nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2018‒12‒17
67 papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. On Sharing Responsibilities for Pollution Embodied in Trade By Bontems, Philippe; Calmette, Marie-Françoise
  2. Climate sensitivity of wheat yield in Bangladesh: Implications for Sustainable Development Goals 2 (SDG2) and 6 (SDG6) By M. Mehedi Hasan; Mohammad Alauddin; Md. Abdur Rashid Sarker; Mohammad Jakaria; Mahiuddin Alamgir
  3. Are Emission Performance Standards Effective in Pollution Control? Evidence from the EU's Large Combustion Plant Directive By Puja Singhal
  4. Adaptation to Climate Change: Evidence from US Acreage Response By Cui, X.
  5. Foreign Demand and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Empirical Evidence with Implications for Leakage By Geoffrey Barrows; Helene Ollivier
  6. How economic growth and energy consumption contribute to environmental degradation? By Németh-Durkó, Emilia
  7. Reconciling Emissions Trading and the Promotion of Renewable Energy By Sebastian Schaefer
  8. Distributional Impacts of Climate Mitigation Policies - a Meta-Analysis By Nils Ohlendorf; Michael Jakob; Jan Christoph Minx; Carsten Schröder; Jan Christoph Steckel
  9. Inter-industry differences in organisational eco-innovation: a panel data study By Jose García-Quevedo; Effie Kesidou; Ester Martínez-Ros
  10. Foreign Land Acquisitions and Environmental Regulations: does the Pollution-Haven Hypothesis hold? By Scoppola, M.; Raimondi, V.
  11. Towards a less stringent groundwater body objective? Feedback from a French heavily industrial and urban study area By Corinne Merly; Marine Gremont; Philippe Le Vigouroux; Blandine Clozel; Laurent Cadilhac; Caroline Schlosser
  12. Environmental Inequality and Economic Valuation By Jasper N. Meya
  13. Apocalypse now? - Climate change and war in Africa By Stijn van Weezel
  14. Climate Policy and Resource Extraction with Variable Markups and Imperfect Substitute By Malik Curuk; Suphi Sen
  15. Accessibility, local pollution and housing prices. Evidence from Nantes Métropole, France By Dorothée Brécard; Rémy Le Boennec; Frédéric Salladarré
  16. SYNERGY: a bio economic model assessing the economic and environmental impacts of increased regional protein self-sufficiency By Julia Jouan; Aude Ridier; Matthieu Carof
  17. Environmental Regulation Stringency and U.S. Agriculture By Abayateye, F.; Skolrud, T.; Galinato, G.
  18. Climate change challenges for central banks and financial regulators By Campiglio, Emanuele; Dafermos, Yannis; Monnin, Pierre; Ryan-Collins, Josh; Schotten, Guido; Tanaka, Misa
  19. Environmental regulation and eco-industry trade: Theory and evidence from the European Union By Carl Gaigné; Lota D. Tamini
  20. How Large is the Potential Economic Benefit of Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change? By Huang, K.
  21. Green Technology Diffusion: A Post-Mortem Analysis of the Eco-Patent Commons By Jorge L. Contreras; Bronwyn H. Hall; Christian Helmers
  22. Understanding of the sustainable developmnet principle in Polish Law By Joanna Kielin - Maziarz
  23. The EGA Negotiations: why they are important, why they are stalled, and challenges ahead By Jaime De Melo; Jean-Marc Solleder
  24. Overlapping Climate Clubs under Transaction Costs By Emilson C.D. Silva; Chikara Yamaguchi
  25. Revenue and efficiency in pollution permit allocation mechanisms By Peyman Khezr; Ian A. MacKenzie
  26. Prices versus Quantities Reassessed By Larry S. Karp; Christian P. Traeger
  27. Relative Effects of Fisheries Support Policies By Roger Martini; James Innes
  28. Towards sustainable data centres: Novel internal network technologies leading to sustainable cost and energy consumption in data centres in The Netherlands By van den Berg, Bob; Sadowski, Bert M.; Pals, Luuk
  29. Water Conflicts Hydrocracy in the Americas. Coalitions, Networks, Policies. By Franck Poupeau; Lala Razafimahefa; Jérémy Robert; Delphine Mercier; Gilles Massardier; Pedro Jacobi
  31. Subsidizing Renewable Energy: Higher Welfare by lower depreciation costs for fossil power plants? By Sebastian Schaefer
  32. But What Does it Mean? Competition between Products Carrying Alternative Green Labels when Consumers are Active Acquirers of Information By Anthony Heyes; Sandeep Kapur; Peter W. Kennedy; Steve Martin; John W. Maxwell
  33. Operationalising selected reporting and flexibility provisions in the Paris Agreement By Jane Ellis; Sina Wartmann; Sara Moarif; Marcia Rocha
  34. The effect of policy leveraging climate change adaptive capacity in agriculture By Van Passel, S.; Vanschoenwinkel, J.; Moretti, M.
  35. Évaluer les bénéfices publics de différents scénarios d’interventions en zones cultivées visant la prestation de biens et services écologiques à l’échelle d’un sous-bassin versant By Paul J. Thomassin; René Roy
  36. Congestion management in protected areas: Accounting for respondents inattention and preference heterogeneity in stated choice data By Thiene, M.; Franceschinis, C.; Scarpa, R.
  37. Impact of Decentralized Electrification Projects on Sustainable Development: A Meta-Analysis By Jean-Claude Berthelemy; Arnaud Millien
  38. Reformas fiscales ambientales e innovación y difusión tecnológicas en el contexto de las contribuciones determinadas (CDN): una visión desde América Latina By Alatorre, José Eduardo; Beltrán, Allan; Ferrer, Jimmy; Galindo, Luis Miguel
  39. Developing low carbon port potential: Cost benefit & carbon footprint analyses By Jahn, Malte; Wedemeier, Jan
  40. Evaluating the effectiveness of policy instruments for biodiversity: Impact evaluation, cost-effectiveness analysis and other approaches By Katia Karousakis
  41. Environmental Policy and Health in the Presence of Labor Market Imperfections By Xavier Pautrel
  42. Preferences for healthy and environmentally sustainable food: Combining induced-value and home-grown experiments By Cerroni, S.; Watson, V.; Macdiarmid, J.
  43. Upgrading the car fleet: evidence from an Italian scrappage scheme By Giovanni Marin; Roberto Zoboli
  44. The Global Economic Burden of Violent Conflict By Anousheh Alamir; Carlos Bozzoli; Tilman Brück; Olaf J. De Groot
  45. Tracking progress towards NDCs and relevant linkages between Articles 4, 6 and 13 of the Paris Agreement By Manasvini Vaidyula; Marcia Rocha
  46. Exploring sustainable energy future in Reunion Island By Sandrine Selosse; Olivia Ricci; Sabine Garabedian; Nadia Maïzi
  47. Counting before acting? The performativity of carbon accounting called into question - Calculation acts and dispositifs in a big French construction company By Morgane Le Breton; Franck Aggeri
  48. Damages of Surface Ozone: Evidence from Agricultural Sector in China By Yi, F.; McCarl, B.; Zhou, X.
  49. Finding common ground when experts disagree: Robust portfolio decision analysis By Erin Baker; Valentina Bosetti; Ahti Salo
  50. Four priorities for new links between conservation science and accounting research By C. Feger; Laurent Mermet; Bhaskar Vira; Prue Addison; Richard Barker; Frank Birkin; John Burns; Stuart Cooper; Denis Couvet; Thomas Cuckston; Gretchen Daily; Colin Dey; Louise Gallagher; Rosemary Hails; Stephen Jollands; Georgina Mace; Emily Mckenzie; Markus Milne; Paolo Quattrone; Alexandre Rambaud; Shona Russell; Marta Santamaria; William Sutherland
  51. (Re-)territorialisation des activités industrielles, un renouveau des stratégies d'acteurs pour la durabilité ? By Romain Allais; Bernard Pecqueur; Julie Gobert
  52. Services in innovation networks and innovation networks in services: from traditional innovation networks (TINs) to public service innovation networks (PSINs) By Benoît Desmarchelier; Faridah Djellal; Faïz Gallouj
  53. Analysis of Fruiting Performance of Jatropha Plants with and without Apiary Pen's Proximity: A Double Difference Approach By Ibrahim, H.
  54. What makes a locality attractive? Estimates of the amenity value of parks for Victoria By Roberto Evangelio; Simon Hone; Moses Lee; David Prentice
  55. Combating Child Chronic Malnutrition and Anemia in Peru: Simulations based on the Achievement of Sustainable Development Goals By Arlette Beltrán; Juan F. Castro
  56. Agriculture bio : attention au fétichisme du label By Ronan Le Velly
  57. Threshold Regressions for the Resource Curse By Djamel KIRAT; Nicolas CLOOTENS
  58. On the Axiomatic Foundation of Ecological Footprint Indices By Thomas Kuhn; Radomir Pestow; Anja Zenker
  59. From Natural Resources to Human Rights By Thorvaldur Gylfason
  60. Internet of Things, Virtual Networks and the Economics of Shared Mobility By Knieps, Günter
  61. El financiamiento de la bioeconomía en países seleccionados de Europa, Asia y África Experiencias para América Latina y el Caribe By Rodríguez, Adrián G.; Aramendis, Rafael H.; Mondaini, Andrés O.
  62. Sequential disaster forensics: An application to floods in the city of Grimma By Mendoza, Marina; Schwarze, Reimund
  63. Information Aggregation in Emissions Markets with Abatement By Estelle Cantillon; Aurelie Slechten
  64. The Long-Term Economic Costs of the Great London Smog By Alastair Ball
  65. Information Aggregation in Emissions Markets with Abatement By Cantillon, Estelle; Slechten, Aurélie
  66. Towards a new paradigm of “coopetitiveness” in emerging countries: Case of the Algerian Entrepreneurial Ecosystems By Abdelkader Baaziz
  67. Essais sur la précarité énergétique : mesures multidimensionnelles et impacts de la fiscalité carbone. By Audrey Berry

  1. By: Bontems, Philippe; Calmette, Marie-Françoise
    Abstract: In this article, we propose a new way of assessing environmental responsibility at the country level, taking into account their trade balance in terms of carbon. Starting from the fact that the approach based on the respective responsibilities of the producer and the consumer, which are widely promoted and used in the literature, each have their own limitations, we introduce a modiÖed formula for the net trade balance of carbon at the country level. To do this, we examine the extent to which trade áows for a given country increase or decrease global emissions relative to the virtual situation where imports would have been produced in the consumer country. We argue that it would be fair for countries to retain responsibility for the additional emissions they create when trading. We then discuss the incentives provided by the modiÖed liability rule to reduce emission intensity and extend our formula to include trade in intermediate goods. Finally, we illustrate our concept using World Bank and OECD data on trade áows and emission intensity ratios. Finally, we characterize six groups of countries according to the respective order of their producer, consumer and our new liability rule.
    JEL: C67 F18 Q54
    Date: 2018–10
  2. By: M. Mehedi Hasan (Department of Economics, University of Rajshahi); Mohammad Alauddin (School of Economics, The University of Queensland); Md. Abdur Rashid Sarker (Department of Economics, University of Rajshahi); Mohammad Jakaria (cDepartment of Economics, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science & Technology University); Mahiuddin Alamgir (Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies (BCAS),)
    Abstract: Significant manifestations of adverse effects of climate change exist for crop agriculture throughout the developing word including Bangladesh. Despite wheat being the second most important staple crop, any rigorous analysis of its sensitivity to climate change remains a neglected area. This paper fills this gap by investigating wheat yield sensitivity to climate change over time and across climatic zones using 45-year panel data; and exploring policy implications for achieving SDG2 (food security) and SDG6 (sustainable water management) through expanded wheat cultivation. Average seasonal temperature and number of seasonal dry days trended upwards while rainfall (planting, flowering, harvesting) while bright sunshine trended downwards. Rise in average temperature, number of dry days, and relative humidity had adverse effects on wheat yield. Planting and flowering stage rainfall and sunnier weather conditions improved yield. Significant variations across regions and a positive time trend were evident implying technological progress. Strengthening institutional support systems, market accessibility, and science-driven climate change adaptation including generation and wider dissemination of drought tolerant wheat varieties, and enhancing farmers’ capacity to switch from rice to wheat constitute key areas of policy intervention. This will help ensure food security alongside sustainable water management.
    Keywords: Climate change, Wheat, Panel data, Food security; Sustainable water management Bangladesh
    JEL: C33 O13 Q54
    Date: 2018–11–07
  3. By: Puja Singhal
    Abstract: This paper explores the extent to which the Large Combustion Plant (LCP) Directive succeeded in mitigating local air pollutants from thermal electricity generating plants in the European Union. Using yearly data on plant-level operations from the EEA, we investigate whether emissions limits on stack concentrations were effective in cleaning emissions from existing combustion plants and a catalyst for improved environmental performance of new installations. We take advantage of the discontinuities in regulation status to show that the emission performance standards led to sizeable declines in SO2, NOx, and particle dust concentrations at the stack level from older combustion plants. We also find suggestive evidence of anticipation effects from newer plants in response to tighter emission standards.
    Keywords: Air pollution, emission standards, large combustion plant, EU
    JEL: Q53 Q58 K32
    Date: 2018
  4. By: Cui, X.
    Abstract: Recent studies of climate change impacts on agriculture have predominantly focused on crop yields. However, climate change has heterogeneous effects across crops, so growers can adapt to climate change by adjusting planted acres. This paper measures how corn and soybean planted acres have responded to climate change in the United States since 1980. A county-level panel is formed with agricultural and high-resolution climatological data. To identify long-run effects of climate change, a rolling-panel approach is used, in which annual climatic variables are constructed by averaging growing-season temperature and precipitation over the past 30 years. Planted acres of corn and soybeans are positively affected by increases in temperature and precipitation in cool and dry areas, but negatively affected in warm and moist areas. Acknowledgement :
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2018–07
  5. By: Geoffrey Barrows (Ecole Polytechnique); Helene Ollivier (PSE)
    Abstract: With asymmetric climate policies, regulation in one country can be undercut by emissions growth in another. Previous research finds evidence that regulation erodes the competitiveness of domestic firms and leads to higher imports, but increased imports need not imply increased emissions if domestic sales are jointly determined with export sales or if emission intensity of manufacturing adjusts endogenously to foreign demand. In this paper, we estimate for the first time how production and emissions of manufacturing firms in one country respond to foreign demand shocks in trading partner markets. Using a panel of large Indian manufacturers and an instrumental variable strategy, we find that foreign demand growth leads to higher exports, domestic sales, production, and CO2 emissions, and slightly lower emission intensity. The results imply that a representative exporter facing the average observed foreign demand growth over the period 1995-2011 would have increased CO2 emissions by 1.39% annually as a result of foreign demand growth, which translates into 6.69% total increase in CO2 emissions from Indian manufacturing over the period. Breaking down emission intensity reduction into component channels, we find some evidence of product-mix effects, but fail to reject the null of no change in technology. Back of the envelope calculations indicate that environmental regulation that doubles energy prices world-wide (except in India) would only increase CO2 emissions from India by 1.5%. Thus, while leakage fears are legitimate, the magnitude appears fairly small in the context of India.
    Keywords: leakage, trade and environment, product mix, technological change
    JEL: F14 F18 Q56
    Date: 2018–11
  6. By: Németh-Durkó, Emilia
    Abstract: This paper explores the relationship between environmental degradation (measured by the ratio of carbon dioxide emissions), economic growth and energy consumption in case of Hungary over the period of 1990-2014 by annual data. To ascertain the integrating properties of the variables, the Zivot-Andrews unit root test was employed. The ARDL bounds testing approach and Gregory-Hansen structural break test have been adopted to test the relationship between the variables in the presence of structural break. Structural breaks occurred in the first half of the 2000s in the series of carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption, while economic growth has a structural break in the middle of 1990s. My research shows that carbon dioxide emissions are influenced in several ways by the above-mentioned factors. The impact of energy consumption is time variant on carbon dioxide emissions and statistically significant in the short and long term. One-year delay, increasing in energy consumption results decline in carbon dioxide emissions while increasing in level of energy consumption is linked with increases in economic growth. The economic growth also has an important role in carbon dioxide emissions. Its increasing contributes to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the short and long run. It is concluded that economic growth and energy consumption are in the background of the air quality and economic growth mitigates carbon dioxide emissions.
    Keywords: cointegration, energy, economic growth, ARDL bounds test
    JEL: O13 O40 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2018–11–26
  7. By: Sebastian Schaefer (University of Siegen)
    Abstract: The EU emissions trading system (ETS) and the promotion of renewable energy are overlapping regulations. Although the resulting early development of renewables is associated with several advantages such an overlap may violate the path of optimal abatement. Subsidies may cause a too high share of renewables in electricity generation. This results in additional expenses and efficiency losses. We develop a control mechanism serving as thumb rule to limit additional expenses. Under optimal implementation the rule signicantly restricts additional expenses to a maximum of about 4 % of total abatement costs in worst case. This result holds for marginal abatement costs (MAC) approximated by any conical combination of weak convex power functions. This means high exibility of MAC leading to high validity of the results. Consequences of a non-optimal implementation of the mechanism are examined as well. An empirical application to German data shows that the promotion of renewable energy has not yet violated the path of optimal abatement. However, data is restricted because the ETS has not induced an additional emission reduction since 2010.
    Keywords: Overlapping Regulations, Promotion of Renewable Energy, Emissions Trading
    JEL: D61 H23 Q42 Q48 Q54
    Date: 2018
  8. By: Nils Ohlendorf; Michael Jakob; Jan Christoph Minx; Carsten Schröder; Jan Christoph Steckel
    Abstract: Understanding the distributional impacts of market-based climate policies is crucial to design economically efficient climate change mitigation policies that are socially acceptable and avoid adverse impacts on the poor. Empirical studies that examine the distributional impacts of carbon pricing and fossil fuel subsidy reforms in different countries arrive at ambiguous results. To systematically determine the sources of variation between these outcomes, we apply an ordered probit meta-analysis framework. Based on a comprehensive, systematic and transparent screening of the literature, our sample comprises 53 empirical studies containing 183 effects in 39 countries. Results indicate a significantly increased likelihood of progressive distributional outcomes for studies on lower income countries and transport sector policies. The same applies to study designs that consider indirect effects, behavioral adjustments of consumers or lifetime income proxies. Future research on different types of revenue recycling schemes and lower income countries would further contribute to the literature.
    Keywords: Meta-analysis, Environmental policies, Distributional impacts, Inequality, Climate change mitigation, Households, Environmental taxes, Redistribution, Poverty
    JEL: H23 Q52 Q58
    Date: 2018
  9. By: Jose García-Quevedo (Chair on Energy Sustainability, University of Barcelona & IEB); Effie Kesidou (University of Leeds); Ester Martínez-Ros (University Carlos III)
    Abstract: Building on insights from institutional theory, the resource-based view of the firm, and internationalisation, we seek to explain the variation in the adoption of organisational eco-innovations such as environmental management systems (EMS) across sectors in Spain in the period 2009–2014. Previous studies on eco-innovation report that regulatory pressures, technology-push, market-pull, and firm factors are drivers of this process. However, this literature pays relatively little attention to non-technological forms of eco-innovation, such as EMS. As a result, just how EMS adoption can be encouraged across sectors remains unclear in the innovation literature. Here, we seek to address this problem by combining data from the following sources: the Community Innovation Survey and the Spanish Technological Innovation Panel, the International Standardisation Organisation (ISO) survey, the Industry Survey, the Environmental Protection Survey, and the Air Emissions Account. The results of the econometric analysis of panel data reveal that, first, coercive institutional pressures are driving the adoption of EMS reflecting differences across sectors in energy and pollution intensity. Second, the adoption of ISO 9000 – a highly institutionalised system of quality management – increases the adoption of EMS in each industry because of complementarities between the two systems. Third, sectors with a high percentage of internationalised firms operate a higher number of EMS.
    Keywords: Eco-innovation, Institutional theory, Internationalisation, Panel data, EMS
    JEL: O30 Q50 Q58
    Date: 2018
  10. By: Scoppola, M.; Raimondi, V.
    Abstract: The recent wave of Foreign Land Acquisitions (FLA) has raised several concerns in terms of their environmental and social sustainability. An unexplored issue is whether pollution-haven mechanisms are driving the world-wide location of agricultural production. This paper investigates whether and how differences in environmental stringency between investing and target country affect the pattern of FLA. We estimate a panel gravity- equation and use different indexes of ecosystem vitality to measure the environmental stringency. Our results show that differences in environmental stringency do affect both the number of contracts and the amount of the land acquired, overall confirming the existence of pollution-haven mechanisms also in agriculture, although the direction of these effects depends on the index of environmental stringency we use and on the characteristics of the target country. Acknowledgement :
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2018–07
  11. By: Corinne Merly (BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM)); Marine Gremont (BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM)); Philippe Le Vigouroux (BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM)); Blandine Clozel (BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM)); Laurent Cadilhac (Agence de l'eau Rhône Méditérranée et Corse); Caroline Schlosser (Agence de l'eau Rhône Méditérranée et Corse)
    Abstract: Groundwater Directive 2006/118/EC (Daughter to Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC) establishes specific measures in order to prevent and control groundwater pollution. It specifically requires to assess plumes originating from punctual sources such as those due to industrial activities, in order to check if they do not spread and degrade the chemical state of the groundwater bodies. In 2012-2013, BRGM (French Geological Survey) supported by the AERMC (Water Agency on the Mediterranean Rhone River basin) carried out a study to assess the impact of industrial activities on the quality of groundwater bodies in the Rhône river basin. It enables to identify 10 groundwater bodies which were at risk of not reaching the groundwater environmental quality target set by the French application of the Groundwater Framework Directive. Some of these groundwater bodies impacted by persistent and widely spread contaminants such as chlorinated solvents are very unlikely to recover groundwater quality standard by 2027. In this context, AERMC and the BRGM initiated an innovative project in order to define a methodological framework to justify for an exemption of the current groundwater quality objectives and the possibility to propose a less stringent groundwater objective.
    Date: 2018–10–22
  12. By: Jasper N. Meya (University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: I study how the distribution of environmental goods and income affect the economic valuation of local public goods. I find that how environmental inequality affects societal willingness to pay (WTP) for environmental local public goods is determined by their substitutability as well as by how their provision is correlated with income. Specifically, environmental inequality decreases societal (WTP) for substitutes, but this effect is reversed if environmental goods are complements or distributed strongly in favour of richer households. Moreover, I show that sorting of richer households into places where environmental good endowment is high increases (decreases) societal WTP if and only if it is a substitute for (complement to) consumption goods. I propose novel adjustment factors for structural benefit transfer to control for differences in the spatial distribution of environmental local public goods. Using forest preservation in Poland as an empirical example, I find that societal WTP is up to 4 percent higher for equal access to forests and up to 8 percent higher for an equal distribution of both income and access to forests.
    Keywords: Inequality, environmental valuation, WTP, local public good, spatial distribution, benefit transfer, forest ecosystem services
    Date: 2018–12
  13. By: Stijn van Weezel
    Abstract: There is a large empirical literature trying to quantify the potentially adverse affects of climate change on the risk of violent armed conflict, which focuses almost exclusively on linking annual variation in climatic conditions to violence. A major shortcoming of this approach is that it conflates climate variability with climate change, while also implicitly assuming that adverse weather shocks will immediately trigger violent contests over scarce resources. In contrast, this study exploits changes in local climate over a longer time period; using differences in the average standardised deviation of temperature and precipitation levels between 1989-2002 and 2003-2017 across the African continent. Bayesian model averaging is used to test whether variables measuring changes in local climate contribute consistently in explaining conflict risk between 2003-17. Using disaggregated data to account for local dynamics, the reduced-form estimation shows that temperature is robustly linked to violent armed conflict: moving from low to high temperature levels corresponds to a 31% increase in conflict risk. Changes in precipitation have no discernible effect. The results are robust to changing the benchmark period for the climate variables, accounting for conflict prevalence, and considering different types of violent conflict. Examining the predictive power of the models, a leave-one-out cross-validation highlights that including information on changes in local climate improves the predictive performance of the model, as measured by the area under the precision-recall curve, by seven points, from 0.51 to 0.58; 33 points above the baseline.
    Keywords: Climate; Civil war; Bayesian model averaging
    JEL: D74 N47 Q54
    Date: 2018–08
  14. By: Malik Curuk; Suphi Sen
    Abstract: We develop a resource extraction model that features imperfect substitution and endogenous market power. We analytically characterize the effect of anticipated future demand shocks on the resource extraction path and show that endogenous market power can dampen the adverse consequences of climate policies due to intertemporal carbon leakages compared to the perfect or monopolistic competition benchmarks. Next, we show that under constant elasticity of substitution between alternative energy resources, resource owner's current market share and reserves-to-extraction ratio are sufficient statistics to calculate the degree of intertemporal leakage. Applying data on OPEC, we find a minor increase in current extraction due to an anticipated increase in the productivity of alternative energy technologies.
    Keywords: Climate policy; variable markups; nonrenewable energy resources; imperfect competition; imperfect substitution
    JEL: Q48 L10 H23
    Date: 2018
  15. By: Dorothée Brécard (LEAD - Laboratoire d'Économie Appliquée au Développement - UTLN - Université de Toulon); Rémy Le Boennec (VeDeCom - VEhicule DEcarboné et COmmuniquant et sa Mobilité, LGI - Laboratoire Génie Industriel - EA 2606 - CentraleSupélec); Frédéric Salladarré (CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, LEMNA - Laboratoire d'économie et de management de Nantes Atlantique - IEMN-IAE Nantes - Institut d'Économie et de Management de Nantes - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises - Nantes - UN - Université de Nantes - IUML - FR 3473 Institut universitaire Mer et Littoral - UM - Le Mans Université - UA - Université d'Angers - UN - Université de Nantes - ECN - École Centrale de Nantes - UBS - Université de Bretagne Sud - IFREMER - Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: In this empirical article, we analyze the extent to which accessibility and environmental variables are capitalized in apartment prices in Nantes Métropole, France. Using a sample of 5,590 transactions in 2002, 2006, 2008 from the Perval database, we estimate a spatial hedonic price model that takes into account spatial autocorrelation and spatial heterogeneity. Special attention is also paid to the construction of environmental quality variables (noise exposure , air pollution). We find that apartment prices depend positively on proximity to Nantes city centre but that the public transport network (urban or non-urban) has no significant influence. Noise reduction is valued, but only at low or marginal levels of significance. Last, air quality does not significantly influence apartment prices. These results can be related to good accessibility and environmental quality in Nantes Métropole which probably makes households less sensitive to these issues than in other geographical contexts. This seems to provide little support for sustainable urban mobility plans favoring better accessibility, unless public authorities also target the greater awareness of the use of virtuous modes of transport.
    Keywords: noise exposure,air quality,spatial econometrics,hedonic price model,accessibility
    Date: 2018–10
  16. By: Julia Jouan (SMART - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AGROCAMPUS OUEST); Aude Ridier (SMART - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AGROCAMPUS OUEST); Matthieu Carof (SAS - Sol Agro et hydrosystème Spatialisation - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique)
    Abstract: The European Union (EU) relies on imports to meet the protein requirements of livestock. The Common Agricultural Policy aims at improving EU protein self-sufficiency by developing the production of protein-rich crops such as legumes. The purpose of this paper is to assess the impacts of increased protein self-sufficiency through legume development at the regional level. To do so, the SYNERGY bio-economic model is set up. This model accounts for (i) different scales, (ii) different types of farm, (iii) different pedological and climatic conditions and (iv) possible exchanges of organic fertilizers and crops between farms. It analyzes both economic and environmental impacts, in terms of revenues and use of nitrogen. The main assumption is that the complementarity between specialized crop farms and livestock farms can increase protein self-sufficiency while having positive economic and environmental impacts at the regional level. The results show that protein self-sufficiency can be slightly enhanced thanks to exchanges between farms, as long as locally purchased crops are at least 10% cheaper than world purchased ones. This price differential can represent the saving in terms of transport and transaction costs. When local exchanges are possible and a GMO-free certification is set up, legume-based rations are dominant in livestock farms, and the protein self-sufficiency is even more enhanced. In both situations, the economic consequences are positive as incomes increase at the regional level. However, the impacts in term of nitrogen management are more reserved.
    Keywords: farm complementarity,bio-economic model,vegetable,légume
    Date: 2018–08–30
  17. By: Abayateye, F.; Skolrud, T.; Galinato, G.
    Abstract: To understand the likely impact of federal policies on nonpoint agricultural water pollution, we require a robust measure of state-level environmental regulation stringency. The objective of this paper is to derive and characterize state level environmental regulation stringency across states and over time. We compute a measure of environmental regulation stringency for the agricultural sector from 1960-2004 by calculating the shadow price of polluting inputs. We find evidence suggesting an increase in regulation stringency across all regions over the sample period, with the exception of the corn belt region, which has decreased in stringency. With few exceptions, regions of the U.S. with the highest proportion of farms see the lowest levels of regulation stringency. Acknowledgement :
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2018–07
  18. By: Campiglio, Emanuele; Dafermos, Yannis; Monnin, Pierre; Ryan-Collins, Josh; Schotten, Guido; Tanaka, Misa
    Abstract: The academic and policy debate regarding the role of central banks and financial regulators in addressing climate-related financial risks has rapidly expanded in recent years. This Perspective presents the key controversies and discusses potential research and policy avenues for the future. Developing a comprehensive analytical framework to assess the potential impact of climate change and the low-carbon transition on financial stability seems to be the first crucial challenge. These enhanced risk measures could then be incorporated in setting financial regulations and implementing the policies of central banks.
    JEL: F3 G3
    Date: 2018–05–30
  19. By: Carl Gaigné; Lota D. Tamini
    Abstract: In this paper, we theoretically and empirically study the impact of environmental taxation on trade in environmental goods (EGs). Using a trade model in which the demand for and supply of EGs are endogenous, we show that the relationship between environmental taxation and demand for EGs follows a bell-shaped curve. Above a cutoff tax rate, a higher pollution tax rate can reduce the bilateral trade of EGs because there are too many low-productivity suppliers of EGs. Our empirical results confirm our main findings using data regarding the EU-27 countries. We also theoretically and empirically show that environmental taxation has a monotonically positive impact on the extensive margin of trade. Furthermore, we show that if countries apply an environmental tax rate equals to the “optimal” tax rate, 4.03% (e.g., the tax rate maximizing international trade of EGs), then trade in EGs would experience an increase of 22 percentage points.
    Keywords: environmental goods, international trade, environmental taxation
    JEL: F12 F18 Q56
    Date: 2018
  20. By: Huang, K.
    Abstract: Although climate change may severely impact agriculture, farmers can mitigate it by adapting to their new climates. Using US data, we estimate the amount of potential loss in agricultural profits, due to climate change, that can be reduced by agricultural adaptation. We propose two panel frameworks that differ only in their fixed effects specifications, where this difference allows us to estimate the climate change impact on agricultural profits with or without adaptation taken into account. Comparing these estimates, we find that adaptation has the potential to offset about two-thirds of the end-of-this-century loss in agricultural profits potentially resulting from climate chang Acknowledgement :
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2018–07
  21. By: Jorge L. Contreras; Bronwyn H. Hall; Christian Helmers
    Abstract: We revisit the effect of the “Eco-Patent Commons” (EcoPC) on the diffusion of patented environmentally friendly technologies following its discontinuation in 2016, using both participant survey and data analytic evidence. Established in January 2008 by several large multinational companies, the not-for-profit initiative provided royalty-free access to 248 patents covering 94 “green” inventions. Hall and Helmers (2013) suggested that the patents pledged to the commons had the potential to encourage the diffusion of valuable environmentally friendly technologies. Our updated results now show that the commons did not increase the diffusion of pledged inventions, and that the EcoPC suffered from several structural and organizational issues. Our findings have implications for the effectiveness of patent commons in enabling the diffusion of patented technologies more broadly.
    JEL: O13 O34 Q55
    Date: 2018–11
  22. By: Joanna Kielin - Maziarz (Kozminski University)
    Abstract: Sustainable Development when discussed on the ground of legal science is first of all the subject of environmental law but also constitutional law and the theory of law. It is possible to say that its legal status is specified by terms used by the theory of law, its importance by the EU primary law and on polish grounds ? in polish constitution. The scope of its realization is a subject of studies of environmental law. The paper will discuss the problem of understanding the principle in Polish law. The main aim is to show the dilemma of location of the sustainable development principle in the first chapter of Polish Constitution and the consequences of that fact.
    Keywords: sustainable development, principle, constitutional law
    JEL: K10 K32 K39
    Date: 2018–10
  23. By: Jaime De Melo (FERDI - Fondation pour les Etudes et Recherches sur le Développement International, UNIGE - Université de Genève); Jean-Marc Solleder (UNIGE - Université de Genève)
    Abstract: Decade-long negotiations on the reduction of tariffs on Environmental Goods (EGs) at the Doha Round using a list approach to define EGs, failed to produce an agreement. In July 2014, 14 countries entered plurilateral negotiations under the ambit of the WTO. If successful, the resulting Environmental Goods Agreement (EGA) would have eliminated tariffs on a list of EGs. These negotiations broke down in December 2016. The chapter documents this episode and the mercantilistic behavior of negotiators that prevented agreement on an extended list of EGs, a requirement to conclude a meaningful outcome for the environment. A conclusion of the EGA negotiations under the current narrow agenda focusing only on tariffs could help build trust to go further but would be insufficient to help mitigate climate change, even if a ‘critical mass' were to be reached allowing extension of the tariff reductions to all WTO members. This is because average tariffs for the negotiating group are too low (1.5 percent). Extending the agenda to include Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs) and Environmental Services (ESs) remains the acid test for an EGA to address meaningfully the climate change challenge. Reaching agreement on how to tackle NTBs and ESs will require delegating negotiating authority to ‘independent' scientific experts and probably modifying WTO rules.
    Date: 2018–10–29
  24. By: Emilson C.D. Silva; Chikara Yamaguchi
    Abstract: We examine the formation of multilateral, hub-and-spoke and bilateral international R&D strategic alliances (overlapping climate clubs) to reduce CO2 emissions. R&D provision in clubs produces two types of positive externalities: a global public good (i.e., reduction of CO2 emissions) and knowledge spillovers in joint R&D agreements. The latter is a club good. It is perfectly excludable. Its (direct) benefits are enjoyed by the club members only. Trust plays a central role in the type of alliance formation, if any at all. Lack of trust generates transaction costs, which increase with the number of R&D collaborators. We utilize the perfectly-coalition-proof-Nash equilibrium (PCPNE) concept to refine the set of Nash equilibria. Multilateral and hub-and-spoke coalitional structures are PCPNE, even in large economies containing all nations in the globe, in the absence of income transfers, for different values of transaction costs. With income transfers, fully participated multilateral coalitional structures are not stable; however, the size of the stable coalition increases as the economy expands.
    Keywords: climate change, climate clubs, trust, coalition-proof equilibrium, overlapping coalitions, carbon capture and storage, hub-and-spoke, international environmental agreements
    JEL: C70 D60 D70 H40 H70 Q40 R50
    Date: 2018
  25. By: Peyman Khezr (School of Economics, University of Queensland, Brisbane); Ian A. MacKenzie (School of Economics, University of Queensland, Brisbane)
    Abstract: The most contentious design issue within pollution markets is the choice of initial allocation mechanism. Within this debate, auctions have become the predominant method of initial permit allocation. Although auctions provide potential gains—such as revenue generation, allocative efficiency and clear price discovery—these benefits are rarely fully realized due to firms submitting non-truthful bids. We propose a mechanism that can improve on existing auctions. In our design the regulator determines the supply (up to an upper bound) once all bids have been submitted. This simple and applicable design incites truthful revelation of firms’ private abatement costs, maximizes revenue, and allocates the permits efficiently. This design is relevant to all existing permit auctions including those in the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS), Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), and the California Cap-and-Trade Program.
    Keywords: multi-unit auction, pollution permit
    JEL: D44 Q52
    Date: 2018–11–23
  26. By: Larry S. Karp; Christian P. Traeger
    Abstract: “Prices versus quantities” (Weitzman 1974), a hugely influential paper, is widely cited (and taught) in current debates about the best policy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The paper’s criterion for ranking policies suggests that technological uncertainty favors taxes over cap and trade. Weitzman models a flow pollutant, but greenhouse gases are persistent. Stock pollutants require a fundamental change in the ranking criterion. Innovations’ persistence and their gradual diffusion both favor the use of cap and trade. Numerical results show that the case for cap and trade as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions is stronger than widely believed.
    Keywords: policy instruments, pollution, climate change, taxes, quantities, regulation, uncertainty, cap and trade, technology
    JEL: Q00 Q50 H20 D80
    Date: 2018
  27. By: Roger Martini (OECD); James Innes (OECD)
    Abstract: The effects of six common forms of fisheries support are estimated using a bioeconomic model of the global fishery. The results show that all have the potential to provoke overfishing, to lead to fish stocks being overfished, to encourage illegal, unreported or unregulated (IUU) fishing and to increase fleet capacity, but that their effects can vary significantly both in scale and how they are distributed at the fleet level. The fisheries management system can mitigate, though not entirely eliminate, these impacts. Supports based on reducing the cost of inputs purchased by fishers provoke the greatest increase in fishing effort, with associated risks of overfishing. This includes fuel subsidies, which are also shown to deliver less than 10% of their value in actual benefits to fishers in some cases, making them the least effective means of transferring income to fishers of those evaluated. Payments based on improving fishers’ business operations provided the greatest benefit to fishers and had relatively less tendency to increase fishing effort. If only USD 5 billion in fuel support was converted into support of this type, fishers would see increased income of more than USD 2 billion, while at the same time reducing effort and improving fish stocks. Such a change would also provide relatively more benefit to smaller fishers.
    Keywords: fisher welfare, fisheries policy, Fisheries support, overcapacity, overfishing, subsidies
    JEL: H23 H53 Q22 Q28 Q57
    Date: 2018–12–14
  28. By: van den Berg, Bob; Sadowski, Bert M.; Pals, Luuk
    Abstract: Information technology (IT), and in particular data centres, consume a huge amount of energy, which has negative influence on climate change. Therefore, it is important to look at the sustainability of data centres, especially in the Netherlands as one of the major location of these centres in Europe. In order to examine the extent to which data centres are sustainable and energy efficient, a comprehensive total cost of ownerships (TCO) analysis is undertaken to get better insights into the different costs components and technological opportunities for further reductions. Even if there are already a number of TCO studies on data centres, there have been none dealing with the effects of technological change on the networking part of data centres. However, this can be considered as a serious shortcoming of current research as technological change will have (cost-saving) effects on the networking part of data centres and data traffic will have an impact on the rack. After examining technological change by comparing different network technologies (ethernet, glass fibre, and plastic optical fiber (POF) in data centres, our TCO model studies improvements regarding costs, energy reduction, and improved sustainability of these three technologies. We conclude that the implementation of glass fibre or POF in a data centre can provide cost improvements amounting to about 1% per year. Looking at the energy consumption of the network part, a reduction of approximately 20% for glass fibre and 40% for POF can be reached. Therefore, the model demonstrated that changing current network technologies within the data centre will result in a decrease of energy consumption and total cost ownership.
    Date: 2018
  29. By: Franck Poupeau (iGLOBES - Interdisciplinary and Global Environmental Studes - University of Arizona - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Lala Razafimahefa (ART-Dev - Acteurs, Ressources et Territoires dans le Développement - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - UM3 - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Jérémy Robert (IFEA - l'Institut Français d'Etudes Anatoliennes - MEAE - Ministère de l'Europe et des Affaires étrangères - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Delphine Mercier (LEST - Laboratoire d'économie et de sociologie du travail - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CEMCA UMIFRE16 - Centre d'études mexicaines et centroaméricaines - MEAE - Ministère de l'Europe et des Affaires étrangères - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Gilles Massardier (CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement); Pedro Jacobi (PROCAM - Programa de Pós graduação em Ciência Ambiental - USP - Universidade de São Paulo)
    Abstract: This book develops an international comparative approach to water conflicts in several American cities (USA, Mexico, Brazil, Peru, Bolivia). Struggles for water can be related to different issues: increase in water prices, installation of water catchment systems, negotiations of commissioning contracts, promotion of municipal plans for water delivery, etc. Such conflicts tend to structure coalitions which, in turn, influence policy-making; they impact local orders that are embedded at multiple levels of social practices; they involve most of the environmental and political institutions of a city or a country. In order to understand how these hydrocracies work, this book proposes a new framework of analysis taking into account the beliefs of the protagonists of the conflicts, their positions in the policy networks and their social characteristics.
    Date: 2018
  30. By: Romain Allais (APESA - Association Pour l'Environnement et la Sécurité en Aquitaine - APESA, Pacte, Laboratoire de sciences sociales - UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - Grenoble 2 - UJF - Université Joseph Fourier - Grenoble 1 - IEPG - Sciences Po Grenoble - Institut d'études politiques de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Julie Gobert (LEESU - Laboratoire Eau Environnement et Systèmes Urbains - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12, INSA Strasbourg - Institut National des Sciences Appliquées - Strasbourg - INSA - Institut National des Sciences Appliquées, LAB'URBA - LAB'URBA - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12)
    Abstract: System innovation for sustainability requires system and multidisciplinary approach. Current assessment tools are mainly disciplinary and support the assessment of material flows in terms of environmental impacts or economical flows for example. These tools provide helpful quantitative information for system (re)-design but do not explicitly question the value creation factors whereas models derived from financial analysis do so (both quantitative and qualitative assessment). A material and immaterial resource flows model coupled with extended scorecar d to support both the analysis and structuration of territorial projects will be useful to better understand, qualify and quantify the different kinds of resources revealed, mobilized or denied during a project. The aim of this communication is to present the conceptual background for the model development and then to present its partial applications in i n-dustrial cases. Benefits, limits and further development will be also discussed. This model is built on the five dimensions sustainable transition method ology (5D-STM) and the multidisciplinary method for sustainability assessment. It enables both the representation of the tangibles and intangible assets mobilized during the emergence and structuration of territorial projects (e.g. business model transitio n to functional economy) and sustainability assessment of existing projects (e.g. industrial and territorial ecology projects). This model is still under development but appears to strengthen strategic analysis and potentially support the integration of sustainability within territorial projects but is not sufficient by itself. It can be used as a tool to support decision-making if integrated within a larger transition-oriented methodology.
    Date: 2018–05–22
  31. By: Sebastian Schaefer (University of Siegen)
    Abstract: There is a broad agreement that renewable energy sources (RES) will play an important role to abate CO2 emissions but there is a contentious debate about the economic sense to promote RES via subsidies. Many static analyses conclude that subsidizing RES ties up capital which could have been used more efficiently by other reduction strategies with lower marginal abatement costs (MAC). Dynamic models, in contrast, emphasize learning effects which lead to lower MAC of RES. In particular a start-up funding to induce an early market entry of RES may be advantageous to benefit from reduced MAC. To our knowledge there has been no attention so far to the effects of renewables’ promotion to the necessary shut down of power plants based on fossil energy sources (FES). With respect to the achievement of a certain long-term reduction objective an early market entry of RES allows a longer transition from FES to RES. This also means more time to shut down fossil-based power plants which can reduce respective depreciation costs. We use an endogenous growth model to focus on the trade off between the described decrease of depreciation costs and the capital tie-up of a subsidization of RES. We find that subsidizing RES can indeed lead to a higher welfare solely because of reduced depreciation costs. We conclude that an optimal strategy to reduce emissions should consider both the increase of renewable and the decrease of fossil electricity generation.
    Keywords: Renewable Energy, Transition Period, Welfare Effects
    JEL: H23 O21 O44 Q42 Q43 Q48
    Date: 2018
  32. By: Anthony Heyes (University of Ottawa); Sandeep Kapur (Birkbeck, University of London); Peter W. Kennedy (University of Victoria); Steve Martin (Statistics Canada); John W. Maxwell (Indiana University)
    Abstract: Programs that certify the environmental (or other social) attributes of firms are common.But the proliferation of labeling schemes makes it difficult for consumers to know what each one mean – what level of `greenness' does a particular label imply? We provide the first model in which consumers can expend effort to learn what labels mean. The relationship between information acquisition costs, firm pricing decisions, the market shares obtained by alternatively-labeled goods and a brown `backstop' good, and total environmental impact prove complex.Consumer informedness can have perverse implications. In plausible cases a reduction in the cost of information damages environmental outcomes. Our results challenge the presumption that provision of environmental information to the public is necessarily good for welfare or the environment.
    Keywords: Eco-labeling, green consumerism, information-based instruments.
    JEL: D83 L15 L31 Q52
    Date: 2018–11
  33. By: Jane Ellis (OECD); Sina Wartmann; Sara Moarif (International Energy Agency); Marcia Rocha (OECD)
    Abstract: An enhanced transparency framework is a central component of the Agreement, and will apply to all Parties, with flexibility for developing country Parties that need it in the light of their capacities. This paper examines how such flexibility might be operationalised when reporting information under the future enhanced transparency system for greenhouse gas inventories and for progress towards the mitigation component of NDCs under Article 4. The paper also highlights how improvements over time in reporting of adaptation, and support needed and received could be encouraged. For each individual reporting element in these four areas, the paper identifies possible ways that countries with a range of different capacity levels could provide information for specific elements under the four reporting areas examined in the paper.
    Keywords: climate change, Enhanced Transparency Framework, flexibility, nationally determined contribution, Paris Agreement and Article 13, reporting, transparency
    JEL: F39 H39 O20 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2018–11–27
  34. By: Van Passel, S.; Vanschoenwinkel, J.; Moretti, M.
    Abstract: Agricultural adaptation to climate change is indispensable. Unfortunately, most climate response modeling methods accounting for adaptation are based on economic modelling that assumes simple farm profit-maximization and autonomous farm adaptation. This makes adaptation look like something unconditional , explaining why agricultural policy down-sized the attention for adaptation. This is incorrect as adaptation is facing numerous barriers such as low levels of adaptive capacity. This paper therefore captures and quantifies the impact of adaptive capacity explicitly in economic cross-sectional models, showing that those methods can be more policy-oriented. It shows that higher levels of adaptive capacity lead to more positive climate responses. Acknowledgement : This paper was supported by the Horizon 2020 project SUFISA (Grant Agreement No. 635577).
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2018–07
  35. By: Paul J. Thomassin; René Roy
    Abstract: Les pratiques de gestion bénéfique (PGB) en agriculture sont reconnues pour améliorer la qualité de l’environnement, notamment par la fourniture de biens et services écologiques (BSE). Cependant, l’évaluation de la rentabilité de ces pratiques reste un défi, principalement parce que le lien entre leur effet environnemental et leur effet sur le bien-être des sociétés reste difficile à évaluer. Cette étude propose donc une méthodologie visant à comparer la valeur économique d’une amélioration environnementale découlant de l’adoption d’une PGB au coût d’implantation de cette PGB. La méthodologie permet de considérer l’hétérogénéité prévalant dans le bassin versant. L’objectif général de cette étude vise donc à établir le ratio bénéfices-coûts des PGB évaluées. Ainsi, la question de recherche qui oriente ce travail est la suivante : Quels sont les bénéfices et les coûts générés par différentes PGB dans le sous bassin versant du Bras d’Henri de la rivière Beaurivage ? Des questions spécifiques à l’objectif général guident l’analyse de la question de recherche : Quelles sont les valeurs économiques des BSE associés à la prestation des PGB sélectionnées dans le sous bassin versant du Bras d’Henri ? Quelles sont les combinaisons de PGB générant des BSE dont les bénéfices publics sont les plus élevés ? Quels sont les facteurs ayant une influence sur les bénéfices et les coûts, et quelle est l’ampleur de cette influence ? Quelle est la méthodologie efficiente pour examiner la rentabilité et l’efficacité des mesures gouvernementales visant la production de BSE en agriculture ? Cette étude vise ainsi à déterminer quels sont les bénéfices et les coûts générés par l’adoption de pratiques de gestion bénéfique (PGB) en prenant comme cas de figure le sous bassin versant du Bras d’Henri de la rivière Beaurivage. Cette évaluation prend en considération les particularités géographiques du bassin versant et compile les coûts privés et les bénéfices publics générés. Les sous-objectifs de cette analyse permettent également de déterminer quels sont les PGB générant les BSE les plus avantageux pour la société, de déterminer quels sont les facteurs qui ont une influence sur les coûts et les bénéfices des PGB et de décrire la méthodologie efficiente pour examiner la rentabilité et l’efficacité des mesures gouvernementales visant la production de BSE en agriculture.
    Date: 2018–11–30
  36. By: Thiene, M.; Franceschinis, C.; Scarpa, R.
    Abstract: Congestion levels in protected areas can be predicted by site selection probability models estimated from choice data. There is growing evidence of subjects inattention to attributes in choice experiments. We estimate a Latent Class-Random Parameters model (LC-RPL) that jointly handles inattention and preference heterogeneity. We use data from a choice experiment designed to elicit visitors preferences towards sustainable management of a protected area in the Italian Alps. Results show that the LC-RPL model produces improvements in model fit and reductions in the implied rate of inattention, as compared to traditional approaches. Implications of results for Park management authorities are discussed. Acknowledgement :
    Keywords: Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2018–07
  37. By: Jean-Claude Berthelemy (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Arnaud Millien (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper is the first product of a project which aims to build a Collaborative Smart Mapping of Mini-grid Action (CoSMMA), whose principal objective is to identify best practice in decentralized electrification projects. By evaluation of 421 projects, from published research papers, we have built a pilot CoSMMA which proves its feasibility. Its relevance is demonstrated by a meta-analysis, which reveals the principal characteristics of decentralized electrification projects which have positive impacts on sustainable development. Four main characteristics were considered: technology (source or energy), system size (power), decision level (from local to country level), geographic location. When searching for best practice, technology and system size must be considered together, because the chosen technology may constrain the power, which is provided by the system. We find that the most popular projects, which are based on Solar Home Systems (SHS) are not the most effective. The problem with SHS is not the use of solar energy, but the small system size often chosen for SHS. Mini-grids, of larger size, especially those which use hybrid renewable sources of energy, have more positive impacts, because these systems combine the benefits of sustainability and flexibility. In terms of decision level, we find that both top-down and bottom-up approaches have advantages, with the observation of a U-shaped curve for the influence of the decision level on the probability of obtaining positive impacts. Geographical location matters, as it is very often the key to system feasibility. We find that DEPs are more effective in Latin America than in Asia, and more effective in Asia than in Africa. We also attempted to study the type of effects resulting from DEPs. Descriptive data suggest that for some types of effects, positive impacts are more likely than for others. Decentralized electrification projects have a more positive impact on Lifestyle & NICT or Household agenda than on Economic transformation or Community life. However, this pilot CoSMMA does not contain enough information to study precisely the types of effects, because some types of effects have not been studied frequently in the existing literature. This is the case, for instance, for environmental effects, which have been rarely measured scientifically. Finally, we attempted to broaden our information set by including expert data, which was entered into the CoSMMA meta-analysis. We define expert data as data that are not supported by statistical tests with measures of significance, whereas the evaluations based on scientific data were supported by statistical tests of significance. The expert data may be valid, but our attempt to include it in the analysis failed at this stage. The determinants of unproven effects appear to be quite different from the determinants of proven effects in our meta-analysis, and using expert data would imply merging proven and unproven effects, which would totally blur the conclusions.
    Keywords: Decentralized electrification,sustainable development,impact assessment,meta-analysis
    Date: 2018–11–15
  38. By: Alatorre, José Eduardo; Beltrán, Allan; Ferrer, Jimmy; Galindo, Luis Miguel
    Abstract: Este documento tiene como objetivo analizar los efectos potenciales de un impuesto al carbono sobre un conjunto de variables relevantes para el cumplimiento de las contribuciones determinadas a nivel nacional (CDN) en América Latina. De acuerdo con los resultados del análisis, en un contexto caracterizado por el bajo precio de los combustibles, la implementación en América Latina de un impuesto ambiental —también denominado “verde”— se traduciría en un incremento del consumo de energías renovables, un descenso de la intensidad energética, un aumento del PIB per cápita y una disminución de la desigualdad.
    Date: 2018–12–07
  39. By: Jahn, Malte; Wedemeier, Jan
    Abstract: Cost benefit analysis (CBA) is a systematic approach to compare the costs and bene-fits of alternatives, e.g. a decision between the construction or non-construction of a traffic light, in order to assess the welfare change. The purpose of a CBA is to facilitate a more efficient allocation of resources, mainly in terms of investments decisions. In order to assess the performance of the low carbon port development investments funded within the DUAL ports project, CBA can be applied.
    Date: 2018
  40. By: Katia Karousakis (OECD)
    Abstract: This report provides an overview of methodologies to evaluate the effectiveness of policy instruments for biodiversity, covering impact evaluation, cost-effectiveness analysis and other more commonly used approaches. It then provides an inventory of biodiversity-relevant impact evaluation studies, across both terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The report concludes with lessons learned, policy insights and suggestions for further work.
    Keywords: Allocative Efficiency, Biodiversity Conservation, Cost–Benefit Analysis, Microeconomic Policy: Formulation, Implementation, and Evaluation, Ecological Economics: Ecosystem Services
    JEL: D04 D61 Q20 Q57
    Date: 2018–12–13
  41. By: Xavier Pautrel
    Date: 2018
  42. By: Cerroni, S.; Watson, V.; Macdiarmid, J.
    Abstract: This paper tests if Second Price Vickrey Auction (SPVA) and Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) are isomorphic and whether lack of isomorphism is due to value-elicitation, value-formation or both. We conduct an artefactual field experiment that combines induced-value (IV) and home-grown (HG) procedures using SPVA and DCE. IV preferences are elicited for tokens and HG preferences for multi-attribute lasagnes. Attributes are healthiness and environmental sustainability. Our results suggest that HG preferences differ across elicitation methods. This discrepancy is due to value-elicitation and value-formation. DCE is the most demand-revealing approach and provides the highest premiums for healthy and environmentally sustainable lasagnes. Acknowledgement :
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2018–07
  43. By: Giovanni Marin (University of Urbino Carlo Bo, Italy; SEEDS, Italy); Roberto Zoboli (Catholic University of Milan, Italy; SEEDS, Italy)
    Abstract: Car scrappage schemes are generally introduced to upgrade the car fleet to reduce environmental pressures arising from private transportation. The effectiveness of these schemes has been often questioned. The aim of this paper is to quantify the impact of an Italian car scrappage scheme on the rate of deregistration of old cars. The empirical evaluation of the policy is made possible by a discontinuity in the age of cars that could be subject to the support scheme. Results, based on detailed information on the car fleet and the deregistration of cars in the Italian market, suggest a very large impact of the scheme.
    Keywords: Car scrappage schemes; Regression Discontinuity Design
    JEL: H23 R48
    Date: 2018–12
  44. By: Anousheh Alamir; Carlos Bozzoli; Tilman Brück; Olaf J. De Groot
    Abstract: Calculating the economic impact of different global challenges such as climate change or disease helps uncover the scale, distribution and structure of their economic burdens. Likewise, violent conflict affects billions of people worldwide, whether directly or indirectly. While the mechanisms for these effects have been widely studied on a case study basis, we set out to test some of the stylized facts relating to conflict effects on a cross-country basis. After suggesting a method for costs estimation that accounts for multiple forms of conflict, we disaggregate our results both by time and region. We find that in the absence of violent conflict since 1960, the level of global GDP in 2014 would have been around 33% higher. When disaggregating these costs by conflict type, civil conflicts are estimated to be by far the costliest. We observe a significant influence on growth up to four years following the end of conflict, although the direction of this effect depends on the intensity of conflict. On the other hand, neighbours suffer almost as much as host countries during conflict, thus showing the importance of mitigating spillovers rapidly. Finally, we find the largest absolute costs to be associated with violent conflict in China and India, while Sri Lanka suffers the largest relative burden (as a percentage of GDP). In contrast, many developed economies actually benefit from participating in conflict on foreign soil.
    Keywords: internal armed conflict, international war, conflict spillover, costs of conflict
    Date: 2018–11
  45. By: Manasvini Vaidyula (OECD); Marcia Rocha (OECD)
    Abstract: Article 13.7b of the Paris Agreement mandates all Parties to regularly provide information necessary to track progress made in implementing and achieving their nationally determined contributions (NDCs) under Article 4. This information provided by Parties shall also undergo a Technical Expert Review (Article 13.11). This paper examines the information needed to track progress towards different types of NDCs and explores current experiences and the associated challenges relevant to reporting this information. The paper also identifies issues and options for how this information could be reviewed and how this review could facilitate reporting improvements. The paper identifies key linkages between Articles 4, 6 and 13 of the Agreement related to reporting and reviewing information to track progress. The paper highlights that the relevant linkages need to be taken into account when developing guidance under these Articles to ensure an internally-consistent tracking progress system.
    Keywords: Article 13, Article 4, Article 6, linkages, mitigation, NDCs, Paris Agreement, Technical Expert Review, tracking progress, transparency, UNFCCC
    JEL: F53 Q54 Q56 Q58
    Date: 2018–11–27
  46. By: Sandrine Selosse (CMA - Centre de Mathématiques Appliquées - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University); Olivia Ricci (CEMOI - Centre d'Économie et de Management de l'Océan Indien - UR - Université de la Réunion); Sabine Garabedian (CEMOI - Centre d'Économie et de Management de l'Océan Indien - UR - Université de la Réunion); Nadia Maïzi (CMA - Centre de Mathématiques Appliquées - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University)
    Abstract: To cope with dependency of imported fossil fuels, high shares of renewable energy sources are expected to expand in electricity production in Small Islands. The case of Reunion Island that aims at having an electricity generation based to 100% on renewable energies by 2030 is analyzed using a bottom-up cost-optimization TIMES model. Future production mixes are providing according to different scenarios focusing on alternatives renewable energy sources. The case of Reunion Island provides a good example for the definition of an energy policy fostering renewable technologies to supply electricity and highlighting the crucial role of incentives policies.
    Keywords: Long-term modelling (TIMES),Power system,Island renewable energy transition
    Date: 2018–12
  47. By: Morgane Le Breton (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Franck Aggeri (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: The emerging field of carbon accounting, a system based on conventions and designed to measure greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in companies and organizations, is currently generating interest both in industry and among researchers. The literature has however highlighted the fact that companies' use of carbon accounting has often been limited to public relations practices and has failed to result in low-carbon strategic collective action by companies. This article explores how carbon accounting practices could be performative, that is to say, able to deeply transform companies' practices and strategies. In order to do so, a case study of one specific company, " company V, " is examined. In particular, the process of performation through elementary calculation acts – in other words, managerial situations where speech acts are based on a calculation – are considered. We show that calculations based on carbon accounting, if repeated and integrated into a broader strategic dispositif, are performative. The contribution is twofold, for we show: first from an empirical standpoint, little-known phenomena pertaining to the actual use of carbon accounting in organizations; and second from a theoretical standpoint, the role of calculation acts in the launching and maintenance of the new form of collective action that a strategic dispositif is.
    Keywords: carbon accounting,calculation acts,dispositif,performativity,felicitous conditions
    Date: 2018
  48. By: Yi, F.; McCarl, B.; Zhou, X.
    Abstract: This study measures the damages that surface ozone pollution causes within the Chinese agricultural sector. We find substantial spatially differing damages that are greatest in wheat growing areas with higher ozone concentrations. The total damage in China s agricultural sector probably ranges between CNY 1,630 billion and CNY 2,238 billion, which accounts for one fifth of agricultural revenue in 2014. A moderate ozone reduction by 30% benefits the agricultural sector by CNY 678 billion. The benefits largely fall to consumers with producers losing as the production gains lead to lower prices lessening food costs and simultaneously farm income. Acknowledgement :
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2018–07
  49. By: Erin Baker (University of Massachusetts); Valentina Bosetti (Bocconi University); Ahti Salo (Aalto University)
    Abstract: We address the problem of decision making under “deep uncertainty,” introducing an approach we call Robust Portfolio Decision Analysis. We introduce the idea of Belief Dominance as a prescriptive operationalization of a concept that has appeared in the literature under a number of names. We use this concept to derive a set of non-dominated portfolios; and then identify robust individual alternatives from the non-dominated portfolios. The Belief Dominance concept allows us to synthesize multiple conflicting sources of information by uncovering the range of alternatives that are intelligent responses to the range of beliefs. This goes beyond solutions that are optimal for any specific set of beliefs to uncover defensible solutions that may not otherwise be revealed. We illustrate our approach using a problem in the climate change and energy policy context: choosing among clean energy technology R&D portfolios. We demonstrate how the Belief Dominance concept can uncover portfolios that would otherwise remain hidden and identify robust individual investments.
    Keywords: Energy technologies, R&D investments, expert elicitations, uncertainty
    JEL: O32 Q4 D80
    Date: 2017
  50. By: C. Feger (AgroParisTech); Laurent Mermet (AgroParisTech, CESCO - Centre d'Ecologie et des Sciences de la COnservation - MNHN - Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle - Sorbonne Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Bhaskar Vira (Department of Geography [Cambridge, UK] - CAM - University of Cambridge [UK]); Prue Addison (University of Oxford [Oxford]); Richard Barker; Frank Birkin (University of Sheffield [Sheffield]); John Burns (University of Exeter Business School - University of Exeter Business School); Stuart Cooper (University of Bristol [Bristol]); Denis Couvet (CESCO - Centre d'Ecologie et des Sciences de la COnservation - MNHN - Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle - Sorbonne Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Thomas Cuckston (Aston University [Birmingham]); Gretchen Daily (Stanford University [Stanford]); Colin Dey (University of Stirling); Louise Gallagher (University of Geneva [Switzerland]); Rosemary Hails (National Trust); Stephen Jollands (University of Exeter Business School - University of Exeter Business School); Georgina Mace (UCL - University College of London [London]); Emily Mckenzie (University of Birmingham [Birmingham], WWF - World Wildlife Fund); Markus Milne (University of Canterbury [Christchurch]); Paolo Quattrone (University of Edinburgh); Alexandre Rambaud (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, DRM - Dauphine Recherches en Management - Université Paris-Dauphine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Shona Russell (University of St Andrews [Scotland]); Marta Santamaria (Natural Capital Coalition); William Sutherland (Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK)
    Abstract: Article impact statement: New collaborations with accounting research can improve conservation impact of ecosystem‐based information systems.
    Date: 2018–11–19
  51. By: Romain Allais (APESA - Association Pour l'Environnement et la Sécurité en Aquitaine - APESA, Pacte, Laboratoire de sciences sociales - UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - Grenoble 2 - UJF - Université Joseph Fourier - Grenoble 1 - IEPG - Sciences Po Grenoble - Institut d'études politiques de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Bernard Pecqueur (Pacte, Laboratoire de sciences sociales - UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - Grenoble 2 - UJF - Université Joseph Fourier - Grenoble 1 - IEPG - Sciences Po Grenoble - Institut d'études politiques de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Julie Gobert (ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech, INSA Strasbourg - Institut National des Sciences Appliquées - Strasbourg - INSA - Institut National des Sciences Appliquées)
    Abstract: Bien que le terme développement durable ait envahit les espaces publics, politiques et médiatiques, il est important de rappeler que la définition séminale du développement durable comme « un développement qui répond aux besoins des générations du présent sans compromettre la capacité des générations futures à répondre aux leurs » (Brundtland, 1987) est critiquée par de nombreux auteurs. Ce modèle de développement anthropocentré fixe les objectifs dans la sphère sociale : « le principal objectif du développement consiste à satisfaire les besoins et aspirations de l'être humain ». Illusion trompeuse car la sphère marchande a très largement phagocyté les deux autres. En effet, cette approche ne remet pas en cause l'économie de marché capitaliste et la consommation de masse qui y est associée, ni le concept de croissance, pourtant à l'origine de l'essentiel des problèmes écologiques actuels (Buclet, 2011). Dans le cadre de nos travaux sur l'accompagnement des entreprises industrielles vers la durabilité (Allais et Al., 2017), nous avons adopté une définition hétérodoxe de la durabilité proposée par (Figuière et Rocca, 2008) : la durabilité vise le développement humain dans le respect des limites écologiques de la planète en considérant l'économie comme moyen pour la transition. Le politique doit reprendre l'ascendant sur l'économique et considérer les spécificités locales, les territoires devenant les lieux de mise en oeuvre de cette prise de décision commune. C'est autour de cette définition que ces réflexions ont été menées. Cette communication pose la question de la (re-)territorialisation des activités industrielles comme élément favorisant de la transition systémique vers la durabilité en réinterrogeant les liens du triptyque territoire, durabilité et (ré-)industrialisation. Dans un premier temps, nous reviendrons sur le concept de territoire à travers le prisme disciplinaire puis, à travers différents cas d'études, nous expliquerons le cheminement ayant mené à l'émergence de ces réflexions, ces quelques exemples seront complétés, mis en abîme au travers des études de cas et présentations de la session.
    Keywords: conception/industrie durable.,développement durable,ressource territoriale,développement territorial,périmètre d'action proximités,panier de bien
    Date: 2018–10–17
  52. By: Benoît Desmarchelier (CLERSE - Centre Lillois d’Études et de Recherches Sociologiques et Économiques - UMR 8019 - Université de Lille - ULCO - Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Faridah Djellal (CLERSE - Centre Lillois d’Études et de Recherches Sociologiques et Économiques - UMR 8019 - Université de Lille - ULCO - Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Faïz Gallouj (CLERSE - Centre Lillois d’Études et de Recherches Sociologiques et Économiques - UMR 8019 - Université de Lille - ULCO - Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This article is dedicated to a consideration of the tertiarisation of innovation networks. While the concept of traditional innovation network (TIN) has been the object of an extensive literature, new expressions of the innovation network appear in a service and sustainable development economy: in particular Public Private Innovation Networks in Services (PPINSs), Public Service Innovation Networks (PSINs) and Public Service Innovation Networks for Social Innovation (PSINSIs). They reflect the rise to prominence of market and non-market services and of the public-private relationship in collaborative innovation. This article investigates and compares these different expressions of innovation networks. In particular, it sheds light on the different roles played by public services in each of them.
    Keywords: market services,public services,networks,innovation
    Date: 2018–09–20
  53. By: Ibrahim, H.
    Abstract: Integrating the services of pollinating insects to proliferate fruits is imperative to suffice the multi-faceted uses of jatropha fruits for biofuel, feeds, bio-fertilizer and cosmetics. The role of Apiary Pen Proximity (APP) technology on J. curcas fruiting performance is yet to get empirical research attention. The proximity of Unilorin Apiary Pen (UAP) to Unilorin Jatropha Farms becomes a good area of focus to observe the resultant xenogeny behaviour of honey bees in J. curcas flowering plants. Applying Double Difference (DD) approach to site-based counterfactual model, the study reveals that entomophilous pollination through APP has promoted fruits formation of jatropha plants. The study therefore, suggests that placing apiary pen closed to fruit farms as well as using jatropha as a recovery alternative to amending drought-affecting soils are critical for sustainable fruits production. Acknowledgement :
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2018–07
  54. By: Roberto Evangelio (Infrastructure Victoria); Simon Hone (Aither); Moses Lee (Infrastructure Victoria); David Prentice (Infrastructure Victoria)
    Abstract: This paper provides the first estimates of the effects of parks on house prices within Victoria. We estimate hedonic regressions of house prices on the distance to six types of parks as well as a wide range of other amenities that may impact on house prices. We find that moving from the median to the first percentile of distances from a park is associated with increased property prices of up to $86,000. Parks are more likely to have a positive effect on house prices in regional Victoria than in Melbourne, where we speculate that for some types of parks, congestion or other types of negative externalities may be present. The current guidelines for cost-benefit analysis for transport projects do not include values for amenity effects. So the results of this work can be used to construct estimates of the amenity value of a park for a rapid cost benefit analysis.
    Keywords: Cost-Benefit Analysis, Parks, Amenity, Hedonic Regressions, Australia, Victoria
    JEL: C21 D61 D62 R00
    Date: 2018–12–06
  55. By: Arlette Beltrán (Universidad del Pacífico); Juan F. Castro (Universidad del Pacífico)
    Abstract: Chronic child malnutrition and anemia are among the main risk factors for child development across the developing world. In Peru, 14.7% of children under 5 years of age are chronically malnourished and 36.4% of children between 6 and 36 months of age show some degree of anemia. In this paper, we estimate the improvements that can be expected in child malnutrition and anemia in Peru, if Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are achieved for a set of health determinants. The study contributes to the literature in two ways. First, it is the first study to offer improvement scenarios for SDG-related health outcomes based on shifts produced in other SDG-related variables. This can be informative to policy if some of these SDG-related determinants have a direct connection to policy action. Second, we use the insights of a simple economic model describing families’ behavior to choose the empirical strategy less prone to biases and interpret the improvement scenarios. Our results indicate that important reductions of 8.9 and 15.7 percentage points can be achieved in child chronic malnutrition and anemia, respectively, if all their SDG-related determinants reach their targets. Importantly, at least half of these reductions can be produced by closing gaps in access to observable inputs that have a direct influence on health and that can be directly influenced by policy.
    Keywords: child chronic malnutrition, anemia, Sustainable Development Goals
    JEL: I18 I12 C25
    Date: 2018–12
  56. By: Ronan Le Velly (UMR Innovation - Innovation et Développement dans l'Agriculture et l'Alimentation - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, UMR 0951 INNOVATION Innovation et Développement dans l'Agriculture et l'Alimentation - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement)
    Abstract: Agriculture bio : attention au fétichisme du label
    Keywords: label,signe de qualité,agriculture biologique
    Date: 2017
  57. By: Djamel KIRAT; Nicolas CLOOTENS
    Date: 2018
  58. By: Thomas Kuhn (Department of Economics, Chemnitz University of Technology); Radomir Pestow (Department of Economics, Chemnitz University of Technology); Anja Zenker (Department of Economics, Chemnitz University of Technology)
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to provide an axiomatic foundation to the concept of ecological footprint indices. For this purpose, we propose five axioms representing general properties which any ecological footprint measure should fulfill. It can be shown that there exists a unique index which is characterized by the given set of axioms. Its functional form is determined and an economic interpretation is given. We find that the proposed index may resolve or confirm some important issues discussed in the literature. First, it incorporates a trade component indicating the ecological footprint of economic activities embodied in the trade pattern of a country or region. Moreover, the productivity of land use in production as a means to mitigate the pressure on the ecological system is reflected. But most importantly, from a methodological point of view, there is no longer the need for designing ecological footprint indices ad-hoc, in particular for the sake of empirical application.
    Keywords: Ecological Footprint Indices, Axiomatic Foundation, Sustainable Welfare, Economic Inequality
    JEL: Q01 Q20 Q30 C43
    Date: 2018–11
  59. By: Thorvaldur Gylfason
    Abstract: Per Magnus Wijkman was the first foreign observer to urge Iceland in print to regulate its fisheries by price. This was in 1975, nine years before the Icelandic fishing quota system came into effect, a system judged discriminatory and unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of Iceland in 1998 (but not in 2000!) as well as by the United Nations Committee on Human Rights in 2007, principally because the advice given by Wijkman and others was not heeded. This paper discusses the human rights aspects of natural resources management in view of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights which stipulates the inalienable rights of nations to the rents from their natural resources.
    Keywords: natural resources, human rights
    JEL: Q20
    Date: 2018
  60. By: Knieps, Günter
    Abstract: In this paper the potentials for shared mobility services based on ICT innovations are charac-terized, requiring a paradigm shift from intramodal transportation markets to intermodal shared mobility markets. Heterogeneous ICT innovations are described, entailing various combinations of app-based mobile communications, (camera-based) sensor networks and big data processing. The potentials of shared mobility concepts to avoid traffic collapse and sig-nificantly reduce congestion and pollution in cities are considered, referring to different simu-lation studies on the impact of complete or partial replacement of private vehicles in a city with shared mobility services. Furthermore, the changing role of regulations in the context of the transition from traditional intramodal transportation markets to intermodal shared mobility services markets is considered. Firstly, it is necessary to abolish legal entry barriers to the lo-cal taxi market and the public transit market. Secondly, competition for subsidies of politi-cally desired non-cost covering (shared) mobility services should be symmetrical for all active and potential providers of shared mobility services. Thirdly, technical regulation and con-sumer protection including privacy and cybersecurity for the shared mobility markets should be applied symmetrically and consistently. Finally, the role of pilot projects to establish shared mobility concepts are demonstrated.
    Date: 2018
  61. By: Rodríguez, Adrián G.; Aramendis, Rafael H.; Mondaini, Andrés O.
    Abstract: Con el propósito de orientar el desarrollo de instrumentos para el fomento de la bioeconomía en América Latina y el Caribe, este documento revisa instrumentos de financiamiento destinados al fomento a la innovación en la bioeconomía en países europeos, africanos y asiáticos, enfatizando el desarrollo de instrumentos orientados a micro, pequeñas y medianas empresas (mipymes y pymes). Los países incluidos en el estudio disponen de estrategias relevantes para el desarrollo de la bioeconomía y en la selección se consideró que dispusieran de políticas de financiamiento a la innovación o de políticas de fomento mediante la clusterización con centros superiores de investigación.
    Date: 2018–12–07
  62. By: Mendoza, Marina; Schwarze, Reimund
    Date: 2018
  63. By: Estelle Cantillon; Aurelie Slechten
    Abstract: A key policy argument in favor of emissions markets (relative to command-and-control types of regulation) is their ability to aggregate dispersed information and generate price signals to guide firms' trading and abatement decisions. We investigate this argument in a multi-period model where firms receive noisy private signals about their current period emissions and privately observe their previous period emissions before this information is made public to the rest of the market. Firms respond to information by trading and abating emissions. We show that there exists a rational expectations equilibrium that fully aggregates firms' private information, justifying the policy argument in favor of emissions markets, in the absence of other frictions. We also derive predictions about how prices should be reacting to new private or public information and show that the possibility of abatement dampens the impact of shocks on prices. Finally, we show that the information aggregation result breaks down if firms' abatement costs are also private information.
    Keywords: information aggregation; efficient market hypothesis; price information; emissions trading
    JEL: G14 D83 D84 D85 Q58
    Date: 2018–12
  64. By: Alastair Ball (Birkbeck, University of London)
    Abstract: This paper studies the long-term economic effects of early exposure to the Great London Smog of 1952. Cohorts born in London are tracked for up to sixty years using the Office of National Statistics Longitudinal Study. Exposure to the four day smog reduced the size of the surviving cohort by 2% and caused lasting damage to human capital accumulation, employment, hours of work, and propensity to develop cancer.
    JEL: Q53 I12 I18
    Date: 2018–12
  65. By: Cantillon, Estelle; Slechten, Aurélie
    Abstract: A key policy argument in favor of emissions markets (relative to command-and-control types of regulation) is their ability to aggregate dispersed information and generate price signals to guide firms' trading and abatement decisions. We investigate this argument in a multi-period model where firms receive noisy private signals about their current period emissions and privately observe their previous period emissions before this information is made public to the rest of the market. Firms respond to information by trading and abating emissions. We show that there exists a rational expectations equilibrium that fully aggregates firms' private information, justifying the policy argument in favor of emissions markets, in the absence of other frictions. We also derive predictions about how prices should be reacting to new private or public information and show that the possibility of abatement dampens the impact of shocks on prices. Finally, we show that the information aggregation result breaks down if firms' abatement costs are also private information.
    Keywords: Efficient Market Hypothesis; Emissions Trading; information aggregation; Price Formation
    JEL: D83 D84 D85 G14 Q58
    Date: 2018–11
  66. By: Abdelkader Baaziz (IMSIC - Institut mediterranéen des sciences de l'information et de la communication - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - UTLN - Université de Toulon)
    Abstract: The main aim of this paper is to propose thinking tracks of Entrepreneurial Ecosystems based on a "Quintuple Helix" approach that overcomes the competitive partitions by founding a paradigm of "coopetition" and "coopetitiveness" through the "intelligent specialization" with a strong societal and economic impact. Indeed, the dominant vision in most of emerging countries calls the relationship between Entrepreneurial Ecosystems and their actors, exclusively in terms of competitiveness aspects by reproducing identically the North-American models unlinked to the environmental dissimilarities, such as entrepreneurial culture. However, it is important to enquiring about the spatiotemporal adaptability of this model in the emerging countries contexts, particularly through its uninhibited relationship to the concepts of individual success and failure as well as the ecosystems running based mainly on private financing from business angels, crowdfunding and venture capital investors. While the creation of a startup is administratively facilitated, the uncertainties of the environment put its sustainability in a severe test. The causes are numerous, we cite among others, the difficulty of these startups to fit into a multidisciplinary working mode, hence the necessity to integrate them in the value chain of an ecosystem where they answer efficiently to mutualized and specific R&D needs. That's why we propose to identify the main barriers to open innovation as well as the catalysts enabling the creation of the integrative entrepreneurial ecosystems. By borrowing the paradigm of the city, we highlight the "urbanized" ecosystem made up of "useful" and "specialized" blocks, integrated in the value chain of this ecosystem. We will show the viability of the proposed tracks through many cases of economic, societal and academic actions undertaken in Algeria in order to setting up a favorable environment of integrative entrepreneurial ecosystems.
    Keywords: Useful blocks,Specialized blocks,Urbanized ecosystem,Coopetitiveness,Coopetition,Quintuple Helix,Entrepreneurial ecosystem,Algerian entrepreneurial ecosystem,Ecosystem's Value Chain,Intelligent specialization,Mutualized R&D,Ambidextrous capabilities
    Date: 2018–11–09
  67. By: Audrey Berry (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Cette thèse s'intéresse à la question de la précarité énergétique en France. De nature empirique, elle a pour principale motivation de confronter les idées aux données afin d'apporter des éléments d'aide à la décision pour les acteurs publics. Elle a été conduite au CIRED, sous la co-direction de Céline Guivarch (CIRED) et de Philippe Quirion (CIRED).
    Date: 2018–11–08

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