nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2019‒01‒21
forty-five papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Global Energy and Climate Outlook 2018: Sectoral mitigation options towards a low-emissions economy By Kimon Keramidas; Stephane Tchung-Ming; Ana Raquel Diaz-Vazquez; Matthias Weitzel; Toon Vandyck; Jacques Despres; Andreas Schmitz; Luis Rey Los Santos; Krzysztof Wojtowicz; Burkhard Schade; Bert Saveyn; Antonio Soria-Ramirez
  2. Pigou Pushes Preferences: Decarbonisation and Endogenous Values By Linus Mattauch; Cameron Hepburn; Nicholas Stern
  3. Competing Land Uses and Fossil Fuel, Optimal Energy Conversion Rates During the Transition Toward a Green Economy Under a Pollution Stock Constraint By Amigues, Jean-Pierre; Moreaux, Michel
  4. Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Achziv marine reserve expansion considering the Barcelona Convention and the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive By Patrick Chavel; Hillel Fromm; Gil Rilov; Lewi Stone; Walter Hecq
  5. El desafío del sector transporte en el contexto del cumplimiento de las contribuciones determinadas a nivel nacional de América Latina By Martínez Salgado, Hilda
  6. The deterrence effect of linear versus convex penalties in environmental policy: laboratory evidence By Caffera, Marcelo; Chávez, Carlos; Ardente, Analía
  7. Steering the Climate System: An Extended Comment By Linus Mattauch; Richard Millar; Rick van der Ploeg; Armon Rezai; Anselm Schultes; Frank Venmans; Nico Bauer; Simon Dietz; Ottmar Edenhofer; Niall Farrell; Cameron Hepburn; Gunnar Luderer; Jacquelyn Pless; Fiona Spuler; Nicholas Stern FBA; Alexander Teytelboym
  8. The Rebound Effect and its representation in Climate and Energy models By Colmenares, Gloria; Löschel, Andreas; Madlener, Reinhard
  9. Improvement of Regional Innovation Policy in Ukraine in the Sustainable Development Context By Inna I. Koblianska; Larysa I. Kalachevska
  10. A Meta-Analysis of the Literature on Climate Change and Migration By Michel Beine; Lionel Jeusette
  11. Power Markets in Transition: Decarbonization, Energy Efficiency, and Short-Term Demand Response By Mathias Mier; Christoph Weissbart
  12. The Circular Economy: Swings and Roundabouts? By Neal Millar; Eoin McLaughlin; Tobias Börger
  13. PESETA III: Climate change impacts on labour productivity By Simon Gosling; Jamal Zaherpour; Dolores Ibarreta
  14. A social cost of carbon for (almost) every country By Richard S.J. Tol
  15. A General Assessment of Climate Change - Loss of Agricultural Productivity in Indonesia By RESTU ANANDA, RIMA; Widodo, Tri
  16. The participatory guarantee system in organic farming and food labels: Toward a reappropriation of intellectual commons By Sylvaine Lemeilleur; Gilles Allaire
  17. Unequal vulnerability to climate change and the transmission of adverse effects through international trade By Karine Constant; Marion Davin
  18. Le comportement des citoyens face aux questions environnementales : cas de service des déchets urbains en Algérie By Djemaci, Brahim
  19. PESETA III: Agro-economic analysis of climate change impacts in Europe By Ignacio Perez Dominguez; Thomas Fellmann
  20. POLES-JRC model documentation - Updated for 2018 By Jacques Despres; Kimon Keramidas; Andreas Schmitz; Alban Kitous; Burkhard Schade; Ana Raquel Diaz-Vazquez; Silvana Mima; Hans Peter Russ; Tobias Wiesenthal
  21. The Implication of B20 Policy on Environment By Dian Iriani, Latifah; Widodo, Tri
  22. Impact of Decentralized Electrification Projects on Sustainable Development: A Meta-Analysis By Jean-Claude Berthelemy; Arnaud Millien
  23. Real-Time Carbon Accounting Method for the European Electricity Markets By Bo Tranberg; Olivier Corradi; Bruno Lajoie; Thomas Gibon; Iain Staffell; Gorm Bruun Andresen
  24. A tale of REDD+ projects. How do location and certification impact additionality? By Philippe Delacote; Gwenolé Le Velly; Gabriela Simonet
  25. Instruments de soutien au financement des énergies renouvelables en Afrique sub-saharienne By Ahmadou Saïd Ba
  26. End-Of-Conflict Deforestation: Evidence From Colombian’s Peace Agreement By Prem, M; Saavedra, S; Vargas, J.F
  27. Public environmental communication: the driving role of the state By Dominique Bessières
  28. Pollution Claim Settlements Reconsidered: Hidden Information and Bounded Payments By Goldlücke, Susanne; Schmitz, Patrick W.
  29. Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) and the Impact of Online Sales By Mark Hilton; Chris Sherrington; Andrew McCarthy; Peter Börkey
  30. The Role of Uncertainty and Risk in Climate Change Economics By Chari, V. V.
  31. Effects of Changes in Living Environment on Physical Health: A Prospective Cohort Study of Movers and Non-Movers in Germany By Benjamin Aretz; Gabriele Doblhammer; Fanny Janssen
  32. The energy policy of the Republic of Senegal By Ahmadou Saïd Ba
  33. Quantitative mass analysis of N2, CO2 and N2O reaction products in the NO-CO reaction at Pt (100) By Zagatta, Gunther; Müller, H.; Wehmeyer, O.; Brandt, M.; Böwering, N.; Heinzmann, Ulrich
  34. Ruralidad, hambre y pobreza en América Latina y el Caribe By -
  35. Eyes on the Price: Which Power Generation Technologies Set the Market Price? Price Setting in European Electricity Markets: An Application to the Proposed Dutch Carbon Price Floor By Blume-Werry, Eike; Faber, Thomas; Hirth, Lion; Huber, Claus; Everts, Martin
  36. Estimating the value of flexibility from real options: On the accuracy of hybrid electricity price models By Benjamin Botor; Benjamin Boecker; Thomas Kalabis; Christoph Weber
  37. Environmental regulation and economic cycles By Halkos, George; Papageorgiou, George; Halkos, Emmanuel; Papageorgiou, John
  38. Analyse de la politique d'efficacité énergétique du Sénégal By Ahmadou Saïd Ba
  39. Les études hédoniques soutiennent-elles une valeur verte élevée dans le bâtiment ? Une réponse par la méta-analyse By Florian Fizaine; Pierre Voye; Catherine Baumont
  40. Does environmental heterogeneity affect the productive efficiency of grid utilities in China? By Liu, X-Y.; Liu, L-Q.; Xie, B-C.; Pollitt, M.
  41. Willingness to Adopt Warm Season Grasses by Tennessee Beef Cattle Operators By Ren, Yongwang; Lambert, Dayton; Clark, Chris; Boyer, Chris; Griffith, Andrew; English, Burt,; Smith, Aaron; Menard, Robert; Walker, Forbes; Keyser, Patrick
  42. Uncertain Penalties and Compliance By Luengo, Carol; Caffera, Marcelo; Chávez, Carlos
  43. Territorial inequality, equalization transfers and asymmetric sharing of non-renewable natural resources in Latin America By Brosio, Giorgio; Jiménez, Juan Pablo; Ruelas, Ignacio
  44. Míster Ford en el Océano By Jesús Giráldez Rivero
  45. Natural Disasters, Moral Hazard, and Special Interests in Congress By Ethan Kaplan; Jörg L. Spenkuch; Haishan Yuan

  1. By: Kimon Keramidas (European Commission - JRC); Stephane Tchung-Ming (European Commission - JRC); Ana Raquel Diaz-Vazquez (European Commission - JRC); Matthias Weitzel (European Commission - JRC); Toon Vandyck (European Commission - JRC); Jacques Despres (European Commission - JRC); Andreas Schmitz (European Commission - JRC); Luis Rey Los Santos (European Commission - JRC); Krzysztof Wojtowicz (European Commission - JRC); Burkhard Schade (European Commission - JRC); Bert Saveyn (European Commission - JRC); Antonio Soria-Ramirez (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: This report analyses global transition pathways to a low Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions economy The main scenarios presented have been designed to be compatible with the 2°C and 1.5°C temperature targets put forward in the UNFCCC Paris Agreement, in order to minimise irreversible climate damages. Reaching these targets requires action from all world countries and in all economic sectors. Global net GHG emissions would have to drop to zero by around 2080 to limit temperature increase to 2°C above pre-industrial levels (by around 2065 for the 1.5°C limit). The analysis shows that this ambitious low-carbon transition can be achieved with robust economic growth, implying small mitigation costs. Results furthermore highlight that the combination of climate and air policies can contribute to improving air quality across the globe, thus enabling progress on the UN Sustainable Development Goals for climate action, clean energy and good health. Key uncertainties in future pathways related to the availability of future technological options have been assessed for Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) and bioenergy. If CCS technologies would not develop, a 2°C pathway would have a similar mitigation trajectory in the first half of the century as a 1.5°C scenario with CCS.
    Keywords: Paris Agreement, energy sector, Mid-century strategy, Long-Term Strategy, 2°C, 1.5°C, UNFCCC, climate change mitigation
    Date: 2018–12
  2. By: Linus Mattauch; Cameron Hepburn; Nicholas Stern
    Abstract: Avoiding unmanageable climate change implies that global greenhouse gas emissions must be reduced rapidly. A significant body of literature shows that policy instruments such as carbon prices can make an important contribution to this goal. In contrast, changes in preferences or values are rarely considered, even though other major socioeconomic transitions - such as those from reducing smoking and drink-driving - have succeeded partly because values have changed. This article examines the impact of climate policy-induced changes in consumers’ values. We demonstrate that when changes in values through policies occur, and are not accounted for, such policies are inefficient. First, target-achieving carbon taxes must be adjusted if they crowd-in or -out social preferences. Second, when the urban built environment changes mobility preferences, low-carbon infrastructure investments are more valuable. Third, policy-induced changes in preferences for active travel and low-meat diets could increase the net benefits of the transition to zero emissions, in turn affecting optimal policy.
    Keywords: climate change, carbon pricing, endogenous preferences, crowding-in, transport infrastructure, health co-benefit
    JEL: A12 D91 H23 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2018
  3. By: Amigues, Jean-Pierre; Moreaux, Michel
    Abstract: We study the transition to a carbon-free economy in a model with a polluting non-renewable resource and a clean renewable resource. Transforming primary energy into ready-to-use energy services is costly and more efficient energy transformation rates are more costly to achieve. Renewable energy competes with food production for land and the food productivity of land can be improved at some cost. To avoid catastrophic climate damages, the pollution stock is mandated to stay below a given cap. When the economy is not constrained by the cap, the efficiency of energy transformation increases steadily until the transition toward the ultimate green economy; when renewable energy is exploited, its land use rises at the expense of food production; food productivity increases together with the land rent but food production drops; the food and energy prices increase and renewables substitute for non-renewable energy. During the constrained phase, the economy follows a constant path of prices, quantities, efficiency rates, food productivity and land rent, a phenomenon we call the ’ceiling efficiency paradox'.
    JEL: Q00 Q32 Q43 Q54
    Date: 2018–12
  4. By: Patrick Chavel; Hillel Fromm; Gil Rilov; Lewi Stone; Walter Hecq
    Abstract: In this paper we present a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) of the Achziv Rocky reefs marine protected area (MPA) in Israel as a case study following the implementation of the international Barcelona Convention.The Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires that Member States and affiliates members achieve “Good Environmental Status” (GES) of marine ecosystems by 2020 including improvement of Marine Protected Area (MPA) networks in EU marine waters.EU guidance documents recommend using economic valuation and CBA to support environmental decision-making. We therefore propose the application of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requirements in Israel, and its methodology as marine conservation guidelines by the year 2020.We reveal constraints of the Cost-Benefit-Analysis (CBA), appraising the Ecosystem Services Approach (ESA) and we show the relevance of MPA's economic analysis.We analyze these challenges with respect to Israel, an affiliate MSFD country that has not yet carried such CBA on MPAs. In this case study, we compare the current MPA situation with the expected positive outcome of MPA expansion.Our analysis shows that benefits from a marine reserve and its associated ecosystem services can largely exceed their protection costs, which should entice other organizations, from regional to governments, to follow MPA protection recommendations.
    Keywords: Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA); Environmental Policy and Economics; Good Environmental Status (GES); Integrated Nature Resources Management; Israeli Mediterranean Coast; Marine Protected Area (MPA); Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD); Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY); Program of Measures (PoMs)
    JEL: Q50 Q57
    Date: 2019–01–17
  5. By: Martínez Salgado, Hilda
    Abstract: En 2016, el sector del transporte originó el 36% de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero en América Latina y el Caribe. El transporte por carreteras, a su vez, generó más del 80% de estas emisiones, con una distribución similar entre el transporte de pasajeros y el de carga. Lo anterior representa un gran desafío para la región con relación al cambio climático, ya que para alcanzar la meta de aumento máximo de la temperatura media mundial establecida en el Acuerdo de París es necesario que los países avancen a una economía neutra en carbono hacia fines del siglo. Para lograr dicho objetivo, el sector del transporte tendrá que llevar a cabo una transformación mayor y se deberán implementar políticas que aceleren el cambio de un modelo de movilidad intensivo en carbono a uno bajo en carbono y resiliente. En este documento se analizan varias de las políticas que pueden ser aplicadas en los países de la región para lograr su avance hacia una economía resiliente y de emisiones cero.
    Date: 2018–12–26
  6. By: Caffera, Marcelo; Chávez, Carlos; Ardente, Analía
    Abstract: We study the individual compliance behavior of polluting firms in an experimental setting under two different penalty functions (a linear and a strictly convex) and two different regulatory instruments (emission standards and tradable pollution permits). We find that a convex penalty, as compared to a linear penalty, increases the market price of pollution permits and the violation rate of firms. The effect of the structure of the fine on the price of permits operates through an increase in the ask-prices of sellers, not on the bids by suppliers. With convex penalties, sellers are not willing to sell a permit at a price as low as with linear penalties. We do not observe an effect of convex penalties on the compliance status of firms with emission standards. These results call for attention on the possible effect that the type of penalties may have on the cost-effectiveness of pollution control programs based on tradable pollution permits.
    Keywords: Environmental policy, enforcement, penalty structure, emissions standards, emissions trading, laboratory experiments
    JEL: C91 K42 L51 Q58
    Date: 2018
  7. By: Linus Mattauch; Richard Millar; Rick van der Ploeg; Armon Rezai; Anselm Schultes; Frank Venmans; Nico Bauer; Simon Dietz; Ottmar Edenhofer; Niall Farrell; Cameron Hepburn; Gunnar Luderer; Jacquelyn Pless; Fiona Spuler; Nicholas Stern FBA; Alexander Teytelboym
    Abstract: Lemoine and Rudik (2017) argue that it is efficient to delay reducing carbon emissions, because there is substantial inertia in the climate system. However, this conclusion rests upon misunderstanding the relevant climate physics: there is no substantial lag between CO2 emissions and warming, which policy could rely upon. Applying a mainstream climate physics model to the economics of Lemoine and Rudik (2017) invalidates the article’s implications for climate policy: the cost-effective carbon price that limits warming to a range of targets including 2 oC starts high and increases at the interest rate.
    JEL: H23 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2018
  8. By: Colmenares, Gloria (University of Muenster); Löschel, Andreas (University of Muenster); Madlener, Reinhard (E.ON Energy Research Center, Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN))
    Abstract: In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art and common practice of energy and climate modeling vis-a-vis the rebound literature, in particular regarding how macroeconomic energy and climate models quantify and include energy and greenhouse gas rebound effects. First, we focus on rebound effects in models of costless energy efficiency improvement that hold other attributes constant (zero-cost breakthrough), and an energy efficiency policy that may be bundled with other product changes that affect energy use (policy-induced efficiency improvement) (Gillingham et al. 2015). Second, we examine macroeconomic studies focusing on energy efficiency both in industry and in private households. Third, we go through a general theoretical revision from micro- to macroeconomic levels (the aggregation level) to include a review of the so-called meso-level studies (focused on the analysis of the production side). From 118 recent studies along the aggregation level, out of which 25 compute rebound calculations, we find that the average energy rebound effect is 58% with a standard deviation of 58%, and when we include green house gas rebound calculations, the magnitude is of the order of 43% with a standard deviation of 55%. Finally, we argue that the rebound effect is a phenomenon that requires a sound understanding of the complex interactions from different dimensions (e.g. aggregation level, heterogeneity, climate, energy conservation and economic growth), and we provide some ideas and motivations for future research.
    Keywords: Rebound effect; Macroeconomic models; Energy efficiency; Energy policy
    JEL: E13 Q41 Q43 Q48 Q54 R13
    Date: 2018–12
  9. By: Inna I. Koblianska (Sumy National Agrarian University, Sumy, Ukraine); Larysa I. Kalachevska (Sumy National Agrarian University, Sumy, Ukraine)
    Abstract: In the light of the Sustainable Development (SD) concept, the eco-innovation promotion becomes the central issue of innovation regulation. Given the strategic significance of SD goals for Ukraine and ongoing powers decentralization reform, it is desirable to study the capacity of regional and local authorities to form a proper incentive environment for the sustainable community’s development on innovation (eco-innovation) basis. The conducted analysis shows a limited capacity of regional and local bodies to set drivers of the eco-innovation development in motion. The need to extend the authorities’ powers in the field of resource prices and local tax rates setting and to strengthen the environmental orientation of existing innovation regulation tools is emphasized, in order to improve the regional innovation policy in Ukraine.
    Keywords: innovation policy, sustainable development, regional policy, eco-innovation, eco-innovation drivers
    JEL: O38 O31 Q01 Q58 R5
    Date: 2019–01
  10. By: Michel Beine; Lionel Jeusette
    Abstract: Recent surveys of the literature on climate change and migration emphasize the important diversity of outcomes and approaches of the empirical studies. In this paper, we conduct a meta-analysis in order to investigate the role of the methodological choices of these empirical studies in finding some particular results concerning the role of climatic factors as drivers of human mobility. We code 45 papers representative of the literature in terms of methodological approaches. This results in the coding of more than 80 variables capturing the methodology of the main dimensions of the analysis. These dimensions include authors’ reputation, type of mobility, measures of mobility, type of data, context of the study, econometric methods and last but not least measures of the climatic factors. We look at the influence of these characteristics on the probability of finding any effect of climate change, of finding a displacement effect, of finding an increase in immobility and of finding evidence in favour of a direct versus an indirect effect. Our results high- light the role of some main methodological choices, such as the frequency of the data on mobility, the level of development, the measures of human mobility and of the climatic factors as well as the econometric methodology.
    Keywords: climate change, human mobility, econometric regressions, meta-analysis, natural disasters
    JEL: C83 F22 J61 Q54
    Date: 2018
  11. By: Mathias Mier; Christoph Weissbart
    Abstract: Energy efficiency and short-term demand response are key issues in the decarbonization of power markets. However, their interaction and combined impact on market prices as well as on the supply side, is yet to be understood. We develop a framework to implement investments in energy efficiency and short-term demand response in detailed partial equilibrium power market models. We quantify our results using the EU-REGEN model for the European power market and find that energy efficiency contributes, under a 80% emission reduction target, only 11% of carbon emission reductions. Intermittent renewable energies such as wind and solar power account for the major share of 53%. However, both energy efficiency and short-term demand response have their merits in reducing marginal abatement costs and additionally exhibit an subadditive effect, at least under a 80% climate policy.
    Keywords: Energy efficiency, demand response, renewable energy, dispatchable technologies, energy modeling, optimal dispatch, investment planning
    JEL: C61 L94 Q41 Q51
    Date: 2019
  12. By: Neal Millar (School of Geography and Sustainable Development, University of St Andrews); Eoin McLaughlin (School of Geography and Sustainable Development, University of St Andrews); Tobias Börger
    Abstract: In the last few decades the Circular Economy has increasingly been advertised as an economic model that can replace the current “linear” economy whilst addressing the issues of environmental deterioration, social equity and long-term economic growth with the explicit suggestion that it can serve as a tool for Sustainable Development. However, despite the individual prominence of the Circular Economy and Sustainable Development in the academic and wider literature, the exact relationship between the two concepts has neither been thoroughly defined nor explored. The consequent result is various inconsistencies occurring across the literature regarding how the Circular Economy can serve as a tool for Sustainable Development and an incomplete understanding of how its long-term effects differ from those of the “linear” economy. A literature review was conducted to interpret the current conceptual relationship between the Circular Economy and Sustainable Development. The review highlights numerous challenges concerning conceptual definition, economic growth and implementation that inhibit the use of the Circular Economy as a tool for Sustainable Development in its current form. The review concludes by providing suggestions for how research concerning the Circular Economy should proceed if it is to provide a potential approach for achieving Sustainable Development.
    Keywords: Circular Economy, Sustainable Development, Linear economy, Social equity, Economic growth, Environmental degradation
    JEL: O13 O44 Q01 Q53 Q56
    Date: 2019–01
  13. By: Simon Gosling; Jamal Zaherpour; Dolores Ibarreta (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: This study uses five impact models that describe observed relationships between labour productivity and temperature, with climate model simulations from five climate models under a high emissions scenario (RCP8.5), i.e. 25 climate-impact model combinations, to assess the impact of climate change on outdoor and indoor labour productivity respectively, at the national-scale, across Europe. This is the first assessment to use multiple impact models with multiple climate models and to consider the potential effects of adaptation on lowering the impacts relative to no adaptation taking place. Impacts are estimated for the end of century (2071-2100) and near-term (2021-2050), relative to present-day (1981-2010). Impacts are also estimated under a mitigation scenario, where global-mean warming is 2°C relative to pre-industrial. Impacts are assessed with and without adaptation respectively. Planned adaptation is represented as an adjustment in work activities following recommendations by the US Occupational Safety & Health Administration to consider the adjustment of work shifts during hot periods – all labour takes place at night instead of day-time, under the adaptation assumption. Without climate change mitigation and adaptation, daily average outdoor labour productivity could decline by around 10-15% from present-day levels in several southern European countries by the end of the century (Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Macedonia, Portugal, Spain and Turkey). Countries in northern Europe could also see declines in daily average outdoor labour productivity but the declines are considerably smaller than for the southern countries, at around 2-4% (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Norway and Sweden). The magnitude of impact on indoor labour productivity is generally 2-4 percentage points lower than for impacts on outdoor labour productivity, for the three most sensitive impact models, while for the two least sensitive impact models, the differences are smaller. There is uncertainty in the magnitude of projected climate change impacts on labour productivity due to: 1) differences in the projections of climate between different climate models; and 2) the use of different impact models. Both sources of uncertainty are significant. The range in projected impacts due to using multiple climate models is comparable to the range in impacts from using multiple impact models with only one climate model. Adaptation and mitigation have the potential to significantly lessen the impacts of climate change on declines in labour productivity across Europe. For some countries the impacts can be up to around 10 percentage points lower with adaptation than without, for some climate-impact model combinations, at the end of the century under high emissions (e.g. Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Italy, Spain and Turkey). However, the declines in daily average outdoor labour productivity could still be around 5% relative to present-day in these countries (and up to 10% for Greece, with one climate-impact model combination). Whilst the potential benefits of adaptation are clear from this assessment, it is important to be aware of the caveats associated with the adaptation modelling approach employed. These include an assumption of the entire work force engaged in moderate to heavy labour shifting to night-time working, acknowledgment that night-time working can be associated with negative health effects, and potentially higher costs of night-time working due to energy requirements for lighting and higher wages for working unsocial hours. Such a change in working practices is optimistic, but not implausible, since currently around 20% of workers in Europe are employed on shift work involving night work. Limiting global warming to below 2°C (and assuming no adaptation) could avoid a substantial proportion of impacts in the European countries that see the largest impacts without mitigation (Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Macedonia, Portugal, Spain and Turkey). With some climate-impact model combinations the declines in labour productivity can be up to 10 percentage points lower in these countries with mitigation when compared to without mitigation
    Keywords: climate change, labour, productivity, heat stress
    Date: 2018–11
  14. By: Richard S.J. Tol (Department of Economics, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK; Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam; Department of Spatial Economics, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam; Tinbergen Institute, Amsterdam; CESifo, Munich; Payne Institute for Earth Resources, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado)
    Abstract: This paper uses imputed national climate change impact functions to estimate national social costs of carbon, which are largest in poor countries with large populations. The national social costs of carbon of faster growing economies are less sensitive to the pure rate of time preference and more sensitive to the rate of risk aversion. The pattern of national social costs of carbon is not sensitive to the assumed impact function, climate sensitivity, and scenario, although the global social cost of carbon is. Income convergence raises the national social costs of carbon of poorer countries, and lowers them for richer countries. Both global and national social costs of carbon are most sensitive to the income elasticity of climate change impacts.
    Keywords: climate change, Pigou tax, climate policy, non-cooperation
    JEL: Q54
    Date: 2019–01
  15. By: RESTU ANANDA, RIMA; Widodo, Tri
    Abstract: The changes of frequency and complexity of extreme climate events and in the variability of weather patterns will have significant impacts for stability of agricultural system. Climate change and variability are phenomena of climate anomalies that are of great concern, especially due to the agricultural sector. In Indonesia, in 30 years there have been several extreme conditions which are marked by the frequency of increasingly high climate variability. This paper investigate the impact of climate change on change of value GDP, change of wealth, Government Household Demand, Private Household Demand and real wage in Indonesia by using the dynamic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. This study used GTAP 9 with base year 2011. The GTAP database covers 140 regional units and 57 sectors that aggregated into eleven regions and eight sectors. There are three scenarios of climate change used in this paper that were the highest, medium and the lowest. The results shows that both GDP and wealth have a negative impact due to the scenarios. The greater of climate change is, the greater the decrease of values of GDP, Wealth, Market Price, Government Household Demand, Private Household Demand towards the scenarios of climate change in Indonesia are. The results indicate an urgent need to mainstream adaption strategies to lessen the negative impacts of any climate change-induced loss of agricultural productivity in Indonesia.
    Keywords: Climate change, agricultural productivity, impact assessment, Indonesia, GTAP
    JEL: O4 O44 Q5 Q54
    Date: 2019–01–07
  16. By: Sylvaine Lemeilleur (UMR MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - INRA Montpellier - Institut national de la recherche agronomique [Montpellier] - CIHEAM - Centre International des Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Gilles Allaire (Observatoire des Programmes Communautaires de Développement Rural - Institut National de Recherche Agronomique)
    Abstract: We consider the content of organic farming and food labels to be an intellectual common-pool resource. However, access to this resource is under threat from a phenomenon of commodification: third party certification, operated by competitive and private bodies, is becoming the only legal way for the public to access these labels. This expensive guarantee system excludes a large part of the communities from which the resource originated. In this paper, we describe an alternative mechanism: the participatory guarantee system. Drawing on Ostrom's approach, we analyze the design principles that explain the effectiveness and sustainability of these systems and we argue that their development contributes to a reconquering of the commons.
    Abstract: Les auteurs considèrent le contenu des labels relevant de l'agriculture biologique comme une ressource commune intellectuelle. La certification tierce partie privée et payante s'est imposée comme seul outil légal pour contrôler ces dispositifs et accéder à l'utilisation des labels devenus publics. Cette certification coûteuse est à même d'exclure une partie des communautés à l'origine de la ressource et menace son renouvellement. Dans cet article, les auteurs décrivent un mécanisme alternatif, celui des systèmes participatifs de garantie. En s'appuyant sur l'approche des communs d'Ostrom, ils analysent les conditions d'efficacité et de durabilité de ces systèmes, dont le développement participe à un mouvement de reconquête des communs.
    Keywords: organic farming,commons,label,certification,participatory guarantee system,communs,agriculture biologique,système participatif de garantie
    Date: 2018
  17. By: Karine Constant (ERUDITE - Equipe de Recherche sur l’Utilisation des Données Individuelles en lien avec la Théorie Economique - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12); Marion Davin (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier)
    Abstract: In this paper, we consider the unequal distribution of climate change damages in the world and we examine how the underlying costs can spread from a vulnerable to a non-vulnerable country through international trade. To focus on such indirect effects, we treat this topic in a North-South trade overlapping generations model in which the South is vulnerable to the damages entailed by global pollution while the North is not. We show that the impact of climate change in the South can be a source of welfare loss for northern consumers, in both the short and the long run. In the long run, an increase in the South's vulnerability can reduce the welfare in the North economy even in the case in which it improves its terms of trade. In the short run, the South's vulnerability can also represent a source of intergenerational inequity in the North. Therefore, we emphasize the strong economic incentives for non-vulnerable - and a fortiori less-vulnerable - economies to reduce the climate change damages on - more - vulnerable countries.
    Keywords: international trade,heterogeneous damages,climate change,overlapping generations
    Date: 2018–12–07
  18. By: Djemaci, Brahim
    Abstract: We used the contingent valuation method to determine and analyze the factors that influence citizens' behavior regarding environmental issues related to the service of urban waste in Algeria via the willingness to pay (WTP). Two surveys were conducted, one aimed at assessing how the decision to participate financially in a waste management program differs between respondents in relation to socio-professional characteristics. The other survey seeks to answer a problem related to the effort made by the consumer to sort his packaging waste and especially plastic bottles through a deposit system. The results reveal that the significant factors determining the decision of the WTP are in addition to the socioprofessional variables of the individuals, the type of dwelling and the distance compared to the discharge, the place of residence and the implication in associative movements.
    Keywords: willingness to pay, waste management, contingent valuation method, deposit-refund system.
    JEL: Q5 Q51
    Date: 2018–10–12
  19. By: Ignacio Perez Dominguez (European Commission - JRC); Thomas Fellmann (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: This report presents the agro-economic analysis within the PESETA III project, focusing on the effects of climate change on crop yields and related impacts on EU agricultural production, trade, prices, consumption, income, and welfare. For this purpose the CAPRI modelling system was employed, using a combination of a Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP2) and a Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP8.5). For the climate change related EU-wide biophysical yield shocks, input of the agricultural biophysical modelling of the PESETA III project was used, which provided crop yield changes under water-limited conditions based on high-resolution bias-corrected EURO-CORDEX regional climate models, taking also gridded soil data into account. As agricultural markets are globally connected via world commodity trade, it is important for the agro-economic analysis to also consider climate change related yield effects outside the EU. The analysis, therefore, was complemented with biophysical yield shocks in non-EU countries as provided by the AgCLIM50 project. To simulate and assess the response of key economic variables to the changes in EU and non-EU biophysical crop yields, one reference scenario (without yield shocks) and two specific climate change scenarios were constructed, one scenario with yield shocks but without enhanced CO2 fertilization and another scenario with yield shocks under the assumption of enhanced CO2 fertilization. The projection horizon for the scenarios is 2050.
    Keywords: agriculture, climate change
    Date: 2018–11
  20. By: Jacques Despres (European Commission - JRC); Kimon Keramidas (European Commission - JRC); Andreas Schmitz (European Commission - JRC); Alban Kitous (European Commission - JRC); Burkhard Schade (European Commission - JRC); Ana Raquel Diaz-Vazquez (European Commission - JRC); Silvana Mima; Hans Peter Russ (European Commission - JRC); Tobias Wiesenthal (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: This report is a public manual of the POLES-JRC model, the in-house tool of the European Commission for global and long-term analysis of GHG mitigation policies and evolution of energy markets. The model includes a comprehensive description of the energy system and related GHG emissions for a large set of significant economies and residual regions, covering the World and including international bunkers. Through linkage with specialized tools it also provides a full coverage of GHG emissions, including from land use and agriculture, as well as of air pollutants emissions. The POLES-JRC model builds on years of development of the POLES model (Prospective Outlook on Long-term Energy Systems) while adding specific features developed internally to the JRC. Latest modelling upgrades - compared to the 2017 edition of the model documentation - include final energy demand, electricity production, the role of hydrogen as an energy vector, the oil, gas and coal international markets and GHG emission projections. This document presents the Prospective Outlook on Long-term Energy Systems (POLES) model of the Joint Research Centre, as used in the 2018 edition of the Global Energy and Climate Outlook (GECO).
    Keywords: energy, GHG mitigation, model, policy assessment, POLES, market, power, energy supply, energy demand, energy trade, oil market, gas market, coal market, renewables, hydrogen, air pollution, GECO
    Date: 2018–11
  21. By: Dian Iriani, Latifah; Widodo, Tri
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of B20 policy, with the aims to reduce fossil oil import and increase production of biofuel, on environment impact. General Trade Analysis Project on Energy and Environment (GTAP E) model is using to analyze its impact. the result shows that reduction of 20 percent on import oil gives positive impact on reduction of carbon dioxode emission. While paddy rice, forestry, vegan fruit and agriculture gives negative impact on commodity market price, and natural resources gives positive impacts.
    Keywords: fossil oil import, environment, GTAP-E
    JEL: Q42 Q48 Q52 Q56 Q58
    Date: 2019–01–07
  22. By: Jean-Claude Berthelemy (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, FERDI - Fondation pour les Etudes et Recherches sur le Développement International); Arnaud Millien (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, FERDI - Fondation pour les Etudes et Recherches sur le Développement International)
    Abstract: This paper is the first product of a project which aims to build a Collaborative Smart Mapping of Mini-grid Action (CoSMMA), whose principal objective is to identify best practice in decentralized electrification projects. Using evaluations of 421 projects, from published research papers, we built a pilot CoSMMA which proves its feasibility. Its relevance is demonstrated by a meta-analysis, which reveals the principal characteristics of decentralized electrification projects which have positive impacts on sustainable development. Four main characteristics were considered: technology (source or energy), system size (power), decision level (from local to country level) geographic location. When searching for best practices, technology and system size must be considered together, because the chosen technology may constrain the power, which is provided by the system. We find that the most popular projects, which are based on Solar Home Systems (SHS) are not the most effective. The problem with SHS is not the use of solar energy, but the small system size often chosen for SHS. Mini-grids, of larger size, especially those which use hybrid renewable sources of energy, have more positive impacts, because these systems combine the benefits of sustainability and flexibility. In terms of decision level, we find that both top-down and bottom-up approaches have advantages, with the observation of a U-shaped curve for the influence of the decision level on the probability of obtaining positive impacts. Geographical location matters, as it is very often the key to system feasibility. We find that DEPs are more effective in Latin America than in Asia, and more effective in Asia than in Africa. We also attempted to study the type of effects resulting from DEPs. Descriptive data suggest that for some types of effects, positive impacts are more likely than for others. Decentralized electrification projects have a more positive impact on Lifestyle & NICT or Household agenda than on Economic transformation or Community life. However, this pilot CoSMMA does not contain enough information to study precisely the types of effects, because some types of effects have not been studied frequently in the existing literature. This is the case, for instance, for environmental effects, which have been rarely measured scientifically. Finally, we attempted to broaden our information set by including expert data, which was entered into the CoSMMA meta-analysis. We define expert data as data that are not supported by statistical tests with measures of significance, whereas the evaluations based on scientific data were supported by statistical tests of significance. The expert data may be valid, but our attempt to include it in the analysis failed at this stage. The determinants of unproven effects appear to be quite different from the determinants of proven effects in our meta-analysis, and using expert data would imply merging proven and unproven effects, which would totally blur the conclusions.
    Keywords: decentralized electrification,sustainable developement,impact assessment,meta-analysis,méta-analyse,électrification décentralisée,développement durable,évaluation d'impact
    Date: 2018–12
  23. By: Bo Tranberg; Olivier Corradi; Bruno Lajoie; Thomas Gibon; Iain Staffell; Gorm Bruun Andresen
    Abstract: Electricity accounts for 25% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Reducing emissions related to electricity consumption requires accurate measurements readily available to consumers, regulators and investors. In this case study, we propose a new real-time consumption-based accounting approach based on flow tracing. This method traces power flows from producer to consumer thereby representing the underlying physics of the electricity system, in contrast to the traditional input-output models of carbon accounting. With this method we explore the hourly structure of electricity trade across Europe in 2017, and find substantial differences between production and consumption intensities. This emphasizes the importance of considering cross-border flows for increased transparency regarding carbon emission accounting of electricity.
    Date: 2018–12
  24. By: Philippe Delacote (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Gwenolé Le Velly (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Gabriela Simonet (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier)
    Abstract: Since the emergence of the REDD+ mechanism, hundreds of projects have emerged around the globe. Much attention has been given to REDD+ projects in the literature, but the conditions under which they are likely to be efficient ares till not well known. In this article, we study how the location of REDD+ projects is chosen and how those location choices influence project additionality. Based on a sample of six REDD+ projects in Brazil, we propose an empirical analysis of the location choices and estimate additionality in the first years of implementation using impact evaluation techniques. In order to explain the heterogeneity of the empirical results, we present a simple theoretical model and show that project location is strongly influenced by the type of project proponent, which appears to be a good proxy for its objectives, whether oriented toward environmental impacts, development impacts, or external funding. Our results suggest that (1) the incentives behind REDD+ certification mechanisms can lead to low environmental efforts or an investment in areas that are not additional, (2) location biases are dependent on the REDD+ project manager's type, and (3) the existence of a location bias does not necessarily preclude additionality.
    Keywords: additionality,conservation policy,deforestation,REDD+,spatial analysis.
    Date: 2018–12–14
  25. By: Ahmadou Saïd Ba (Université Paris-Dauphine, PSL Research University)
    Abstract: On estime que 17% de la population mondiale n'a pas accès à l'électricité et que les combustibles fossiles représentent encore plus de 80% du mix énergétique mondial. La communauté internationale a adopté les objectifs du SEA (Sustainable Energy for All) qui sont de réaliser l'accès universel aux services énergétiques modernes, de doubler le taux mondial d'amélioration de l'efficacité énergétique ainsi que la part des énergies renouvelables dans le bouquet énergétique mondial. Selon l'AIE, ces objectifs nécessiteront une augmentation des investissements énergétiques d'au moins 600 milliards USD par an jusqu'en 2030. Relever le double défi du changement climatique et du manque d'accès à une énergie abordable pour les populations les plus pauvres nécessitera une coopération étroite entre les gouvernements et le secteur privé pour réaliser des investissements massifs, alors même que les prérequis de transparence, de visibilité à long terme et d'assurance font souvent défaut dans les politiques nationales. La création d'un environnement réglementaire stable et attractif dans les pays en développement s'avère donc essentielle pour que le secteur privé puisse réaliser ces investissements. En effet, l'implantation du secteur privé dans de nouveaux marchés est généralement grevée par d'importants coûts d'opportunité du fait que les promoteurs, entreprises de construction, investisseurs et financiers ne connaissent pas ces marchés, leurs spécificités et leurs procédures. Or, investir dans de nouveaux marchés n'a de sens commercial que si l'activité sur ces derniers est au moins aussi attrayante que sur les marchés existants. Dans le cas contraire, les coûts d'opportunité empêchent généralement une allocation des ressources aux nouveaux marchés. Ce document vise à donner un aperçu des instruments de soutien au financement des EnR en Afrique sub-saharienne en s'appuyant sur l'exemple du concept GET FiT et sa mise en œuvre en tant que projet pilote en Ouganda. La première partie traitera des barrières au financement des EnR et des instruments publics permettant de les lever. La seconde partie décrira le concept GET FiT ainsi que son projet pilote en Ouganda, en passant en revue ses principaux mécanismes et ses effets induits. La dernière partie consistera en un bilan d'étape du concept GET FiT incluant une brève analyse critique.
    Keywords: Renewable Energy,Energies renouvelables
    Date: 2018–04–03
  26. By: Prem, M; Saavedra, S; Vargas, J.F
    Abstract: Armed conflict can endanger natural resources through several channels such as direct predation from fighting groups, but it may also help preserve ecosystems by dissuading extractive economic activities through the fear of extortion. The effect of conflict on deforestation is thus an empirical question. This paper studies the effect on forest cover of Colombia’s recent peace negotiation between the central government and the FARC insurgency. Using yearly deforestation data from satellite images and a difference-in-differences identification strategy, we show that areas controlled by FARC prior to the declaration of a permanent ceasefire that ultimately led to a peace agreement experienced a differential increase in deforestation after the start of the ceasefire. The deforestation effect of peace is attenuated in municipalities with higher state capacity, and is exacerbated by land intensive economic activities. Our results highlight the importance of complementing peacemaking milestones with state building efforts to avoid environmental damage.
    Keywords: Deforestation, Conflict, Peace building, Colombia
    JEL: D74 Q34
    Date: 2018–12–27
  27. By: Dominique Bessières (PREFICS - Pôle de Recherche Francophonies, Interculturel, Communication, Sociolinguistique - UBS - Université de Bretagne Sud - UR2 - Université de Rennes 2 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes)
    Abstract: La communication environnementale constitue un objet complexe qui articule trois dimensions-contraindre, contrôler, convaincre-et amène à rechercher une symbiose entre politique publique, communication et mobilisation sur des problèmes globaux d'intérêt général. De l'international au local Le concept d'environnement recouvre une variété d'échelles dans « un mouvement étonnant qui fait circuler ce terme selon un mouvement descendant du haut vers le bas, du niveau des institutions internationales au niveau national, régional et local »*. Du point de vue de la communication, ce sont les engagements interna-tionaux qui ont contribué à forger un cadre de déclinaisons pour les institutions publiques nationales de dif-férents niveaux. En communication, les engagements internationaux ont forgé un cadre de déclinaisons pour les institutions publiques nationales. Si le rapport Brundtland de 1987 de l'ONU définit le développement durable (« répondre aux besoins du pré-sent sans compromettre la capacité de satisfaire ceux des générations futures »), il faut attendre1992 et le Sommet de la Terre de Rio pour qu'émerge une communication au travers d'une déclaration de propositions-l'agenda 21, programme d'action pour le XXIe siècle-qui officialise la volonté de 173 États d'intégrer les dimensions environnementale, sociale et économique dans le développement de leurs territoires. Avec des actions de communication qui ne visent plus seulement l'espace politico-institutionnel et les experts mais à mobiliser et alerter les opinions publiques. Répondre aux besoins du présent sans compromettre la capacité de satisfaire ceux des générations futures Rapport Brundtland, ONU 1987.
    Date: 2017–06
  28. By: Goldlücke, Susanne; Schmitz, Patrick W.
    Abstract: A principal's production decision imposes a negative externality on an agent. The principal may be a pollution-generating firm, the agent may be a nearby town. The principal offers a contract to the agent, who has the right to be free of pollution. Then the agent privately learns the disutility of pollution. Finally, a production level and a transfer payment are implemented. Suppose there is an upper bound (possibly zero) on payments that the agent can make to the principal. In the second-best solution, there is underproduction for low cost types, while there is overproduction for high cost types. In contrast to standard adverse selection models of pollution claim settlements, there may thus be too much pollution compared to the first-best solution.
    Keywords: Coasian contracting; negative externalities; hidden information; limited liability; overproduction
    JEL: D23 D62 D82 D86 H23
    Date: 2018
  29. By: Mark Hilton (Eunomia); Chris Sherrington (Eunomia); Andrew McCarthy (OECD); Peter Börkey (OECD)
    Abstract: Extended producer responsibility or product stewardship is a policy approach that aims to increase waste recovery and recycling. Extended producer responsibility (EPR) systems aim to make producers responsible for the environmental impacts of their products throughout the product chain, from design to the end-of-life phase. This report focuses on free-riding of producers or retailers, which the fast expansion of online sales in recent years has been exacerbating. Online sales are creating new free-riding opportunities as consumers are able to buy more easily from sellers in other countries. These sellers often have no physical, legal entity in the country where the consumer resides, and are not registered with national or local EPR schemes.
    Keywords: circular economy, Extended producer responsibility, free-riding, product stewardship, resource efficiency, waste management
    JEL: Q53 Q58
    Date: 2019–01–23
  30. By: Chari, V. V. (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis)
    Abstract: This chapter is an introductory essay to the volume Climate Change Economics: The Role of Uncertainty and Risk, edited by V. V. Chari and Robert Litterman. This volume consists of a collection of papers that were presented at "The Next Generation of Economic Models of Climate Change," a conference hosted by the Heller-Hurwicz Economics Institute at the University of Minnesota.
    Keywords: Externalities; Greenhouse gases; Global warming
    JEL: G12 H41
    Date: 2018–12–26
  31. By: Benjamin Aretz; Gabriele Doblhammer; Fanny Janssen
    Abstract: Longitudinal studies on associations between changes in living environment and health are few and focus on movers. Next to causal effects, differences in health between living environments can, however, result due to residential mobility. The present study explored changes in living environment related to (changes in) physical health among movers and non-movers. Causality was reinforced by a novel study design. We obtained longitudinal data on both living environment and physical health covering 4,373 participants with 12,403 health observations aged 50+ from the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) between 1999 and 2014. Changing and stable perceived living environmental characteristics from four domains (infrastructure, environmental pollution, housing conditions, contacts to neighbours) were included at household level. Gender-specific linear regressions and generalised estimating equations were performed to predict the Physical Component Summary (PCS) at baseline and changes in PCS over time. We found that worsening of environmental pollution (men: -2.32, p = 0.001; women: -1.68, p = 0.013) and housing conditions were associated with lower PCS at baseline. Improved infrastructure was related to lower women’s PCS at baseline (-1.94; p = 0.004) but a positive PCS development (0.62, p = 0.095) thereafter among female and especially among female non-movers (0.812, p = 0.042). Men who experienced stable worst (-0.57, p = 0.021) or worsened environmental pollution (-0.81, p = 0.036) indicated a negative developing PCS. These results were particularly strong among non-movers. We showed that changes in infrastructure and environmental pollution were associated with health developments. Due to our methodological approach – imposing a strict time order between cause and outcome while controlling for time-varying individual characteristics - it appears that these associations are indeed causal.
    Keywords: Changes in living environment, physical component summary, changes in physical health, movers and non-movers, generalized estimating equations, causal inference
    Date: 2018
  32. By: Ahmadou Saïd Ba (Université Paris-Dauphine, PSL Research University)
    Abstract: In 2014, Senegal adopted an accelerated economic development plan called the "Plan Sénégal Emergent" (PSE), or Emerging Senegal Plan (ESP), which rightly relies on the development of the energy sector, among others. The country's energy policy has therefore been revised, in agreement with the ESP, to define a clear vision, with specific objectives and a well-developed strategy. However, its energy consumption was only 0.27 toe, including 230 kWh of electricity, and generated 0.54 tCO2 per capita in 2016. These figures are obviously low and symptomatic of a low-energy economy, characteristic of a developing country. Nevertheless, Senegal's energy consumption has been growing rapidly at + 3.6% / year on average, since 2000, due to the combined effects of economic and demographic growths. In addition, significant offshore oil and gas reserves have recently been discovered in the country, which first production is expected to start in 2021. All of these elements raise a fundamental question: how can a developing country like Senegal, deprived of natural resources since always, succeed in supporting its economic emergence through an ambitious and low-emission energy policy while exploiting its new oil and gas resources? The purpose of this study is therefore to analyze the relevance of Senegal's current energy policy with regards to its ambitions for economic emergence and vis-à-vis the main challenges facing the country like energy independence and security of supply in the face of growing demand, universal access to affordable electricity, and climate change. To do this, the study was divided into 3 parts. The first presents an overview of the country, including its macroeconomic fundamentals. The second details its energy policy, including its objectives, the strategies deployed, and the institutional and regulatory frameworks that underpin it. The third is a detailed critical analysis of this policy, starting with an evaluation of the results and ending with suggestions for improvement.
    Keywords: Energy Access,Renewable Energy,Oil and Gas,Energy independence,Security of Supply,Senegal,Energy Policy,Off-Grid,Compensation,Energy Efficiency,CO2,Emissions,INDC,ESP,Electrification,Tarification,PSE
    Date: 2018–01–23
  33. By: Zagatta, Gunther (Center for Mathematical Economics, Bielefeld University); Müller, H. (Center for Mathematical Economics, Bielefeld University); Wehmeyer, O. (Center for Mathematical Economics, Bielefeld University); Brandt, M. (Center for Mathematical Economics, Bielefeld University); Böwering, N. (Center for Mathematical Economics, Bielefeld University); Heinzmann, Ulrich (Center for Mathematical Economics, Bielefeld University)
    Abstract: The NO-CO reaction on Pt(100) was examined using temperature programmed reaction methods. The platinum surface was precovered at -80°C with various amounts of both NO and CO and then heated to 370°C. In this case the reaction occurs within a very narrow temperature range around 120°C exhibiting sharp reaction peaks at the mass numbers 28 (N2/CO) and 44 (CO2/N2O). The reaction products were detected by a quadrupole mass analyzer scanning complete mass spectra of 50 amu width at a speed of 15 spectra per second. Thus the course of the reaction was recorded within a single measurement. A subsequent analysis of the data using a modified least-squares fit method was applied to the mass spectra in order to gain information on the true composition of the desorbing gas mixture. To this end isotope and cracking patterns were evaluated. This analysis revealed that beside the major reaction products N2 and CO2 also minor amounts of N2O appear on Pt(100).
    Date: 2017–02–21
  34. By: -
    Abstract: Con la Agenda 2030, nuevos desafíos se plantean y con ello la necesidad de que los países generen nuevas metodologías e indicadores que les permitan dar cuenta de los avances en la generación de la sostenibilidad, para ello se ha propuesto avanzar hacia un enfoque territorial que permita a los países mover grandes números a partir de una estrategia que considere i) fortalecimiento institucional para la actualización de las estrategias nacionales de seguridad alimentaria incluidos los consejos y secretarias creadas para tal fin, ii) identificación y caracterización de los 100 territorios de América Latina y el Caribe de mayor concentración de hambre, pobreza y vulnerabilidad climática, revisando además el marco de políticas públicas, y iii) proponer medidas de política para estos espacios territoriales en situación de vulnerabilidad. En este contexto, este documento da cuenta, en el marco de un trabajo conjunto de la CEPAL y la FAO, de la identificación y análisis de los territorios rurales con mayores carencias sociales y mayor incidencia de hambre para 14 países de la región, para orientar estrategias de intervención de políticas públicas en el marco de la Agenda 2030 de Desarrollo Sostenible.
    Date: 2018–12–30
  35. By: Blume-Werry, Eike; Faber, Thomas; Hirth, Lion; Huber, Claus; Everts, Martin
    Abstract: Upon discussion of price setting on electricity wholesale markets, many refer to the so-called merit order model. Conventional wisdom holds that during most hours of the year, coal- or natural gas-fired power plants set the price on European markets. In this context, this paper analyses price setting on European power markets. We use a fundamental electricity market model of interconnected bidding zones to determine hourly price-setting technologies for the year 2020. We find a price-setting pattern that is more complex and nuanced than the conventional wisdom suggests: across all researched countries, coal- and natural gas-fired power plants set the price for only 40 per cent of all hours. Other power generation technologies such as wind, biomass, hydro and nuclear power plants as well as lignite-fired plants set the price during the rest of the year. On some markets, the price setting is characterised by a high level of interconnectivity and thus foreign influence – as illustrated by the example of the Netherlands. During some 75 per cent of hours, foreign power plants set the price on the Dutch market, whilst price setting in other more isolated markets is barely affected by foreign markets. Hence, applying the price setting analysis to the proposed Dutch carbon price floor, we show that different carbon prices have little effect on the technological structure of the price-setting units. In this respect, the impacts of the unilateral initiative are limited. There are, however, considerable changes to be observed in wholesale power prices, import/export balances as well as production volumes and subsequent CO2 outputs of lignite-, coal- and gas-fired power plants.
    Keywords: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2019–01–14
  36. By: Benjamin Botor; Benjamin Boecker; Thomas Kalabis; Christoph Weber (House of Energy Markets and Finance, University of Duisburg-Essen (Campus Essen))
    Abstract: Climate change mitigation requires governmental intervention, but different choices are at hand. While economists in general advocate for first-best instruments, reality looks quite different, with especially many subsidy schemes for renewable energies being used. Supporters of these schemes often argue that investment risk reduction is essential to achieve ambitious environmental targets. In this paper we compare four different instruments (cap, tax, minimum quota and feed-in tariffs/renewable auctions) in terms of efficacy and efficiency and also quantify investment risks, assuming an uncertain investment environment, represented by different information shocks on demand, investment and fuel cost. We use a long-term electricity market equilibrium model (generalized peak load pricing model) of the future German electricity market implemented as a linear optimization problem. Starting from an equilibrium, single input parameters are varied to simulate the arrival of new information. Running the model again with partly fixed capacities then allows us to analyze the adjustment of the power plant portfolio towards the new equilibrium over time. As expected quantity-based instruments are effective in assuring achievement of quantitative goals, notably a certain emission level. Yet risks for investors are rather high in that furthermore that first-best instruments are the most efficient. Risks are lower with price solutions, especially feed-in tariffs or renewable auctions provide the possibility to limit risks extremely by diversification only inside the electricity market.
    Keywords: Information shocks, Electricity system, Investment, Policy instruments
    JEL: Q40 Q48
  37. By: Halkos, George; Papageorgiou, George; Halkos, Emmanuel; Papageorgiou, John
    Abstract: This paper considers economic cycles that do not depend on the exogenous economic actions. More precisely, the paper develops a positive model of government behavior in order to define the intertemporal fiscal policies that are optimal for a country, determining the optimal level of the budget and the optimal level of the rate of environmental quality, as well. For this purpose, we setup an optimal control model involving the intertemporal subsidy strategies for an authoritarian (like a central European) government. It will be shown - applying the Hopf bifurcation theorem - that cyclical strategy, i.e. waves of regulation, environmental subsidies alternating with deregulation, cuts in social programmes, etc., may be optimal strategies. In this paper we propose an extremely simple optimal control model concerning budget surplus and environmental subsidies. We investigate the cyclical subsiding policies applying one bifurcation theorem. A number of propositions are stated during the solution process.
    Keywords: Budget; environmental resources; subsidies; Hopf bifurcation; optimal control.
    JEL: C02 C61 C62 H23 H61 Q0 Q50 Q58
    Date: 2018–12
  38. By: Ahmadou Saïd Ba (Université Paris-Dauphine, PSL Research University)
    Abstract: Le Sénégal est un pays en développement qui n'a pas de ressources naturelles importantes et qui est situé dans la zone sahélienne du continent africain. C'est donc un pays qui n'est pas, pour ainsi dire, gâté par la nature. Malgré cet état de fait, ce pays a su construire et consolider, depuis son accession à l'indépendance en 1960, une nation, ainsi qu'un état de droit stable et démocratique. Il n'a pas abrité de guerre civile ou de conflit politique violent et a résisté à toutes les sécheresses dans la région, évitant ainsi toute catastrophe humanitaire. Sur le plan économique, il a également su s'adapter aux crises majeures de la seconde moitié du XXe siècle, mais aussi aux dures périodes d'ajustement structurel imposées par le FMI qui ont duré une vingtaine d'années, ainsi qu'à la dévaluation du franc CFA, dont la valeur a été divisée par deux en 1994. Depuis 2014, la croissance moyenne du PIB a été supérieure à 6,5% par an avec une perspective stable jusqu'en 2022 selon le FMI. Cependant, sa consommation d'énergie n'était que de 0,27 Tep, dont 230 kWh d'électricité , et a généré 0,54 tC02/hab en 2016 . Ces chiffres sont évidemment faibles, symptomatiques d'une économie qui ne consomme pas beaucoup d'énergie et caractéristiques d'un pays en développement. Néanmoins, la consommation d'énergie du Sénégal a connu une croissance rapide de + 3,6%/an en moyenne depuis 2000 , en raison des effets combinés des croissances économique et démographique. Dans le même temps, le Sénégal ambitionne de passer d'un taux d'électrification national de 60% en 2017 à l'accès universel à l'électricité en 2030, tout en menant une politique énergétique à faibles émissions. D'emblée, il semble évident que l'atteinte de tels objectifs, avec les contraintes qui lui sont propres, ne pourra se faire sans une politique d'efficacité énergétique adéquate et performante. L'objectif de cette étude est, par conséquent, d'analyser la pertinence de la politique d'efficacité énergétique actuelle du Sénégal, compte-tenu de ses ambitions économiques et des principaux enjeux du pays tels que l'indépendance énergétique et la sécurité d'approvisionnement face à la demande croissante, l'accès universel à une électricité abordable et le changement climatique.
    Keywords: Energy Saving Lamps,Sénégal,Energie renouvelable,Maîtrise de la Demande de l’Energie,Plan d’Actions National pour l’Efficacité Energétique
    Date: 2018–04–16
  39. By: Florian Fizaine (IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - USMB [Université de Savoie] [Université de Chambéry] - Université Savoie Mont Blanc); Pierre Voye (LEDi - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dijon [Dijon] - UB - Université de Bourgogne - UBFC - Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté [COMUE]); Catherine Baumont (LEDi - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dijon - UB - Université de Bourgogne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: La place majeure occupée par le secteur du bâtiment dans la consommation d'énergie (40%) et les émissions de gaz à effet de serre (1/3 des émissions) explique le développement du débat scientifique axé sur la réduction de l'impact environnemental du bâtit et sur ses leviers. Ces dernières années ont notamment vu croitre une littérature considérable relative à la disposition à payer du public pour les bâtiments « verts » labélisés par des écolabels, cette « valeur verte » étant estimée dans la grande majorité des études via des modèles hédoniques. Dans cet article, nous proposons d'offrir une synthèse de ces résultats dans le cadre d'une méta-analyse portant sur plus d'une cinquantaine d'études à travers le monde. Deux résultats sont produits. Grâce à un modèle à effets aléatoires multi-niveaux et une régression MCO pondérée robuste au regroupement, nous fournissons tout d'abord une estimation moyenne ainsi qu'un intervalle de confiance du premium de prix concédé par les agents économiques (prix de vente) pour accéder à un bâtiment vert. Cette estimation nous permet de corroborer l'intérêt et la pertinence économique de l'investissement dans la rénovation du bâtiment. Toutefois, un important biais de publication semble affecter cette thématique et sa correction amène à une division par deux de la valeur verte immobilière (de 8 à 4 %). Ensuite, nous analysons les facteurs susceptibles d'être à la source de la dispersion des résultats via une méta-régression basée sur différents modérateurs (type de publication, période d'analyse et zone géographique de l'échantillon, technique économétrique employée…). Divers tests statistiques et méthodes alternatives de sélection sont également réalisés pour étayer la robustesse de ces résultats. Nous terminons par un certain nombre de recommandations à destination des recherches futures permettant une meilleure comparabilité des résultats ainsi que par des suggestions aptes à éclairer l'efficacité des politiques publiques visant la soutenabilité du secteur du bâtiment.
    Keywords: labels,certification,efficacité énergétique,bâtiment,modèle hédonique,Méta-analyse
    Date: 2018
  40. By: Liu, X-Y.; Liu, L-Q.; Xie, B-C.; Pollitt, M.
    Abstract: China’s electricity industry has experienced a reform whereby the generation sector is being opened up to competition but the transmission and distribution sectors are still regulated. Efficiency and benchmarking analyses are widely used for improving the performance of regulated segments, and the impact on efficiency of observable environmental factors, together with unobservable characteristics, has gained increasing attention in recent years. This study uses alternative stochastic frontier models combined with input distance functions to study the productive efficiency of 29 grid firms of China over the period 1993–2014 and investigates the effect of observed environmental factors and unobserved heterogeneity. The results indicate that efficiency is sensitive to model specification and illustrates the presence of observed and unobserved heterogeneity. The number of customers, power delivered and network length are demonstrated to have positive impacts on the utilities’ efficiency while adverse environmental conditions harm the operation of grid utilities, but policy regulations may offset the negative impact. Finally, we suggest that there is room for efficiency improvement in the distribution grid, which could be encouraged by incentive regulation, even taking due account of environmental heterogeneity.
    Keywords: Grid industry; Efficiency estimation; Stochastic frontier analysis; Environmental heterogeneity; China
    JEL: L94
    Date: 2018–06–25
  41. By: Ren, Yongwang; Lambert, Dayton; Clark, Chris; Boyer, Chris; Griffith, Andrew; English, Burt,; Smith, Aaron; Menard, Robert; Walker, Forbes; Keyser, Patrick
    Keywords: Farm Management, Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2019
  42. By: Luengo, Carol; Caffera, Marcelo; Chávez, Carlos
    Abstract: We present the results of a series of laboratory economic experiments designed to study compliance behavior of polluting firms when information on the penalty is uncertain. The experiments consist of a regulatory environment in which university students face emission standards and an enforcement mechanism composed of audit probabilities and penalties (conditional on detection of a violation). We examine how uncertainty on the penalty affects the compliance decision and the extent of violation under two enforcement levels: one in which the regulator induces perfect compliance and another one in which it does not. Our results suggest that in the first case, uncertain penalties increase the extent of the violations of those firms with higher marginal benefits. When enforcement is not sufficient to induce compliance, the uncertain penalties do not have any statistically significant effect on compliance behavior. Overall, the results suggest that a cost-effective design of emission standards should consider including public and complete information on the penalties for violations.
    Keywords: uncertainty, penalty, emission standard, economic experiment
    JEL: C91 K42 L51 Q58
    Date: 2018
  43. By: Brosio, Giorgio; Jiménez, Juan Pablo; Ruelas, Ignacio
    Abstract: Non-renewable natural resources (NRNR) contribute a large share of tax revenue in Latin American countries; and the fact that these resources are concentrated in just a few regions generates a high level of territorial inequality. This paper aims to analyse how NRNR revenues could be included in equalization grants, and how countries are implementing adequate equalization grant systems, or could do so. Based on fiscal equalization theory, vertical and horizontal systems are evaluated with reference to mid-level governments in Argentina and Peru. The study identifies a variety of political and economic costs for different NRNR revenue systems, where: (i) the provinces own the resources in question (Argentina); and (ii) NRNR revenues are collected and distributed by central government to a large number of subnational governments under a fully asymmetrical scheme (Peru).
    Date: 2018–12–30
  44. By: Jesús Giráldez Rivero (Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Spain)
    Abstract: Este trabajo busca aproximarse al desarrollo del sistema fordista en la pesca. Dicho sistema, difundido en la industria agroalimentaria en Estados Unidos en los años treinta, por asimilación de los cambios operados en la industria de bienes de consumo duradero, fue replicado por el conjunto de sectores agrícolas occidentales tras la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Los cambios en el modelo industrial permitieron incrementar sustancialmente la productividad, asentando un sistema de acumulación basado en la producción y el consumo masivo. La nueva naturaleza industrial también afectó a la pesca. La exigencia de recursos abundantes y homogéneos impuesta por la tecnología pesquera de tipo fordista, impulsó la intensificación y la mundialización de la actividad, generando nuevas dinámicas económicas y ecológicas. En las siguientes páginas abordaremos, primero, la difusión del fordismo en la industria agroalimentaria y la incorporación del pescado a las nuevas formas de consumo; a continuación, analizaremos su plasmación en la actividad pesquera, las nuevas formas de aprovechamiento y conservación del pescado; después, estudiaremos los factores que proporcionaron consistencia al sistema en los años sesenta y setenta; sus bases tecnológicas y su excepcional marco institucional y económico.
    Keywords: Historia Económica, Pesca, Recursos naturales
    JEL: Q22 N50 P28
    Date: 2019–01
  45. By: Ethan Kaplan; Jörg L. Spenkuch; Haishan Yuan
    Abstract: We exploit the precise timing of natural disasters to provide empirical evidence on the connection between electoral accountability and politicians’ support for special interests. We show that, in the immediate aftermath of a disaster, the evening news substantially reduce their coverage of politics. At the very same time, members of Congress become more likely to adopt the positions of special-interest donors as they vote on bills. Our findings are consistent with standard theories of political agency, according to which politicians are more inclined to serve special interests when, for exogenous reasons, they are less intensely monitored.
    Keywords: natural disasters, moral hazard, toll-call voting, special interests, Congress
    Date: 2018

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