nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2019‒03‒11
forty-two papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. The economy-wide implications of a tax policy to reduce water pollution: a case of the Olifants river basin, South Africa By Kyei, C.; Hassan, R.
  2. Prices vs. percentages: use of tradable green certificates as an instrument of greenhouse gas mitigation By Arild Heimvik; Eirik S. Amundsen
  3. Do voluntary environmental programs reduce emissions? EMAS in the German manufacturing sector By Kube, Roland; von Graevenitz, Kathrine; Löschel, Andreas; Massier, Philipp
  4. IFAD RESEARCH SERIES 35 - Climate change mitigation potential of agricultural practices supported by IFAD investments: An ex ante analysis By Richards, Meryl; Arslan, Aslihan; Cavatassi, Romina; Rosenstock, Todd
  5. A system dynamics modelling approach to restoration of natural capital: An economic assessment of costs and benefits of different land use options and value added products to assist in the control of invasive alien plants in the fynbos biome of the Western Cape Province, South Africa. By Mudavanhu, S.; Blignaut, J.; Vink, N.
  6. Optimal Climate Strategy with Mitigation, Carbon Removal, and Solar Geoengineering By Mariia Belaia
  7. Le Green IT, un outil au service de la stratégie RSE des entreprises By Amélie Bohas
  8. Preliminary indications of the negative effects of climate change on the West Coast wine industry's performance By Oosthuizen, M.; Conradie, B.
  9. The Heat is on: a framework for measuring financial stress under disruptive energy transition scenarios By Robert Vermeulen; Edo Schets; Melanie Lohuis; Barbara Kölbl; David-Jan Jansen; Willem Heeringa
  10. Greening the South Africa's economy could benefit the food sector: evidence from a carbon tax policy assessment By Kalaba, M.; Ntombela, S.; Bohlmann, H.
  11. Economy-wide analysis of food waste reductions and related costs By Wolfgang Britz; Hasan Dudu; Ilaria Fusacchia; Yaghoob Jafari; Roberto Roson; Luca Salvatici; Martina Sartori
  12. Environmental burden of fungicide application among cocoa farmers in Ondo state, Nigeria By Sowunmi, F.; Famuyiwa, T.; Oluyole, K.; Aroyeun, S.; Obasoro, O.
  13. Macroeconomic Gains from Reforming the Agri-Food Sector: The Case of France By Nicoletta Batini
  14. Open Access Renewable Resources, Urban Unemployment, and the Resolution of Dual Institutional Failures By Ichiroh Daitoh; Nori Tarui
  15. Price-cap regulation of private water services for small towns in Burkina Faso based on solar energy By C. Pezon
  16. Good governance for sustainable development By Dhaoui, Iyad
  17. Importing Inputs for Climate Change Mitigation: The Case of Agricultural Productivity By Rodrigo Garcia-Verdu; Alexis Meyer-Cirkel; Akira Sasahara; Hans Weisfeld
  19. Working Paper 312 - Quality Homes for Sustainable Malaria Prevention in Africa By Tiguéné Nabassaga; El-Hadj Bah; Issa Faye
  20. Political connections and firm pollution behaviour : An empirical study By Deng, Yuping; Wu, Yanrui; Xu, Helian
  21. Heterogeneous Consumer Preference for Seafood Sustainability in Japan By Wakamatsu, Hiroki
  22. Exposure to floods, climate change, and poverty in Vietnam By Bangalore, Mook; Smith, Andrew; Veldkamp, Ted
  23. El consumidor marplatense y su compromiso con el medio ambiente By Muñoz, Agustina; Lupín, Beatriz; Bertoni, Marcela
  24. Achieving Sustainable Development Goals in MENA countries: an Analytical and Econometric Approach By Dhaoui, Iyad
  25. Using Discrete Choice Experiment To Estimate Farmer Preferences And Marginal Willingness To Pay For Livestock Vaccines. By Masemola, M.; Ogundeji, A.; Chaminuka, P.
  26. Fertility response to climate shocks By Sylvain Dessy; Francesca Marchetta; Roland Pongou; Luca Tiberti
  27. Japan's Leadership at the G8 Toyako Summit on Climate Change By Tomohito Shinoda
  28. La gestion des DEEE en France : enjeux logistiques et durabilité By Amélie Bohas
  29. Smallholder farmers; adoption decision-making behaviours in the adoption of climate-smart agricultural (CSA) practices: the case of soil conservation practice adoption at Qamata Irrigation Scheme, South Africa By Nkonki-Mandleni, B.; Ighodaro, D.; Mushunje, A.
  30. Can Incentives to Increase Electricity Use Reduce the Cost of Integrating Renewable Resources? By Laura M. Andersen; Lars Gårn Hansen; Carsten Lynge Jensen; Frank A. Wolak
  31. Understanding Intergenerational Mobility: The Role of Nature versus Nurture in Wealth and Other Economic Outcomes and Behaviors By Black, Sandra; Devereux, Paul J.; Lundborg, Petter; Majlesi, Kaveh
  32. The Green Golden Rule: habit and anticipation of future consumption By Faria, Joao Ricardo; McAdam, Peter
  33. A feature-based framework for detecting technical outliers in water-quality data from in situ sensors By Priyanga Dilini Talagala; Rob J Hyndman; Catherine Leigh; Kerrie Mengersen; Kate Smith-Miles
  34. Entrepreneurship, institutional economics, and economic growth: an ecosystem perspective By Acs, Zoltan J.; Estrin, Saul; Mickiewicz, Tomasz; Szerb, László
  35. Consumo de verduras frescas por parte de los jóvenes de la Ciudad de Mar del Plata By Alzola, Agustina
  36. Priority roads: The political economy of Africa's interior-to-coast roads By Roberto Bonfatti; Yuan Gu; Steven Poelhekk
  37. Capital stranding cascades: The impact of decarbonisation on productive asset utilisation By Cahen-Fourot, Louison; Campiglio, Emanuele; Dawkins, Elena; Godin, Antoine; Kemp-Benedict, Eric
  38. Fertility Response to Climate Shocks By Sylvain Eloi Dessy; Francesca Marchetta; Roland Pongou; Luca Tiberti
  39. Effects of Economic Climate on Internal and External Conflicts By Waqas, Muhammad; Hussain, Israr
  40. Public finance for renewable energy use and for the renewable energy sector's development: externalities, sustainability and other issues By Clement A. Tisdell
  41. Estimating the Marginal Social Value of Agriculturally Driven Nitrate Concentrations in an Aquifer: A Combined Theoretical-Applied Approach By Cyril Bourgeois; Pierre-Alain Jayet; Florence Habets; Pascal Viennot
  42. Place-based Innovation Ecosystems: Ljubljana start-up ecosystem and the Technology Park Ljubljana (Slovenia) By Maja Bucar; Gabriel Rissola

  1. By: Kyei, C.; Hassan, R.
    Abstract: The Olifants river basin, which is one of the nine river basins in South Africa ranks as the third most water-stressed basin as well as the most polluted due to pollution from mining activities, irrigation agriculture, and industrial waste disposal. As a result, the government has implemented a series of pollution control measures with the view to mitigating pollution and water shortage in the basin. In this paper, we analysed the regional economic and environmental impacts of a tax policy to reduce water pollution using a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. Firstly, an extended Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) which includes water pollution related activities was constructed for the basin using the framework of environmentally extended SAM. Secondly, we simulate a reduction in current pollution load by increasing the pollution tax rate under alternative revenue recycling schemes. The analyses reveal that internalising the cost of pollution control will effectively reduce the pollution situation in the river basin with marginal negative impact on Real Regional Gross Domestic Product (RRGDP). However, revenue recycling through uniform lump-sum transfers may positively impact RRGDP. In addition, the policy will lead to a change in regional production structure from heavy polluting sectors to less pollution-intensive sectors with benefits to sustainable development and the aquatic ecosystem. JEL codes: C68, Q25, Q28
    Keywords: water quality, Olifants River, computable general equilibrium model, South Africa, market-based incentives; Public Economics
    Date: 2018–09–25
  2. By: Arild Heimvik; Eirik S. Amundsen
    Abstract: The paper analyzes the problem of achieving a target path of emission reductions in the electricity sector, using a scheme of tradable green certificates (TGC). There are two types of generation, renewable and fossil. The latter causes the emissions. The paper also examines effects from emission regulation on construction of new renewable generation capacity. Outcomes are compared with an emission fee and a subsidy. The analytical results are simulated with a numerical model and social surplus are calculated for the different instruments. Two versions of the percentage requirement are devised for the TGC scheme. Results show that the target path of emission reductions is achievable, but incentives for new renewable generation capacity will be sub-optimal, regardless of the version of the percentage requirement. The TGC scheme is neither the most accurate nor the most cost-efficient, instrument but it does lead to a smaller reduction of social surplus than a subsidy.
    Keywords: emission regulation, energy policy, green certificates, Pigouvian taxes, subsidies
    JEL: C70 Q28 Q42 Q48
    Date: 2019
  3. By: Kube, Roland; von Graevenitz, Kathrine; Löschel, Andreas; Massier, Philipp
    Abstract: Voluntary environmental management programs for firms have become an increasingly popular instrument of environmental policy. However, the literature's conclusion on the effectiveness of such programs is ambiguous, and for the European region there is a lack of evidence based on a large control group. We seek to fill this gap with an evaluation of the Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS), introduced in 1995 by the European Union as a premium certification of continuous pro-environmental efforts above regulatory minimum standards. It is more demanding than other voluntary programs due to annual public reports of the environmental performance and targets for improvements. We use official firm-level production census data on the German manufacturing sector, a major energy consumer and emitter in Europe. To account for the self-selection of firms, we combine the Coarsened Exact Matching approach with a Difference-in-Differences estimation. Our results do not suggest reductions of firms' CO2 intensity and energy intensity neither before nor after certification. Moreover, program participants do not increase renewable energy consumption or investments into the protection of the environment and climate. Our results are robust to a variety of checks and call into question the effectiveness of the EMAS program concerning these particular outcome variables.
    Keywords: Voluntary Environmental Programs,Firm-level Energy Behavior,Matching Difference-in-Differences
    JEL: Q58 Q54 Q48
    Date: 2019
  4. By: Richards, Meryl; Arslan, Aslihan; Cavatassi, Romina; Rosenstock, Todd
    Abstract: International discussions on climate change increasingly recognize the importance of agriculture in adaptation and mitigation efforts. This study estimates the mitigation potential of agricultural practices supported by IFAD’s current investments in order to provide guidance for the design of future investments. Using data from field studies in scientific literature, this research estimates the effects of a large set of agricultural practices promoted by IFAD (and other development agencies) on soil organic carbon stocks, nitrous oxide emissions from soils, and methane emissions from rice paddies. Findings identify soil and rice management practices with the largest mitigation potential and those that can potentially increase emissions; discuss uncertainties in mitigation analyses; and provide recommendations to improve monitoring of mitigation benefits.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2019–03–07
  5. By: Mudavanhu, S.; Blignaut, J.; Vink, N.
    Abstract: Invasive alien plants (IAPs) are major the major causes of environmental degradation in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. IAPs clearing activities have been implemented and funded largely by the state through the Working for Water Programme under the auspices of the Department of Environmental Affairs� Natural Resource Management directorates (DEA: NRM), to counteract these negative impacts. Using a system dynamics modelling approach, this study estimates the costs and benefits of clearing IAPs, using the cleared biomass to make VAPs and restoring the cleared land to various agricultural land use options under five broad management scenarios using a system dynamics modelling approach. The simulation results show positive cumulative net present values (NPV) when a private sector co-finance of between 20% and 100% from the private sector is included to clear IAPs whilst at the same time restoring the cleared land to productive agricultural land uses and making VAPs from the cleared IAPs biomass. However if the clearing of IAPs is conducted by the state alone (with no private sector co-finance) from 2008 whilst omitting the restoration of cleared land to productive agricultural land use options and the use of IAPs biomass to make VAPs , the cumulative NPV is negative.
    Keywords: land use, restoration, natural capital, invasive alien plants, opportunity cost, value added products, system dynamics modelling, cost benefit analysis; Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2018–09–25
  6. By: Mariia Belaia
    Abstract: Until recently, analysis of optimal global climate policy has focused on mitigation. Exploration of policies to meet the 1.5{\deg}C target have brought carbon dioxide removal (CDR), a second instrument, into the climate policy mainstream. Far less agreement exists regarding the role of solar geoengineering (SG), a third instrument to limit global climate risk. Integrated assessment modelling (IAM) studies offer little guidance on trade-offs between these three instruments because they have dealt with CDR and SG in isolation. Here, I extend the Dynamic Integrated model of Climate and Economy (DICE) to include both CDR and SG to explore the temporal ordering of the three instruments. Contrary to implicit assumptions that SG would be employed only after mitigation and CDR are exhausted, I find that SG is introduced parallel to mitigation temporary reducing climate risks during the era of peak CO2 concentrations. CDR reduces concentrations after mitigation is exhausted, enabling SG phasing out.
    Date: 2019–03
  7. By: Amélie Bohas (CRET-LOG - Centre de Recherche sur le Transport et la Logistique - AMU - Aix Marseille Université)
    Abstract: Cinquième séance du cycle "L'impact environnemental du numérique". Les précédents séminaires organisés par France Stratégie dans le cadre de son cycle sur l'impact environnemental du numérique ont permis de dresser un premier bilan de la consommation croissante du numérique, tant en termes de matières premières, que d'énergie en phase de production et d'usage des équipements. Pour réduire l'ensemble de ces impacts, l'éco-conception des équipements et services numériques constitue un puissant levier d'action. Ainsi, l'éco-conception matérielle des équipements numériques pourrait permettre une réparation simplifiée des produits, ainsi que leur réemploi, puis un recyclage efficace des équipements numériques en fin de vie. L'éco-conception des services numériques pourrait, quant à elle, permettre de réduire la quantité d'équipements nécessaires, leurs impacts pendant la phase usage et, dans certains cas, de rallonger leur durée de vie.
    Keywords: Green IT,RSE / Environnement,Produits numériques,Écoconception,Développement Durable,Efficacité énergétique,Innovation
    Date: 2019–02–21
  8. By: Oosthuizen, M.; Conradie, B.
    Abstract: Western Cape agriculture's strong TFP growth over the second half of the twentieth century is explained by access to irrigation water. Drier conditions are predicted for the western escarpment, a region severely affected by the current drought. The SA wine industry is not flourishing for many reasons that potentially include climate change. This study examines longitudinal data for twenty West Coast farms to establish if there has been an invisible drying trend prior to the current drought which could explain these farms' performance. The two models fitted agree on falling productivity over the period 2005-2015. Battese and Coelli's (1992) error components model cannot distinguish between general Hicks neutral technical collapse and specific farms falling behind. Battese and Coelli's (1995) technical efficiency effects model confirms technical collapse and the contribution of water to productivity. Dryland production is most vulnerable and although regions differ, there is no evidence of specific farms falling behind. The dataset is limited in scope and the frontier preliminary, but this study demonstrates how easily climate change effects can be monitored. One of the most important responses to the current drought will be to systematically evaluate study group data to quantify its impact on productivity. Keywords: Wine industry, climate change mitigation, stochastic production frontier, convergence
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2018–09–25
  9. By: Robert Vermeulen; Edo Schets; Melanie Lohuis; Barbara Kölbl; David-Jan Jansen; Willem Heeringa
    Abstract: This paper presents a comprehensive framework for analyzing financial stress under scenarios with a disruptive transition to a low-carbon economy. This stress testing framework is designed to be readily applied by macroprudential supervisors or financial institutions. First, we construct stress scenarios using two dimensions: climate policy and energy technology. Then, we rely on various modeling approaches to derive macroeconomic and industry-specific implications. These approaches include a novel methodology for capturing industry-specific transition risks. Third, we disaggregate EUR 2.3 trillion in assets of more than 80 Dutch financial institutions by industry. Finally, our calculations show that financial losses can be sizeable, as portfolio values can decline by up to 11%. These outcomes suggest that climate-transition risks warrant close and timely attention from a financial stability perspective.
    Keywords: climate transition risk; uncertainty; stress test; financial stability
    JEL: G01 G20 Q43 Q54
    Date: 2019–02
  10. By: Kalaba, M.; Ntombela, S.; Bohlmann, H.
    Abstract: South Africa has a competitive and viable food production sector which enables the country to be a consistent net exporter of agricultural products. Lately, the business and labour organisations have raised concerns that the government's intention to implement the carbon tax policy will affect the food supply, subsequently exacerbating the unemployment and food insecurity in the country. Carbon tax is one of the policy tools to be implemented in order to reduce the growing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions thus helping the government meets its Paris Agreement commitments. South Africa's National Treasury released a second draft of the carbon tax bill in 2017, which takes into account the concerns raised by different organisations. In this paper, we evaluate the potential impact of the carbon tax policy on the food sector using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The results show that the carbon tax is an effective policy tool to mitigate emissions, as they decline by 33 percent relative to the baseline by 2035. This also leads to a welfare loss of R98.326 billion as the country transform into a green economy. While sectors such as transport, steel and coal-generated electricity experiences significant output decline, the food sector shows improvements in terms of production and employment when the carbon tax is implemented. The positive effects on the food sector suggests that the policy makers have designed a plausible environmental protection policy that cushion the food supply against any expected negative effects. Key words: CGE, carbon tax, food JEL classification:C68, H23, Q18
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2018–09–25
  11. By: Wolfgang Britz (Institute for Food and Resource Economics, Bonn University); Hasan Dudu (World Bank Group); Ilaria Fusacchia (Roma Tre University); Yaghoob Jafari (Institute for Food and Resource Economics, Bonn University); Roberto Roson (Ca' Foscari University of Venice); Luca Salvatici (Roma Tre University); Martina Sartori (European Commission – JRC)
    Abstract: Reducing food waste has become a policy priority in recent years as many studies show that a significant amount of food is wasted at various stages of the food supply chain. However, the economic impacts of food waste reduction have not been studied in depth as most of the studies in the literature ignore the cost and feedback effects. The aim of this report is to develop a general framework to analyse the economic impacts of reducing food waste in EU28 in both a global and a regional context in support of the EU policy making process on food waste reduction. For the purposes of this study, we employ the CGEBox toolbox which is a flexible, extendable, and modular code basis for CGE modelling. The default configuration of CGEBox used in this study covers the global economy with a detailed representation of the agriculture and food production sector whereas the EU28 is modelled at NUTS-II level. The impact of a food waste reduction equal to 5% of the intermediate input use of food processing sectors under two different cost assumptions is analysed in the scenarios. Firstly, in the cost neutral scenario, we assume that the cost of reducing food waste is equal to the monetary savings for the food processing industry. Secondly, in the pessimistic scenario, we assume that the cost of reducing food waste is twice as much as the cost savings made by reducing food waste. The results suggest that a unilateral commitment by the EU to reducing food loss and waste would most likely decrease the competitiveness of the EU’s food processing. Reduced demand for primary agricultural inputs would shrink the EU’s agricultural sectors, putting pressure on farm incomes and land prices. The contribution to global food security would be very minor. The impact on emissions relevant to climate change at global level is also minor, with a very limited contribution within the EU.
    Keywords: Policy analysis, food loss and waste, food availability, environment, simulation
    JEL: Q18 Q24 Q25 Q50 C59
    Date: 2019–01
  12. By: Sowunmi, F.; Famuyiwa, T.; Oluyole, K.; Aroyeun, S.; Obasoro, O.
    Abstract: The use of copper based fungicide in the control of black pod disease caused by Phytophthora megakarya is a common practice among cocoa farmers. Copper based fungicide has detrimental effect on the environment as well as the output of cocoa production in Ondo State, Nigeria. Deviation from the recommended quantity of fungicides by cocoa farmers is not uncommon. Several studies on cocoa production often ignore these externalities. The objective of the study was to determine the environmental efficiency of cocoa farmers using detrimental variable (deviation from the recommended quantity of fungicide on cocoa farm) and traditional inputs within the framework of stochastic frontier approach. The averages of fungicide used per cropping season per hectare were 2,230 grams, 5,820 grams 10,555 grams for respondents that used below, actual and above the recommended doses respectively while average cocoa outputs were 0.92, 3.35 and 1.32 metric tons for farmers that used below, actual and above recommended doses of fungicide respectively. The low environmental efficiency did not only raise the cost of production but also affirmed that the wrong use of fungicide in cocoa farm constitutes environmental burden and make the environmental unsustainable. The study recommended that farmers should be educated on the significance and mode of application of recommended dose of fungicide on cocoa plantation.
    Keywords: Environmental efficiency, detrimental input, stochastic frontier, cocoa production.; Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2018–09–25
  13. By: Nicoletta Batini
    Abstract: France is the top agricultural producer in the European Union (EU), and agriculture plays a prominent role in the country’s foreign trade and intermediate exchanges. Reflecting production volumes and methods, the sector, however, also generates significant negative environmental and public health externalities. Recent model simulations show that a well-designed shift in production and consumption to make the former sustainable and align the latter with recommended values can curb these considerably and generate large macroeconomic gains. I propose a policy toolkit in line with the government’s existing sectoral policies that can support this transition.
    Date: 2019–02–26
  14. By: Ichiroh Daitoh (Faculty of Business and Commerce, Keio University); Nori Tarui (Department of Economics, University of Hawaii at Manoa and the University of Hawaii Economic Research Organization (UHERO))
    Abstract: This paper investigates how poverty reduction and environmental resource preservation can be simultaneously achieved in a small open dual economy with urban wage rigidity, rural open access resources, and rural-urban migration. An increase in the export tax rate on the rural resource good increases urban unemployment in both the short and long run with resource dynamics. We find that the first-best policy, which makes the two goals compatible, is an urban wage subsidy combined with either a rural wage subsidy at a lower rate or, if the urban output price is sufficiently high, a rural tax. An increase in the export tax on the resource good could induce rural institutional change away from open access, but protection of urban manufacturing through a tariff hinders such rural institutional change.
    Keywords: Open access, renewable resource, urban unemployment, rural-urban migration, export tax on the resource good, institutional change
    JEL: O13 Q27 F18
    Date: 2019–03
  15. By: C. Pezon (LIRSA - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire de recherche en sciences de l'action - CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM])
    Abstract: The Agenda for Sustainable Development adopted by the United Nations in September 2015 sets the ambitious goal of achieving universal access to safe water by 2030. This article explores the conditions for achieving this goal in Burkinabè small towns under public-private partnerships (PPP). It results from an action-research project that adopted a price-based methodology, and involved a researcher, the author, and high level sector stakeholders, in a one-year participatory process, for defining a water policy that would be equitable for users and financially sustainable for private operators engaged in 10-year affermage contracts. The conditions to universalise in an equitable way the access to safely managed water services in Burkina are to switch to solar energy and to enforce a consistent price-cap regulation.
    Keywords: Water supply,Financial sustainability,Agenda 2030 for development,Equity,Water tariff,Service monitoring,PPP,Water demand,WASH,Action-research,Affermage
    Date: 2017–12
  16. By: Dhaoui, Iyad
    Abstract: Since many decades there has been a growing concern about reducing poverty, reduce inequality, protect environment, promote well-being, etc. These changes have shifted focus from the model of economic growth to the new model of sustainable development. Despite this new direction, the issue of how to achieve sustainable development goals still remains. One of the most recognized tools to cope with the development agenda is the good governance. The aim of this paper is to give an overview on the issues of the sustainable development and to outline the link between good governance dimensions and selected indicators of development. Also, the paper investigates the requirement for good governance.
    Keywords: Good governance; sustainable development
    JEL: H11 H41 O10
    Date: 2019–01
  17. By: Rodrigo Garcia-Verdu; Alexis Meyer-Cirkel; Akira Sasahara; Hans Weisfeld
    Abstract: This paper estimates agricultural total factor productivity (TFP) in 162 countries between 1991 and 2015 and aims to understand sources of cross-country variations in agricultural TFP levels and its growth rates. Two factors affecting agricultural TFP are analyzed in detail – imported intermediate inputs and climate. We first show that these two factors are independently important in explaining agricultural TFP – imported inputs raise agricultural TFP; and higher temperatures and rainfall shortages impede TFP growth, particularly in low-income countries (LICs). We also provide a new evidence that, within LICs, those with a higher import component of intermediate inputs seem to be more shielded from the negative impacts of weather shocks.
    Date: 2019–02–04
  18. By: C. Pezon (LIRSA - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire de recherche en sciences de l'action - CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM])
    Abstract: The Agenda for Sustainable Development adopted by the United Nations in September 2015 sets the goal of achieving universal access to safe water by 2030. This article focuses on the achievement of this goal in small towns where half the population of Burkina Faso will live in 2030 by addressing the question: under which conditions could universal and equitable access to privately managed water services be financially sustainable in 2047 small towns by 2030? The article shows that the access to safe water in an equitable way and for all in small towns is submitted to the switch to solar energy and the enforcement of a consistent price-cap regulation. Under these two conditions, water tariffs could be divided by two compared to today, with 70% of small towns population being supplied on premises and 30% through stand-pipes, compared to less than 20% being supplied by stand-pipes today.
    Keywords: Water Utilities,Urban Water supply,Financial sustainability,Regulation,Financial Policy,Tariff modelling,Water Tariff policy,Affermage contract,PPP,Equity
    Date: 2018–09–04
  19. By: Tiguéné Nabassaga (African Development Bank); El-Hadj Bah (African Development Bank); Issa Faye (African Development Bank)
    Abstract: Using the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) data from 8 African countries, among the top 10 countries with the highest malaria cases, accounting for 87% of malaria incidence cases in Africa, we analyze the impact of housing quality and the usual malaria prevention measures on malaria incidence among children under 5 years old. First, we investigate the potential correlation between malaria incidence and the quality of housing materials. Secondly, using OLS, two-stage least squares and Poisson regression, we estimate the marginal effects of housing quality on the incidence of malaria. The results can be summarized in four points. (i) The statistical analysis results show a substantial correlation between housing quality and the incidence of malaria. We found 8 percentage points lower rate of incidence among children living in houses constructed with improved materials than those in houses with poor quality materials. (ii) We also found that it is not only the physical characteristic of homes that matters, having good sanitation is associate with lower malaria incidence, with a total difference of 10 and 4 percentage points compared to those with less improved toilet facility and poor-quality drinking water respectively. (iii) An improvement in the overall housing quality leads to a significant reduction in the incidence of malaria among children under 5 years old. Explicitly, an improvement from the first percentile measure of housing quality to the 50th percentile leads to a 32% reduction in the number of malaria cases among children under age-five. In other words, if one improves the housing quality of poorer households to the national average, and keeping other factors constant, the number of malaria cases will drop by 50%. (iv) For both groups of households, those that use mosquito bed nets and those who use insecticide as means of preventing malaria, the results show that improved housing quality complements bed nets and insecticides. As housing quality improves, the role of the two preventives become smaller and smaller. Keywords: Malaria, Housing quality, indoor intervention, IV regression, marginal plot. JEL classification: I18; P25; B23
    Date: 2019–02–22
  20. By: Deng, Yuping; Wu, Yanrui; Xu, Helian
    Abstract: A firm's top manager and a government official may be connected due to special circumstances. This social relationship or political connection may provide industrial polluters with protection or a “pollution shelter” which could lead to severe environmental deterioration. This paper aims to examine the link between political connections and firms’ pollution discharges by using Chinese data. Empirical results show that political connections are the institutional origin for firms to adopt strategic pollution discharges. Government officials who are young, of low education, promoted locally and in office for a relatively long time are more likely to build political connections with polluters. This phenomenon results in inadequate enforcement of regulation and emission control. The pollution discharges of politically connected firms also vary considerably due to firm heterogeneity. This study also shows that pollution shelter effects caused by political connections are more obvious in the central and western regions, prefecture cities and capital-intensive industries.
    JEL: Q51 L20 O12
    Date: 2019–02–27
  21. By: Wakamatsu, Hiroki
    Abstract: This study estimates Japanese consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for several components of seafood sustainability. A choice experiment via a web survey is conducted among Japanese seafood consumers. In order to estimate WTP, a latent class model is employed to treat heterogeneity of consumer preference in addition to a basic conditional logit model. The latent class model resulted in separating consumers into two characteristic groups: nature-oriented and human-oriented groups. Neither group was found to be willing to pay for seafood sustainability even though they are somewhat concerned about seafood sustainability. Specifically, the nature-oriented group, which comprised 51% of our consumer sample, negatively evaluated fisheries management and preservation of tradition and culture but highly evaluated the environment and ecosystems. Meanwhile, the human-oriented group, which comprised 49% of our consumer sample, positively evaluated fisheries management and regionality, but negatively evaluated the environment and ecosystems. The differences between the groups are unrelated to education or income, but are related to seafood expense, age, family structure, and knowledge of sustainability.
    Keywords: best–worst scaling, choice experiment, consumer preference, seafood sustainability
    JEL: Q01 Q22 Q51
    Date: 2019–02–26
  22. By: Bangalore, Mook; Smith, Andrew; Veldkamp, Ted
    Abstract: With 70% of its population living in coastal areas and low-lying deltas, Vietnam is highly exposed to riverine and coastal flooding. This paper conducts a “stress-test” and examines the exposure of the population and poor people in particular to current and future flooding in Vietnam and specifically in Ho Chi Minh City. We develop new high-resolution flood hazard maps at 90 m horizontal resolution, and combine this with spatially-explicit socioeconomic data on poverty at the country and city level, two datasets often kept separate. The national-level analysis finds that a third of today’s population is already exposed to a flood, which occurs once every 25 years, assuming no protection. For the same return period flood under current socioeconomic conditions, climate change may increase the number exposed to 38 to 46% of the population (an increase of 13–27% above current exposure), depending on the severity of sea level rise. While poor districts are not found to be more exposed to floods at the national level, the city-level analysis of Ho Chi Minh City provides evidence that slum areas are more exposed than other urban areas. The results of this paper provide an estimate of the potential exposure under climate change, including for poor people, and can provide input on where to locate future investments in flood risk management.
    Keywords: floods; poverty; Vietnam; exposure; urban development; ES/K006576/1
    JEL: Q50 Q54 I30
    Date: 2018–10–26
  23. By: Muñoz, Agustina; Lupín, Beatriz; Bertoni, Marcela
    Abstract: El cuidado del medio ambiente no es responsabilidad única de los gobiernos y de las empresas sino, también, de los consumidores. En cada acto diario de consumo, se consume energía y se generan residuos. La solución no está en dejar de consumir sino en cambiar la forma de consumo, adoptando hábitos sustentables.
    Keywords: Comportamiento del Consumidor; Consumo de Alimentos; Medio Ambiente; Salud; Responsabilidad Social; Mar del Plata;
    Date: 2018–12
  24. By: Dhaoui, Iyad
    Abstract: This paper assesses the achievements and disparties toward SDGs in MENA countries in two-stage performance analysis. First, we use a descriptive approach and then a composite indicator ‘SDG achievement index’ (SDGI) for the social develoment in the the region through Principle Component Analysis weighting. After that, the analysis examines the coherence between this index and income per capita. The descriptive analysis and the composite indicator confirm the existence of disparties between the countries of the region in all components of social development. Furthermore, the results reveal consistency between the SDGI and GDP per capita for some countries and inconsistency for others.
    Keywords: SDGs - Disparities - Composite Indicator -MENA countries
    JEL: C43 F01 O11 Q01
    Date: 2018–10
  25. By: Masemola, M.; Ogundeji, A.; Chaminuka, P.
    Abstract: Emergence of livestock diseases pose a worldwide socio-economic threat to human and animal welfare. In the past years, South Africa has seen an increase in the extent and rate of various infectious livestock diseases. The continuous outburst in re-emerging infectious disease has created a demand for development of new improved novel livestock vaccines. However, sustainable use of livestock vaccines remains low, necessitating better understanding of farmers� demand and preferences. Using a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) approach, this studyinvestigated attributes influencing farmers` choice of livestock vaccines and their willingness to pay (WTP). Data were drawn from 204 respondents keeping cattle and small stock. The livestock vaccine attributes considered were; target specie, cold chain, multivalent, efficacy and price/50 doses. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics and alternative-specific conditional logit model. Results show that farmers� preferred a vaccine that had the multivalent attribute, could be used on more than one species, and had higher levels of efficacy. Price was however not a significant determinant of the choices made. Positive WTP was estimated for the multivalent attribute and negative for low efficacy. These findings are vital to guide developers in producing vaccines that are more likely to benefit and attract smallholder farmers.
    Keywords: Discrete Choice Experiment, Willingness to pay, livestock vaccines and diseases; Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2018–09–25
  26. By: Sylvain Dessy (Université Laval); Francesca Marchetta (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - Clermont Auvergne - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Roland Pongou (uOttawa - University of Ottawa [Ottawa], Harvard University [Cambridge]); Luca Tiberti (Université Laval)
    Abstract: In communities highly dependent on rainfed agriculture for their livelihoods, the common oc-currence of climatic shocks such as droughts can lower the opportunity cost of having children, and raise fertility. Using longitudinal household data from Madagascar, we estimate the causal effect of drought occurrences on fertility, and explore the nature of potential mechanisms driving this effect. We exploit exogenous within-district year-to-year variation in rainfall deficits, and find that droughts occurring during the agricultural season significantly increase the number of children born to women living in agrarian communities. This effect is long lasting, as it is not reversed within four years following the drought occurrence. Analyzing the mechanism, we find that droughts have no effect on common underlying factors of high fertility such as marriage timing and child mortality. Furthermore, droughts have no significant effect on fertility if they occur during the non-agricultural season or in non-agrarian communities, and their positive effect in agrarian communities is mitigated by irrigation. These findings provide evidence that a low opportunity cost of having children is the main channel driving the fertility effect of drought in agrarian communities.
    Keywords: Climatic shocks,Droughts,Agricultural season,Opportunity cost of children,Fertility,Irrigation
    Date: 2019–03–01
  27. By: Tomohito Shinoda (International University of Japan)
    Abstract: Japan has a very strong attachment to the G7/8 economic summit as a founding member. Especially when the Japanese leaders served as the host in 1979-2000, they spent much energy to ensure a successful conclusion of each summit. In order to serve as an effective host, Japanese leaders tried to establish personal ties with other country participants. At the 2008 Toyako Summit, the Japanese government successfully produced an agreement on climate change by coordinating the conflicting interests of the European members and the United States. Although the heated discussions were exchanged at the sherpa meetings, it required personal involvement and strong determination of Prime Minister Fukuda. Fukuda's relationship with the American and Chinese leaders significantly contributed to concluding an agreement.
    Date: 2019–03
  28. By: Amélie Bohas (CRET-LOG - Centre de Recherche sur le Transport et la Logistique - AMU - Aix Marseille Université)
    Abstract: Notre société digitale a vu exploser au cours des dernières années les déchets d'équipements électriques et électroniques (DEEE ou D3E). Au vu de leurs impacts environnementaux, une filière de collecte et de traitement s'est progressivement structurée en France. La mise en oeuvre de cette Supply Chain Inversée a nécessité le dépassement d'un certain nombre de défis logistiques. Mais plus globalement, la gestion de ces déchets doit à l'avenir s'inscrire dans une démarche de logistique qui soit pleinement durable.
    Keywords: Sustainable Supply Chain,Déveloopement durable,Logistique des déchets,DEEE Déchets d'équipements électriques et électroniques
    Date: 2017–07
  29. By: Nkonki-Mandleni, B.; Ighodaro, D.; Mushunje, A.
    Abstract: This study evaluates smallholder farmers' adoption decision behaviours regarding the adoption of climate smart agricultural (CSA) practices, using the adoption of soil conservation practices at Qamata Irrigation Scheme, South Africa as a case study. Using the case study research methodology, 70 smallholder farmers were selected through a focused group interview method. Empirical data analysis was with the probit, logit and the binary logistic regression analysis models. Based on results and congruent with literature, the nature of smallholder farmers' adoption behaviour regarding the adoption of soil conservation technologies is complex, being affected by multiplicity of factors. Of most significance (at p<0.01) are gender, marital status, length of time of continuously farming on one spot (LENTFARM) and crop production respectively. The indication is that women farmers prefer their own practices to extension recommendations which is as expected. Similarly, married farmers, LENTFARM, and farmers with increased crop production preferred extension recommendations for soil conservation instead of their own practices. The conclusion is that significant variables of this study are factors influencing smallholder farmers' adoption decision behaviour regarding CSA practices in the study area. Therefore intervention efforts for improved CSA practice adoption should consider the significant variables of this study. Key words: Smallholder farmers; adoption; adoption decision-making behaviours; climate smart agriculture practices; soil conservation.
    Keywords: Farm Management
    Date: 2018–09–25
  30. By: Laura M. Andersen (Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen); Lars Gårn Hansen (Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of CopenhagenAuthor-Name: Tomas Baležentis); Carsten Lynge Jensen (Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen); Frank A. Wolak (Stanford University, Program on Energy and Sustainable Development and Department of Economics)
    Abstract: We report results from a large field experiment that with a few hours prior notice provided Danish residential consumers with dynamic price and environmental signals aimed at causing them to shift their consumption either into or away from certain hours of the day. The same marginal price signal is found to cause substantially larger consumption shifts into target hours compared to consumption shifts away from target hours. Consumption is also reduced in the hours of the day before and after these into target hours and there is weaker evidence of increased consumption in the hours surrounding away target hours. The same into versus away results hold for the environmental signals, although the absolute size of the effects are smaller. Using detailed household-level demographic information for all customers invited to participate in the experiment, both models are re-estimated accounting for this decision. For both the price and environmental treatments, the same qualitative results are obtained, but with uniformly smaller quantitative magnitudes. These selection-corrected estimates are used to perform a counterfactual experiment where all of the retailer’s residential customers are assumed to face these dynamic price signals. We find substantial wholesale energy cost savings for the retailer from declaring into events designed to shift consumption from high demand periods to low demand periods within the day, which suggests that such a pricing strategy could significantly reduce the cost of increasing the share of greenhouse gas free wind and solar electricity production in an electricity supply industry.
    Keywords: Dynamic electricity pricing, Energy demand, Randomized field experiments
    JEL: C93 L51 L94 Q41
    Date: 2019–02
  31. By: Black, Sandra; Devereux, Paul J.; Lundborg, Petter; Majlesi, Kaveh
    Abstract: Wealth is highly correlated between parents and their children; however, little is known about the extent to which these relationships are genetic or determined by environmental factors. We use administrative data on the net wealth of a large sample of Swedish adoptees merged with similar information for their biological and adoptive parents. Comparing the relationship between the wealth of adopted and biological parents and that of the adopted child, we find that, even prior to any inheritance, there is a substantial role for environment and a much smaller role for pre-birth factors and we find little evidence that nature/nurture interactions are important. When bequests are taken into account, the role of adoptive parental wealth becomes much stronger. Our findings suggest that wealth transmission is not primarily because children from wealthier families are inherently more talented or more able but that, even in relatively egalitarian Sweden, wealth begets wealth. We further build on the existing literature by providing a more comprehensive view of the role of nature and nurture on intergenerational mobility, looking at a wide range of different outcomes using a common sample and method. We find that environmental influences are relatively more important for wealth-related variables such as savings and investment decisions than for human capital. We conclude by studying consumption as an overall measure of welfare and find that, like wealth, it is more determined by environment than by biology.
    Keywords: intergenerational mobility; Wealth Inequality
    JEL: J00
    Date: 2019–02
  32. By: Faria, Joao Ricardo; McAdam, Peter
    Abstract: We derive the Green Golden Rule (GGR) in the Habit Formation (HF) and Anticipation of Future Consumption (AFC) frameworks. Since consumption is the key variable of GGR, time non-separabilities in preferences over consumption streams, given by the AFC and HF, may have important impacts on the environment and sustainability. We demonstrate that agents who smooth their consumption patterns, according to the HF hypothesis, are more likely to preserve the environment than those who anticipate future consumption or who do not so smooth consumption. JEL Classification: D90, Q56
    Keywords: environment, growth, resources, sustainability
    Date: 2019–02
  33. By: Priyanga Dilini Talagala; Rob J Hyndman; Catherine Leigh; Kerrie Mengersen; Kate Smith-Miles
    Abstract: Outliers due to technical errors in water-quality data from in situ sensors can reduce data quality and have a direct impact on inference drawn from subsequent data analysis. However, outlier detection through manual monitoring is unfeasible given the volume and velocity of data the sensors produce. Here, we proposed an automated framework that provides early detection of outliers in water-quality data from in situ sensors caused by technical issues.The framework was used first to identify the data features that differentiate outlying instances from typical behaviours. Then statistical transformations were applied to make the outlying instances stand out in transformed data space. Unsupervised outlier scoring techniques were then applied to the transformed data space and an approach based on extreme value theory was used to calculate a threshold for each potential outlier. Using two data sets obtained from in situ sensors in rivers flowing into the Great Barrier Reef lagoon, Australia, we showed that the proposed framework successfully identified outliers involving abrupt changes in turbidity, conductivity and river level, including sudden spikes, sudden isolated drops and level shifts, while maintaining very low false detection rates. We implemented this framework in the open source R package oddwater.
    JEL: C10 C14 C22
    Date: 2019
  34. By: Acs, Zoltan J.; Estrin, Saul; Mickiewicz, Tomasz; Szerb, László
    Abstract: We analyze conceptually and in an empirical counterpart the relationship between economic growth, factor inputs, institutions, and entrepreneurship. In particular, we investigate whether entrepreneurship and institutions, in combination in an ecosystem, can be viewed as a “missing link” in an aggregate production function analysis of cross-country differences in economic growth. To do this, we build on the concept of National Systems of Entrepreneurship (NSE) as resource allocation systems that combine institutions and human agency into an interdependent system of complementarities. We explore the empirical relevance of these ideas using data from a representative global survey and institutional sources for 46 countries over the period 2002–2011. We find support for the role of the entrepreneurial ecosystem in economic growth
    Keywords: economic growth; entrepreneurship; ecosystem; efficiency; technology; Solow residual; GEM; GEI
    JEL: D02 O38 P11
    Date: 2018–08–01
  35. By: Alzola, Agustina
    Abstract: En esta tesina, se analiza el consumo de verduras por parte de los jóvenes -entre 15 y 29 años- de la Ciudad de Mar del Plata. Para ello, se utilizaron datos provenientes de una encuesta sobre alimentación y hábitos saludables relevada durante el año 2014 -sólo se consideraron las repuestas de los encuestados pertenecientes al rango etario estudiado- y, también, se realizaron entrevistas a jóvenes residentes en dicha Ciudad. Primero, se realiza un análisis descriptivo, en el que se estudian las preferencias y elecciones de alimentación y los estilos de vida de los jóvenes. Luego, se estima un Modelo Logit Ordinal con el objetivo de identificar factores demográficos y socioeconómicos y hábitos que influyen en el consumo de verduras de los mismos. Por último, el análisis es complementado con entrevistas realizadas para estudiar las percepciones de los jóvenes respecto a la calidad de los alimentos consumidos y a los hábitos adoptados. Entre los principales resultados, se puede mencionar que los jóvenes reconocen la importancia del consumo de verduras frescas, sin embargo, su consumo es menor que el de los adultos; y que el barrio de residencia y el sexo del encuestado, así como el motivo por el que consume verduras frescas y la realización de actividad física, son factores que inciden en su consumo de verduras frescas.
    Keywords: Jóvenes; Consumo de Alimentos; Preferencias del Consumidor; Hortalizas; Mar del Plata;
    Date: 2018–09
  36. By: Roberto Bonfatti; Yuan Gu; Steven Poelhekk
    Abstract: Africa's interior-to-coast roads are well suited to export natural resources, but not to support regional trade. Are they the optimal resourse to geography and comparative advantage, or the result of suboptimal political distortions? We investigate the political determinants of road paving in West Africa across the 1965-2012 period. Controlling for geography and the endogeneity of democratization, we show that autocracies tend to connect natural resource deposits to ports, while the networks expanded in a less interior-to-coast way in periods of democracy. This result suggests that Africa's interior-to-coast roads are at least in part the result of suboptimal political distortions.
    Keywords: political economy, democracy, infrastructure, natural resources, development
    Date: 2019
  37. By: Cahen-Fourot, Louison; Campiglio, Emanuele; Dawkins, Elena; Godin, Antoine; Kemp-Benedict, Eric
    Abstract: This article develops a novel methodological framework to investigate the exposure of eco- nomic systems to the risk of physical capital stranding. Combining Input-Output (IO) and network theory, we define measures to identify both the sectors likely to trigger relevant capital stranding cascades and those most exposed to capital stranding risk. We show how, in a sample of ten European countries, mining is among the sectors with the highest external asset strand- ing multipliers. The sectors most affected by capital stranding triggered by decarbonisation include electricity and gas; coke and refined petroleum products; basic metals; and transporta- tion. From these sectors, stranding would frequently cascade down to chemicals; metal products; motor vehicles water and waste services; wholesale and retail trade; and public administration. Finally, we provide an estimate for the lower-bound amount of assets at risk of transition-related stranding, which is in the range of 0.6-8.2% of the overall productive capital stock for our sample of countries, mainly concentrated in the electricity and gas sector, manufacturing, and mining. These results confirm the systemic relevance of transition-related risks on European societies.
    Keywords: stranded assets, low-carbon transition, physical capital stocks, fossil fuels, input-output analysis, networks
    Date: 2019–02
  38. By: Sylvain Eloi Dessy; Francesca Marchetta; Roland Pongou; Luca Tiberti
    Abstract: In communities highly dependent on rainfed agriculture for their livelihoods, the common oc- currence of climatic shocks such as droughts can lower the opportunity cost of having children, and raise fertility. Using longitudinal household data from Madagascar, we estimate the causal effect of drought occurrences on fertility, and explore the nature of potential mechanisms driving this effect. We exploit exogenous within-district year-to-year variation in rainfall deficits, and find that droughts occurring during the agricultural season significantly increase the number of children born to women living in agrarian communities. This effect is long lasting, as it is not reversed within four years fol- lowing the drought occurrence. Analyzing the mechanism, we find that droughts have no effect on common underlying factors of high fertility such as marriage timing and child mortality. Further- more, droughts have no significant effect on fertility if they occur during the non-agricultural season or in non-agrarian communities, and their positive effect in agrarian communities is mitigated by irrigation. These findings provide evidence that a low marginal price of having children is the main channel driving the fertility effect of drought in agrarian communities.
    Keywords: Drought, Fertility, Agrarian Communities, Price of a marginal child
    JEL: C12 C13 C14 J12 J13 O12
    Date: 2019
  39. By: Waqas, Muhammad; Hussain, Israr
    Abstract: This study explores the econometric investigation, how social economic conditions, political stability, law and order situation, demographic accountability, the role of military in politics and some other factors affect the external and internal conflicts of the 28 low income countries for the period of 1984 to 2011. International relations among these countries have been analyzed in this study. Feasible Generalized least Square method has been used to explore this panel data analysis. FGLS with cross sectional heteroskedasticity model has been used for all these variables. All the variables are significant. The findings indicate that foreign factors associated with the conflicts are different from the internal factors associated with conflicts. The data has been collected from international country risk guide for the period of 1984 to 2011. The general theory of conflict has also played its role to explain and analyze the findings and results.
    Keywords: Internal conflict, External Conflict, theory of conflict, FGLS
    JEL: F51
    Date: 2018–08–01
  40. By: Clement A. Tisdell
    Abstract: This article outlines the case for increasing our dependence on solar and wind power to generate electricity. It outlines the economic reasons why governments should provide financial incentives for the increased use and production of electricity from solar and wind power and identifies the policy instruments able to provide these incentives and encourage the development of this green electricity sector. Although wind and solar resources are usually classified as renewable resources, it is argued that classifying them as flow resources is more appropriate. Basic sustainability concerns about the use of alternative energy resources differ. The nature of these different concerns is clarified. Pigovian-type economic analysis is employed to provide an illustration of the superior social economic benefits of using solar and wind power to generate electricity rather than fossil fuels. However, it is also pointed out that there are economic and political constraints on increasing our reliance on solar and wind power to generate electricity. These include the unsatisfactory flow of these resources in some parts of the world, and constraints on economically and sustainably storing the electricity generated by using these resources. However, technological progress is likely to improve the prospects for storing electricity. Given that the demand for electricity can be expected to increase due to technological change and economic growth, it is more important than ever to pay attention to methods of electricity production (such as those utilizing solar and wind power) which are more environmentally friendly and which have superior sustainability qualities compared to the use of fossil fuels. In many parts of the world, greater reliance on solar and wind power will have these beneficial effects and positive social economic benefits.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2019–03–01
  41. By: Cyril Bourgeois (RITM - Réseaux Innovation Territoires et Mondialisation - UP11 - Université Paris-Sud - Paris 11); Pierre-Alain Jayet (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AgroParisTech); Florence Habets (GEOSCIENCES - Centre de Géosciences - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University); Pascal Viennot (GEOSCIENCES - Centre de Géosciences - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University)
    Abstract: We combine a theoretical model and a quantitative modeling chain based on a bio-economic model and a hydrological model in order to assess the marginal damage related to the nitrate concentration in an aquifer. The fundamental concept is to take the steady state level resulting from a social planner's optimization program as the target level of nitrate concentration. The interest of doing this is threefold: (i) we characterize the social value of damage related to the targeted nitrate concentration; which (ii) leads us to design the optimal path consistent with the target; and (iii) we can in turn assess welfare losses arising when the tax path deviates from the optimal one.
    Date: 2018
  42. By: Maja Bucar; Gabriel Rissola (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: This case study focuses on Ljubljana/ Slovenia's start-up ecosystem and its main actors and orchestrators (or "innovation process entrepreneurs") like the Technology Park Ljubljana. While Slovenia has kept its place as a strong innovator (EIS, 2017), the only CEEC in this group, it lacks an effective governance structure for research and innovation and true collaboration between actors. Taking advice from more experienced countries and applying policy and funding instruments prescribed by the EU could have speeded up the process of developing a more advanced innovation system, but frequent changes of the instruments and the support provided to different stakeholders did not help. Against this background, one of the interesting phenomena that can be observed in Ljubljana’s start-up environment is a growth of various kinds of new initiatives, some bottom-up from entrepreneurial activity, others stimulated by public policy, but all aimed at providing stimulating support to start-ups, from co-working spaces, geek house, Hackathon, etc. All together they create a dynamic network, which spreads beyond Ljubljana’s Region across Slovenia, but also much wider across Western Balkans and to EU and USA. This network is developing in parallel, with or without the support of formal institutions and/or governmental support.
    Keywords: Place-based, innovation ecosystem, start-up, Technology Park, Ljubljana, quadruple helix
    Date: 2018–12

This nep-env issue is ©2019 by Francisco S. Ramos. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.