, incremental approaches, enabling climate adaptation investments to reach more vulnerable communities with fewer resources.
    Date: 2018–09–29
  17. By: Mmatlou, Kalaba; Sifiso, Ntombela; Bohlmann, Heinrich
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2019–09
  18. By: ARISTO, Jurnal; Istyaningrum, Anna
    Abstract: Water related problem usually involving many stakeholder with different interest, attitude, power scale and level, which make it complex as well as water contestation problem in Begal State production forest in Ngawi Regency which involving different level government agency and its community base institution. Teak production forest and rice agriculture area usually located nearby especially in Ngawi regency with 40% agriculture area and 32% forest area, which make high occurrence of water related problem. This research purpose is to identify and analyze the root of water contestation among involved stakeholder in Ngiyom and Margo spring water utilization and its leading factors. In depth interview was done to all involved stakeholder in February 2017 to obtain the data about the water contestation problem in this area. Although changes in water and forest land utilization are causing water contestation problem but understanding root of water problem in this research from agriculture and forestry policy are important to make a sustainable solution. Forestry and agriculture governance are use to understand the relation among stakeholder toward water contestation in this area. Social ecological system framework that captures the relation among resource users and governance to resources utilization is useful to get the whole picture of water contestation problem in this area. Government policy on rice agriculture and forestry sector was indirectly affecting the water contestation problem in this area. Combined with in field governance, government policy effect were causing social and economic gap among water resources user in this area.
    Date: 2018–06–30
  19. By: Chidiebere-Mark, N.M.; Ejike, R.U.; Ibe, G.O.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management
    Date: 2019–09
  20. By: Antoine Dechezleprêtre; Nicholas Rivers; Balazs Stadler
    Abstract: This study provides the first evidence that air pollution causes economy-wide reductions in market economic activity based on data for Europe. The analysis combines satellite-based measures of air pollution with statistics on regional economic activity at the NUTS-3 level throughout the European Union over the period 2000-15. An instrumental variables approach based on thermal inversions is used to identify the causal impact of air pollution on economic activity. The estimates show that a 1μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration (or a 10% increase at the sample mean) causes a 0.8% reduction in real GDP that same year. Ninety-five per cent of this impact is due to reductions in output per worker, which can occur through greater absenteeism at work or reduced labour productivity. Therefore, the results suggest that public policies to reduce air pollution may contribute positively to economic growth. Indeed, the large economic benefits from pollution reduction uncovered in the study compare with relatively small abatement costs. Thus, more stringent air quality regulations could be warranted based solely on economic grounds, even ignoring the large benefits in terms of avoided mortality.
    Keywords: air pollution, economic output, instrumental variables, thermal inversions
    JEL: J24 O13 Q53 Q51 R11
    Date: 2019–12–12
  21. By: Shaker, Saber Adly
    Abstract: This paper uses a panel vector error correction model (panel VECM) to examine the impact of Chinese exports of clean technology-intensive goods on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in China’s partners between 2001 and 2013. The results suggest that Chinese exports of clean technology-intensive goods play a crucial role in reducing CO2 emissions in the short run but not in the long term. Finally, Carbon dioxide emissions CO2 considered an item of demand factors which affects the production of clean technology-intensive goods in the long run only.
    Keywords: Clean technology; CO2 emissions; Panel VECM
    JEL: F18 F64 O3
    Date: 2019–10–26
  22. By: Can Askan Mavi (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - UM - Université de Montpellier - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique)
    Abstract: his paper aims to present a new explanation for environmental traps, by the presence of endogenous hazard rate. We show that adaptation and mitigation policies have different effects on the occurrence of environmental traps: the former could cause an environmental trap, whereas the latter could help society avoid such a trap, since it decreases the harmful event probability. As a result, we present a new trade-off between adaptation and mitigation policies other than the usual dynamic trade-off highlighted in many studies, which is crucial for developing countries. Contrary to the literature, when the economy is in a trap, the economy at the high environmental quality equilibrium tends to be more conservative for resource exploitation than the low environmental quality equilibrium economy, which implies a heterogeneous reaction against the endogenous hazard rate.
    Keywords: Environmental damage,Harmful event,Occurrence hazard,Tipping points,Multiple equilibria,Environmental traps,Adaptation,Mitigation
    Date: 2019
  23. By: Ekemini, Richard-Mbossoh; Ayanwale, Adeolu Babatunde; Adelegan, Janet Olatundun
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2019–09
  24. By: , Khaerati; , Ariandi (Universitas Cokroaminoto Palopo)
    Abstract: "Status: Postprint" Forest areas in the village of Battang are forest areas that are utilized by the community for their livelihoods to obtain wood and non-wood products so that the community needs to maintain the forest ecosystem. Plants contained in the forest is a source of nectar for the forest bees to produce honey. Forest honey is one type of honey produced from the type of forest bee (Apis dorsata) obtained by honey forest hunters. Forest honey is natural honey that does not get the influence of fertilizer, pesticides and the consequences of air pollution, so it is safe for consumption. This activity aimed to assisted honey hunter group in managing the production of the honey forest with good quality and quantity, providing packaging that has a standard quality, making labels on product packaging, and marketing honey to the community. During this time the price of forest honey sold at low prices this is caused by the packaging of products that do not have standard quality, so the target to be achieved is to produce forest honey with quality product packaging and get P-IRT from the city government Palopo. Through this IbM program has been able to improve the quality and quantity of forest honey production in Battang urban village. The methods used in this community service activity has training, guidance, and assistance forest honey hunter group in Battang urban village to manage forest honey business.
    Date: 2017–11–29
  25. By: Shakoor, Usman; Rashid, Mudassar; Iftikh-ul-Husnain, Muhammad; Arif, Tahir
    Abstract: Climate change and its impact on agriculture productivity has gain an important consideration in recent times. Pakistan is in that part of the world, which is the one most vulnerable region to the climate change. Sugarcane is one of the cash crop of Pakistan which contributes significantly towards total agriculture crop productions. It is therefore dire need to evaluate climate change impacts on sugarcane crop production. The current evaluated the impacts of climate change on sugarcane crop production of Pakistan using ARDL (Auto Regressive Distributed Lag) bound testing approach. The empirical results guided as that climate change has significant positive effect on sugarcane crop production of Pakistan. Increase in rainfall would increase sugarcane production. One percent increase in rainfall would increase sugarcane production by 0.17 percent in long run. effect on crop production of Pakistan. Increase in mean temperature also increased sugarcane crop productions. Fertilizer use and water availability in form of ground and canal has contributed positively towards sugarcane production.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2019–04
  26. By: Christina Atanasova; Eduardo S. Schwartz
    Abstract: Do capital markets reflect the possibility that fossil fuel reserves may become “stranded assets” in the transition to a low carbon economy? We examine the relation between oil firms’ value and their proved reserves. Using a sample of 679 North American oil firms for the period 1999 to 2018, we document that while reserves are an important component of oil firm value, the growth of these reserves has a negative effect on firm value. This negative effect on value is stronger for oil producers with higher extraction costs. When we decompose total reserves into developed and undeveloped reserves, we show that the negative effect of reserves growth on value is due to firms growing their undeveloped oil reserves. Unlike developed, undeveloped reserves require major capital expenditures and longer time before they can be extracted. We also document that the negative effect is stronger for undeveloped oil reserves located in countries with strict climate policies. Our evidence is consistent with markets penalizing future investment in undeveloped reserves growth due to climate policy risk. High level of institutional ownership, stock market liquidity and analyst coverage do not change the negative effect of undeveloped reserves growth on firm value.
    JEL: G12 Q3 Q5
    Date: 2019–11
  27. By: NwaJesus, Onyekuru Anthony; Okokon, Nfonobong; ChukwumaOtum, Ume
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance
    Date: 2019–09
  28. By: Akgul, Fusun; Akgul, Riza
    Abstract: Because of increasing human population and their food need the agricultural production increases, too. But meanwhile artificial fertilizer using and their negative effects to ecosystem are rising day by day. So, the scientist research different alternative solution for this pollution such as eco-friendly biofertilizer.Group of Cyanobacteria consists of photosynthetic prokaryotic microorganisms that has a highly diversity. Cyanobacteria can produce different metabolites that are valuable economically such as amino acids, proteins, vitamins etc. This study focuses the effects of different concentrations of Spirulina platensis (Gomont) Geitler extracts on the germination of lettuce seeds. For this purpose, root-stem length, lateral root number and wet-dry weight were investigated. The application of S5 (100% cell extract) showed an inhibitory effect on seed germination and so other parameters could not be measured. S2 (25% cell extract) and S3 (50% cell extract) applications had a positive effect on germination and seedling development in lettuce. As a result; cyanobacterial extract has positive effects on seed germination and plant growth-development and it is possible to produce a commercial and ecological biostimulant by developing different extract concentrations. And this biostimulant may be used instead of the other ecologically harmful artificial fertilizer. By the way; the large amount money that spends for the artificial fertilizer will be brought to the economy of Turkey.
    Keywords: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2019–04
  29. By: Christoph Böhringer; Knut Einar Rosendahl; Halvor Briseid Storrøsten (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: Policy makers in the EU and elsewhere are concerned that unilateral carbon pricing induces carbon leakage through relocation of emission-intensive and trade-exposed industries to other regions. A common measure to mitigate such leakage is to combine an emission trading system (ETS) with output-based allocation (OBA) of allowances to exposed industries. We first show analytically that in a situation with an ETS combined with OBA, it is optimal to impose a consumption tax on the goods that are entitled to OBA, where the tax is equivalent in value to the OBA-rate. Then, using a multiregion, multi-sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) model calibrated to empirical data, we quantify the welfare gains for the EU to impose such a consumption tax on top of its existing ETS with OBA. We run Monte Carlo simulations to account for uncertain leakage exposure of goods entitled to OBA. The consumption tax increases welfare whether the goods are highly exposed to leakage or not, and can hence be regarded as smart hedging against carbon leakage.
    Keywords: Carbon leakage; output-based allocation; consumption tax
    JEL: D61 F18 H23 Q54
    Date: 2019–11
  30. By: Margaux Lapierre (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - UM - Université de Montpellier - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Alexandre Sauquet (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - UM - Université de Montpellier - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Subervie Julie (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - UM - Université de Montpellier - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique)
    Abstract: In 2008, the French government announced an important shift in agricultural policy, calling for halving the use of pesticides in the next ten years. Since then, it has spent 40 million euros a year on implementing the so-called Ecophyto plan. In this paper, we evaluate the success of this program, focusing on its flagship scheme, which has provided technical assistance to 3,000 volunteer pilot farms since 2011. To do so, we use panel data collected from a representative sample of vineyards: the agricultural systems known as the largest users of pesticides. We use a slate of quasi-experimental approaches to estimate the impact of participation in the program on pesticide use and crop yields on enrolled vineyards. We find that participants have achieved reductions in pesticide use that ranges from 8 to 22 percent, thanks to the program. We moreover find that the reduction in the use of chemicals was accompanied by an increase in the use of biocontrol products. Finally, we find that this change of practices resulted in a reduction in yields for a fraction of enrolled farms while others seems to have maintained yields. Although below the expectations of the French government, these results seem rather encouraging, as they suggest that technical assistance alone can be effective in reducing significantly pesticide use in the agricultural sector.
    Keywords: Treatment effect,Pesticides,Technical assistance,Farming practices
    Date: 2019
  31. By: Patrick Criqui (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Mark Jaccard (School of Resource and Environmental Management - - Simon Fraser University); Thomas Sterner (GU - University of Gothenburg)
    Abstract: Carbon pricing is considered by most economists as a central dimension to any climate policy. It is assumed to bring simple, transparent, and cost-effective means to change investment and consumption behaviors. The most straightforward method is carbon taxation, but its implementation is more complex. This study provides a comparative analysis of carbon taxation in three countries-Sweden, Canada, and France-aimed at drawing lessons for the future of carbon taxation. Comparing the experience of the three countries reveals that carbon taxes, once in place, do have the intended effect. In this sense, they work well. However, the analysis also reveals very different situations in terms of advances, difficulties, and results, which highlights the need to carefully consider the social and political conditions for the acceptance and effective implementation of such economic instruments. Against this background, the comparative analysis yields four main insights that deserve further research from economics and social scientists: the ability to combine pure economic instruments and other regulation or policies and measures; the management of lobbies and vested interests; the identification of a clear strategy for the recycling of the carbon revenues, whether earmarked or not; and finally, the importance of these three dimensions of carbon taxes in the new settings of zero net emission policies.
    Keywords: GHG abatement,environmental policy,economic instruments,carbon tax,cost-effectiveness,acceptability
    Date: 2019–11
  32. By: Pierre Levasseur (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - IRSTEA - Institut national de recherche en sciences et technologies pour l'environnement et l'agriculture - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Katrin Erdlenbruch (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - IRSTEA - Institut national de recherche en sciences et technologies pour l'environnement et l'agriculture - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier, CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - UM - Université de Montpellier - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Christelle Gramaglia (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - IRSTEA - Institut national de recherche en sciences et technologies pour l'environnement et l'agriculture - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier)
    Abstract: Poverty is a major determinant for pollution exposure, according to the US location choice literature. In this paper, we assess the impact of poverty on location choices in the European context. Our analysis is based on an original dataset of 1194 households living in polluted and non-polluted areas in three European countries: Spain, Portugal and France. We use instrumental variable strategies to identify the socioeconomic causes of location choices. We show that low education, wealth and income are main reasons for living in polluted areas. However, we also highlight several reasons why intermediate social groups (especially young couples) prefer living in polluted areas, such as greater housing surfaces or non-environmental amenities. Similarly, we show that middle-income households have lower move-out intentions than other income groups, next to households with strong community attachment or long lengths of residence in the area.
    Keywords: instrumental variables strategy.,soil pollution exposure,residential choice,socioeconomic status,environmental inequalities
    Date: 2019
  33. By: Ekaterina Maklasova (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Alexander Tatarko (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This study investigates the role of the climato-economic characteristics of 85 Russian regions in the formation of collectivism in those territories. Based on the results of previous research, the authors suggested that in regions with harsh climatic conditions, the richer population has a lower level of collectivism, whereas the poorer population has a higher level of collectivism. For testing these theoretical assumptions, we prepared a dataset with statistical data about each Russian region for the climatic demand (based on the temperature characteristics), monetary resources (the gross regional product (GRP)) and collectivism (the population natural growth, multi-generational households, marriages, divorces, etc.). We used correlation and moderation analyses where regional climate and GRP were the predictors of collectivism. The study demonstrated that these factors predicted the level of collectivism in regions. The study also revealed the moderating role of GRP in the relation between regional climatic conditions and the level of collectivist among the population, which allows the identification of the specific and universal relationships of the indicators.
    Keywords: collectivism, climatic demand, climate, GRP, gross regional product, Russia, region
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2019
  34. By: Murshed, Muntasir
    Abstract: A transition from the traditional dependence on use of non-renewable energy to the relatively environment-friendly renewable energy resources has been a key national agenda of governments across the globe. Keeping the environmental degradation and sustainable supply of energy into cognisance, it is pertinent to address the factors that possibly facilitate the renewable energy transitions worldwide. Against this backdrop, this paper aims to empirically analyse the compatibility of national trade liberalization policies with regards to promoting greater use of renewable energy across 71 low, lower-middle and upper-middle countries from South Asia, East Asia, Pacific, Central Asia, Latin America, Caribbean islands and Sub-Saharan Africa. Annual panel data between 2000 and 2017 is incorporated into the regression analyses using the Instrumental Variable Two-Stage Least Squares (IV-2SLS) and the Instrumental Variable Random Effects Generalized Least Squares (IV-RE-GLS) panel data estimators. The results indicate that greater openness to trade stimulates renewable energy consumption and also enhances the intensities of energy usage within the low and upper-middle income economies only. However, despite these upward pressures, trade openness does not guarantee higher shares of renewable energy use in the total energy consumption within these nations. Thus, the alignment of the trade liberalization policies in these countries with respect to attainment of the renewable energy transition can broadly be questioned. Furthermore, the results also indicate that trade liberalization within the lower middle-income countries is useful only in terms of enhancing the access to clean fuels and technology for cooking. The results, in a nutshell, imply that the impacts of trade liberalization on facilitation of renewable energy transition are large offset by other factors that trigger greater use of the non-renewable energy resources in these countries.
    Keywords: renewable energy, non-renewable energy, renewable energy transition, instrumental variable
    JEL: F1
    Date: 2019
  35. By: Verschuur, Jasper; Le Bars, Dewi; Drijfhout, Sybren; Katsman, Caroline; de Vries, Sierd; Ranasinghe, Roshanka; Aarninkhof, Stefan
    Abstract: Sea-level rise (SLR) can amplify the episodic erosion from storms and drive chronic erosion on sandy shorelines, threatening many coastal communities. One of the major uncertainties in SLR projections is the potential rapid disintegration of large fractions of the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS). Quantifying this uncertainty is essential to support sound risk management of coastal areas, although it is neglected in many erosion impact assessments. Here, we use the island of Sint Maarten as a case study to evaluate the impact of AIS uncertainty for future coastal recession. We estimate SLR-induced coastal recession using a probabilistic framework and compare and contrast three cases of AIS dynamics within the range of plausible futures. Results indicate that projections of coastal recession are sensitive to assumptions made on how AIS dynamics are incorporated into SLR projections and that underestimating the potential rapid mass loss from the AIS can lead to ill-informed coastal adaptation decisions.
    Date: 2018–11–02
  36. By: Nalley, Lawton; Anderson, Brooke; Price, Heather; Dalmini, Thula
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2019–09
  37. By: Setiawan, Budi
    Abstract: As a matter of fact, business world realities are like a wilderness. All existing business person must have a good adaptation in the business dynamic environment to successfully survive and gain a competitive advantage in this ecosystem. Those who will survive are those who smartly and nimble facing all the dynamics business challenges, optimizing all their strength to capture the opportunities and reducing the risk. Those who succeed will stay alive. The four literature discussed below were trying to reveal the phenomena about business and strategic agility, from the different point of view and approachment. I am going to describing and elaborating each of the articles and relate the relevance of the discussion progressively. Although each of these four article written by the expertise in the relevant discipline, it still an opportunities to find out the lack of the clearer discussion for further improvement.
    Date: 2018–04–07
  38. By: Akinola, A.A.; Oke, J.T.O.; Adesiyan, A.T.; Famuyini, C.A.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management
    Date: 2019–09
  39. By: Erik Ansink (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam); Louise Wijk (Amsterdam University College); Frederiek Zuidmeer (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)
    Abstract: We analyze recycling decisions for bioplastics using a natural field experiment. The potential environmental benefits of these new plastics may not materialize if they are recycled incorrectly. The field experiment that we set up to test this recycling behavior exploits the setting of a lemonade tasting. In our experimental treatments, subjects are exposed to different types of bioplastics logos on their cups as well as varying amounts of recycling information. We use two types of bioplastics and compare these to conventional plastics in terms of whether subjects recycle the cups correctly. Our results show that over 90% of subjects dispose of their cup with plastic waste and that none of our treatments can snap subjects out of this default behavior. We interpret this finding as subjects having no clue how to recycle bioplastics. More generelly, these results point to skepticism regarding new products or varieties whose environmental benefits depend on proper use or disposal.
    Keywords: Recycling, field experiment, bioplastics
    JEL: Q53 C93
    Date: 2019–12–08
  40. By: Mesa, Oscar; Urrea, Viviana; Ochoa, Andrés (Universidad Nacional de Colombia)
    Abstract: Prediction of changes in precipitation in upcoming years and decades caused by global climate change associated with the greenhouse effect, deforestation and other anthropic perturbations is a practical and scientific problem of high complexity and huge consequences. To advance toward this challenge we look at the daily historical record of all available rain gauges in Colombia to estimate an index of the intensity of the hydrologic cycle (Giorgi et al., 2011). The index is the product of precipitation intensity and dry spell length. Theoretical reasons indicate that global warming should lead to increasing trends in either one of the factors or both. Our results indicate that there is no clear picture, there are gauges with positive and negative significant trends, and most of the gauges do not show a significant trend. We present the geographic distribution of results within regions and concerning the elevation in the Andes Cordillera. Results seem to agree with previous reports of total annual precipitation trends.
    Date: 2019–05–08
  41. By: Elsner, James B.; Schroder, Zoe
    Abstract: Empirical studies have led to improvements in evaluating and quantifying the tornado threat. However more work is needed to put the research onto a solid statistical foundation. Here the authors begin to build this foundation by introducing and then demonstrating a statistical model to estimate damage rating probabilities. A goal is to alert researchers to available statistical technology for improving severe weather warnings. The model is cumulative logistic regression and the parameters are determined using Bayesian inference. The model is demonstrated by estimating damage rating probabilities from values of known environmental factors on days with many tornadoes in the United States. Controlling for distance-to-nearest town/city, which serves as a proxy variable for damage target density, the model quantifies the chance that a particular tornado will be assigned any damage rating given specific environmental conditions. Under otherwise average conditions the model estimates a 65% chance that a tornado occurring in a city or town will be rated EF0 when bulk shear is weak (10 m/s). This probability drops to 38% when the bulk shear is strong (40 m/s). The model quantifies the corresponding increases in the chance of the same tornado receiving higher damage ratings. Quantifying changes to the probability distribution on the ordered damage rating categories is a natural application of cumulative logistic regression.
    Date: 2019–07–18
  42. By: Shreevastava, Anamika; Bhalachandran, Saiprasanth; McGrath, Gavan (Department of Biodiversity Conservation and Attractions); Huber, Matthew; Rao, P. Suresh C.
    Abstract: Cities are at the forefront of climate change impacts and face a growing burden of adaptation to ensuing natural hazards. Extreme heat is a particularly challenging hazard as persistent heatwaves are locally exacerbated by the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. As a result, there is an increasing scientific interest in the influence of diverse urban morphologies on UHI. However, as the temperatures within cities are highly spatially heterogeneous, bulk quantification metrics such as UHI Intensity may hamper understanding. Here, we use remotely sensed Land Surface Temperature (LST) data for 78 diverse cities to develop a novel multi-scale framework of quantifying spatial heterogeneity in the Surface UHI. We identify heat clusters emerging within the SUHI using percentile-based thermal thresholds and refer to them collectively as \textit{intra-Urban Heat Islets}. We first develop a Lacunarity based metric ($\Lambda_{score}$) to quantify the spatial organization of heat islets at various degrees of sprawl and densification. Using probabilistic models, we condense the size, spacing, and intensity information about heterogeneous clusters into distributions that can be described using single scaling exponents. This allows for a seamless comparison of the heat islet characteristics across cities at varying spatial scales. From the size distribution analysis, we observe the emergence of two distinct classes wherein the dense cities (positive $\Lambda_{score}$) follow a Pareto size distribution, whereas the sprawling cities (negative $\Lambda_{score}$) show an exponential tempering of Pareto tail. This indicates a significantly reduced probability of encountering large heat islets for sprawling cities. Contrastingly, however, Heat Islet Intensity modeled as exponential distributions reveal that a sprawling configuration is favorable for reducing the mean temperature of a city. However, for the same mean SUHI intensity, it also results in higher local thermal extremes. This poses a paradox for urban designers in adopting expansion versus densification as a growth trajectory to mitigate the UHI.
    Date: 2019–09–09
  43. By: Ng'ang'a, Stanley Karanja; Jalang'o, Dorcas Anyango; Girvetz, Evan
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Productivity Analysis
    Date: 2019–09
  44. By: Rama, Nandamuri Yamini; Ganguli, Poulomi; Chatterjee, Chandranath
    Abstract: Analyzing of trends in flood magnitude and the timing of the dates of flood occurrences of large river basins across the globe are essential for understanding changes in water availability (high or low flows) and assessing the fidelity of global hydrological models. Our research is motivated by the recent six major consecutive floods in Mahanadi (years: 2001, 2003, 2006, 2008, 2011 and 2013) River Basin (MRB), which is one of the largest peninsular Rivers in India with a catchment area of 14,1589 km2. We examine the altered risk of flooding focusing on changes in the flood regimes and a shift in the timing of floods over the past four decades (1970-2016) using hydrometric observations across the MRB. A framework for identification of flood regime changes is developed using monsoonal maxima peak discharge (MMPD) and peak over threshold (POT) events at 24 stream gauges over the basin. We find a mix of (insignificant) up/downward trends in flood magnitude at Upper MRB (Region I). On the other hand, the middle reaches of the basin (Region II) showed an upward trend in flood magnitude, with a larger number of sites detect significant trends in flood magnitude for the POT events. Further, we find the downward trends in MMPD series at Region I is field significant (at 10% significance level) whereas none of the trends in POT series show field significance. Only a few stations detected abrupt changes in the flood time series, and they are spatially clustered at Region I, whereas Region II showed no evidence of change points. A delayed (or earlier) shift in flood timing is apparent for most of the sites, notwithstanding the mean date of flood occurrence is in August irrespective of the type of flood series. The outcomes of the study contribute to ensuring flood resilience at densely populated large river basins.
    Date: 2019–04–10
  45. By: Tentama, Fatwa
    Abstract: Ngemplak region Sleman an abundant producer of rice that produce a lot of waste rice husk. Farming communities have not been able to take advantage of the abundant rice husks due to lack of awareness, knowledge and skills in use. The program was implemented for the purpose utilize rice husks into briquettes bioarang, planting media, and organic fertilizers. Partners IbM is 2 farmer groups in Bimomartani, Ngemplak Sleman. Method approach to dealing with the waste rice husk is the empowerment of farmer groups to utilize rice husks into briquettes bioarang, planting media, and organic fertilizers. The results of this program is the solution of environmental pollution prevention, waste product from rice husks, and empowerment process waste husks
    Date: 2018–05–12
  46. By: Bett, Philip E (Met Office); Thornton, Hazel E.; Troccoli, Alberto; De Felice, Matteo; Suckling, Emma; Dubus, Laurent; Saint-Drenan, Yves-Marie; Brayshaw, David J.
    Abstract: We demonstrate the current levels of skill for seasonal forecasts of wind and irradiance in Europe, using forecast systems available from the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S). While skill is patchy, there is potential for the development of climate services for the energy sector. Following previous studies, we show that a simple linear regression-based method, using the hindcast and forecast ensemble means, provides a straightforward approach to produce reliable probabilistic seasonal forecasts in the cases where there is skill. This method extends naturally to using a larger-scale feature of the climate, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, as the climate model predictor, providing opportunities to improve the skill in some cases. We further demonstrate that taking a seasonal average and a regional (e.g. national) average means that wind and solar power generation are highly correlated with single climate variables (wind speed and irradiance): the detailed non-linear transformations from meteorological variables to energy variables, which can be essential for precision on weather forecasting timescales and for climatological studies, are usually not necessary when producing seasonal forecasts of these average quantities. Together, our results demonstrate that, in the cases where there is skill in seasonal forecasts of wind speed and irradiance, or a correlated larger-scale climate predictor, it can be very straightforward to forecast seasonal mean wind and solar power generation based on those climate variables, without requiring complex transformations. This greatly simplifies the process of developing a useful seasonal climate service.
    Date: 2019–04–01
  47. By: Kurniawan, Putu Sukma (Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha)
    Abstract: Accounting education aims to produce graduates who will be working in the accounting profession. Expected later graduates produced not only have the technical ability and a good professional but also have a good personality and good character. The quality of accounting education will determine the quality of graduates produced. Incorporating elements of spirituality, culture and local wisdom likes tri hita karana, catur purusa artha, manyama braya, paras paros, and sagilig sagulug salunglung sabyantaka concepts in accounting education, especially in social and environmental accounting, can help to produce accounting graduates who have the good personality and good character. Keywords: spirituality, culture, local wisdom, social and environmental accounting
    Date: 2018–01–15
  48. By: Nurkholis, Afid
    Abstract: Jumlah penduduk dunia mengalami peningkatan pesat sejak tahun 1650 ketika revolusi industri terjadi. Jumlah penduduk yang semakin meningkat menjadikan kekuatiran beberapa ahli. Pertumbuhan penduduk yang semakin meningkat juga menimbulkan dampak negatif terhadap lingkungan. Kebutuhan manusia yang tinggi menjadikan pembangunan tidak memperhatikan kelestarian lingkungan. Pandangan pesimis terhadap sumberdaya manusia diatas menimbulkan perlunya suatu konsep untuk menaggulangi dampak yang terjadi. Penilaian terhadap sumberdaya manusia merupakan salah satu konsep yang mulai dilakukan oleh para ahli dunia. Tulisan ini akan menganalisis beberapa konsep evaluasi sumberdaya manusia yang ada. Konsep tersebut terdiri dari human capital theory, human investment theory, human development theory, sustainable development theory, dan , people centered development theory. Pemahaman mengenai konsep ini penting dilakukan untuk mengetahui arahan pembangunan manusia yang tepat.
    Date: 2018–04–05
  49. By: Weyori, Alirah Emmanuel; Liebenehm, Sabine; Waibel, Hermann
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Consumer/Household Economics
    Date: 2019–09
  50. By: Jenn, Alan
    Abstract: Driving is associated with a series of costs to society, or externalities. These include road damages, traffic congestion, and vehicle emissions (of both local pollutants and greenhouse gases). A fuel tax has been used in the United States to account for some of these costs, particularly road damage. However, other methods of pricing may be more effective and able to cover a variety of externalities. While several successful programs have been implemented in other countries, very few have been attempted in the United States. To inform the optimal design of programs to price road use/damage, emissions, and congestion, researchers at UC Davis reviewed published studies, examined existing programs, and investigated potential design choices for such programs. This policy brief summarizes the findings of that study. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Law, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vehicle pricing, congestion charges, mileage fees
    Date: 2019–12–01
  51. By: Hinkley, Everett
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2019–02
  52. By: Ogunpaimo, Oyinlola Rafiat; Ogbe, Agatha; Edewor, Sarah
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2019–09
  53. By: Tetrault, Bob
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2019–02
  54. By: Dawud Ansari; Franziska Holz; Hashem al-Kuhlani
    Abstract: We compare prominent global energy scenarios of organisations and companies. We supplement the analysis with four own scenarios, which were derived from structured analytic techniques in combination with a numerical global energy and resource market model (Multimod). Our study provides three central contributions: (i) a compact survey of selected outlooks with meta characteristics (conceptual nature, numerical framework, qualitative elaboration) and quantitative energy system indicators at the global and regional (Europe, Asia-Pacific region, North America) level; (ii) numerous observations from a verbal analysis intended to stimulate future research; and (iii) the discussion of our own outlook. Among other conclusions, we find that scenarios essentially carrying forward current policies and/or trends lead to future worlds that do not meet the 2°C target of the Paris Agreement. Interestingly, there are both normative and exploratory scenarios reaching the Paris Agreement, and there is no consensus between outlooks on how to attain low-emission futures towards 2050. Some scenarios rely on a very strong role of renewables, others on a substantial role of negative emission technologies with fossil fuel use, yet others on assuming decreasing energy demand. There is a strong variation between outlooks with respect to transparency on scenario generation, modelling approach, and data. We argue that, in addition to transparency, the actual inclusion of a qualitative analysis of drivers and storylines helps ensure the political, social and technological feasibility of scenarios.
    Keywords: Energy outlook, Scenario, Energy modelling, Climate change, Survey
    JEL: Q40 Q47 Q54 C60
    Date: 2019
  55. By: Sylvain Cote (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: While the renewable energy sector needs more workers per megawatt of energy generated than fossil fuel-based energy sectors, a sound and dynamic labor market is necessary for local populations to enjoy the benefits of employment. A well-functioning market can help improve labor market information and assess the training needs of employees in the renewable energy sector.
    Keywords: Renewables, Labor, Labor Market, Employment, Morocco, Jordan, Eqypt
    Date: 2019–12–03
  56. By: Willy, Daniel Kyalo; Muyanga, Milu; Jayne, Thomas
    Keywords: Productivity Analysis, Community/Rural/Urban Development
    Date: 2019–09
  57. By: Widiastuti, Maria Maghdalena Diana
    Abstract: The paper about the economic impact of pesticides on the analysis farming system in Merauke related biosecurity mechanism
    Date: 2018–01–25
  58. By: Yuliana, Rika; Irawan, Dasapta Erwin (Institut Teknologi Bandung)
    Abstract: Abstrak Sangat mengejutkan melihat fakta bahwa Indonesia menempati peringkat EGDI (E-Gover- ment Development Index) ke 116 berdasarkan survey yang dilakukan oleh Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa (PBB), turun 10 peringkat dari tahun 2014. Hal ini mengindikasikan bahwa ada asumsi dan aktivitas implementasi yang belum tepat dalam proses transformasi digital di Pemerintahan, khususnya dalam skala nasional. Oleh karena itu, artikel ini dibuat dengan tujuan mengkaji kembali faktor-faktor yang berpengaruh dalam proses tersebut dengan metode riset kepustakaan (library research), khususnya faktor-faktor kesiapan lingkungan, sehingga dapat dijadikan pedoman oleh Pemerintah. Dengan asumsi dasar bahwa Indonesia sebagai negara berkembang, maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa komponen-komponen tersebut terdiri dari kualitas sistem, politik, sosial, ekonomi, teknologi dan demografi. Dalam masing- masing komponen tersebut mengandung beberapa variabel dan parameter yang digunakan sebagai tolak ukur untuk menilai efisiensi dan efektifitas dari proses kesiapan lingkungan dalam rangka pengembangan implementasi e-goverment di Indonesia. Kata kunci: Pengembangan Implementasi E-Goverment, Indonesia, Kesiapan Lingkungan Abstract It is very surprising to see the fact that Indonesia is ranked as the 116th of EGDI (E-Gov- ernment Development Index) based on a survey conducted by United Nations (UN), moved down 10 ratings from 2014. This indicates that there are improper implementation and ac- tivities in the process of digital transformation in Government, especially on a national scale. Therefore, this article was created with the aim of reviewing the influencing factors in the process through library research method, especially the factors of environmental readi- ness, so that it can be used as a guide by the Government. With the basic assumption that Indonesia as a developing country, it can be concluded that these components consist of system quality, politics, social, economics, technology and demography. In each component contains several variables and parameters used as a benchmark to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of the environmental preparedness process in order to develop the implemen- tation of e-Government in Indonesian. Keywords: development of the E-Goverment implementation, Indonesia, Environmental Readiness
    Date: 2017–12–06
  59. By: Boryan, Claire G.; Yang, Zhangwei; Sandborn, Avery; Willis, Patrick
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2019–02
  60. By: Gasmi, Farid; Couvet, Denis; Recuero Virto, Laura
    Abstract: In a dataset on 83 countries covering the years 1960 through 2009, we find a negative indirect effect of the share of renewable natural capital in wealth on economic growth transmitted through demographic factors, more specifically, population fertility. In contrast, in countries with lower income inequality and higher institutional quality, the share of non-renewable natural capital in wealth has a direct positive impact on growth. We also find that countries with higher income per capita, human development, and institutional quality have a higher share of renewable natural capital per capita, but a lower share of renewable natural capital in wealth. Renewable natural capital is thus valuable for the population and of primary concern for empowered countries, even though it contributes less to wealth and economic growth. Our results raise serious questions about the way wealth and growth are defined in economics when one investigates the impact of natural capital and point to the importance of preserving natural capital, particularly, in less developed countries.
    Keywords: Natural capital; renewable; non-renewable; economic growth.
    JEL: O10 O13 Q20 Q30 Q32
    Date: 2019–12
  61. By: Kehinde, M.A.; Kehinde, A.D.; Akinola, A.A.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management
    Date: 2019–09
  62. By: Julia Bachtrögler; Angela Köppl; Atanas Pekanov (WIFO); Margit Schratzenstaller; Franz Sinabell
    Abstract: Das EU-Budget für die Periode 2021 bis 2027 muss sich stärker als bisher am europäischen Mehrwert orientieren, um angesichts der kontroversiellen Positionen der Mitgliedsländer und deren primärer Orientierung an der Nettoposition eine Einigung zu ermöglichen. Eine weitere Stärkung des Anteils von Ausgaben für Forschung, klimafreundliche grenzüberschreitende Verkehrs- und Energieversorgungsinfrastruktur und die zweite Säule der Agrarpolitik sowie von proaktiven Asyl- und Migrations- sowie Integrations- und Entwicklungsausgaben würde den europäischen Mehrwert der EU-Ausgaben erhöhen. Soll der Budgetrahmen nicht über den Vorschlag der Europäischen Kommission hinaus erhöht werden, können Spielräume durch eine stärkere Verringerung der ersten Säule der Agrarpolitik oder durch eine stärkere Fokussierung der Kohäsionspolitik geschaffen werden. Die stärkere Kopplung der Mittel an Umwelt- und Klimaziele und Ziele in der Migration und Integration sowie die Beachtung des Prinzips der Rechtsstaatlichkeit würden den europäischen Mehrwert des EU-Budgets steigern. Der europäische Nutzen des EU-Budgets könnte weiter gesteigert werden durch die Einführung eines Korbs von (steuerbasierten) Eigenmittelquellen (zusätzlich zu den diesbezüglichen Vorschlägen der Europäischen Kommission bieten sich Steuern auf den Flugverkehr sowie ein Grenzausgleichssystem für den EU-Emissionshandel an) als teilweiser Ersatz für die auf der Umsatzsteuer-Bemessungsgrundlage sowie dem Bruttonationaleinkommen basierenden nationalen Beiträgen, die derzeit überhaupt keinen Beitrag zur Umsetzung zentraler EU-Ziele und EU-Strategien leisten. Eine Erhöhung des Zielwerts für das Klima-Mainstreaming über den Vorschlag der Europäischen Kommission von 25% der Gesamtausgaben hinaus, der konsequente Ausschluss der Förderung fossiler Energien sowie die Nutzung "grüner" Eigenmittelquellen würden das EU-Budget zu einem zentralen Baustein des anvisierten "Green Deal for Europe" machen und seinen "grünen" europäischen Mehrwert stärken. Eine gesamthafte Betrachtung ist erforderlich: Regulative Eingriffe, Ausgaben- und Einnahmenseite des EU-Budgets müssen zusammen gedacht werden; angesichts der unterschiedlichen Interessen der Mitgliedsländer muss nach Paketlösungen gesucht werden. Isolierte Diskussionen über einzelne Maßnahmen (und Maßnahmenbereiche) sind nicht zielführend. Die Querverbindungen zwischen den Ausgabenbereichen des Mittelfristigen Finanzrahmens (z. B. ländliche Entwicklung und Kohäsion oder Forschung und Regionalförderung) zu anderen Politikbereichen sind stärker zu beachten und zu nutzen.
    Keywords: EU, EU-Budget, Mehrjähriger Finanzrahmen, EU-Eigenmittelsystem
    Date: 2019–12–10
  63. By: Pérez, Gabriel; Sánchez, Ricardo
    Abstract: This report was prepared by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) and the Office for the High Representative for Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and the Small Island Developing States (UN-OHRLLS) in preparation for the midterm review meeting of the Vienna Programme of Action (VPoA) for Landlocked Developing Countries for the Decade 2014-2024 in the Latin American and Caribbean region. The report is structured as follows: the first section assesses the alignment between the objectives and priorities set forward in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the VPoA, and the National Development Plans of the Plurinational States of Bolivia and Paraguay; the second section analyzes connectivity and transport infrastructure in landlocked developing countries in Latin America; the third section reviews and analyzes the status of implementation of the VPoA in these countries; and the fourth and final section outlines conclusions and formulates recommendations to accelerate the implementation of the VPoA in the Latin American region.
    Date: 2019–11–30
  64. By: Bauknecht, Dierk; Bischoff, Thore; Bizer, Kilian; Heyen, Dirk Arne; Führ, Martin; Gailhofer, Peter; Proeger, Till; von der Leyen, Kaja
    Abstract: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by the United Nations provide normative orientation for many national and regional governments as well as actors from industry and other parts of the civil society. There is growing consensus that the corresponding transformation processes needed - e.g. in the field of production and consumption patterns (SDG 12) - have to be fostered by a corresponding institutional framework. Properly designed regulatory experiments that generate a learning system for all actors involved may be an important building block. Based on an interdisciplinary approach, we develop an overview of the various terminologies for regulatory experimentation currently discussed in the social sciences, derive common criteria for regulatory experimentation in reflexive governance structures and conclude in presenting a conceptual framework for analysing empirical studies of regulatory experiments.
    Keywords: Regulation,Regulatory Experimenting,Sustainable Development,Reflexive Governance,Regulatory Learning
    JEL: L51 O31 Q58
    Date: 2019
  65. By: patamanska, Galina; Grancharova, Elena; Kostadinov, Georgi; Gigova, Antoaneta
    Abstract: This study aims at investigating the impact of the irrigationmanagementfor tomato (Solanumlycopersicum 'Big Beef‘) grown under drip irrigation with mulch in an unheated polyethylene tunnel-type greenhouse.The experiment was carried out in the Chelopechene experimental field of the Institute of soil science, agrotechnologies and plant protection in town of Sofia, Bulgaria in 2018.Four different levels of irrigation have been served as treatment: T1 - full irrigation with application rate 100% of water requirements , T2 and T3 treatments – irrigationwith application rate 60% and 80% of the crop water requirements during the cluster fruit growing and cluster fruit ripening s and T4 - irrigation with 100% pan evaporation-based application rate.The total yield, yield per plant and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE)were determined by treatments. The experimental results showed thatthe amount of water supplied for irrigation influencedfruit production of tomato grown in an unheated greenhouse.The highest tomato yield was obtained from the T1 and T4 treatments,89.205 t ha-1. и 88.11 t ha-1respectively. Reducing the irrigation application rate of 20% to 40% results in lower yield in T3 treatment by 10.5% and T2 treatment by 22% compared to the yield under full irrigation.The highest irrigation water use efficiency value of 27.03 kgm-3 was obtained for T2treatment the lowest irrigation level with. IWUE decreased in the other treatments as the amount of water applied for irrigation was larger.An economic analysis of the results was carried out.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2019–04
  66. By: Mahmoud, Eshraga; Ahmed, Asma
    Abstract: The fresh water fisheries are increasingly important economically to the people living along the banks of the Nile that can maintain sustainability of the resources, so fishes has been a major of source of protein and energy that pointed out by many survey and laboratory investigation (Khalil 1971). The mean sources are contribution in the total fish catch is 82% for the White Nile so freshwater fishes occurring in the Sudan may represented a great potential for the future developing of aquaculture with economical and social consequences further research on fish diseases urgently needed especially the infection of parasites which from about 80% of fish diseases. There were many the economically losses due to fish diseases were manifested in high mortality rate and , unmarketable (FAO, 2005). Screening common Nile fishes for helminthes parasites infection revealed Clarias lazera among the most infected fishes by nematodes and Cestodes. A number of hundred Clarias lazera collected from Jebel Aulia reservoir on the White Nile south of Khartoum (45Km) in 2010-2013 were segregated due to the intensity of infection from high to low when both nematodes and cestodes parasites were present. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for the blood sera was used to investigate the impact of parasite infection on serum proteins profile as indicator to fish health status. These findings can, as well, used to check the principle on immunity to diseases in fishes. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) known to provide a high resolution method for fractionation and physical – chemical characterization of molecules based on size conformation, and net charge. Its application in the present study recorded different protein types as indicated by different fractional bands. Accordingly, and following the standard marker of serum protein profile, these recorded fractions detected were classified in four groups namely: albumin (9-57KD), alpha globulin ( ≥57KD,81 KD), Beta globulin (≥81-185 KD) and Gamma globulin, (≥200 KD). The results showed that helminthic parasites affect with reduction in the level of albumin and immune globulins IgM. The recommended more polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis investigation on fish pathogens as research programs are need .
    Keywords: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2019–04
  67. By: Vaden, Stephen Alexander
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2019–02
  68. By: Karima Fredj (UNBC - University of Northern British Columbia); Alain Jean-Marie (NEO - Network Engineering and Operations - CRISAM - Inria Sophia Antipolis - Méditerranée - Inria - Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique); Guiomar Martín-Herrán (IMUVA - Instituto de Investigación en Matemáticas - UVa - Universidad de Valladolid [Valladolid]); Mabel Tidball (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier)
    Abstract: This paper characterizes and compares the optimal and the strategic behaviour of two countries or firms that minimize costs facing emission standards. Emission standards can be reached through emission reduction, banking or borrowing, and emission trading in a given and fixed planning horizon. Our model extends the existing theoretical models in this area of research in two directions mainly. First, we revisit the model proposed by Rubin (1996) to introduce and study the impacts of transaction costs in tradeable emission markets. Second, we extend Stavins' (1995) work from a static to a dynamic setting. We analyze the case with and without transaction costs and the case with and without discount rate. We characterize solutions and equilibria in each case and, depending on the initial allocation, characterize the buyer and seller in the emission trading market. Our main findings extend Rubin's paper proving that agents equilibrium is not efficient when transaction cost are positive and expand Stavins' results to a dynamic framework.
    Keywords: Transaction costs,Emission permits trading,Intertemporal continuous time framework
    Date: 2019
  69. By: Hernández, Armand; Sánchez-López, Guiomar; Pla-Rabes, Sergi; Comas-Bru, Laia (University of Reading); Parnell, Andrew; Cahill, Niamh; Geyer, Adelina; Trigo, Ricardo M; Giralt, Santiago
    Abstract: The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the major atmospheric mode ruling European climate variability during winter and its significance is underpinned by the number of recent studies aimed at reconstructing past NAO variability across different time scales and temporal resolutions. We present a new 2000-year multi-annual, proxy-based, local NAO impact reconstruction, with associated uncertainties, employing a Bayesian approach. This new local NAO reconstruction is focused on the Iberian Peninsula, a geographical area not included in previous NAO reconstructions despite being a widely used region for instrumental-based NAO measurements. We also assess the main forcing drivers in order to unveil any discrepancies with previously published NAO reconstructions. Results show that, on a decadal scale, a low number of sunspots correlate to low NAO values. The comparison with other previously published NAO reconstructions allows us to observe the variability of solar influence on the NAO across a latitudinal gradient according to the position of the employed archives. Moreover, we highlight the potential role of other North Atlantic modes of variability (i.e., East Atlantic pattern) on the non-stationary behaviour of the NAO through the Common Era, likely via solar impact.
    Date: 2019–11–27
  70. By: Le Ngoc Anh, Hoang; Ho, Toan Manh (Thanh Tay University Hanoi)
    Abstract: Nghiên cứu mới về thực trạng liên kết đại học – công nghiệp ở Việt Nam, những động lực và hạn chế của hoạt động liên kết trong nỗ lực thúc đẩy nền kinh tế tri thức. Published in SciComm SSHPA on 8 June, 2019:
    Date: 2019–06–11
  71. By: Akgul, Fusun; Akgul, Riza
    Abstract: World population and their nutrient requirement increase day by day. Farmers try to obtain much more crop per area and for this reason they use abundant artificial fertilizer, and also spend a lot of money for fertilization. But these fertilizers create a serious pollution in the nature. So, nowadays the scientist study to develop a new formula biofertilizer or biostimulant that consists organic substances. For this aim they use microorganisms. Cyanobacteria has a highly diversity group that consists of photosynthetic prokaryotic microorganisms. Cyanobacteria that produce lots of metabolites such as amino acids, proteins, vitamins etc. have a wide spread. In this study, the effects of different concentrations of Spirulina platensis (Gomont) Geitler extracts on the germination of Capsicum annuum L.seeds and root-stem length, lateral root number and wet-dry weight were investigated. The application of S5 (100% cell extract) showed an inhibitory effect on seed germination. S2 (25% cell extract) and S3 (50% cell extract) applications had a positive effect on germination and seedling development in pepper. As a result; cyanobacterial extract has positive effects on seed germination and plant growth-development and it is possible to produce a commercial and ecological biostimulant by developing different extract concentrations.
    Keywords: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2019–04
  72. By: Ho, Toan Manh (Thanh Tay University Hanoi)
    Abstract: Các kiểu sáng tạo trong nghiên cứu học thuật tương ứng với từng giai đoạn đời người. Bài viết đăng tải trên EASE Vietnam SciComm System:
    Date: 2019–10–03
  73. By: Mounir Amdaoud (CEPN - Centre d'Economie de l'Université Paris Nord - UP13 - Université Paris 13 - USPC - Université Sorbonne Paris Cité - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Les ressources naturelles ont été souvent analysées dans la littérature économique comme étant non compatibles avec le développement économique (Auty, 2001 ; Gylfason, 2001 ; Sacks & Warner, 1995). L'objet de ce papier est de revenir sur l'analyse du lien qui caractérise les ressources naturelles et le développement économique. Pour ce faire, nous mobilisons une nouvelle approche basée sur les théories évolutionnistes et institutionnelle qui porte la focale sur l'importance de la dynamique d'apprentissage et de création de nouvelles connaissances notamment dans les économies riches en ressources naturelles. Les résultats obtenus dans notre étude sur près de 100 pays montrent que certaines des économies les plus avancés et les plus riches au monde sont des économies basées sur les ressources naturelles. Par conséquent, la malédiction serait davantage dans l'apprentissage et la construction de compétences que dans les ressources.
    Keywords: Ressources naturelles,rente,croissance économique,institutions,innovation,apprentissage,compétences
    Date: 2019–05–21
  74. By: Le Bars, Dewi
    Abstract: Sea level rises at an accelerating pace threatening coastal communities all over the world. In this context sea level projections are key tools to help risk mitigation and adaptation. Sea level projections are often made using models of the main contributors to sea level rise (e.g. thermal expansion, glaciers, ice sheets...). To obtain the total sea level these contributions are added, therefore the uncertainty of total sea level depends on the correlation between the uncertainties of the contributors. This fact is important to understand the differences in the uncertainty of sea level projections from different methods. Using two process-based models to project sea level for the 21st century, we show how to model the correlation structure and its time dependence. In these models the correlation primarily arises from uncertainty of future global mean surface temperature that correlates with almost all contributors. Assuming that sea level contributors are independent of each other, an assumption made in many sea level projections, underestimates the uncertainty in sea level projections. As a result, high-end low probability events that are important for decision making are underestimated. The uncertainty in the strength of the dependence between contributors is also explored. New dependence relation between the uncertainty of dynamical processes, and surface mass balance in glaciers and ice sheets are introduced in our model. Total sea level uncertainty is found to be as sensitive to the dependence between contributors as to uncertainty in individual contributors like thermal expansion and Greenland ice sheet.
    Date: 2018–08–26

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