nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2019‒01‒07
33 papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Renewable technologies in Karnataka, India: jobs potential and co-benefits By Kattumuri, Ruth; Kruse, Tobias
  2. The price of transition: an analysis of the economic implications of carbon taxing By Gerbert Hebbink; Laurien Berkvens; Maurice Bun; Henk van Kerkhoff; Juho Koistinen; Guido Schotten; Ad Stokman
  3. Carbon tax and sustainable facility location: The role of production technology By Carl Gaigné; Vincent Hovelaque; Youcef Méchouar
  4. Belize; Climate Change Policy Assessment By International Monetary Fund
  5. Financial development and industrial pollution By De Haas, Ralph; Popov, Alexander
  6. Systems Dynamics Economic Modelling of the Fiscal Impacts from the Indonesia’s 1st Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) By Kindy R. Sjahrir
  7. What drives the withdrawal of protected areas? Evidence from the Brazilian Amazon By Derya Keles; Philippe Delacote; Alexander Pfaff
  8. Tradable Climate Liabilities: A Thought Experiment By Étienne Billette de Villemeur; Justin Leroux
  9. Growth Sustainability and the Quality Dimension of Consumption By Francisco Alcalá Agulló
  10. Fiscal Policy and Development; Human, Social, and Physical Investments for the SDGs By Vitor Gaspar; David Amaglobeli; Mercedes Garcia-Escribano; Delphine Prady; Mauricio Soto
  11. Understanding Norwegian Commons By Berge, Erling
  12. The econometrical causal analysis of internal conflicts: The evolutions of a growing literature By Camille Laville
  13. The impact of CO2 taxation on Swiss households' heating demand By Laurent Ott; Sylvain Weber
  14. Analysing Carbon Pass-Through Rate Mechanism in the Electricity Sector: Evidence from Greece By Dagoumas, Athanasios; Polemis, Michael
  15. Threshold Regressions for the Resource Curse By Nicolas Clootens; Djamel Kirat
  16. De la COP21 à la COP24 : bilan d’étape By Maha Skah
  17. Impact of Decentralized Electrification Projects on Sustainable Development: A Meta-Analysis By Jean-Claude Berthelemy; Arnaud Millien
  18. Adoption and Cooperation Decisions in Sustainable Energy Infrastructure: Evidence from a Sequential Choice Experiment in Germany By Oberst, Christian; Harmsen - van Hout, Marjolein J. W.
  19. Population Growth and Economic Development in Bangladesh: Revisited Malthus By Chowdhury, Md Niaz Murshed; Hossain, Md Mobarak
  20. Military Training Exercises, Pollution, and their Consequences for Health By Gustavo J. Bobonis; Mark Stabile; Leonardo Tovar
  21. Estimating biomass migration parameters by analyzing the spatial behavior of the fishing fleet By Hugo Salgado; Ariel Soto-Caro
  22. Dématérialiser la nature pour la faire entrer dans la sphère du marché By Hélène Tordjman
  23. Green, yellow or red lemons? Artefactual field experiment on houses energy labels perception By Edouard Civel; Nathaly Cruz
  24. Input-Output table and Carbon Footprint: Estimation and Structural Decomposition Analysis By Simón Accorsi; Ramón E. López; Gino Sturla
  25. Occasional Bulletin of Economic Notes 2017/02- Going green is good for private fixed investment By Nkhetheni Nesengani
  26. Competitive Permit Storage and Market Design: An Application to the EU-ETS By Simon Quemin; Raphael Trotignon
  27. Eco-Innovation: Drivers, Barriers and Effects – A European Perspective By Sandra M. Leitner
  28. In-utero weather shocks and learning outcomes By Manuel Barron
  29. Economics of the supply functions for pollination and honey: Marginal costs and supply elasticity By Sumner, Daniel; Champetier, Antoine
  30. Marchés internationaux de droits à polluer et taxes locales sur les biens polluants By Julien Daubanes; Pierre Lasserre
  31. Discounting for Public Cost-Benefit Analysis By Qingran Li; William A. Pizer
  32. Does corporate social responsibility (CSR) impact on development of women in small-scale fisheries of sub-Saharan Africa? Evidence from coastal communities of Niger Delta in Nigeria By Joseph I. Uduji; Elda N. Okolo-Obasi
  33. Agua, producción de alimentos y energía: la experiencia del Nexo en Chile By Peña, Humberto

  1. By: Kattumuri, Ruth; Kruse, Tobias
    Abstract: The tangible benefits of renewable energy technologies are a crucial parameter when determining the political feasibility of adopting a low-carbon development path, particularly for emerging economies. We present that these potential benefits consist of ‘green jobs’ and of a wider set of socio-economic and environmental ‘co-benefits’ that are generated simultaneously from renewable technologies in India. Based on case studies from the Indian state of Karnataka, we obtain estimates for jobs and describe co-benefits enabled by wind, off-grid solar and biomass technologies. Furthermore, we use these estimates to project the potential for future benefits that could be generated by further enhancing the use of renewable technologies towards sustainable energy policy and security. We show that enhancing green economy offers benefits that include the creation of jobs, but also delivers a much wider set of socio-economic and environmental welfare gains for emerging economies such as India. Our paper also provides valuable evidence-based analyses for policy-makers when assessing the benefits of low-carbon sustainable development
    Keywords: renewable technologies; green jobs; co-benefits; socio-economic benefits; low-carbon sustainable development
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2017–12–27
  2. By: Gerbert Hebbink; Laurien Berkvens; Maurice Bun; Henk van Kerkhoff; Juho Koistinen; Guido Schotten; Ad Stokman
    Abstract: In the summer of 2018, the House of Representatives of the Netherlands supported the legislative proposal for a Climate Act. The Climate Act stipulates that in 2050, greenhouse gas emissions must have been reduced by 95% relative to their 1990 level. To achieve this objective, the government is aiming to reduce emissions by 49% in 2030. This requires ambitious climate policies, which also include the option of introducing a direct tax on carbon emissions. An efficient way of reducing harmful emissions is to assign a price to the external effects of emissions. Data evidences that compared with other countries, Dutch enterprises emit large quantities of greenhouse gases and are paying relatively little for these emissions. The most straightforward approach would be to introduce a European carbon tax, after the example of the European Emissions Trading System (ETS). The option of introducing a national policy, with the Netherlands leading the field in terms of imposing a direct carbon tax on corporations, requires more insight into its impact on production costs, international price competitiveness and sales. This study addresses this, distinguishing between the various industry sectors within the Dutch economy.
    Date: 2018–12
  3. By: Carl Gaigné (UMR-1302, SMART-LERECO INRA, AGROCAMPUS OUEST, F-35000 Rennes, France); Vincent Hovelaque (Univ Rennes, CNRS, CREM UMR 6211, F-35000 Rennes, France); Youcef Méchouar (Univ Rennes, CNRS, CREM UMR 6211, F-35000 Rennes, France)
    Abstract: Recent studies on facility location under the carbon pricing scheme highlight that increas-ing the carbon price can ensure meaningful reductions in transport-related greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs). Indeed, when we assume the bill of materials (BOM) as a production technology (i.e. complementary of inputs), a higher carbon price does not change the supply planning because the input proportions are fixed, but it does increase the total transport cost, which pushes the firm to make its location choice more sustainable (lower level of emissions). However, when we account for possible substitution between input quantities, this may cease to hold. In this paper, we propose to revisit the Production-Location Problem (PLP) considering transport-related carbon emission mitigation due to carbon taxation and production technologies that allow complementarity or substitution among input quantities. We first show that cost-minimizing location may differ from carbon emission minimizing location, regardless of the production technology type. We also find that an increased car-bon tax may increase carbon emissions when we enable substitution across input quantities. Gradual changes in carbon tax affect the relative delivered prices of inputs (the per-unit procurement and transportation costs of an input compared to the costs of another) such that the firm has an incentive to relocate its facility and substitute among input quantities, leading to new shipping patterns that can generate a higher level of pollution under certain parameters.
    Keywords: Location, transport-related carbon emissions, carbon tax, production technology, sustainability
    Date: 2018–12
  4. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: Belize is exceptionally vulnerable to natural disasters and climate change. It already faces hurricanes, flooding, sea level rise, coastal erosion, coral bleaching, and droughts, with impacts likely to intensify given expected increases in weather volatility and sea temperature. Hence, planning for resilience-building, and engagement with development partners on environmental reforms, have been central to Belizean policymaking for many years, since well before Belize submitted its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to the Paris Accord in 2015. This Climate Change Policy Assessment (CCPA) takes stock of Belize’s plans to manage its climate response, from the perspective of their macroeconomic and fiscal implications. The CCPA is a joint initiative by the IMF and World Bank to assist small states to understand and manage the expected economic impact of climate change, while safeguarding long-run fiscal and external sustainability. It explores the possible impact of climate change and natural disasters on the macroeconomy and the cost of Belize’s planned response. It suggests macroeconomically relevant reforms that could strengthen the likelihood of success of the national strategy and identifies policy gaps and resource needs.
    Keywords: Western Hemisphere;Belize;
    Date: 2018–11–16
  5. By: De Haas, Ralph; Popov, Alexander
    Abstract: We study the impact of financial market development on industrial pollution in a large panel of countries and industries over the period 1974-2013. We find a strong positive impact of credit markets, but a strong negative impact of stock markets, on aggregate CO2 emissions per capita. Industry-level analysis shows that stock market development (but not credit market development) is associated with cleaner production processes in technologically "dirty" industries. These industries also produce more green patents as stock markets develop. Moreover, our results suggest that stock markets (credit markets) reallocate investment towards more (less) carbon-efficient sectors. Together, these findings indicate that the evolution of a country's financial structure helps explain the non-linear relationship between economic development and environmental quality documented in the literature.
    Keywords: financial development; industrial pollution; innovation; reallocation
    JEL: G10 O4 Q5
    Date: 2018–08–04
  6. By: Kindy R. Sjahrir (Fiscal Policy Office, Ministry of Finance. Republic of Indonesia)
    Abstract: The Indonesian commitment has been declared in negotiations in the Conference on climate change (COP24) in Katowice, Poland, December 2-14, 2018. It is estimated that around 45,000 delegates from 197 countries attended the United Nations Session discussing status and efforts to control the impact of climate change in the world. The Indonesian delegation is ready not only for negotiation but also for "soft diplomacy" that Indonesia has made much progress in the implementation of the Paris Agreement on climate change. The Paris Agreement is implemented in Indonesia through cooperation of all concerned. The Indonesian Government is consistent with its commitment to bring down the greenhouse gas emission and the program of adaptation to climate change as mentioned in the document of Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) as a product of the Paris Agreement. Indonesia also has ratified the Paris Agreement. Through NDC, Indonesia is committed by itself to reducing Green House gas emission by 29 percent in 2030 and with international cooperation by 41 percent. Data in 2016, Indonesia succeeded in reducing gas emission by 8.7 percent through various sectors. In 2017, the reduction already reached 16 percent – according Ministry of Forestry and Environment. In reaching the 29 percent target Indonesia has good modality in fulfilling NDC commitment, this paper reports the fiscal capacity in achieving Indonesia’s NDC. The important role of budgetary finance in providing funding according scenarios related to climate change and the development of a green economy is nonetheless crucial to consider the stability of the state's financial condition in order to remain in a prudent condition sustaining drive for other sectors of economic growth and equity. This study developed a system dynamics economic model to explore impacts of implementing National Determined Contribution (NDC) to fiscal space using Indonesian data. The exploration includes (1) finding the financial capacity of the country at the baseline; (2) finding the state of the fiscal balance in applying funding policies for climate change-based activities; (3) finding the most effective climate change scenarios to be financed by the state. Simulation results show that climate change financing does not significantly impact state finance. Indonesia's revenue growth can still overcome the influx of financing needs for climate change. Thus, through this model, it can be concluded that the national budget is still in capacity to finance the needs for climate change’s 1st NDC.
    Keywords: Fiscal Policy, Systems Dynamic, Indonesian Data
    JEL: G28
    Date: 2018–12
  7. By: Derya Keles; Philippe Delacote; Alexander Pfaff
    Abstract: Since the late 1970s protected areas have been one of the most widely used regulatory tools for the conservation of ecosystem services. In this paper, we assess the possible drivers to the choice of withdrawing protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon. Protected areas are subject to inefficiencies because of the existence of conflicts over land between conservation and development activities. Further additionality is an issue, as protected areas tend to be located in areas with low opportunity cost of conservation, where forests are not likely to be cleared. This issue is particularly important in the Brazilian Amazon where growing development must be combined with the need to avoid deforestation. We first present a simple model of degazettement choice which leads us to assess how the presence of two agencies having different development and conservation objectives can lead to implementing this decision. We suggest that the probability to decide the removal of protected areas is larger in places with low and high development pressures. Then, we investigate the empirical determinants of protected area withdrawal by taking advantages of the new PADDDtracker (Protected Area Downgradement, Degazettement and Downsizement) dataset (WWF, 2017b). We confirm that the likelihood of degazettement is strongly influenced by developmentpressures, through characteristics of the land that enable agricultural development, and by variables related to protected area quality of enforcement and management costs. As protected areas located in highest pressure areas are more likely to be additional, there is a risk that only the most effective protected areas may loose their protection.
    Keywords: Conservation policy, PADD, Land-use change, Brazilian Amazon, Public policy
    JEL: Q56 Q57 Q58 O13 O21
    Date: 2018
  8. By: Étienne Billette de Villemeur; Justin Leroux
    Abstract: We envision the creation of a climate liability market to address climate change. Each period, countries are issued liability commensurate to their emissions of the period. Liability bearers are required to pay over time, as climate harm materializes. Revenues are used to compensate participating countries in proportion of climate harm. Because liabilities are traded like financial debt among participants, the mechanism achieves a unique carbon price through decentralization of the choice of a discount rate as well as beliefs about the severity of the climate problem. We discuss properties of such a mechanism along the dimensions of efficiency, fairness, exposure to risk, commitment, participation, as well as implementation challenges.
    Keywords: Climate Liability,Market Instruments,Pigovian Tax,Risk Sharing,
    JEL: Q54 H23
    Date: 2018–12–26
  9. By: Francisco Alcalá Agulló (Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas - Ivie)
    Abstract: What factors shape the environmental sustainability of economic growth? This paper shows that the shift in advanced economies from quantity to quality growth (i.e., from producing more units of identical goods to producing more valuable varieties) is a potentially important mechanism favoring the decoupling of economic growth from resource use and environmental impacts. First, the paper introduces a parsimonious and tractable model that distinguishes the environmental impacts of quantity and quality growth and identifies the key parameter to be estimated empirically. Second, to estimate the quality elasticity of the environmental impacts, the paper uses the US automobile industry as an important and illustrative case. The environmental impact of quality growth is found to be significantly smaller than the impact of quantity growth. Accounting for the distinct impacts of quantity and quality growth would help improve sustainability projections and policies.
    Keywords: sustainable development; decoupling; quality growth; environmental Kuznets curve
    JEL: O44 Q56
    Date: 2018–12
  10. By: Vitor Gaspar; David Amaglobeli; Mercedes Garcia-Escribano; Delphine Prady; Mauricio Soto
    Abstract: The goal of this paper is to estimate the additional annual spending required for meaningful progress on the SDGs in these areas. Our estimates refer to additional spending in 2030, relative to a baseline of current spending to GDP in these sectors. Toward this end, we apply an innovative costing methodology to a sample of 155 countries: 49 low- income developing countries, 72 emerging market economies, and 34 advanced economies. And we refine the analysis with five country studies: Rwanda, Benin, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Guatemala.
    Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals (SDG);Development;Fiscal policy;Sustainable Development Goals; Fiscal Policy
  11. By: Berge, Erling (Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences)
    Abstract: he paper reviews the development of the legal status of Norwegian commons from the first known legislation on commons. The development can be divided into 5 periods. The first period lasted until about 1300. In this period, the commons changed from being a local matter for the chiefs and the local thing to become a national resource where also the King had rights to resources for defence of the realm. The second period is the big population decline 1350-1550 where Norway lost 60% of its population and the King and his bureaucracy moved to Copenhagen. The commons reverted to a local issue. The third period lasted from about 1550 to 1814. The powers of ownership were now seen to reside in the Crown. It had moved from the local community to the state. The rights of common were respected and should remain as they had been from old on. Limitations on the commoner's exploitation were introduced. Rights of common were held by active farms and stinted to the needs of the farm. At the same time, the Crown started large-scale exploitation of the forest resources and selling off forestland to sawmill owners and timber merchants. In the period 1814 to 1857/ 1863 the state’s ideas about the commons were recast into 3 types of commons and one type not mentioned in the legal texts that here is called hamlet commons. In the period after 1863 the limitations and regulations of the exploitation of the commons continued. By the end of the 20th century, the rights of common were reduced to rights of forests and pasture tailored to the needs of the farm. However, the development in farming and recreation activities of the population changed the usage of the commons. The rights of fishing and hunting in state commons came close to an all men’s right. The national community expanded its use of the commons by defining much of their areas to be protected lands providing landscapes for recreational activities and production of ecosystem services.
    Keywords: Norway; commons; history; rights of common; ownership; landscape protection
    JEL: H70 P48 Q15 Q20
    Date: 2018–12–17
  12. By: Camille Laville (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - Clermont Auvergne - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IRSEM - Institut de recherche stratégique de l'Ecole militaire - Ecole militaire)
    Abstract: Internal conflict prevention calls for a better understanding of the way those events form and spread through space and time. In comparison with other social science disciplines, economics started to explore this field only very recently. Over the past 20 years and as if it was trying to make up for the time lost, we have witnessed a bustle in the number of econometrical research papers written on this subject. What conclusions can we draw from those works? The present document defines the analysis scope of this area of study by insisting on the three deep mechanisms responsible of predatory behaviors: state capacity, the "prize" value of capturing the state and the opportunity cost of joining a rebel group. It also gives an assessment of the constraints and the recent developments in the causal analysis of internal conflicts. Finally, this article shows that the improvements in the methodology of causal inference, in the econometric tools and in the data collection methods open promising research opportunities on topics such as the role of social cohesion or the consequences of climate change on the risk of conflict.
    Abstract: Prévenir les conflits internes nécessite une meilleure compréhension de la manière dont ils se forment et se propagent dans le temps et l'espace. Par rapport aux autres sciences sociales, l'économie n'a que très récemment investi ce champ d'étude. Comme pour rattraper son retard, nous assistons depuis une vingtaine d'années à une effervescence de la recherche économétrique sur le sujet. Quelles conclusions tirer de ces travaux ? Ce document définit le périmètre d'analyse de ce champ d'étude en insistant sur trois mécanismes profonds à l'origine des comportements de prédation : les capacités de l'Etat, la valeur du gain issu de la capture de l'Etat et le coût d'opportunité d'entrer dans un groupe armé auquel les individus font face (i.e. l'arbitrage entre des activités de production ou de prédation). Il dresse également un bilan des contraintes et avancées récentes dans l'analyse causale des conflits internes. Il montre que l'amélioration des méthodes d'inférence causale, des outils économétriques et des méthodes de collecte de données dessine des perspectives de recherche prometteuses sur des sujets tels que le rôle de la cohésion sociale et les conséquences du changement climatique sur le risque de conflit.
    Keywords: Internal conflicts,Opportunity,Social cohesion,Natural resources,State capacity,Poverty,Climate,conflits internes,opportunité,cohésion sociale,ressources naturelles,capacité de l’État,pauvreté,climat
    Date: 2018–11–30
  13. By: Laurent Ott; Sylvain Weber
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impacts of the Swiss CO2 levy on households' heating demand. Using a difference-in-differences approach combined with inverse probability of treatment weighting, we test whether the 2016 carbon tax rate increase had a short-term impact on Swiss households' heating consumption and propensity to renovate. Micro-level data from the 2016 and 2017 waves of the Swiss Household Energy Demand Survey (SHEDS) are used to estimate the models. In both cases, no statistically significant effect can be detected across a variety of specifications. Even though further research is needed to investigate possible long-run impacts, our findings question the relevance of this policy instrument under its current form to lower households' greenhouse gas emissions. Additional measures might be implemented to improve its efficiency.
    Keywords: Carbon tax, energy consumption, fossil fuel, policy evaluation, inverse probability of treatment weighting, difference-in-differences
    JEL: C21 C23 H23 Q41 Q58
    Date: 2018–12
  14. By: Dagoumas, Athanasios; Polemis, Michael
    Abstract: In this study, we shed light into the carbon pass-through rate mechanism to wholesale prices in the Greek electric market. For this reason, we utilize a rich micro-level panel, including hourly data for 23 power plants spanning the period January 2014 to December 2017. In order to study the pass-through of emissions costs to wholesale electricity prices, we used an instrumental variable methodology. Our findings survived several robustness checks, accounting for logged linear and non-linear econometric specifications. Moreover, they are in alignment with the relevant recent literature, indicating the existence of an almost complete pass-through rate mechanism. This means that electricity firms almost fully internalize the cost of CO2 permits, incurring important policy implications to policy makers and government officials.
    Keywords: Emissions; CO2 permits; Pass-through; Instrumental variable; Electricity industry
    JEL: L13 L94 Q52
    Date: 2018–12–30
  15. By: Nicolas Clootens (Aix-Marseille Univ., CNRS, EHESS, Centrale Marseille, AMSE & Univ. Orléans, CNRS, LEO); Djamel Kirat (Univ. Orléans, CNRS, LEO)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the behavior of cross-country growth rates with respect to resource abundance and dependence. We reject the linear model that is commonly-used in growth regressions in favor of a multiple-regime alternative. Using a formal sample-splitting method, we find that countries exhibit different behaviors with respect to natural resources depending on their initial level of development. In high-income countries, natural resources play only a minor role in explaining the differences in national growth rates. On the contrary, in low-income countries abundance seems to be a blessing but dependence restricts growth.
    Keywords: non-renewable resources, growth, resource curse, threshold regressions
    JEL: O11 O13 Q33
    Date: 2018–11
  16. By: Maha Skah
    Abstract: L’action collective de lutte contre le changement climatique a longtemps été freinée par de puissants clivages, à la fois géopolitiques et économiques ; Nord/Sud, pays industrialisés/pays en voie de développement, énergies fossiles/renouvelables, multilatéralisme solidaire/souveraineté nationale. Les négociations internationales sur le changement climatique sont également confrontées à la difficulté de réguler ce bien public mondial qu’est l’environnement. Après trois années de stagnation, les émissions mondiales de gaz à effet de serre (GES) sont reparties à la hausse, alors que le dernier rapport du Groupe d’experts intergouvernemental sur l’évolution du climat (GIEC) prédit une hausse des températures atteignant déjà 1,5°C entre 2030 et 2052 si nous continuons à émettre au rythme actuel. A l’heure du premier grand rendez-vous climatique depuis l’adoption de l’Accord de Paris sur le climat, ce papier tente de mieux saisir la portée des dernières évolutions intervenues dans la lutte contre le changement climatique. Il revient sur l’apport scientifique de ces dernières années et offre une piste d’analyse pour mieux appréhender les avancées réalisées depuis la COP21, ainsi que les défis restant à surmonter lors de la COP24 afin de combler l’écart entre le niveau d’ambition affiché dans les Contributions Déterminées au niveau Nationales (CDN), les objectifs nationaux, et les transformations requises pour répondre à l’urgence climatique.
    Date: 2018–12
  17. By: Jean-Claude Berthelemy (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne & FERDI); Arnaud Millien (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne & FERDI)
    Abstract: This paper is the first product of a project which aims to build a Collaborative Smart Mapping of Mini-grid Action (CoSMMA), whose principal objective is to identify best practice in decentralized electrification projects. Using evaluations of 421 projects, from published research papers, we built a pilot CoSMMA which proves its feasibility. Its relevance is demonstrated by a meta-analysis, which reveals the principal characteristics of decentralized electrification projects which have positive impacts on sustainable development. Four main characteristics were considered: technology (source or energy), system size (power), decision level (from local to country level) geographic location. When searching for best practices, technology and system size must be considered together, because the chosen technology may constrain the power, which is provided by the system. We find that the most popular projects, which are based on Solar Home Systems (SHS) are not the most effective. The problem with SHS is not the use of solar energy, but the small system size often chosen for SHS. Mini-grids, of larger size, especially those which use hybrid renewable sources of energy, have more positive impacts, because these systems combine the benefits of sustainability and flexibility. In terms of decision level, we find that both top-down and bottom-up approaches have advantages, with the observation of a U-shaped curve for the influence of the decision level on the probability of obtaining positive impacts. Geographical location matters, as it is very often the key to system feasibility. We find that DEPs are more effective in Latin America than in Asia, and more effective in Asia than in Africa. We also attempted to study the type of effects resulting from DEPs. Descriptive data suggest that for some types of effects, positive impacts are more likely than for others. Decentralized electrification projects have a more positive impact on Lifestyle & NICT or Household agenda than on Economic transformation or Community life. However, this pilot CoSMMA does not contain enough information to study precisely the types of effects, because some types of effects have not been studied frequently in the existing literature. This is the case, for instance, for environmental effects, which have been rarely measured scientifically. Finally, we attempted to broaden our information set by including expert data, which was entered into the CoSMMA meta-analysis. We define expert data as data that are not supported by statistical tests with measures of significance, whereas the evaluations based on scientific data were supported by statistical tests of significance. The expert data may be valid, but our attempt to include it in the analysis failed at this stage. The determinants of unproven effects appear to be quite different from the determinants of proven effects in our meta-analysis, and using expert data would imply merging proven and unproven effects, which would totally blur the conclusions
    Keywords: Decentralized electrification; sustainable development; impact assessment; meta-analysis
    JEL: L93 O13 O18 O22
    Date: 2018–12
  18. By: Oberst, Christian (E.ON Energy Research Center, Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN)); Harmsen - van Hout, Marjolein J. W. (E.ON Energy Research Center, Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN))
    Abstract: In this paper, we propose and apply the design of a sequential discrete choice experiment to examine homeowner preferences regarding the adoption of micro-generation systems and willingness to cooperate in sustainable energy infrastructure. Adoption and cooperation decisions of private households in the energy sector are complex, interlinked, and assumably sequential. A common design with single choice tasks reflecting both adoption and cooperation decisions is assumed as cognitively too burdensome for survey respondents. The objective of the proposed sequential choice task design is twofold. Firstly, reducing complexity for respondents. Secondly, reflecting a step-wise decision process as is appropriate for the studied decisions. Our application from the energy sector is motivated by the need for innovative business models for non-industrial prosumers providing flexibility services in (local) distribution grids, due to an increasing amount of volatile and decentrally generated electricity. Results indicate that respondents reveal more pronounced preferences when dealing with their decision in sequential steps and that the task design has a lasting effect on respondents’ choices. By estimating latent class logit models, five consumer classes are identified and labeled by their distinguished motivational foci: costs (1), climate protection (2), self-supply (3), local reference (4), and other (5).
    Keywords: Choice Experiment; Micro-generation; Renewable Energy; Community Energy; Energy Transition
    JEL: C25 D12 Q42
    Date: 2017–10
  19. By: Chowdhury, Md Niaz Murshed; Hossain, Md Mobarak
    Abstract: Bangladesh is the 2nd fastest growing country in the world in 2016 with 7.1% GDP growth. This study undertakes an econometric analysis to examine the relationship between population growth and economic development. This result indicates population growth adversely related to per capita GDP growth, which means rapid population growth is a real problem for the development of Bangladesh. Malthus’s prediction is that population increases so rapidly and outstrip the food supply due to the operation of the law of diminishing return, which is proven wrong because of technological improvement and agricultural advancement program, human capital development, and export skilled labor, promotes labor-intensive industries, encourage foreign investors, institution settings and political stability in Bangladesh. Bangladesh has reduced its population growth by about 67% between 1979 and 2017 using different preventive checks suggested by Malthus and Mill. Bangladesh has been suffering from environmental degradation, loss of arable land, loos of agricultural land biodiversity loss and deforestation. Bangladesh Economy is growing with improving living standard at the cost of environmental degradation.
    Keywords: Population Growth, Economic Development, Environment, and Poverty
    JEL: E01 E02
    Date: 2018–10–29
  20. By: Gustavo J. Bobonis; Mark Stabile; Leonardo Tovar
    Abstract: Militaries around the world perform training exercises in preparation for war. We study the relationship between in utero exposure to military exercises (bombing) and early-life health outcomes, combining data on naval bombing exercises in Vieques, Puerto Rico, and the universe of births from 1990-2003. Using a differences-in-differences design, we find that the sudden end of bombing practices is associated with a 56-79 percent decrease in the incidence of congenital anomalies and an overall improvement in a neonatal health outcomes index of 0.07σ. The evidence is generally consistent with the channel of environmental pollution; increases in arsenic levels in waters surrounding the live impact area.
    Keywords: Infant health; military activity; environmental pollution; maternal stress
    JEL: I15 I14 O1
    Date: 2018–12–17
  21. By: Hugo Salgado; Ariel Soto-Caro
    Abstract: In this study, a method will be developed and applied for estimating biological migration parameters of the biomass of a fishery resource by means of a decision analysis of the spatial behavior of the fleet. First, a model of discrete selection is estimated, together with patch capture function. This will allow estimating the biomass availability on each patch. In the second regression, values of biomass are used in order to estimate a model of biological migration between patches. This method is proven in the Chilean jack mackerel fishery. This will allow estimating statistically significant migration parameters, identifying migration patterns.
    Date: 2018–12
  22. By: Hélène Tordjman (CEPN - Centre d'Economie de l'Université Paris Nord - UP13 - Université Paris 13 - USPC - Université Sorbonne Paris Cité - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Cela fait longtemps que la nature est entrée dans le processus capitaliste dans ses dimensions matérielles, terre, ressources agricoles et minières, sous la forme de biens tangibles donc. Depuis quelques décennies, un phénomène nouveau apparaît. Des dimensions de la nature sont requalifiées en information, en services et en actifs financiers pour pouvoir à leur tour faire l'objet d'échanges marchands. Autrement dit une nouvelle classe de marchandises fictives apparaît (Karl Polanyi (1944)). Plutôt que de les nommer « immatérielles », je préfère parler de dématérialisation, car il s'agit d'un processus institutionnel, juridique et politique construit et voulu, et non d'une immanence. Analysant le cas des services écosystémiques, cet article propose une catégorisation permettant de comprendre comment l'institution marchande remo-dèle ainsi de grands pans de la nature, en trois grands moments. Le premier est celui de la qualification de la marchandise, qui vise à en définir les contours précis, la doter d'une mesure et de droits de propriété. Le deuxième processus est celui de l'évaluation, où l'objet considéré acquiert une valeur monétaire de référence. On parle quelquefois de monétisation. Le troisième et dernier moment de la création d'une marchandise fictive est celui de la valorisation. Il s'agit de dispositifs contractuels et/ou marchands qui transforment les valeurs en prix. Ce n'est qu'à cette ultime étape que de la valeur est effectivement créée, c'est-à-dire du capital. Malgré le caractère apparemment immatériel de ces nouvelles marchandises, les conséquences de leur création sur la nature et les relations que nous entretenons avec elle sont tout à fait matérielles.
    Date: 2018–12–07
  23. By: Edouard Civel; Nathaly Cruz
    Abstract: Labels are increasingly popular among policy-makers, companies and NGOs to improve consumers’ awareness, especially about environmental footprints. Yet, the efficiency of these informational tools is mostly looked as their ability to shift behaviors, whereas their first goal is to enable people to discriminate labelled goods. This paper studies how the complex information displayed by houses’ Energy Performance Certificates is processed by real economic agents. Through a randomized artefactual field experiment on 3,000 French subjects, we test the impact of these labels on people’s perception of a home energy performance. Results evidence that 24% of subjects did not pay attention to the energy label. Unexpectedly, we find out that gender is the most critical socio-demographic characteristic in this changing attention. We interpret this effect by the Selectivity Hypothesis: energy labels design engages more male subjects. Among attentive subjects, energy labels’ efficiency to transmit information is mixed. Subjects do identify separately each label’s grade, but their judgment is biased by prior beliefs and blurred by idiosyncratic features. Aggregated reading is Bayesian: subjects infer the label information to revise their belief on energy quality. Moreover, our results shed light on strong asymmetries. While worsening grades induce decreasing judgments on energy quality, top level quality label seems to undergo skepticism, intensifying idiosyncratic noise.
    Keywords: Information treatment, Experimental economics, Cognitive psychology, Green Value, Energy efficiency
    JEL: D03 D12 D83 L15
    Date: 2018
  24. By: Simón Accorsi; Ramón E. López; Gino Sturla
    Abstract: En este artículo comparamos dos metodologías para medir y asignar entre sectores productivos la huella de carbono para el caso chileno (2008-2013): la metodología de Balance Energético (BE), tradicionalmente utilizada por los policy makers, y una metodología que utiliza la información disponible en la Matriz Insumo-Producto (MIP). La metodología MIP, a diferencia de la BNE, considera las interacciones intra e inter-sectoriales a través de los flujos de inputs/outputs, obteniendo un indicador que mide de manera más precisa la huella de carbono atribuible a cada sector. En este sentido, la metodología BE subestima la huella atribuible al sector Minero y sobrestima las emisiones atribuibles a los sectores Transporte y Electricidad y Gas, lo cual tiene implicancias en los diseños de políticas de mitigación en general y en los efectos de esquemas de impuestos a las emisiones. En definitiva, el enfoque o metodología que se escoja para medir o cuantificar la huella de carbono no es inocuo, al menos a nivel sectorial. Esto es, diferentes metodologías reportan diferentes niveles de emisión sectoriales, aunque coinciden en el agregado. Un segundo objetivo de este trabajo consiste en explotar la información utilizada en la metodología MIP para lograr una mejor comprensión de la dinámica que vincula el nivel de emisiones con las estructuras productivo/tecnológicas subyacentes. Para ello se realiza un Análisis de Descomposición Estructural (ADE) que permite desagregar los cambios en las emisiones en (i) efecto escala, (ii) efecto composición y (iii) efecto ingreso. Los resultados muestran que el efecto que en mayor medida determina el aumento de emisiones para el caso chileno es el efecto escala, seguido del efecto técnico. El efecto composición en tanto, se asocia con una reducción de las emisiones lo cual refleja el tránsito hacia una economía basada en mayor medida en servicios.
    Date: 2018–12
  25. By: Nkhetheni Nesengani
    Date: 2017–01–13
  26. By: Simon Quemin (Paris-Dauphine University & Climate Economics Chair); Raphael Trotignon (Climate Economics Chair)
    Abstract: We develop a model of competitive inter-temporal emissions trading under uncertainty that features the core design elements of the EU-ETS to assess the recent market reform, essentially the market stability reserve. Modeling novelties include the introduction of myopia on the part of covered firms, of their ability to understand the interaction between their decisions and the MSR actions over time, as well as the implementation of a recursive procedure to solve for the certainty-equivalent market equilibrium solution. We calibrate the model on 2008-2017 market data to match observed price and banking paths. We find that the MSR always raises the permit price and never preserves the overall cap integrity, irrespective of the permit cancellation provision. Our results also suggest that the purported MSR responsiveness to demand shocks (e.g. recession, renewable deployment) would be limited, especially when firms are unable to anticipate future MSR-driven supply changes.
    Keywords: Inter-temporal emissions trading, EU-ETS reform, Supply responsiveness design, Rational expectations equilibrium, Heuristic
    JEL: Q58 Q54 H23 E63
    Date: 2018–12
  27. By: Sandra M. Leitner (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: This paper determines the key drivers, barriers and effects of eco-innovation, in comparison to innovation in general. It further distinguishes between different types of eco-innovations to better capture their heterogeneous nature. It uses two different data sets (1) the Community Innovation Survey 2014 (CIS-2014) for a large sample of EU Member States, further split up into three groups in accordance with their eco-innovation performance; (2) the German Mannheim Innovation Panel to address additional drivers the CIS-2014 is unable to capture. Results show that both R&D investments and complementary fixed capital investments are key drivers of eco-innovation, with differences across country groups. Results from the German sample further emphasise that expected future demand, rising costs for energy and other resources and the wish to improve one’s reputation and the need to meet industry standards help spur eco-innovation, while public policy is only of limited importance. In contrast, international market orientation turns out to be a barrier for eco-innovation. By and large, eco‑innovations also have a productivity-enhancing effect which is however lower as compared to innovations in general.
    Keywords: eco-innovation, demand pull, technology push, public policy, Europe
    JEL: Q55 O33 O38
    Date: 2018–12
  28. By: Manuel Barron (Universidad del Pacífico)
    Abstract: In the developing world, weather conditions during gestation affect fetal development and birth outcomes, as well as early childhood development, largely because weather fluctuations affect food availability, and accessibility to healthcare facilities. This study estimates the effect of in-utero temperature shocks on learning outcomes in school. To this end, I exploit data on 950,000 second grade students in Peru who took the national student evaluation between 2014 and 2016, paired with data on weather conditions during gestation in their district of birth. In-utero temperature shocks reduce significantly learning outcomes in communication and mathematics. Temperature shocks increase the probability of being classified as remedial in math by 2 percentage points, and decrease the likelihood of obtaining a satisfactory grade by a similar magnitude. I find heterogeneity in these effects, with cool regions more severely affected by cold shocks, and warm regions more severely affected by hot shocks.
    Keywords: Climate change, Human capital formation, in-utero shocks
    JEL: I12 I21 J16 O15
    Date: 2018–12
  29. By: Sumner, Daniel; Champetier, Antoine
    Abstract: We report new data and estimates of beekeeper costs and revenues, which include data on each activity undertaken by honey producers and pollinators, including labor, transport costs and materials for pest and disease management. We use these data, recent surveys and USDA NASS information to develop and characterize supply functions for (1) pollination services to crops that bloom in the late winter (dominated by almonds) and (2) pollination services to crops that bloom in the spring, and (3) U.S.-produced honey. The positions and shapes of these supply functions are crucial to understanding how the honeybee industry will respond to changes in demand for pollination services, and other market conditions, including shifts in honey import supply, and forage availability affected by climate change.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Demand and Price Analysis
    Date: 2018–12–20
  30. By: Julien Daubanes (University of Geneva); Pierre Lasserre (Université de Québec à Montréal)
    Abstract: The interest of international markets for pollution rights lies in their potential to achieve a pollution reduction objective in an efficient manner. Unfortunately, the tendency of participating countries to tax polluting goods locally undermines this potential. We propose a model to examine the interest of countries participating in a market for rights to pollute in taxing the good that generates pollution. In particular, this interest depends on the initial distribution of rights among participating countries. We show how rights should be allocated to the different participating countries in order to ensure market efficiency. These optimal allocations require that a sufficiently large fraction of rights be distributed free of charge rather than auctioned.
    Keywords: International cap and trade, local taxes, optimum tariff, optimal allocation of pollution rights
    JEL: Q48 H21
    Date: 2018–12
  31. By: Qingran Li; William A. Pizer
    Abstract: Standard U.S. practice for public cost-benefit analysis is to bound the discount rate with the interest rate paid by capital investment and rate received by consumers. These bounding cases arise when future benefits accrue to consumers in either a two-period model or as a perpetuity. We generalize to consider benefits paid in any future period. We find that the appropriate discount rate converges to the consumption rate for benefits in the distant future. More generally, the range of rates depends on the temporal pattern. Applied to CO2 damages, we estimate the appropriate discount rates of between 2.6 and 3.4 percent.
    JEL: D61 H43 Q54
    Date: 2018–12
  32. By: Joseph I. Uduji (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria); Elda N. Okolo-Obasi (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria)
    Abstract: While women are often key actors in fisheries, they are commonly excluded from making fisheries management decisions, often due to cultural norms. The objective of this investigation is to assess the impact of a new CSR model of multinational oil companies (MOCs) on development of women in small-scale fisheries in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. A total of eight hundred artisanal fisherwomen were sampled across the coastal communities of Niger Delta. Results from the use of logit model indicate that artisanal fisherwomen have remained widely excluded from the General Memorandum of Understandings (GMoUs) interventions in small-scale fisheries due to cultural norms of the people. This implies that if the cultural norms of the Niger Delta communities continue to restrain direct participation of the artisanal fisherwomen from GMoUs’ intervention, achieving gender equity and cultural change would be limited in the region. The findings suggest that since fisheries, which is the traditional source of livelihood of the people are no longer viable and have significantly declined due to environmental oil degradation, GMoUs’ intervention structure could focus on women playing key roles in fisheries management and conservation decision in Niger Delta region of Nigeria.
    Keywords: Inequality; Corporate social responsibility; Multinational oil companies
    JEL: G20 I10 I32 O40 O55
    Date: 2018–01
  33. By: Peña, Humberto
    Abstract: Desde hace tiempo, se ha reconocido la especial relevancia que presentan las interrelaciones e interdependencias entre agua, energía y producción de alimentos, que son tres recursos clave para el desarrollo sostenible a nivel global y nacional. El presente estudio analiza este Nexo en el caso de Chile. Con ese propósito, se revisa la evolución de las políticas públicas y los marcos institucionales relacionados con la gestión del agua, y el desarrollo del riego y de la energía eléctrica. En el análisis se distingue entre: un período inicial; otro donde el Estado fue el motor del desarrollo; un tercero con un predominio del mercado; y, finalmente, uno donde se busca un nuevo equilibrio entre el interés público y los incentivos de mercado. Se presentan los resultados más relevantes en cada época y su relación con los cambios sociales, económicos y políticos del país. Este enfoque de carácter histórico busca dejar en evidencia que las relaciones expresadas en el Nexo reflejan un contexto específico definido por el desarrollo del país en cada momento, lo cual puede ser útil para contrastar este caso con experiencias de otros países y aprovechar las lecciones aprendidas.
    Date: 2018–12–17

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