nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2019‒12‒02
fifty-one papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Directed Technical Change, Environmental Sustainability, and Population Growth By Peter K. Kruse-Andersen
  2. A Mechanism for CCS in the Post-Paris Era By Paul Zakkour; Wolfgang Heidug
  3. Are Grassland Conservation Programs a Cost-Effective Way to Fight Climate Change? Evidence from France By Chabé-Ferret, Sylvain; Voia, Anca
  4. Economic Growth and Carbon Emissions: The Road to `Hothouse Earth` is Paved with Good Intentions By Servaas Storm; Enno Schroder
  5. Policy Pathways to Meet Saudi Arabia’s Contribution to the Paris Agreement By David Wogan; Elizabeth Carey; Douglas Cooke
  6. Polluting Emissions and GDP: Decoupling Evidence from Brazilian States By João Tovar Jalles
  7. Measuring the CostEffectiveness of Clean Vehicle Subsidies By Tamara Sheldon; Rubal Dua
  8. Political Feasibility of Enhancing India’s Midcentury Target for Emissions Intensity By Aljawhara Al Quayid; Nourah Al Hosain; Yagyavalk Bhatt; Paul Mollet
  9. Policy Lessons From China’s CCS Experience By Xiaoling Yang; Wolfgang Heidug; Douglas Cooke
  10. Freshwater as a global commons: International governance and the role of Germany By Herrfahrdt-Pähle, Elke; Scheumann, Waltina; Houdret, Annabelle; Dombrowsky, Ines
  11. A Comparison of Alternative Programs for Climate Policies By Tarek Atalla; Simona Bigerna; Carlo Andrea Bollino
  12. The Political Feasibility of Enhancing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Targets in the European Union’s Mid-Century Strategy By AlJawhara Al Quayid; Saleh Al Muhanna; Paul Mollet
  13. Finding a Viable Path to Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions By David Hobbs; Eric Williams; Adam Sieminski; Keigo Akimoto; Jun Arima; Mustafa Babiker; Mark Caine; Hiroyuki Tezuka; Nico Stehr; Eija-Riitta Korhola; Masakazu Toyoda
  14. Credit Access, Migration, and Climate Change Adaptation in Rural Bangladesh By Chen, Joyce; Flatnes, Jon
  15. Exploring business-oriented farmers’ willingness to adopt environmental practices By May, Daniel
  16. Extending the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways at the city scale to inform future vulnerability assessments – The case of Boston, Massachusetts By Lino, Jayne; Rohat, Guillaume; Kirshen, Paul; Dao, Hy
  17. Environmental Hazards and Risk Management in the Financial Sector: A Systematic Literature Review By Miriam Breitenstein; Duc Khuong Nguyen; Thomas Walther
  18. Environmental Governance and Environmental Performance By Chang, Chun-Ping; Dong, Minyi; Liu, Jiliang
  19. India’s Balancing Act to Address Climate Change Under the Paris Agreement By Yagyavalk Bhatt; AlJawhara Al Quayid; Nourah Al Hosain; Paul Mollet
  20. Experimental evidence of an environmental attitude-behavior gap in high-cost situations By Farjam, Mike; Nikolaychuk, Olexandr; Bravo, Giangiacomo
  21. The Politics of European Union Climate Governance By Paul Mollet; Saleh Al Muhanna; AlJawhara Al Quayid
  22. Impact of Co-firing Straw for Power Generation to Air Quality: A Case Study in Two Coal Power Plants in Vietnam By A. H. Truong; Minh Ha-Duong
  23. Harvesting synergy from Sustainable Development Goal interactions By Pedercini, Matteo; Arquitt, Steven; Collste, David; Herren, Hans
  24. The tragedy of climate change By McLachlan, Robert
  25. Do agglomeration economies are lower for polluting sectors? By Emmanuelle Leturque; Mathieu Sanch-Maritan
  26. Vehicle Retirement and Replacement Policy: Assessing Impact and Cost-Effectiveness By Tamara Sheldon; Rubal Dua
  27. Creación de un nuevo bien común para las cooperativas agrícolas: Big data, TIC e intercambio de datos By Cynthia GIAGNOCAVO; Daniel HERNÃ NDEZ CÃ CERES
  28. Exploring in-depth joint pro-environmental behaviors: a multivariate ordered probit approach By Olivier Beaumais; Apolline Niérat
  29. Review of water and climate adaptation financing and institutional frameworks in South Asia. Background Paper 3 By Suhardiman, Diana; de Silva, Sanjiv; Arulingam, Indika; Rodrigo, Sashan; Nicol, Alan
  30. Persistence of solid fuel use despite increases in LPG ownership: New survey evidence from rural north India By Gupta, Aashish; Vyas, Sangita; Hathi, Payal; Khalid, Nazar; Srivastav, Nikhil; Spears, Dean; Coffey, Diane
  31. Deepening Cooperation Between Saudi Arabia and China By Dongmei Chen; Wenke Han
  32. Review of water and climate change policies in South Asia. Background Paper 2 By Davis, R.; Hirji, R.
  33. Modeling, Forecasting, and Nowcasting U.S. CO2 Emissions Using Many Macroeconomic Predictors By Mikkel Bennedsen; Eric Hillebrand; Siem Jan Koopman
  34. Linking permit markets multilaterally By Doda, Baran; Quemin, Simon; Taschini, Luca
  35. Environmental fixes and historical trajectories of marine resource use in Southeast Asia By Wehner, Nicholas; Fabinyi, Michael
  36. Fusion Energy for Peace Building - A Trinity Test-Level Critical Juncture By Draper, John; Bhaneja, Bill
  37. Kantian Categorical Imperative and Dynamic Games of Common-Property Resource Exploitation When Self-Image Matters By Ngo Van Long
  38. Review of climate change science, knowledge and impacts on water resources in South Asia. Background Paper 1 By Lacombe, Guillaume; Chinnasamy, Pennan; Nicol, Alan
  39. Electric Vehicle Deployment and Carbon Emissions in Saudi Arabia: A Power System Perspective By Amro Elshurafa; Nawaz Peerbocus
  40. Assessing the value of resource recovery and reuse: social, environmental and economic costs and benefits for value creation and human well-being By Lazurko, Anita
  41. Short run effects of carbon policy on U.S. electricity markets By Dahlke, Steven
  42. Does Pollution Drive Achievement? The Effect of Traffic Pollution on Academic Performance By Heissel, Jennifer; Persico, Claudia; Simon, David
  43. Opportunities for agent-based modeling in fisheries social science By Burgess, Matthew G.; Carrella, Ernesto; Drexler, Michael; Axtell, Robert L.; Bailey, Richard M.; Watson, James R.; Cabral, Reniel B.; Clemence, Michaela; Costello, Christopher; Dorsett, Chris
  44. The Potential of Development Contracts and Conditionality Towards Sustainable Development Compacts By Jayawardena, Lal
  45. Intertemporal Arbitrage of Water and Long-Term Agricultural Investments: Drought, Groundwater Banking, and Perennial Cropping Decisions in California By Gonzalez, Jesus; Moore, Frances
  46. Journal of the History of Economic Thought Preprints – Review of Nature in the History of Economic Thought: how natural resources became an economic concept By Franco, Marco Paulo Vianna
  47. Where there is smoke: Solid fuel externalities, gender, and adult respiratory health in India By Gupta, Aashish
  48. Sustainable value chains in agriculture. The African Indigenous Vegetables in Southern Nakuru County By Marta Marson; Gianni Vaggi
  49. The Environment as a Commodity By Dasgupta, Partha
  50. Modelos de transporte por carretera y emisiones de carbono aplicables en las ciudades y su entorno By Pablo Martín Urbano; Juan Ignacio Sánchez Gutiérrez; Abril Yuriko Herrera Ríos
  51. Proyectos de infraestructura resiliente a impactos del cambio climático. Resumen Ejecutivo By Jairo Núñez; María del Pilar Ruiz; Juan Benavides; Nicolás Martínez

  1. By: Peter K. Kruse-Andersen (Department of Economics, University of Copenhagen, Denmark)
    Abstract: Population growth has two potentially counteracting effects on pollution emissions:(i) more people implies more production and thereby more emissions, and (ii) more people implies a larger research capacity which might reduce the emission intensity of production, depending on the direction of research. This paper investigates how to achieve a given climate goal in the presence of these two effects. A growth model featuring both directed technical change and population growth is developed. The model allows for simultaneous research in polluting and non-polluting technologies. Both analytical and numerical results indicate that population growth is a burden on the environment, even when all research efforts are directed toward non-polluting technologies. Thus research subsidies alone cannot ensure environmental sustainability. Instead, the analysis shows that environmental sustainability requires pollution taxes and/or population control policies.
    Keywords: Directed technical change, endogenous growth, environmental policy, environmental sustainability, climate change, population growth
    JEL: J11 O30 O41 Q54 Q55 Q58
    Date: 2019–11–19
  2. By: Paul Zakkour; Wolfgang Heidug (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: The Paris Agreement committed ratifying Parties to hold the increase in the global average temperature to much less than 2°C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the increase to 1.5°C. The Agreement also committed Parties to achieving net-zero emissions in the second half of this century. Technologies involving carbon capture and storage (CCS) are seen as a critical part of a portfolio of low-carbon technologies capable of delivering deep cuts in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, in line with the Paris Agreement goals. This paper proposes a new, transformative, incentive mechanism for CCS, forged by a ‘club’ of Parties to the Paris Agreement with a common interest: the pursuit of cleaner fossil fuels. A new CCS-specific technology mechanism is suggested as a means by which to unify the club’s actions, built upon a new tradable asset class specific to CCS: a carbon storage unit (CSU). A CSU would represent a verified tonne of carbon securely stored or sequestered in a geological reservoir i.e., a verified record of carbon stock addition to the geosphere, but with no intrinsic emission reduction or removal value. The authors argue that their proposed storage crediting scheme can complement and supplement carbon pricing, unlock new layers of climate finance for CCS, and overcome barriers historically faced by the technology.
    Keywords: Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), Carbon Dioxide Emissions (CO2) Carbon Emission Mitigation, Markeets, Paris Agreement
    Date: 2019–04
  3. By: Chabé-Ferret, Sylvain; Voia, Anca
    Abstract: Grasslands, especially when extensively managed and when replacing croplands, store Green-House Gases. As a result, Grassland Conservation Programs, that pay farmers for maintaining grassland cover, might be an effective way to combat climate change, if they succeed in triggering an increase in grassland cover for a reasonable amount of money. In this paper, we use a natural experiment to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the French Grassland Conservation Program, the largest of such programs in the world. We exploit a change in the eligibility requirements for the program that generated a sizable increase in the proportion of participants in the communes most affected by the program. We find that the expansion of the program leads to a small in- crease in grassland area, mainly at the expense of croplands, which implies that the program expansion increased carbon storage. We estimate that the climate benefits from the program are at most equal to 19%±37% of its costs. The program is thus not cost-effective for fighting climate change, especially when compared with forest conservation programs in developing countries whose benefits have been estimated to exceed costs by a factor of two. When taking into account the other benefits brought about by grassland, we find the benefits of the program to be equal to 32%±62% of its costs.
    Date: 2019–06–27
  4. By: Servaas Storm (Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands); Enno Schroder (Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)
    Abstract: All IPCC (2018) pathways to restrict future global warming to 1.5 degrees C (and well below an already dangerous 2 degrees C) involve radical cuts in global carbon emissions. Such de-carbonization, while being technically feasible, may impose a `limit` or `planetary boundary` to growth, depending on whether or not human society can decouple economic growth from carbon emissions. Decoupling is regarded viable in global and national policy discourses on the Paris Agreement and claimed to be already happening in real time: witness the recent declines in territorial CO2 emissions in a group of more than 20 economies. However, some scholars argue that radical de-carbonization will not be possible while increasing the size of the economy. This paper contributes to this debate as well as to the larger literature on climate change and sustainability. First, we develop a prognosis of climate-constrained global growth for 2014-2050 using the Kaya sum rule. Second, we use the Carbon-Kuznets-Curve (CKC) framework to empirically assess the effect of economic growth on CO2 emissions using measures of both territorial (production-based) emissions and consumption-based (trade- adjusted) emissions. We run panel data regressions using OECD ICIO CO2 emissions data for 61 countries during 1995-2011; to check the robustness of our findings we construct and use panel samples sourced from alternative databases (Eora; Exio; and WIOD). Even if we find evidence suggesting a decoupling of production-based CO2 emissions and growth, consumption-based CO2 emissions are monotonically increasing with per capita GDP (within our sample). We draw out the implications of these findings for climate policy and binding emission reduction obligations.
    Keywords: Carbon Kuznets Curve; Climate change; Economic growth; Production-based CO2 emissions, Consumption-based CO2 emissions; Decoupling; Kaya Identity; Paris Agreement.
    JEL: F64 Q54 Q55 Q56
    Date: 2018–11
  5. By: David Wogan; Elizabeth Carey; Douglas Cooke (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: The 2015 Paris Agreement on Climate Change fundamentally altered the nature of global climate governance by introducing a new framework based on a bottom-up system of nationally determined contributions (NDCs). As a signatory Party to the Agreement, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia communicated its intended nationally determined contribution (which became its first NDC) in November 2015. This included a goal of avoiding up to 130 million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent emissions per annum by 2030. This paper evaluates several supply-side policy approaches to mitigate CO2 emissions from the Saudi Arabian power and water sectors, which together account for more than 40% of the Kingdom’s greenhouse gas emissions. The paper aims to help inform the policymaking process in the Kingdom ahead of the communication of its second NDC in 2020.
    Keywords: Carbon Dioxide Emissions (CO2), Climate Change, Climate Change Policy, KAPSARC Energy Model (KEM), Paris Agreement
    Date: 2019–02–27
  6. By: João Tovar Jalles
    Abstract: We provide a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and GDP in Brazil using both aggregate and state-level data. The trend or Kuznets elasticity is about 0.8 for Brazil, higher than that in advanced countries but below that of major emerging markets. The elasticity is somewhat higher for consumption-based emissions than for production-based emissions, providing evidence against the “pollution haven” hypothesis. Additional evidence comes from state-level data analysis where one can observe a great deal of heterogeneity but also some hope as far as decoupling is concerned. In addition to the trend relationship between emissions and output, we find that there does not seem to exist a cyclical relationship holding in Brazil at the aggregate level (despite having become more procyclical over time), but it does exist in a few states.
    Keywords: Green House Gas, Cycle, Environmental Kuznets Curve, Brazil, Regional analysis, Detrending, Filtering
    JEL: E32 O44 Q43 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2019–11
  7. By: Tamara Sheldon; Rubal Dua (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: Demand-side policies, including rebates, sales tax exemptions, and tax credits promote clean vehicle adoption, with the goal of reducing local air pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Limited research to date on their cost-effectiveness and efficiency suggests such subsidies are unsustainably expensive, but this may not tell the whole story. KAPSARC used a nationally representative sample of new car purchases in the United States and developed a vehicle choice model-based simulation to assess the scope for reducing the costs of subsidy policies.
    Keywords: Air pollution, Battery capacity, Battery electric vehicles (BEV), Carbon dioxide emissions, Clean vehicle adoption, Economic modeling, Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHG), Hybrid electric vehicles, Plug-in electric vehicles, Policy simulation, Targeted subsidy design
    Date: 2018–05
  8. By: Aljawhara Al Quayid; Nourah Al Hosain; Yagyavalk Bhatt; Paul Mollet (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: India’s greenhouse gas emissions have grown along with its rapid economic growth, making it the world’s third-largest emitter after China and the United States. Under the Paris Agreement, India has committed to reduce its emissions intensity relative to its GDP by 33-35% by 2030, compared with its 2005 level. In this study, we assess the evolving political will to enhance India’s stated commitment to combat climate change.
    Keywords: India, Green House Gas Emissions (GHGs), Paris Agreement, Climate Change
    Date: 2019–09–18
  9. By: Xiaoling Yang; Wolfgang Heidug; Douglas Cooke (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: China’s political leadership has taken an increasingly public and proactive stance on climate change since 2014. This includes a commitment that Chinese carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions will peak before 2030 and enacting measures through the 13th Five-Year Plan to support energy efficiency, clean energy technology, and carbon management. Chinese policymakers consider carbon capture and storage (CCS) a critical bridging technology to help accelerate the decarbonization of its economy. This paper reviews and analyses Chinese CCS support policies from the perspective of an adaptive policymaking framework, recognizing uncertainty as an inherent element of the policymaking process, and draws more general lessons for responding to changing circumstances.
    Keywords: Adaptive policy framework, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), Carbon pricing, Carbon tax, Climate change, Decarbonization, Enhanced oil recovery, Infrastructure investment, Policy development, Renewable energy, Subsidies
    Date: 2018–07
  10. By: Herrfahrdt-Pähle, Elke; Scheumann, Waltina; Houdret, Annabelle; Dombrowsky, Ines
    Abstract: Water is essential for all life on earth and is a key prerequisite for attaining many of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Many countries, however, suffer from physical water scarcity, a lack of access to a safe water supply and sanitation, water pollution or hydrological extremes (droughts and floods) due to climate change. The generality and severity of water problems lead many to speak of a global water crisis. While this crisis mostly manifests at the local or in some cases transboundary level, two global issues are often overlooked. First, global trends such as climate change and the spread of water-intensive consumption and trade patterns are key triggers that cannot be addressed at the local level alone. Second, the aggregation of local or regional water problems may add up to a universal threat to sustainable development. In the face of current challenges, (fresh) water should be conceptualised as a global common good, and global water governance should contribute to improving its protection. [...]
    Date: 2019
  11. By: Tarek Atalla; Simona Bigerna; Carlo Andrea Bollino (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: This research paper compares the relative welfare impact of different options for allocating the financing burden of climate change mitigation policies. Focusing on efficient ways to finance policies aimed at climate change mitigation, not only at direct carbon reduction, could delink the issue of carbon taxation from carbon emissions. A Pigouvian tax is the traditional way of correcting for negative externalities, or the undesirable consequences for society arising from the actions of a company or industry sector, by levying additional taxes on that activity. Pigouvian taxation corrects society’s welfare loss, however, from the viewpoint of the private sector, such taxation imposes a deadweight economic loss with respect to the original private equilibrium. As an alternative, we evaluate a methodology that could fund investments to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and we show that the policy we consider to be optimal from a tax standpoint – Ramsey pricing can both improve world welfare and be politically more acceptable than other pricing options. Rather than focus directly on emissions reduction by taxing energy, a Ramsey pricing solution can be designed to minimize distortions while raising funds for investment in climate change mitigation.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Pigouvian tax, Ramsey pricing, Social Welfare
    Date: 2018–12
  12. By: AlJawhara Al Quayid; Saleh Al Muhanna; Paul Mollet (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: Article 4.19 of the 2015 Paris Agreement calls on signatories to formulate and communicate “long-term low greenhouse gas development strategies,” widely known as the mid-century strategy (MCS). Any enhancement of the European Union’s (EU’s) targets in its MCS depends on a new long-term EU climate policy subject to ongoing negotiations between member states. The EU submits one nationally determined contribution (NDC) for all 28 member states, likely soon to be 27 following the proposed departure of the United Kingdom (U.K.) from the EU (Brexit). In 2011 the European Commission outlined an indicative 80% emissions reduction target in its 2050 low carbon economy roadmap compared to 1990 levels. In a move away from a target-centered approach, the European Commission’s most recent communication entitled “A Clean Planet for all – A European strategic long-term vision for a prosperous, modern, competitive and climate neutral economy” calls for carbon neutrality by 2050 but avoids any mention of targets. It instead outlines scenarios that offer policy pathways for EU member states. This paper shows that in mid-2018, EU members were unwilling to commit to higher targets, which could provide an insight into what was an unexpected shift in European Commission policy.
    Keywords: Climate Change, European Union, Geopolitics, Nationally determined contributions, Paris agreement
    Date: 2019–08–22
  13. By: David Hobbs; Eric Williams; Adam Sieminski; Keigo Akimoto; Jun Arima; Mustafa Babiker; Mark Caine; Hiroyuki Tezuka; Nico Stehr; Eija-Riitta Korhola; Masakazu Toyoda (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: A viable, least-cost pathway to a low greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions future must lie within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Paris Agreement. The rulebook for the Agreement was in many ways rewritten at the 2018 United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP24) in Katowice, Poland. The flexible nature of the Agreement allows the international community to shift course as necessary.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Climate change policy, Paris agreement, Technology Innovation, Technology policy
    Date: 2019–08–29
  14. By: Chen, Joyce; Flatnes, Jon
    Abstract: We explore the impact of flooding on migration in Bangladesh and examine whether migration responses are mitigated by access to credit. Using unique data from a household survey conducted in rural Bangladesh shortly after the 1998 flood, we estimate the effect of flooding on both permanent and temporary migration. We utilize a difference-in-differences approach that relies on randomized early access to microfinance. Flood exposure is based on village-level reports of flood intensity, which can be treated as exogenous to individual households. We find that flooding led to increased temporary migration, with no effect on permanent migration. Moreover, access to credit several years earlier fully mitigates the migration effect, suggesting that credit access allows farmers to cope with severe climate events without having to migrate. Our study thus provides an important contribution to the broader literature on climate change adaptation, by demonstrating that relieving credit constraints could enhance local livelihood strategies during environmental hazards, without deterring gradual permanent migration away from vulnerable areas.
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2019–11–15
  15. By: May, Daniel
    Abstract: Some researchers argue that climate change can only be combated by reducing economic growth in developed countries. While this is a reasonable argument, it is very unlikely that all these countries will lower their economic activity in the short-medium run in order to favour the environment. This article explores an alternative solution that consists of affecting farmer’s incentives to adopt environmental practices when they operate in a highly business-oriented paradigm. Using a structural equations approach, it was found that farmers can potentially be induced to adopt these practices by means of local policy programs.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management
    Date: 2019–10–21
  16. By: Lino, Jayne; Rohat, Guillaume; Kirshen, Paul; Dao, Hy
    Abstract: Climate change will impact cities’ infrastructure and urban dwellers, who often show differentiated capacity to cope with climate-related hazards. An emerging research field, using the latest global socioeconomic and climate scenarios – namely the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) and Representative Concentration (RCPs) – is exploring how different socioeconomic pathways will influence future society’s ability to cope with climate change impacts. While the SSPs have been extensively used at the global scale, their use at the local and urban scale has remained rare, as they first need to be contextualized and extended for the particular place of interest. In this study, we present and apply a method to develop multi-scale extended SSPs at the city and neighborhood scale. Using Boston, Massachusetts, as a case study, we combined scenario matching, experts’ elicitation, and participatory processes to contextualize and make the global SSPs relevant at the urban scale. We subsequently employed the extended SSPs to explore future neighborhood-level vulnerability to extreme heat under multiple plausible socioeconomic trajectories, highlighting the usefulness of extended SSPs in informing future vulnerability assessments. The large differences in outcomes hint at the enormous potential of risk reduction that social and urban planning policies could trigger in the next decades.
    Date: 2019–08–13
  17. By: Miriam Breitenstein; Duc Khuong Nguyen; Thomas Walther
    Abstract: We conduct a systematic literature review on environmental and climate related risk management in the financial sector. The systematic literature review identified a total of 36 relevant articles. A formal coding leads to the aggregation and classification of papers to three main categories that consider the impact of environmental concerns on financial risk, the current state of environmental risk practices in the finance sector, and lastly measures to assess those risks within financial institutions. Our results put forward the risk reduction for financial institutions which highly commit with environmental responsibility and performance. More importantly, investors’ increase in awareness and willingness to assess climate-related financial risk would incentivize corporate managers to adopt more proactive environmental policies and practices. These findings also allow for intriguing discussions about several alleys for future research.
    Keywords: Environment, Climate, Risk Management, Banking, Financial Institutions
    Date: 2019–07
  18. By: Chang, Chun-Ping (Asian Development Bank Institute); Dong, Minyi (Asian Development Bank Institute); Liu, Jiliang (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: Along with the continuous development of the global economy, environmental deterioration has been widely recognized as a pressing issue nowadays, bringing environmental governance to the forefront of human survival. Asia, the largest continent in world in terms of both landmass size and population, has long been facing the exhaustive challenge of environmental pollution. We empirically prove that the level of environmental governance, proxied by government expenditure on environmental protection as a share of gross domestic product (GDP), exerts significant impacts on environmental conditions among Asian countries. For Asian countries, basically three main conclusions can be drawn that may be useful for improving the condition of environmental quality: (i) the authority should increase the share of government expenditure on environmental protection, since it contributes significantly to the reduction of CO2 emissions and the promotion of energy efficiency; (ii) the government should make an effort to control the overheating economic growth, since excessive economic growth is detrimental to the environment, and increasing GDP per capita leads to increasing CO2 emissions, decreasing energy efficiency, and decreasing comprehensive environmental performance; and (iii) although foreign direct investment has no impact on CO2 emissions and the Environmental Performance Index, it exerts a significantly negative impact on energy intensity and thus promotes an effect on energy efficiency; therefore, we recommend that the government should implement relevant policies to attract more foreign investment.
    Keywords: environmental performance; environmental governance; government expenditure
    JEL: H11 Q56 Q58
    Date: 2019–03–25
  19. By: Yagyavalk Bhatt; AlJawhara Al Quayid; Nourah Al Hosain; Paul Mollet (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: As an emerging economy, a major part of India’s nationally determined contribution (NDC) under the Paris Agreement is an emissions intensity target. With its current policies, India is on track to achieve its climate targets under the Agreement. However, the Indian government is balancing a complicated set of domestic priorities and constraints against its wish to be seen as a global leader on climate change.
    Keywords: Climate Change, KAPSARC Toolkit for Behavioral Analysis (KTAB), Paris Agreement, Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHG)
    Date: 2018–12
  20. By: Farjam, Mike; Nikolaychuk, Olexandr; Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Abstract: So far, there has been mixed evidence in the literature regarding the relation between environmental attitudes and actual ``green'' actions, something known as attitude-behavior gap. This raises the question of when attitudes can actually work as a lever to promote environmental objectives, such as climate change mitigation, and, conversely, when other factors would be more effective. We tested the effect of environmental attitudes on behavior in an online experiment with real money at stake and real-world consequences. We found that environmental attitudes affected behavior in low-cost situations while increasing contribution costs generally reduced their effect. This finding is consistent with the low-cost hypothesis of environmental behavior and has important consequences for the design of more effective climate policies in a democratic context.
    Date: 2019–03–13
  21. By: Paul Mollet; Saleh Al Muhanna; AlJawhara Al Quayid (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: The European Union (EU) is facing a critical period as the European Commission draws up a 2050 climate strategy roadmap that is likely to form the basis for the EU’s next nationally determined contribution to the COP21 Paris Agreement. Until recently, the UK was the undisputed leader of the coalition of EU member states (the Green Growth Group) seeking more ambitious climate targets. Brexit, however, is likely to put an end to the UK-driven focus on market instruments to achieve climate targets. Instead, the Commission is now likely to turn to policies prioritizing emissions and energy targets.
    Keywords: Brexit, Climate governance, Climate change, Climate policy,
    Date: 2018–10
  22. By: A. H. Truong (Centre for Research and Technology Transfer - VAST - Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology); Minh Ha-Duong (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech)
    Abstract: Open field burning of rice straw regularly contributes to severe air quality issues affecting millions of inhabitants in the city of Ha Noi. We examine how much replacing open field burning by co-firing mitigates local air pollutants and greenhouse gases emissions. We select two coal power plants located in the North of Vietnam as specific examples. Our findings show that co-firing straw in these plants at 5% mixing ratio on heat basis can reduce greenhouse gas emission as well as air pollutant emissions (SO 2 , PM10 and NO x) from 3% up to 13%. We examined the social value of these emission reductions using external costs factors. The health benefits of improving air quality by disposing of straw at a large coal power plant instead of open field burning are over ten million USD per year. This is the same order of magnitude as the technical costs of co-firing. Greenhouse gas emissions reduction benefits appear smaller.
    Date: 2018
  23. By: Pedercini, Matteo; Arquitt, Steven; Collste, David; Herren, Hans
    Abstract: In combination, policies for sustainable development can work together and synergize. In so doing, the resulting impact of a strategic policy mix can be greater than the sum of the individual policies of its individual parts. That synergetic potential can be utilized to attain strategic objectives. This is the case when it comes to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations 2030 Agenda. However, identifying and quantifying these synergetic interactions is infeasible with traditional approaches to policy analysis. In this paper we present a method for identifying these interactions and assessing them quantitatively. We also introduce a typology of five classes of synergy that enables an understanding of their structures. We operationalize the typology by the use of pilot studies of SDG strategies undertaken in Senegal, Côte d’Ivoire, and Malawi. In the pilots, the Integrated Sustainable Development Goal (iSDG) model was used to simulate the effects of policies over the SDG time horizon. In each case, synergetic interactions contribute to potential SDG attainment. We estimate the value of these interactions to be 2.8% of GDP for Côte d’Ivoire, 4.4% for Malawi, and 0.7% for Senegal. We conclude that enhanced understanding of synergies in sustainable development planning can contribute to progress on the SDGs – and set free substantial amounts of resources.
    Date: 2018–12–25
  24. By: McLachlan, Robert
    Abstract: Reviews the discovery of the phenomenon of the tragedy of the commons, from Marco Polo, through William Foster Lloyd in 1833, H Scott Gordon in 1954, and Garrett Hardin in 1968; it is argued that the first known realization that anthropogenic climate change is a global tragedy of the commons by Chen, Winter, and Bergman in 1980, was ahead of its time and was, sadly, insufficiently recognized. It is argued that the tragedy of the commons framing was slow to be discovered, to be appreciated, and has yet to achieve widespread popular recognition. Its contemporary relevance is illustrated through a discussion of recent work of Thomas Hale.
    Date: 2019–06–03
  25. By: Emmanuelle Leturque (LEDi - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dijon - UB - Université de Bourgogne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Mathieu Sanch-Maritan (CREAM - Centre de Recherche en Economie Appliquée à la Mondialisation - UNIROUEN - Université de Rouen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - IRIHS - Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire Homme et Société - UNIROUEN - Université de Rouen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université)
    Abstract: This article explore how the relation between productivity and local city-size can be mitigated by pollution. More specifically, we estimate agglomeration economies considering a new source of heterogeneity among industries: the degree of pollution. Due to pollution perception acting as a dispersion force, we expect net agglomeration economies to be lower for polluting firms. In fact, polluting firms may anticipate that households and other firms are reluctant to locate near sources of pollution. In this paper, we exploit spatial data on sectoral emissions for a large number of air pollutants. We define a continuous variable of pollution that varies across sectors and employment zones. Our finding are twofold. First we find that agglomeration economies are lower for polluting sectors. Second we find that negative agglomeration are observed for some key pollutant such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, lead or sulfur dioxide.
    Keywords: Agglomeration economies,Polluting sectors,Negative externalities
    Date: 2019–11–01
  26. By: Tamara Sheldon; Rubal Dua (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: Governments across the world, motivated by air quality improvement or by climate change mitigation goals, are trying to accelerate the turnover of older, higher-emitting vehicles and replace these with lower emission vehicles. One approach is to encourage consumers to scrap their old, inefficient and more polluting vehicles and buy new ones, typically plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). This can be expensive on a per-additional-vehicle basis if fixed subsidy programs allow those owners who would have replaced their vehicles with a low emission vehicle anyway to obtain these subsidies. It is important that all parties — whether invested in conventional internal combustion engine (ICE), hybrid electric or newer, fully electric powertrains — understand the scope for more economically efficient policy to avoid incorrectly estimating the barriers to entry for new vehicle technologies. Previous KAPSARC research used counterfactual simulations to highlight the fact that policymakers might increasingly switch to targeted subsidy designs to improve the cost-effectiveness of low emission vehicle subsidies. This study, however, explores the effectiveness of a real-world targeted subsidy policy, California’s ‘Replace Your Ride’ (RYR) program. RYR gives targeted subsidies to lower-income households living in districts with poor local air quality to retire older vehicles and replace them with newer, cleaner vehicles. The effectiveness of the RYR policy is measured using new vehicle registration and sociodemographic data in a difference-in-difference analysis framework.
    Keywords: Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV), Climate change, Hybrid electric vehicles, Plug-in electric vehicles, Subsidies, Targeted subsidy design, Vehicle retirement
    Date: 2018–05
  27. By: Cynthia GIAGNOCAVO (Universidad de Almería (Spain)); Daniel HERNÃ NDEZ CÃ CERES (Universidad de Almería (Spain))
    Abstract: Creating a new commons for agricultural cooperatives: Big data, ICT and data sharing. The utilisation of Big Data and ICT technologies on a large scale in agriculture is seen to be a solution for dealing with climate change, environmental degradation, land and water constraints, the necessity to optimise resources, reduce costs, and increase traceability and food safety, amongst other compelling arguments. However, it has also resulted in imbalances in power, investment barriers, reduced access to knowledge and the decreasing ability of farmers and SMEs to control and benefit from their agricultural related activities. This paper considers the legal, governance, institutional and economic issues that may arise in developing a data cooperative or other equitable data sharing structures, taking into account public and private sources of data, and multi-stakeholders involved. A review of successful data sharing examples, including cooperatives, is presented and a test case from the cooperatives of Almería, Spain is considered. This research falls within the context of the EU H2020 project Internet of Food and Farm (IoF2020) and the development of innovative data sharing business models. Rather than falling back on classical contracting arrangements for data sharing, as proposed by Copa-Cogeca, amongst others, it is proposed that a “data commons†approach in keeping with Elinor Ostrom’s SocialEcological Systems Framework be used to frame a cooperative solution to this complex, systems based, challenge. By choosing a cooperative approach, benefits to farmers may go beyond “monetization†of data, and contribute to safeguarding environmental goods.
    Keywords: Data Sharing; Social-Ecological-Technical Systems; Agricultural Cooperatives; Multi-stakeholder cooperatives; Big Data and ICT; Public-private initiatives
    JEL: K22 O13 Q13 Q16
    Date: 2019
  28. By: Olivier Beaumais (LISA - Lieux, Identités, eSpaces, Activités - UPP - Université Pascal Paoli - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Apolline Niérat (CREAM - Centre de Recherche en Economie Appliquée à la Mondialisation - UNIROUEN - Université de Rouen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - IRIHS - Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire Homme et Société - UNIROUEN - Université de Rouen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université)
    Abstract: As commitment levels to pro-environmental activities are usually coded as ordered categorical variables, we argue that the multivariate ordered probit model is an appropriate tool to account for the effect of common observable and unobservable variables on joint pro-environmental behaviors. However, exploring in-depth joint pro-environmental behaviors using the multivariate ordered probit model requires not only to assess whether some variables are found to be significant, but also to calculate joint probabilities, conditional probabilities and partial effects on these quantities. As an illustration, we explore the joint commitment levels of households to recycling of materials in France. We show that beyond the estimation of the multivariate ordered probit model, much can be learned from the calculation of the aforementioned quantities. (JEL C35, Q53)
    Keywords: Joint pro-environmental behavior,multivariate ordered probit model,waste recycling
    Date: 2019–11–13
  29. By: Suhardiman, Diana; de Silva, Sanjiv; Arulingam, Indika; Rodrigo, Sashan; Nicol, Alan
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Financial Economics, Food Security and Poverty, Industrial Organization, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2019–11–10
  30. By: Gupta, Aashish; Vyas, Sangita; Hathi, Payal; Khalid, Nazar; Srivastav, Nikhil; Spears, Dean; Coffey, Diane
    Abstract: Solid fuel use is an important contributor to air pollution and disease burden in India. We present survey evidence documenting LPG ownership and cooking fuel use in rural north India. LPG ownership has increased rapidly, substantially driven by the Ujjwala Yojana. Three-quarters of rural households in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh now have LPG. Almost all of these households also have a stove that uses solid fuels, and among those owning both, almost three-quarters used solid fuels the day before the survey. Household economic status, relative costs of cooking fuels, gender inequality, and beliefs regarding the ease, food taste, and health impacts of cooking with solid fuels versus LPG are important contributors to high solid fuel use despite LPG ownership. Households that continue to use solid fuels continue to expose themselves and their neighbours to harmful air pollution. To realize the full health benefits of Ujjwala’s expansion in LPG ownership, attention must now be turned towards discouraging the use of solid fuels and promoting exclusive use of LPG. This is an urgent priority for research, policy, and action.
    Date: 2019–03–29
  31. By: Dongmei Chen; Wenke Han (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: In recent decades China and Saudi Arabia have gradually deepened their collaboration in many areas. Five indicators are used to assess the overall progress of the two countries’ collaboration and to help form recommendations for ways to improve the integration between China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and Saudi Vision 2030. The strategic partnership between China and Saudi Arabia has presented opportunities for a new level of collaboration at a time when both countries are seeking economic transformation and sustainable growth.
    Keywords: China Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), Low Carbon Technology, Foreign Direct Investment, Infrastucture Investment, Sustainable Development
    Date: 2019–03
  32. By: Davis, R.; Hirji, R.
    Keywords: International Development, Land Economics/Use, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2019–11–11
  33. By: Mikkel Bennedsen (Aarhus University and CREATES); Eric Hillebrand (Aarhus University and CREATES); Siem Jan Koopman (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and CREATES)
    Abstract: We propose a structural augmented dynamic factor model for U.S. CO2 emissions. Variable selection techniques applied to a large set of annual macroeconomic time series indicate that CO2 emissions are best explained by industrial production indices covering manufacturing and residential utilities sectors. We employ a dynamic factor structure to explain, forecast, and nowcast the industrial production indices and thus, by way of the structural equation, emissions. We show that our model has good in-sample properties and out-of-sample performance in comparison with univariate and multivariate competitor models. Based on data through September 2019, our model nowcasts a reduction of about 2.6% in U.S. CO2 emissions in 2019 compared to 2018 as the result of a reduction in industrial production in residential utilities.
    Keywords: CO2 emissions, macroeconomic variables, dynamic factor model, variable selection, forecasting, nowcasting
    JEL: C01 C13 C32 C51 C52 C53 C55 C82 Q43 Q47
    Date: 2019–11–27
  34. By: Doda, Baran; Quemin, Simon; Taschini, Luca
    Abstract: We formally study the determinants, magnitude and distribution of efficiency gains generated in multilateral linkages between permit markets. We provide two novel decomposition results for these gains, characterize individual preferences over linking groups and show that our results are largely unaltered with strategic domestic emissions cap selection or when banking and borrowing are allowed. Using the Paris Agreement pledges and power sector emissions data of five countries which all use or considered using both emissions trading and linking, we quantify the efficiency gains. We find that the computed gains can be sizable and are split roughly equally between effort and risk sharing.
    Keywords: Climate change policy; International emissions trading systems; Multilateral linking; Effort sharing; Risk sharing; ES/K006576/1
    JEL: Q58 H23 F15
    Date: 2019–09–13
  35. By: Wehner, Nicholas (OCTO (Open Communications for The Ocean)); Fabinyi, Michael
    Abstract: This paper emphasises the long-term historical trajectories of marine resource use in the Philippines through an examination of successive environmental fixes. Based on fieldwork from coastal Mindoro province, the paper shows how the technological intensification and geographical expansion of fisheries, the development of aquaculture and the promotion of tourism represent three forms of environmental fixes that aim to address the problems caused by marine resource declines and subsequent lack of availability of means of production. All three fixes have struggled to reduce environmental pressure or provide a long-term basis for livelihoods. The paper argues that viewing how successive types of environmental fixes unfold over long periods of time highlights how marine resource declines are part of much wider economic and historical processes, with consequent implications for livelihoods and governance.
    Date: 2018–03–05
  36. By: Draper, John; Bhaneja, Bill
    Abstract: This article analyses the development of nuclear fusion energy, now projected to be commercialized around 2030, and its implications for worsening conflicts and for peace-building. To do so, we apply Glenn D. Paige’s (2009) nonkilling global political science (NKGPS) conceptual framework and Carayannis and Campbell’s (2010) Quintuple Helix innovation ecosystem. The arrival of nuclear fusion energy will be an event nearly unprecedented in human history, the closest parallel being the Trinity Test which heralded the Atomic Age, the implications of which for perpetuating conflict and potentially for peace-building were keenly understood. As with fission, fusion energy can and likely will be weaponized as it possesses an intrinsic benefit compared to nuclear fission, namely the lower level of radiation involved. However, the innovation that is leading to nuclear fusion energy is not taking place in a vacuum. Unlike the Trinity Test, which was conducted in secret in wartime without any civilian or media contribution, nuclear fusion will be developed in peacetime in the glare of civil society and the global media, including social media, i.e., in a Quadruple Helix innovation ecosystem. Immediately following the Second World War, despite initial progress, the USSR rejected the US Baruch Plan to put atomic energy and weapons under the United Nations to stifle a nuclear arms race, due to an insufficient political imperative to cooperate with the US, and vice versa. The result was the Cold War. However, the much cleaner nuclear fusion energy, once developed, can be rapidly applied to address climate change, i.e., the Quintuple Helix. As such, a unique opportunity will emerge to leverage a new normative nuclear order via a new Baruch Plan, with the IAEA overseeing the development and applications of fusion energy, the United Nations working towards a universal peace treaty to end war, and humanity re-prioritising its goals.
    Date: 2019–01–01
  37. By: Ngo Van Long
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to model the influence of Kantian moral scruples in a dynamic environment. Our objectives are two-fold. Firstly, we investigate how a Nash equilibrium among agents who have moral scruples may ensure that the exploitation of a common property renewable resource is Pareto efficient at every point of time. Secondly, we outline a prototype model that shows, in an overlapping generation framework, how a community’s sense of morality may evolve over time and identifies conditions under which the community may reach a steady state level of morality in which everyone is perfectly Kantian.
    Keywords: Tragedy of the Commons,Dynamic Games,Nash Equilibrium,Self-Image,Categorical Imperative,
    JEL: C71 D62 D71
    Date: 2019–11–18
  38. By: Lacombe, Guillaume; Chinnasamy, Pennan; Nicol, Alan
    Keywords: Industrial Organization, Land Economics/Use, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2019–11–12
  39. By: Amro Elshurafa; Nawaz Peerbocus (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: A power system model for Saudi Arabia was built to quantify the carbon emission implications of deploying electric vehicles (EVs) within the Kingdom. The model represented the four operating regions in the Kingdom as segmented by the electricity regulator.
    Keywords: Carbon Emissions, Electric Vehicles, Power Systems
    Date: 2019–10–09
  40. By: Lazurko, Anita
    Abstract: To understand the full value of Resource Recovery and Reuse (RRR), a systematic assessment approach that balances complexity with practicality is required. This report highlights the methods available for quantifying and valuing social, environmental and economic costs and benefits of RRR, focusing on Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) as the primary framework. Rather than prescribing a standardized technique for conducting CBA for RRR, this report presents broad frameworks and several examples that can be catered to individual contexts. This results in a suggested eight-step process accompanied with suggested assessment techniques which have to be tailored to the type of question the assessment is meant to answer and related system boundaries.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Financial Economics, Food Security and Poverty, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2019–11–11
  41. By: Dahlke, Steven
    Abstract: This paper presents estimates of short run impacts of a carbon price on the electricity industry using a cost-minimizing mathematical model of the U.S. market. Prices of 25 and 50 dollars per ton of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions cause electricity emissions reductions of 17% and 22% from present levels, respectively. This suggests significant electricity sector emissions reductions can be achieved quickly from a modest carbon tax. Short run effects refer to operational changes at existing U.S. power plants, mostly by switching production from coal plants to natural gas plants. The results do not include long run emissions reductions related to 1) new investments and retirements of electricity production assets, and 2) demand response as regulated electricity suppliers pass cost changes to retail customers. A state-level analysis of the results leads to the following conclusions: 1) most emissions reductions come from high coal-consuming states in the Mid-Atlantic and Midwest regions, 2) fifteen states increase emissions because their natural gas consumption offsets coal consumption in neighboring states, and 3) a flat per-capita rebate of tax revenue leads to wealth transfers across states.
    Date: 2019–04–30
  42. By: Heissel, Jennifer (Naval Postgraduate School); Persico, Claudia (American University); Simon, David (University of Connecticut)
    Abstract: We examine the effect of school traffic pollution on student outcomes by leveraging variation in wind patterns for schools the same distance from major highways. We compare within-student achievement for students transitioning between schools near highways, where one school has had greater levels of pollution because it is downwind of a highway. Students who move from an elementary/middle school that feeds into a "downwind" middle/high school in the same zip code experience decreases in test scores, more behavioral incidents, and more absences, relative to when they transition to an upwind school. Even within zip codes, microclimates can contribute to inequality.
    Keywords: air pollution, academic achievement, child health
    JEL: Q53 I24 I14
    Date: 2019–11
  43. By: Burgess, Matthew G.; Carrella, Ernesto; Drexler, Michael; Axtell, Robert L.; Bailey, Richard M.; Watson, James R.; Cabral, Reniel B.; Clemence, Michaela; Costello, Christopher; Dorsett, Chris
    Abstract: Like other coupled natural-human systems, fisheries are ultimately managed from the human side. Models are important to understanding and predicting fishing industry responses to, and feedbacks with, changes in the ecosystem or management institutions. In situ controlled experiments are difficult or impossible to conduct. Recent advances in computation have made it possible to construct realistic agent-based models (ABMs) of human systems that track the behaviour of each individual, firm, or vessel. ABMs are widely used for both academic and applied purposes in many settings including finance, urban planning, and the military, but are not yet mainstream in fisheries science and management. ABMs are well suited to understanding emergent consequences of fisher interactions, heterogeneity, and bounded rationality, especially in complex ecological and institutional contexts. For these reasons, we argue that ABMs of human behaviour can contribute significantly to fisheries social science in three areas: (i) understanding interactions between multiple management institutions, (ii) incorporating cognitive and behavioural sciences into fisheries science and practice, and (iii) understanding and projecting the social consequences of management institutions. We provide simple worked examples illustrating the potential for ABMs in each of these areas, using the POSEIDON model, and we discuss terms of reference for addressing common ABM development and application challenges.
    Date: 2018–11–16
  44. By: Jayawardena, Lal
    Keywords: International Development
  45. By: Gonzalez, Jesus; Moore, Frances
    Abstract: In arid areas, irrigation water is an essential input into agricultural production. However, rainfall and, correspondingly, surface water supplies, are often highly variable, creating uncertainty over the value of long-term, water-dependent investments in these cropping systems. Moreover, climate change is expected to increase both crop water requirements and the variability of seasonal rainfall, meaning the constraints imposed by variable water supplies are likely to grow in cost as climate change progresses. In this setting, storing water in wet years for use in dry years is valuable. In particular, it would be expected to increase the value of perennial crops, which require large up-front investments that pay off gradually over the life of the tree. We first show, in a simple theoretical model, that given the timing of returns to investments in perennial crops, there is always some level of drought risk above which annual crops will be preferred to perennials. We then demonstrate this effect empirically using a unique institutional setting in which access to a relatively new form of water storage, groundwater banking, effectively created spatial variation drought risk between irrigation districts in Kern County, California. Using a 21-year dataset of individual cropping decisions, we provide evidence that access to a large groundwater banking project, the Kern Water Bank, increased the rate at which farmers switched from lower-value annual crops such as wheat and alfalfa, into high-value perennial nut crops, primarily almonds and pistachio.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2019
  46. By: Franco, Marco Paulo Vianna
    Abstract: A review of Nathaniel Wolloch's Nature in the History of Economic Thought: how natural resources became an economic concept
    Date: 2019–01–23
  47. By: Gupta, Aashish
    Abstract: Chronic respiratory conditions are a leading cause of death in the world. Using data on lung obstruction from the WHO Survey of Global AGEing and Adult Health (WHO-SAGE 2007-08), this paper studies the determinants of respiratory health in India, home to a third of all deaths from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. First, we find that smokers and members of households that use solid fuels (wood, biomass, coal or dung) for cooking have higher lung obstruction. Second, even if a respondent's household uses clean fuels, their lung obstruction is higher if their neighbors use solid fuels. In neighborhoods with high solid fuel use, the lungs of members of households that use clean fuels can be as obstructed as lungs of members of households that use solid fuels. These negative externalities of solid fuel use are robust to additional controls for neighborhood socioeconomic status, falsification tests, tests with placebo measures, and tests using alternative measures of respiratory health as outcomes. Third, the influence of the determinants is patterned by gender. Smoking tobacco is an important influence on lung obstruction among men. Confirming non-linear dose-response relationships, we find that women from households that use solid fuels are the only group not further harmed by neighborhood solid fuel smoke, possibly because of high exposure to pollutants while cooking. The study improves our understanding of behavioral, social, and environmental determinants of respiratory health in India. Importantly, it makes a case for greater public investments to promote the adoption and use of cleaner fuels.
    Date: 2019–06–04
  48. By: Marta Marson (University of Pavia); Gianni Vaggi (University of Pavia)
    Abstract: The paper is part of a research project on Sustainable Agri-food System Strategies (SASS). We are grateful to all the participants in the project and in particular to Francesco Rampa, Paulina Bizzotto Molina and Silas Wanjala for their comments. The authors acknowledge the support of the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR).The views expressed in the paper are those of the authors.
    Date: 2019–09
  49. By: Dasgupta, Partha
    Keywords: International Development
  50. By: Pablo Martín Urbano; Juan Ignacio Sánchez Gutiérrez; Abril Yuriko Herrera Ríos
    Abstract: Este artículo explica los modelos básicos de transporte por carretera, centrado especialmente en las conexiones dentro de las ciudades, con el propósito de presentar un panorama amplio de los principales planteamientos de modelización de emisiones de carbono. Aquí se desarrollan los aspectos teóricos generales que enmarcan este tipo de herramientas y se revisa la importancia de los modelos para la evaluación de las emisiones de carbono causadas por la movilidad urbana. Asimismo, se plantea una tipología de modelos de transporte carretero, algunos métodos de cálculo de emisiones comúnmente utilizados y sus limitaciones.
    Keywords: Trasporte, emisiones, modelos de transporte.
    JEL: Q51 Q52 R40
    Date: 2019–10–01
  51. By: Jairo Núñez; María del Pilar Ruiz; Juan Benavides; Nicolás Martínez
    Abstract: Fondo Adaptación: una lección para compartir en los sectores de vivienda y transporte. En el presente documento, se sintetizan los resultados de la investigación que se realizó con un enfoque de gestión del conocimiento para que otras instituciones del país y de América Latina puedan servirse de estos aprendizajes. Este resumen ejecutivo presenta la metodología utilizada en la investigación, que se basó en la Teoría Fundamentada de las Ciencias Sociales (Strauss y Corbin, 2002) y para la cual se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad a funcionarios del Fondo y actores relevantes de tres proyectos emblemáticos de los sectores de transporte y vivienda (interconexión vial Yatí-Bodega (Bolívar), vivienda en La Guajira y vivienda en San Benito Abad (Sucre), así como grupos focales con las comunidades involucradas.
    Keywords: Infraestructura, Cambio Climático, Vivienda, Transporte, Gestión del Riesgo de Desastres, Proyectos de Infraestructura, Infraestructura del Transporte, Infraestructura de Vivienda, Colombia
    JEL: H54 O18 H43 O22 L90 R41 R31 Q54
    Date: 2019–10–31

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