nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2019‒10‒21
forty-six papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Exploring the Role of Natural Gas in U.S. Trucking (Revised Version) By Jaffe, Amy M.; Dominguez-Faus, Rosa; Lee, Allen; Medlock, Kenneth; Parker, Nathan; Scheitrum, Daniel; Burke, Andrew; Zhou, Hengbing; Fan, Yueyue
  2. Life cycle assessment and life cycle costing in measuring the eco-efficiency performance of winter rape production By Jerzy Bie?kowski; Rafa? Baum; Ma?gorzata Holka
  3. Endogenous Emission Caps Always Induce a Green Paradox By Reyer Gerlagh; Roweno J.R.K. Heijmans; Knut Einar Rosendahl
  4. Pollution in a globalized world: Are debt transfers among countries a solution? By Marion Davin; Mouez Fodha; Thomas Seegmuller
  5. Prospects for Hydrogen in the Future Energy System By Ogden, Joan M.
  6. The Comfort of the Future: The Role of Social Norms in Constructing the Ideal towards Sustainability – A Randomised Field Experiment By Idahosa; Love O; Marwa; Nyankomo; Akotey; Joseph O
  7. Eco-funds based on a Portfolio Considering Corporate Carbon Productivity By Akimitsu Yagata; Kaoru Kuramoto; Yosuke Kurihara; Toshiyuki Matsumoto; Satoshi Kumagai
  8. Pollution in a globalized world: Are debt transfers among countries a solution By Marion Davin; Mouez Fodha; Thomas Seegmuller
  9. The pricing of green bonds: are financial institutions special? By Serena Fatica; Roberto Panzica; Michela Rancan
  10. The unintended consequences of the EU ETS cancellation policy By Bruninx, Kenneth; Ovaere, Marten; Gillingham, Kenneth; Delarue, Erik
  11. A Meta-Analysis of the Literature on Climate Change and Migration By Beine, Michel; Jeusette, Lionel
  12. Innovation policies for sustainable development: Low-carbon energy and smart-city initiatives By Diogo Machado; Yilong Qu; Mario Cervantes
  13. Depression in the House: The Effects of Household Air Pollution from Solid Fuel Use in China By Liu, Yan; Chen, Xi; Yan, Zhijun
  14. Is environmental goods trade beneficial for the environmental performance of the concerned countries? Vol: By Huong Thi Thu Tran; Kaliappa Kalirajan
  16. A spatiotemporal framework for the analytical study of optimal growth under transboundary pollution By Raouf Boucekkine; Giorgio Fabbri; Salvatore Federico; Fausto Gozzi
  17. Evaluating Energy Efficiency in Residential Buildings: A case study of RDP houses in South Africa By Barry Ehinomen Ebhojie
  18. Vulnerability and policy responses in the face of natural resource discoveries and climate change: introduction By John Cockburn; Martin Henseler; Hélène Maisonnave; Luca Tiberti
  19. Precisamos de uma Contabilidade Ambiental para as "Amaz\^onias" Paraense? By Ailton Castro Pinheiro
  20. Improving Farm Environmental Performance through Technical Assistance: Empirical Evidence on Pesticide Use By Margaux Lapierre; Alexandre Sauquet; Julie Subervie
  21. Did the Eco-Car program change the customer base of HVs? By Shigeru Matsumoto
  22. Adsorption of root exudates onto corn straw-derived biochar: characterization and adsorption isotherm studies By seyedahmad Hosseinzadeh
  23. Smart hedging against carbon leakage By Böhringer, Christoph; Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Briseid Storrøsten, Halvor
  24. Construction of an Extended Environmental and Economic Social Accounting Matrix from a Practitioner’s Perspective By Onil Banerjee; Martin Cicowiez; Renato Vargas; Mark Horridge
  25. Biodiversité, climat et société. Nature des changements et capacités d'adaptation By Michel Trommetter
  26. Key Factors of Reverse Logistics Management in Wastewater Treatment Industry By Yu-Jing Chiu; Ming-Hung Yang; Chin-Yi Chen
  27. La dimensión territorial en el marco de la Agenda 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible: guía metodológica para la planificación estratégica de un territorio By -
  28. Climate Change, Migration and Voice: An Explanation for the Immobility Paradox By Beine, Michel; Noy, Ilan; Parsons, Christopher
  29. Transition policy for climate change mitigation: who, what, why and how By Fergus Green
  30. A Fresh Look at the Health-Wealth Correlation: A Case Study of European Countries By García-Muñoz, Teresa; Neuman, Shoshana; Neuman, Tzahi
  31. Smart hedging against carbon leakage By Christoph Boehringer; Knut Einar Rosendahl; Halvor Briseid Storroesten
  33. Can Nonlinear Water Pricing Help to Mitigate Drought Effects in Temperate Countries? By Jean-Philippe Terreaux; Mabel Tidball
  34. Unleashing waste-pickers potential: supporting recycling cooperatives in Santiago de Chile By Navarrete-Hernández, Pablo; Navarrete-Hernandez, Nicolas
  35. APEC’s exports of environmental goods: an exploratory analysis of performance By Huong Thi Thu Tran; Kaliappa Kalirajan
  36. Tragedy, property rights, and the commons: investigating the causal relationship from institutions to ecosystem collapse By Isaksen, Elisabeth Thuestad; Richter, Andries
  37. Acquiring ?green? competencies in the study process By Dzintra Atstaja
  38. Renewables, allowances markets, and capacity expansion in energy-only markets By Falbo, Paolo; Pelizzari, Cristian; Taschini, Luca
  39. Déforestation au Brésil : que fait vraiment la France ? By Philippe Delacote; Antoine Leblois; Julia Girard
  40. La consommation « éthique » est-elle un marqueur de classe? Qualification, enrichissement et « classe ambitieuse » By Denis Requier-Desjardins
  42. Energy price reform in China By Zhongxiang Zhang
  43. Recursos no renovables, diversificación y actividad económica en los departamentos de Colombia By Melisa Pacheco Flórez; Adrián Saldarriaga Isaza
  44. The Role of Social and Technical Excludability for the Success of Impure Public Good and Common Pool Agreements: The Case of International Fisheries By Michael Finus; Raoul Schneider; Pedro Pintassilgo
  45. Tourisme à Marrakech; Impacts économiques, socioculturels et environnementaux éminents By Hicham Saddou
  46. Limit order books, uninformed traders and commodity derivatives: Insights from the European carbon futures By Yves Rannou

  1. By: Jaffe, Amy M.; Dominguez-Faus, Rosa; Lee, Allen; Medlock, Kenneth; Parker, Nathan; Scheitrum, Daniel; Burke, Andrew; Zhou, Hengbing; Fan, Yueyue
    Abstract: The recent emergence of natural gas as an abundant, inexpensive fuel in the United States could prompt a momentous shift in the level of natural gas utilized in the transportation sector. The cost advantage of natural gas vis-à-vis diesel fuel is particularly appealing for vehicles with a high intensity of travel and thus fuel use. Natural gas is already a popular fuel for municipal and fleet vehicles such as transit buses and taxis. In this paper, we investigate the possibility that natural gas could be utilized to provide fuel cost savings, geographic supply diversity and environmental benefits for the heavy-duty trucking sector and whether it can enable a transition to lower carbon transport fuels. We find that a small, cost-effective intervention in markets could support a transition to a commercially sustainable natural gas heavyduty fueling system in the state of California and that this could also advance some of the state’s air quality goals. Our research shows that an initial advanced natural gas fueling system in California could facilitate the expansion to other U.S. states. Such a network would enable a faster transition to renewable natural gas or biogas and waste-to-energy pathways. Stricter efficiency standards for natural gas Class 8 trucks and regulation of methane leakage along the natural gas supply chain would be necessary for natural gas to contribute substantially to California’s climate goals as a trucking fuel. To date, industry has favored less expensive technologies that do not offer the highest level of environmental performance.
    Keywords: Engineering
    Date: 2019–10–14
  2. By: Jerzy Bie?kowski (Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences); Rafa? Baum (University of Life Sciences in Pozna?); Ma?gorzata Holka (Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences)
    Abstract: In the mitigation policy, agricultural activities are gaining growing importance. International and national regulations require the use of sustainable production methods. This means that the attention focused on the current recommendations shifts from a set of minimum requirements to recognize environmental effects throughout the life cycle of products. Farming and food production are also expected to comply with the second pillar of sustainability which is related to the economic aspects of production. Important operational dimension of sustainability assessment is a concept of eco-efficiency, which is defined as creating more value or generating less cost with less environmental impact. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) are appropriate methodologies to investigate the eco-efficiency of production systems within the life cycle. The aim of the study was to perform the comparative analysis of cash crop production in different farming types by applying the LCA and LCC methods. Carbon Footprint (CF) was applied as a single most important measure of environmental impact of production. The study was conducted in 69 farms, located in the Wielkopolska and Lubelskie regions (Poland) during the period 2017-2018. The analysed farms represented key agricultural activities, according to the classification of the EU: a) milk production, b) pig production, c) field crops, d) mixed livestock production (pig and milk). The chosen types of production are represented by the largest number of farms in Poland. The selection of the study group, according to the set criteria, were based on the information of Wielkopolski and Lubelski Agricultural Advisory Centres. The LCA and LCC analysis were carried out in similar phases corresponding to LCA standard: goal and scope definition, environmental life cycle inventory, life cycle impact assessment and interpretation. In winter rape production average value of CF was equal to 1003 kg CO2 eq per 1 tonne of grain (functional unit). The highest value of CF was observed in milk farming in Wielkopolska region of 1254 kg CO2 eq. Average aggregated cost of production related to the functional unit was 1084 PLN, with the highest value of 1222 PLN found in the pig farming in Lubelski region. Preproduction phases linked with the direct inputs levels contributed mostly to a high overall cost of rape production in pig farming and to the CF value of winter rape in farms specialised in milk production. *This work is a part of a research project No. 2016/21/B/HS4/01963 financed by the National Science Centre, Poland.
    Keywords: sustainability, eco-efficiency, environmental impact, carbon footprint, LCA, LCC, winter rape
    JEL: Q01 Q10 Q57
    Date: 2019–10
  3. By: Reyer Gerlagh; Roweno J.R.K. Heijmans; Knut Einar Rosendahl
    Abstract: For any emission trading system (ETS) with quantity-based endogenous supply of allowances, there exists a negative demand shock, e.g. induced by abatement policy, that increases aggregate supply and thus cumulative emissions. We prove this green paradox for a general model and then apply it to the details of EU ETS. In 2018, new rules for a Market Stability Reserve (MSR) were agreed on and implemented. We show that abatement policies announced in early periods but realized in the future, are inverted by the new rules and increase cumulative emissions. We provide quantitative evidence of our result for a model disciplined on the price rise in the EU ETS that followed the introduction of the MSR.
    Keywords: emissions trading, green paradox, EU ETS, environmental policy, dynamic modeling
    JEL: D59 E61 H23 Q50 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2019
  4. By: Marion Davin (CEE-M, Univ Montpellier, CNRS, INRA, SupAgro, Montpellier, France); Mouez Fodha (University Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne and Paris School of Economics, France); Thomas Seegmuller (Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS, EHESS, Ecole Centrale, AMSE, Marseille, France)
    Abstract: This article analyzes the impacts of debt relief on production and pollution. We develop at wo-country overlapping generations model with environmental externalities, public debts and perfect mobility of assets. Pollutant emissions arise from production, but agents may invest in pollution mitigation. Could debt relief be an efficient tool to encourage less developed countries to engage in the fight against climate change? We consider a decrease of the debt of the poor country balanced by an increase of the richer country’s debt. We show that debt relief makes it possible to engage poor countries in the process of pollution abatement. Capital, environmental quality and welfare can increase in both countries. This result relies on the environmental sensitivity and the discount factor in the poor country relative to the rich one: the greater they are the more beneficial the debt relief is.
    Keywords: pollution; abatement; overlapping generations; public debt; capital market integration
    JEL: F43 H23 Q56
    Date: 2019–10
  5. By: Ogden, Joan M.
    Abstract: Hydrogen is a high quality energy carrier that could be produced at global scale, via thermochemical processing of hydrocarbons, such as natural gas, coal or biomass, or water electrolysis using any source of electricity including renewables, such as wind or solar, or nuclear power. Hydrogen is receiving renewed attention driven by growing concerns about climate change, air quality and integration of variable renewable energy into the energy system. Recent energy/economic studies suggest that hydrogen and fuel cells could be important technologies for simultaneously addressing these challenges in a future renewable-intensive, low carbon energy system. In this paper, we review the technical and economic status of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, progress toward commercialization, and the role of policy. We discuss timing, barriers, costs and benefits of a hydrogen transition, focusing on vehicle and energy storage applications. Finally, we suggest guidelines for future policies guiding a hydrogen transition.
    Keywords: Engineering
    Date: 2018–03–01
  6. By: Idahosa; Love O; Marwa; Nyankomo; Akotey; Joseph O
    Abstract: In light of the high energy consumption associated with Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) in tourism accommodation establishments, as well as the concern for guests’ satisfaction which limits the environmental actions of these establishments, this study tests the hypothesis that thermal comfort is socially constructed, and as such, social norms will be effective in influencing HVAC consumption towards more sustainable levels. Within the framework of a randomised field experiment, the response of hotel guests to message prompts to set their room thermostat to a prescribed temperature is observed. Response behaviour is monitored using Temperature data logging devises place in the rooms. Findings suggest that social norms are effective in influencing hotel guests’ room temperature settings, indicating that thermal comfort is largely socially constructed. The implication of this is that the future of the current unsustainable trend in resource consumption and Green House Gas pollution, driven by the increasing adoption of, and demand for, HVAC systems in buildings, can be modified towards more sustainable levels. The application of the behavioural intervention to testing the social construction of thermal comfort, as well as the technology adopted for observing behaviour, are a novel contribution to the existing body of knowledge.
    Keywords: Thermal Comfort, Social norms, Randomised Control Trial
    Date: 2018–07
  7. By: Akimitsu Yagata (Aoyama Gakuin Univiersity); Kaoru Kuramoto (Aoyama Gakuin Univiersity); Yosuke Kurihara (Aoyama Gakuin Univiersity); Toshiyuki Matsumoto (Aoyama Gakuin Univiersity); Satoshi Kumagai (Aoyama Gakuin Univiersity)
    Abstract: Socially responsible investment (SRI) involves investors selecting companies based on their level of social responsibility. An eco-fund is an SRI-type investment trust that invests in environment-friendly companies, also known as ?eco-excellent? companies. In many cases, the process of choosing the companies to be included in the trust is not transparent and, due to subjective decisions by fund managers, it is not clear how the investment rate is determined.In this study, we propose four eco-funds and evaluate their performance. Since the risk of the eco-fund should be distributed, the investment rate will be determined so that the percentage of the top brands is low. The portfolio should consist of brands with high efficiency in environmental investment.First, we evaluate a company?s environmental management capability and profitability using quantitative data such as the amount of sales, greenhouse gas emissions, and ROE (return on equity). We then determine a set of brands for the eco-funds to invest in. To determine the investment rate for each stock or portfolio, an environmental minimum variance frontier is calculated.The proposed eco-funds are (1) EEC fund, (2) Beta fund, (3) Expanded beta fund, and (4) Environmental index fund. (1) The EEC fund invests in brands that perform well both in terms of environmental management based on carbon productivity and profitability based on ROE. (2) The Beta fund invests in brands that perform well both in environmental management based on carbon productivity beta values and earnings efficiency based on ROE. (3) The Expanded beta fund invests in brands that perform well only in environmental management based on carbon productivity beta values; it includes more brands than the Beta fund. (4) The Environmental index fund invests in all the brands considered and is a benchmark to measure the performance of the other eco-funds.
    Keywords: Eco-funds, Carbon Productivity, Environmental Investment, Portfolio
    JEL: Q59 Q56 M00
    Date: 2019–10
  8. By: Marion Davin (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Mouez Fodha (PSE - Paris School of Economics); Thomas Seegmuller (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - Ecole Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This article analyzes the impacts of debt relief on production and pollution. We develop a two-country overlapping generations model with environmental externalities, public debts and perfect mobility of assets. Pollutant emissions arise from production, but agents may invest in pollution mitigation. Could debt relief be an efficient tool to encourage less developed countries to engage in the fight against climate change? We consider a decrease of the debt of the poor country balanced by an increase of the richer country's debt. We show that debt relief makes it possible to engage poor countries in the process of pollution abatement. Capital, environmental quality and welfare can increase in both countries. This result relies on the environmental sensitivity and the discount factor in the poor country relative to the rich one: the greater they are the more beneficial the debt relief is.
    Keywords: Capital market integra- tion,Pollution,Abatement,Overlapping generations,Public debt,Capital market integration
    Date: 2019
  9. By: Serena Fatica (European Commission – Joint Research Centre, Directorate for Innovation and Growth, Economy and Finance Unit); Roberto Panzica (European Commission – Joint Research Centre, Directorate for Innovation and Growth, Economy and Finance Unit); Michela Rancan (European Commission – Joint Research Centre, Directorate for Innovation and Growth, Economy and Finance Unit)
    Abstract: The financial system plays a major role in the transition to a low-carbon economy. We investigate this issue analyzing the recent developments and challenges in the bond and debt markets. First, we study the pricing of green bonds at issuance. We find a premium when green bonds are issued by supranational institutions and corporates while there is no effect for financial institutions. We also document an effect for external review and repeated access to this market. Second, we investigate lending decisions by banks issuing green bonds. Our results show that these lenders reduce their funding towards more polluting segments of the economy but limited to the amount of loans they granted as lead bank in the deal. This evidence may explain why we do not find a green premium for financial issuers. Yet it also suggests that the banking system may play a much larger role in channelling funds towards low-carbon activities, and thus reducing the environmental risks also for the financial system.
    JEL: G12 G20 Q52 Q53 Q54
    Date: 2019–10
  10. By: Bruninx, Kenneth; Ovaere, Marten; Gillingham, Kenneth; Delarue, Erik
    Abstract: With the Phase 4 cancellation provision, the cumulative emissions cap of the EU ETS has become dependent on the amount of surplus allowances and future emissions abatement costs. In this paper, we discuss how the design of the market stability reserve greatly increases uncertainty over cumulative emissions and implies that there will be more cancellation when future abatement is more costly, making the policy more stringent when the cost of compliance is higher. Moreover, we illustrate how overlapping policies may lead to paradoxical effects on cumulative emissions.
    Keywords: European Emission Trading System, Market Stability Reserve, Cancellation, Waterbed, Marginal Abatement Cost
    JEL: L5 L6 L94 L98 Q4 Q5 Q52 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2019–10–09
  11. By: Beine, Michel (University of Luxembourg); Jeusette, Lionel (University of Luxembourg)
    Abstract: Recent surveys of the literature on climate change and migration emphasize the important diversity of outcomes and approaches of the empirical studies. In this paper, we conduct a meta-analysis in order to investigate the role of the methodological choices of these empirical studies in finding some particular results concerning the role of climatic factors as drivers of human mobility. We code 51 papers representative of the literature in terms of methodological approaches. This results in the coding of more than 85 variables capturing the methodology of the main dimensions of the analysis at the regression level. These dimensions include authors' reputation, type of mobility, measures of mobility, type of data, context of the study, econometric methods and last but not least measures of the climatic factors. We look at the influence of these characteristics on the probability of finding any effect of climate change, of finding a displacement effect, of finding an increase in immobility and of finding evidence in favour of a direct versus an indirect effect. Our results highlight the role of some important methodological choices, such as the frequency of the data on mobility, the level of development, the measures of human mobility and of the climatic factors as well as the econometric methodology.
    Keywords: climate change, human mobility, econometric regressions, meta-analysis, natural disasters
    JEL: C83 F22 Q54
    Date: 2019–09
  12. By: Diogo Machado; Yilong Qu; Mario Cervantes
    Abstract: This monograph benchmarks innovation policies for sustainability, focusing on two key areas: low-carbon and environmental technologies, and “smart-city” initiatives in selected OECD countries as well as the European Union. Country coverage of low-carbon technologies includes both natural resource-based energy-rich countries (e.g. Canada and the United States) and energy-challenged countries (e.g. Germany and Japan). Country or regional coverage of smart cities programmes focuses on Australia, Austria, Finland and Sweden, as well as two international programmes operated by the European Commission and the Nordic Council. The monograph assess the policies’ sectoral priorities. It reviews their portfolio of instruments, budgets, and monitoring and evaluation strategies, international co-operation strategies and identifies critical success factors.
    Date: 2019–10–17
  13. By: Liu, Yan (Beijing Institute of Technology); Chen, Xi (Yale University); Yan, Zhijun (Beijing Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: While adverse health effects of ambient air pollution have been well documented, there is scarce evidence on the impact of household air pollution (HAP) on mental health. We investigated the causal link between HAP exposure from the use of solid fuel on depressive symptoms using a nationally representative dataset of middle-aged and older population in China. Employing the propensity match score method (PSM), matching and adjusting for potential confounders, we found significantly higher Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score and risk of depressive symptoms among solid fuel users than clean fuel users. These associations were especially stronger for older females who were less educated, of lower income, of higher body mass index, or had chronic diseases.
    Keywords: depression, household solid fuel use, household air pollution, propensity score matching, CHARLS
    JEL: I31 Q51 Q53
    Date: 2019–09
  14. By: Huong Thi Thu Tran (Crawford School of Economics & Government, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia); Kaliappa Kalirajan
    Abstract: This paper examines the impacts of environmental goods (EGs) trade on environmental performance of the concerned countries. The EGs have been disaggregated into renewable energy, environmental monitoring analysis and assessment equipment, and environmental protection and environmental preferable products. Environmental performance has been classified into environmental health and ecosystem vitality. The empirical analysis is carried out using data from the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) member countries covering the period of 2007-2014. The empirical results suggest positive impacts of EGs exports and imports on environmental performance. While exports of environmental goods have significant beneficial impacts on environmental health measure, the impact on ecosystem vitality measure is not impressive. These results support the reduction in barriers on EGs trade, which has policy implications towards increasing the technology, awareness, and environmental-regulation effects, and minimizing the scale effect of EGs exports.
    JEL: Q56 F14 F15
    Date: 2018–07
  15. By: Dipti Agrawal; Rajendra Sharma
    Abstract: "To measure environmental activities of an organization and their resulting impacts of business on the society, it is necessary to account for the concern’s environmental costs, benefits, assets and liabilities. Complete greening of accountancy and measure the relevant environmental costs and liabilities. It also analyse the extent to which environmental activities and performance can influence managerial decisions and financial results of a company. It will help the organizations to identify the resource utilization and the incurred cost. This paper aims to check the effect of economic Factors on Green Audit and Reporting Practices (GARP) Performance. The hypothesis is based on available information collected from automobile industries. The chi-square tests is applied for hypothesis testing as the collected responses are dichotomous. The total six economic sub factors of are considered for this study. The results disclosed that economic factors are the significant in GARP performance." Key Words: Green audit and reporting practices, Economic factors, Automobile industries Policy
    Date: 2019–09
  16. By: Raouf Boucekkine (Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS, EHESS, Ecole Centrale, IMERA & AMSE, Marseille, France); Giorgio Fabbri (Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, INRA, Grenoble INP, GAEL, 38000 Grenoble); Salvatore Federico (Universita degli Studi di Siena, Dipartimento di Economia Politica e Statistica, Siena, Italy); Fausto Gozzi (Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza, LUISS Guido Carli, Rome, Italy)
    Abstract: We construct a spatiotemporal frame for the study of optimal growth under transboundary pollution. Space is continuous and polluting emissions originate in the intensity of use of the production input. Pollution flows across locations following a diffusion process. The objective functional of the economy is to set the optimal production policy over time and space to maximize welfare from consumption, taking into account a negative local pollution externality and the diffusive nature of pollution. Our framework allows for space and time dependent preferences and productivity, and does not restrict diffusion speed to be space-independent. This provides a comprehensive setting to analyze pollution diffusion with a close account of geographic heterogeneity. The involved optimization problem is infinite-dimensional. We propose an alternative method for an analytical characterization of the optimal paths and the asymptotic spatial distributions. The method builds on a deep economic concept of pollution spatiotemporal welfare effect, which makes it definitely useful for economic analysis.
    Keywords: optimal growth, spatiotemporal modelling, transboundary pollution, infinite dimensional optimal control
    JEL: Q53 R11 C61 R12 O41
    Date: 2019–10
  17. By: Barry Ehinomen Ebhojie (O'Khona General Dealers and Projects)
    Abstract: Worldwide, more than one third of energy is used in buildings which account for about 15% of the total greenhouse gas that is emitted globally. Buildings in cities can account to about 80% for carbon monoxide emitted. Therefore, the built environment is a very critical part of the climate change mitigation. Evaluated in this research are energy efficiency measures that can be implemented through regulations and controls. From administered questionnaires, the issues of energy efficiency have become an imperative principle in the building sector and the way it is managed in South Africa. Based on the analysis provided, energy efficient behaviour is the predominant factor that influences energy consumption. According to the PCA results, seven variables (Age of building, number of bedrooms, roofing materials, energy for cooking and heating, window style and brick and concrete wall) were all dominant variables and these variables remain significant after implementing multiple regression models to estimate energy cost.
    Keywords: Buildings; Energy Efficiency; Greenhouse gas; PCA
    JEL: D10 A13 C83
    Date: 2019–10
  18. By: John Cockburn; Martin Henseler; Hélène Maisonnave; Luca Tiberti (Université Laval)
    Abstract: This special issue contributes to the natural resource economics literature by shining a light on the specific challenges and opportunities faced by developing countries that have recently become dependent on natural resources or are particularly exposed to climate change. It is composed of five studies on countries from all regions of the developing world, involving a variety of natural resources and policy issues. Four of the five studies illustrate how computable general equilibrium models are particularly well-suited, despite their relatively limited past use, to the analysis of natural resources. All five studies are led by researchers based in these countries, providing unique insights into the specific local context. The studies underscore the extreme vulnerability that the introduction of significant natural resource revenues and climate change can create in developing countries. They also show how the choice of appropriate policies to avoid the resource curse varies according to country-specific economic conditions.
    Keywords: resource curse,Developing countries,economic growth,natural resources
    Date: 2018–10
  19. By: Ailton Castro Pinheiro
    Abstract: This paper has the following objectives: to understand the concepts of Environmental Accounting in Brazil; Make criticisms and propositions anchored in the reality or demand of environmental accounting for Amazonia Paraense. The methodological strategy was a critical analysis of Ferreira's books (2007); Ribeiro (2010) and Tinoco and Kraemer (2011) using their correlation with the scientific production of authors discussing the Paraense Amazon, besides our experience as researchers of this territory. As a result, we created three sections: one for understanding the current constructs of environmental accounting, one for criticism and one for propositions.
    Date: 2019–10
  20. By: Margaux Lapierre (INRA — CEEM); Alexandre Sauquet (INRA — CEEM); Julie Subervie (INRA — CEEM)
    Abstract: In 2008, the French government announced an important shift in agricultural policy, calling for halving the use of pesticides in the next ten years. Since then, it has spent 40 million euros a year on implementing the so-called Ecophyto plan. In this paper, we evaluate the success of this program, focusing on its flagship scheme, which has provided technical assistance to 3,000 volunteer pilot farms since 2011. To do so, we use panel data collected from a representative sample of vineyards: the agricultural systems known as the largest users of pesticides. We use a slate of quasi-experimental approaches to estimate the impact of participation in the program on pesticide use and crop yields on enrolled vineyards. We find that participants have achieved reductions in pesticide use that ranges from 8 to 22 percent, thanks to the program. We moreover find that the reduction in the use of chemicals was accompanied by an increase in the use of biocontrol products. Finally, we find that this change of practices resulted in a reduction in yields for a fraction of enrolled farms while others seems to have maintained yields. Although below the expectations of the French government, these results seem rather encouraging, as they suggest that technical assistance alone can be effective in reducing significantly pesticide use in the agricultural sector.
    Keywords: Technical assistance, Farming practices, Pesticides, Treatment effect
    JEL: Q15 Q18 Q25 Q28 Q53
    Date: 2019–10
  21. By: Shigeru Matsumoto (Aoyama Gakuin University)
    Abstract: For the last several decades, governments have implemented various energy conservation measures aimed at reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. Among these measures, the spread of next-generation vehicles as an immediate policy goal has been particularly emphasized in recent years. By implementing subsidy programs for a limited period of time, governments try to influence the behavior of households that have not previously considered purchasing the products that have desirable properties. However, no literature has yet identified the households that switched from conventional gasoline vehicles to HVs. In this study, we compare the vehicle choice between three sampling periods (before/during/after the Eco-Car rebate program) and examine whether the rebate program changed the customer base of HVs.For the empirical analysis, we use micro-level data from the Japanese National Survey of Family Income and Expenditure (NSFE), which was collected in 2009 and 2014. NSFE collects data on households? socioeconomic characteristics, such as income/expenditure, savings/liabilities, and ownership of durable goods, as well as information related to houses, such as dwelling characteristics and site area. In addition, NSFE also collects vehicle-related information such as the number of vehicles owned, the year of purchase of each vehicle, and the type of vehicle.The empirical results by multinomial logit analysis demonstrate that the likelihood of HV selection increased substantially during the program period and remained at a high level after the program ended. We also find that households with large net wealth purchased HVs during the Eco-Car program period. Finally, we find that households having a higher income used to purchase HVs earlier. However, income has come to play a less important role in the choice between a HV and SGV after the end of the Eco-Car program.
    Keywords: Eco-Car rebate program, Hybrid Vehicle, Japanese National Survey of Family Income and Expenditure, Multinomial Logit Analysis
    JEL: O33 Q48 R20
    Date: 2019–10
  22. By: seyedahmad Hosseinzadeh (Ghent University)
    Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using corn straw biochar for adsorption of the selected root exudates (organic acids) present in reused nutrient solution (RNS). Qualitative screening (GC/MS) of the RNS revealed the presence of fourteen organic acids and among all, benzoic and phthalic acids as the main inhibitors were selected for quantitative (HPLC) analysis.The biochar was prepared at temperature of 300 °C and the obtained biochar was subsequently characterized by SEM, BET and FTIR analysis. In order to evaluate the adsorption isotherm, Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were fit to the experimental data. The Langmuir model best represented the experimental data for both benzoic and phthalic acids, exhibiting high linear correlation coefficients (R2 ? 0.98).The study revealed this biochar is a promising alternative for granular activated carbon with respect to RNS recovery at a greatly reduced cost.
    Keywords: water treatment, biochar adsorption, Sustainable agriculture
    JEL: E02
    Date: 2019–10
  23. By: Böhringer, Christoph (University of Oldenburg); Rosendahl, Knut Einar (School of Economics and Business, Norwegian University of Life Sciences); Briseid Storrøsten, Halvor (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: Policy makers in the EU and elsewhere are concerned that unilateral carbon pricing induces carbon leakage through relocation of emission-intensive and trade-exposed industries to other regions. A common measure to mitigate such leakage is to combine an emission trading system (ETS) with output-based allocation (OBA) of allowances to exposed industries. We first show analytically that in a situation with an ETS combined with OBA, it is optimal to impose a consumption tax on the goods that are entitled to OBA, where the tax is equivalent in value to the OBA-rate. Then, using a multi-region, multi-sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) model calibrated to empirical data, we quantify the welfare gains for the EU to impose such a consumption tax on top of its existing ETS with OBA. We run Monte Carlo simulations to account for uncertain leakage exposure of goods entitled to OBA. The consumption tax increases welfare whether the goods are highly exposed to leakage or not. Thus, policy makers in regions with OBA can only gain by introducing the consumption tax. It can hence be regarded as smart hedging against carbon leakage.
    Keywords: Carbon leakage; output-based allocation; consumption tax
    JEL: D61 F18 H23 Q54
    Date: 2019–10–10
  24. By: Onil Banerjee (Inter-American Development Bank); Martin Cicowiez (Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS), IIE-FCE, Universidad Nacional de La Plata); Renato Vargas (CHW Research); Mark Horridge (Victoria University)
    Abstract: In 2014, the United Nations published the first International Standard for environmentaleconomic statistics, known as the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA).. As more countries adopt and implement the SEEA, the availability of consistent environmental and economic information increases the need for analytical tools that can use this data to respond to policy relevant questions. In this paper, we present a workflow to develop an environmentallyextended social accounting matrix, which can serve as the basic database for the development of environmentally-extended computable general equilibrium models. To illustrate, and given its comprehensive implementation of the SEEA, we apply this workflow to the Guatemalan case and the Integrated Economic-Environmental Modeling (IEEM) Platform.
    JEL: D58 Q56
    Date: 2019–10
  25. By: Michel Trommetter (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes)
    Abstract: Quand on parle d'écologie, on parle de changements. Mais des changements il y en a toujours eu. En revanche, la question sensible est celle de la capacité des écosystèmes, en particulier ceux qui sont aujourd'hui anthropisés, à s'adapter : capacité d'en atténuer les effets au niveau global et local ; et capacité de s'adapter « localement » aux effets locaux du changement global. En effet, la capacité d'adaptation locale dépend de la vitesse et de l'amplitude des changements.
    Keywords: ecosystème,Capacité d'adaptation,biodiversité,changement climatique,Ecologie
    Date: 2019
  26. By: Yu-Jing Chiu (Department of Business Administration, Chung Yuan Christian University); Ming-Hung Yang (Department of Business Administration, Chung Yuan Christian University); Chin-Yi Chen (Department of Business Administration, Chung Yuan Christian University)
    Abstract: Technology products are changing with each passing day, and the process of producing these products re-quires many organic solutions that can seriously pollute water resources. Therefore, the introduction of reverse logistics management in the waste liquid recycling industry is an important issue. Domestic companies face many management problems when they enter the waste recycling industry. It is important to choose key factors for efficient management. This study first explores and establishes the management factors related to the waste solution recycling industry through literature review and expert opinions and experience, and then constructs and establishes the management factors of the waste solution recycling industry through DEMATEL-based ANP (DANP). Research results show that the criteria of "momentum in dealing liquid waste", "environmental policies and regulations ", "amount of waste", "equipment cost" and "secondary pollution " are revealed to be the signifi-cant criteria of management in the wastewater treatment industry.
    Keywords: Wastewater treatment; Key factor; DANP
    Date: 2019–10
  27. By: -
    Abstract: Este documento tiene como propósito poner a disposición de los agentes del territorio una guía metodológica que permita potenciar la reflexión en torno a prácticas de desarrollo en terreno, considerando el nivel subnacional como unidad de análisis. Esto podría ser un municipio, un área intermunicipal, y un área transfronteriza, entre otras. En esta propuesta se entregará un mínimo de contenidos y metodologías que pueden ser maximizados a través de la lectura de otros textos que se proponen en la bibliografía.
    Date: 2019–10–07
  28. By: Beine, Michel (University of Luxembourg); Noy, Ilan (Victoria University of Wellington); Parsons, Christopher (University of Western Australia)
    Abstract: This paper sheds light on the apparent paradox, wherein populations adversely affected by climatic conditions fail to migrate as much as would otherwise be expected. Drawing on Hirschman's treatise on Exit, Voice and Loyalty, we develop a simple model, which highlights the theoretical case for a substitution effect between voicing and emigration. We subsequently provide causal evidence of voicing representing a new mechanism through which countries adapt to climate change, implementing wage differentials and changes in visa policies at destination as instruments. More intense voicing, as captured by greater numbers of press reports, is associated with lower emigration rates. This substitution effect holds for both internal and international voicing. Our results suggest that restrictions on mobility could result in increasing voicing, both within and between countries.
    Keywords: emigration, climate change, voicing, trapped populations
    JEL: F22 O15 P16
    Date: 2019–09
  29. By: Fergus Green (Department of Government, London School of Economics and Political Science, UK)
    Abstract: The decarbonisation of the global economy, though likely to enhance aggregate well- being, will create many losers. The main categories of potential losers are owners of carbon-intensive business assets, workers in such businesses, communities in which such businesses account for a disproportionately large share of economic activity, and owners of carbon-intensive household assets. As decarbonisation processes accelerate, losers will increasingly press for transitional assistance, such as compensation payments and subsidies to facilitate their adjustment to carbon-constrained circumstances. Where decarbonisation depends on new policies and laws, the actions of putative losers will also affect the enactment and implementation of such reforms, potentially leading to stalled transitions or policy reversals. In the face of this increasing demand for “transition policy”, policymakers require expert guidance on how to develop coherent and desirable transition policy packages. Yet there is a dearth of policy-focused academic literature on this topic. This paper aims to provide a foundation for filling this gap. It first provides a definition of transition policy, identifying its key parameters. It then explores possible values of these parameters, resulting in an original map of the “logical space” of transition policy: the possible combinations of policy objectives, policy scope, and target actors that transition policy could encompass. To move from the possible to the desirable, the paper finally suggests three criteria for normatively evaluating transition policies: fairness; political transformation potential; and expected effectiveness. An appendix to the paper provides a literature overview of relevant works from multiple disciplines.
    JEL: H23 O38 R11
    Date: 2018–07
  30. By: García-Muñoz, Teresa (Universidad de Granada); Neuman, Shoshana (Bar-Ilan University); Neuman, Tzahi (Hebrew University, Jerusalem)
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the development-health literature by studying the correlation between development measures (see below) and health measures - one subjective ('self-assessed-health-status'), and the other one objective (the individual's 'number of chronic diseases'). Correlations are examined for 29 European countries, using the SHARE data set, and country-level development measures. Specifically, we examine whether country fixed-effects in regressions of health measures, controlling for individual socio-demographic variables, are significantly correlated with country development variables, which include: logarithm of per-capita GDP; the Human Development Index; the Social Progress Index; life expectancy; percentage of GDP spent on health; and the novel measure expressed by the Environmental Health Index. The novelty of our study is the introduction of a channel for the significant health-wealth correlation, speculating that the driving forces are psychological.
    Keywords: development, self-assessed-health-status, diseases, environmental hazards, psychological motives, SHARE, Europe
    JEL: I1 I15
    Date: 2019–10
  31. By: Christoph Boehringer (University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics); Knut Einar Rosendahl (Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås / Norway, and Statistics Norway, Oslo / Norway); Halvor Briseid Storroesten (Statistics Norway, Oslo / Norway)
    Abstract: Policy makers in the EU and elsewhere are concerned that unilateral carbon pricing induces carbon leakage through relocation of emission-intensive and trade-exposed industries to other regions. A common measure to mitigate such leakage is to combine an emission trading system (ETS) with output-based allocation (OBA) of allowances to exposed industries. We first show analytically that in a situation with an ETS combined with OBA, it is optimal to impose a consumption tax on the goods that are entitled to OBA, where the tax is equivalent in value to the OBA-rate. Then, using a multi-region, multi-sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) model calibrated to empirical data, we quantify the welfare gains for the EU to impose such a consumption tax on top of its existing ETS with OBA. We run Monte Carlo simulations to account for uncertain leakage exposure of goods entitled to OBA. The consumption tax increases welfare whether the goods are highly exposed to leakage or not. Thus, policy makers in regions with OBA can only gain by introducing the consumption tax. It can hence be regarded as smart hedging against carbon leakage.
    Keywords: Carbon leakage, output-based allocation, consumption tax
    Date: 2019–10
  32. By: Ya?ar Selman Gültekin (Duzce University); P?nar Gültekin (Düzce University)
    Abstract: In this study, forests in Düzce countryside, camping, picnic, hiking, orientring and so on. A questionnaire was applied to measure the contribution of the families participating in the activities to the physical and psychological development of their children, good parenting. Within the scope of the study, interviews were conducted with 82 families who participated in these activities and the survey results were analyzed in SPSS 22.0 Program. Frequency and percentage, average and one-way analysis of variance were applied. Children of families who spend time with their children in the nature, experience and participate in activities are defined as healthier, more socially, more successful and happier in their classes than children of non-participating families.
    Keywords: Family support, good parenting, forest, outdoor recreation
    Date: 2019–10
  33. By: Jean-Philippe Terreaux (UR ETBX - Environnement, territoires et infrastructures - IRSTEA - Institut national de recherche en sciences et technologies pour l'environnement et l'agriculture); Mabel Tidball (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier)
    Abstract: The notion of drought is most often associated with the aridity of landscapes andvegetation. But a green landscape can hide a frequent imbalance between wateravailability and the quantity necessary to maintain rivers in a suitable state, tosatisfy different water needs. This is the case, for example, in the French regioncalled New Aquitaine. Regularly, "drought" crisis committees are set up there tolimit water use through administrative constraints, which is technically difficultand costly for many, and with an overall unsatisfactory situation from rural areas tothe coast. But in summer, water consumption is mainly due to irrigation. Somewater resource managers have consequently set up an original non-linear waterpricing system for irrigation to achieve several objectives: above all, to limit waterconsumption in order to respect a minimum flow rate in rivers, to anticipate watersupply-demand imbalances before agricultural plantations are made, to allocatewater to the users who value it best, to recover water supply costs, to be transparentand sufficiently simple in its application to be acceptable. In this chapter, wepropose to describe one of such original pricing systems, as well as some of its mainmathematical properties and its practical interests
    Keywords: drought,irrigation,nonlinear pricing,environment,mathematical economics
    Date: 2019
  34. By: Navarrete-Hernández, Pablo; Navarrete-Hernandez, Nicolas
    Abstract: The informal economy currently provides two out of three jobs worldwide, with waste-picking activities providing employment for millions of the poorest of society. Moreover, waste-picking could provide a sustainable solution for solving the waste management crisis that affects the 3 billion people lacking access to waste services. Governmental policies toward waste-pickers in particular, and the informal economy in general, have been fundamentally based on four policy approaches: (1) dualist and voluntarist, which proposes repressive policies against waste-picker activity and the expansion of formal solid waste management systems; (2) structuralist, which argues for weak supporting policies aimed at reinforcing waste-picker associations; (3) legalist, which promotes the competition of waste-picking with other recycling alternatives without government intervention; and (4) co-production, which supports waste-picking with local policies as a means of enhancing waste-pickers’ productivity. Both qualitative, and particularly quantitative evidence testing the impact of these four approaches is scarce. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap in the literature by operationalizing concepts, building a waste-picker sustainable performance index, and estimating the impacts of these four competing policy approaches. An exploratory sequential design method is used to analyze data: first, a thematic analysis to examine 40 in-depth interviews, and then multiple linear regressions to analyze a census survey of 100 waste-pickers in four cooperatives in Santiago de Chile. Our empirical results suggest a positive association between the level of government support and waste-pickers’ sustainable performance. Consequently, further positive government intervention, particularly in supporting a stronger structural organization for the waste-picker recycling system, is advocated as the primary policy recommendation of this paper.
    Keywords: waste pickers; co-production; Santiago; recycling waste; management; informal economy
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2018–01–01
  35. By: Huong Thi Thu Tran (Crawford School of Economics & Government, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia); Kaliappa Kalirajan
    Abstract: Understanding the determinants of Environmental goods (EGs) trade is imperative for trade promotion and environmental protection. As the impacts of the determinants differ among EGs subgroups and countries, examining these determinants for each subgroup is necessary for policy recommendations. Export performances measured in terms of export efficiency using the stochastic frontier gravity model and data from APEC from 2007 to 2014 suggest that, albeit, the efforts in tariff reduction of APEC, do not appear to have reduced the constraints to increasing export efficiency of EGs trade over the period of analysis. Through the APEC regional cooperation, there is an urgent need to transfer technology in EGs to those countries with poor export efficiency from those countries enjoying the high level of realization of export efficiency including Japan, USA, China, and Canada.
    JEL: F14 F15 Q56 R11
    Date: 2018–07
  36. By: Isaksen, Elisabeth Thuestad; Richter, Andries
    Abstract: Do private property rights mitigate overexploitation of common pool resources, and if so, under which circumstances? In this paper, we examine the effects of private property rights on the status of marine fisheries by combining data on ecological, economic and institutional characteristics into a panel data set, spanning over 50 years, 170 exclusive economic zones and 800 species. To address the inherent endogeneity problem of policy implementation, we employ both a difference- in-differences (DiD) and instrumental variable (IV) strategy. Results from both estimations suggest that property rights lower the probability of a fish stock collapsing, but the effect varies with country and species characteristics. Specifically, we find evidence suggesting that property rights are more effective when ownership is transferable, the general level of ownership protection is strong, trade openness is high, the regenerative capacity of the resource is high, and the species value is high.
    JEL: C33 Q22 Q28
    Date: 2018–10–03
  37. By: Dzintra Atstaja (BA School of Business and Finance)
    Abstract: Research background: The 7th Environment Action Plan promotes a long-term objective of ?Living well, within the limits of our planet? based on a 2050 vision centred on ecological limits, a circular economy, and society?s resilience. It is of a great importance to gather the understanding of global trends and risks as well as future skills that are crucial for a well-developed circular economy. It is important to integrate the life-cycle thinking throughout all the stages of economy and edu-cation plays one of the key roles in ensuring comprehensive transition towards circular economy model.Purpose of the article: The aim of the current paper is to identify what skills, knowledge and competencies students should acquire in the study process and to formulate guidelines for human resource development through higher education according to requirements of a circular economy.Methods: The research is based on theoretical analysis of the scientific literature in circular economy field, analysis of statistical data and questionnaire survey.Findings & Value added: The surveyed business executives (1829 respondents in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia) point out that informational and educational measures are needed on the circular economy. Decision making, system thinking, learning by doing, competences, skills and knowledge, values, awareness raising and problem based learning were identified by respondents as the most important skills that should be acquired during the study process. The findings support the need for developing a study course with integrated the life-cycle thinking which will help to develop professional qualities and competencies of future professionals.
    Keywords: circular economy; education; knowledge; competencies; Baltic countries
    JEL: A20 Q59 I25
    Date: 2019–10
  38. By: Falbo, Paolo; Pelizzari, Cristian; Taschini, Luca
    Abstract: We investigate the combined effect of an Emissions Trading System (ETS) and renewable energy sources on electricity generation investments in energy-only markets. We study the long-term capacity expansion decision in fossil fuel and renewable technologies when electricity demand is uncertain. We model a relevant tradeoff: a higher share of renewable production can be priced at the higher marginal cost of fossil fuel production, yet the likelihood of achieving higher profits is reduced because more electricity demand is met by cheaper renewable production. We illustrate our theoretical results comparing the optimal solutions under business-as-usual and various ETSs and renewables scenarios. This illustration shows under which limiting market settings a monopolist prefers withholding investments in renewable energy sources, highlighting the potential distortionary effect introduced via the ETS. Our conclusions remain unaltered under varying key modelling assumptions.
    Keywords: Emissions Trading System; energy-mix; pass-Through; electricity Markets; electricity Sector; ES/R009708/1
    JEL: R14 J01 L81
    Date: 2019
  39. By: Philippe Delacote (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Antoine Leblois (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Julia Girard (Université Paris-Dauphine, PSL Research University)
    Abstract: Les incendies qui ravagent l'Amazonie (et l'Afrique) depuis plusieurs semaines sont d'une intensité rare. Au-delà du changement climatique qui rend les forêts tropicales plus vulnérables, bon nombre de ces feux sont la conséquence directe de l'expansion agricole et des pratiques d'abattis-brûlis. Chaque année, ce sont des millions d'hectares de terre et de forêt qui disparaissent, convertis en vue de l'expansion agricole et de l'exploitation des ressources forestières. Face à ce fléau, et à l'indifférence affichée du président brésilien Bolsonaro, le G7 réuni à Biarritz le 26 août dernier a décidé l'octroi d'une aide d'urgence de 20 millions de dollars pour favoriser la reforestation ; une aide à moyen terme est également prévue. Ces réponses occultent cependant l'une des causes majeures de la déforestation : la production de matières premières destinées à alimenter les marchés internationaux. C'est elle qui contribue largement à la perte de couvert forestier et à la conversion d'écosystèmes naturels dans les pays producteurs – des pays en voie de développement le plus souvent. En novembre 2018, la France s'est dotée d'une stratégie de lutte contre cette « déforestation importée » (SNDI). Rappelons que cette déforestation spécifique désigne : « L'importation de matières premières ou de produits transformés dont la production a contribué, directement ou indirectement, à la déforestation, à la dégradation des forêts ou à la conversion d'écosystèmes naturels en dehors du territoire national. » Mais la SNDI se donne-t-elle réellement les moyens de ses ambitions ?
    Date: 2019
  40. By: Denis Requier-Desjardins (LEREPS - Laboratoire d'Etude et de Recherche sur l'Economie, les Politiques et les Systèmes Sociaux - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - UT2J - Université Toulouse - Jean Jaurès - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Toulouse - ENSFEA - École Nationale Supérieure de Formation de l'Enseignement Agricole de Toulouse-Auzeville)
    Date: 2019–10–07
  41. By: P?nar Gültekin (Duzce University); Ya?ar Selman Gültekin (Düzce University)
    Abstract: The child represents a considerable number of the population living in a city. On the other hand, child is one of the groups whose existence is least taken into consideration when making urban arrangements. Many children living in today's cities are not able to spend time in the open space during their childhood due to their parents' busy work tempo, urban open and green deficiencies and lack of activity types. Studies reveal that children who are exposed to the stress of the city and who grow up in cities that cannot spend enough time with their families in outdoor areas may have feelings of anger and even hostility towards their parents.In this study, a questionnaire was applied to measure the contribution of families participating in activities in urban open spaces of Düzce to the participation of urban open space activities in good parenting and physical and psychological development of their children. Within the scope of the study, 100 families were interviewed and the survey results were analyzed in SPSS 22.0 Program. Frequency and percentage, average and one-way analysis of variance were applied. It was found that the families of the children who participated in urban outdoor activities more frequently, spend more time in the playgrounds with their children and participated in the after-work games were defined as children with higher self-esteem, self-distraction, and easily happy.
    Keywords: Family support, good parenting, recreation, urban open green space
    Date: 2019–10
  42. By: Zhongxiang Zhang
    Abstract: China has determined to assign the market a decisive role in allocating resources. To that end, getting energy prices right is crucial because this sends clear signals to both producers and consumers of energy. While the overall trend of China’s energy pricing reform since 1984 has been moving away from the prices set by the central government in the centrally planned economy and towards a more market-oriented pricing mechanism, the pace and scale of the reform differ across energy types. This article discusses the evolution of price reforms for coal, petroleum products, natural gas, electricity and renewable power in China, and provides some analysis of these energy price reforms, in order to allow the market to play a decisive role in resource allocation and help China’s transition to a low-carbon economy.
    JEL: H23 H71 O13 O53 P22 Q41 Q43 Q48 Q53 Q58
    Date: 2018–06
  43. By: Melisa Pacheco Flórez; Adrián Saldarriaga Isaza
    Keywords: recursos naturales no renovables; crecimiento económico; diversificación.
    JEL: O13 O54 Q32 Q38
    Date: 2019–01–01
  44. By: Michael Finus (University of Graz, Austria); Raoul Schneider (Ulm University, Germany); Pedro Pintassilgo (University of Algarve, Portugal)
    Abstract: We argue that international fisheries are a prime example to study the incentive structure of forming impure public good and common pool agreements. We consider a fully integrated multiple zone model, in which zones are linked through density-dependent migration. The incentive to accede to Regional Fishery Management Organizations (RFMOs) is related to multiple characteristics. Firstly, the relative patch sizes of the high seas, which is the internationally (publicly) accessible domain, compared to exclusive economic zones, which are state-owned (privately owned). This can be related to the degree of socially constructed excludability. Secondly, the intensity of fish migration between various zones, which can be related to the degree of technical excludability. Thirdly, the growth rate of the resource, which can be interpreted as the degree of rivalry, with a low (high) degree of rivalry approximating public good (common pool) features. We show that normally excludability reduces free-rider incentives but also the need for cooperation, a variant of the “paradox of cooperation”. Moreover, our model allows us to analyze the benefit-cost duality between public goods and common pool resources. We show that the duality generally holds except for some extreme parameter values in which a low degree of rivalry fosters the success of cooperation. Finally, through a variation of the diffusion matrix, we can also analyze a closed as well as a sinksource system.
    Keywords: Pure and impure public goods and common pool resources; technical and socially constructed non-excludability; benefit-cost duality of public goods and common pool resources; property rights; shared fish stocks; regional fisheries management organizations; free-riding
    JEL: C72 F53 H87 Q22
    Date: 2019–10
  45. By: Hicham Saddou (UCA - Université Cadi Ayyad [Marrakech])
    Abstract: In Morocco, as elsewhere, tourist activity is an effective agent of conflict throughout the territory, even if the pressure varies from place to place. More and more invasive, its presence is manifested by a bulimic consumption of natural and agricultural spaces, but also by imbalances engendered on pre-existing economic activities and by the social, professional and cultural changes of the local population.
    Abstract: Au Maroc comme partout ailleurs, l'activité touristique est un agent conflictuel efficace sur l'ensemble du territoire, même si la pression varie selon les lieux. De plus en plus envahissante, sa présence se manifeste par une consommation boulimique d'espaces naturels et agricoles, mais aussi par des déséquilibres engendrés sur les activités économiques préexistantes et par les mutations sociales, professionnelles et culturelles de la population locale. Mots clés : tourisme, Marrakech, impacts socio-économique, environnement.
    Keywords: tourism,Marrakech,impacts,environment,socio-economic
    Date: 2019–08–01
  46. By: Yves Rannou (CleRMa - Clermont Recherche Management - Clermont Auvergne - École Supérieure de Commerce (ESC) - Clermont-Ferrand - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne, Groupe ESC Clermont-Ferrand - Clermont Université)
    Abstract: This paper provides a suitable model for studying the strategic behavior of uninformed investors that trade commodity derivatives via limit order books. Two main testable implications are obtained after solving for the model equilibrium. The adverse selection costs of uninformed traders depend on the inflow of market orders and their risk aversion. Next, the adverse selection costs of uninformed buyers and sellers and the difference of their asset valuations determine the size of their bid-ask spread. An analysis of European carbon futures data confirms the relevance of these implications. Moreover, we detect a diagonal effect that results in a positive correlation of market orders, which is driven by adverse selection, then by order splitting strategies and by imitative strategies of uninformed traders to a lesser extent.
    Keywords: Uninformed traders,Market microstructure,European carbon futures,Bid-ask spread,Limit order book
    Date: 2019–09

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