nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2018‒04‒23
thirty-six papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Mitigation vs. adaptation: a critical overview of EU climate change policies and their impact on agriculture By Boiangiu, Marius Cosmin
  2. Optimal coverage of an emission tax in the presence of monitoring, reporting, and verification costs By Stéphane De Cara; Loïc Henry; Pierre-Alain Jayet
  3. Some Financial Implications of Global Warming: an Empirical Assessment By Claudio Morana; Giacomo Sbrana
  4. A comparison of public preferences for different low-carbon energy technologies: Support for CCS, nuclear and wind energy in the United Kingdom By Yu, H.; Reiner, D.; Chen, H.; Mi, Z.
  5. Public Procurement, Local Labor Markets and Green Technological Change: Evidence from US Commuting Zones. By Orsatti, Gianluca; Perruchas, François; Consoli, Davide; Quatraro, Francesco
  6. Relative Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs versus Market Based Climate Policies in the Chemical Industry By Gale A. Boyd; Jonathan M. Lee
  7. For sustainable economic growth that seeks to improve environmental quality: an empirical analysis applied to morocco, algeria, tunisia, and egypt By El Alaoui, Aicha; Nekrache, Hassane
  8. Ecosystem service tradeoffs and ecological-economic production possibilities frontier: A case study in Costa Rica By Améline Vallet; Bruno Locatelli; Harold Levrel; Sven Wunder
  9. Evaluation Design for the Environmental and Natural Resource Management Project in Malawi By Thomas Coen; Arif Mamun; Claudia Ringler; Ephraim Nkonya; Kristen Velyvis; Hua Xie; Helen Powell; Jeremy Brecher-Haimson; Anca Dumitrescu; Matt Sloan
  10. Threshold Policy Effects and Directed Technical Change in Energy Innovation By Lionel Nesta; Elena Verdolini; Francesco Vona
  11. Comparing applied general equilibrium and econometric estimates of the effect of an environmental policy shock By Jared C. Carbone; Nicholas Rivers; Akio Yamazaki; Hidemichi Yonezawa
  12. State-Owned Enterprises and the Low-Carbon Transition By Andrew Prag; Dirk Röttgers; Ivo Scherrer
  13. Impactos, medidas de adaptación y costos sociales del cambio climático en el sector agrícola del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia By Viscarra Riveros, Federico Ernesto; Giupponi, Carlo; Mendelsohn, Robert
  14. Transition from a Linear Economy toward a Circular Economy in the Ramsey Model By Kiyoka Akimoto; Koichi Futagami
  15. It’s So Hot in Here: Information Avoidance, Moral Wiggle Room, and High Air Conditioning Usage By Giovanna d’Adda; Yu Gao; Russell Golman; Massimo Tavoni
  16. Linking forms of inbound open innovation to a driver-based typology of environmental innovation: Evidence from French manufacturing firms By Jason Li-Ying; Caroline Mothe; Uyen Nguyen-Thi
  17. Should they stay or should they go? Climate Migrants and Local Conflicts By Valentina Bosetti; Cristina Cattaneo; Giovanni Peri
  18. Plan vert des universités : plan stratégique ou outil de communication ? By Jean-Francis Ory; Jean-Luc Petitjean; Thierry Côme
  19. Things have changed (or Have they?) Tariff protection and environmental concerns in the WTO By Petros C. Mavroidis; Damien Neven;
  20. A Sustainable Tourism Approaches for Sustainable Urban and Regional Development: The Case of Göreme Municipality of Nevehir Province By Yesim Aliefendioglu; Gizem Var; Harun Tanrivermis
  21. Environmental attitudes and place identity as simultaneous determinants of preferences for environmental goods By Michela Faccioli; Mikołaj Czajkowski; Klaus Glenk; Julia Martin-Ortega
  22. The Incidence of Carbon Taxes in U.S. Manufacturing: Lessons from Energy Cost Pass-through By Sharat Ganapati; Joseph S. Shapiro; Reed Walker
  23. Behavioral Responses of Green Builders to Discontinuous Certification Schemes By Atasoy, Ayse Tugba
  24. Vehicle choices and urban transport externalities. Are Norwegian policy makers getting it right? By Wangsness, Paal Brevik; Proost, Stef; Rødseth, Kenneth Løvold
  25. Did the London Congestion Charge Reduce Pollution? By Colin Green; John Spencer Heywood; Maria Navarro Paniagua
  26. Energy efficiency, green technology and the pain of paying By Dayana Zhappassova; Ben Gilbert; Linda Thunstrom
  27. Spatial risk measures induced by powers of max-stable random fields By Erwan Koch
  28. Addressing Europe’s failure to clean up the transport sector By Simone Tagliapietra; Georg Zachmann
  29. Researches regarding the confirmation of sunflower hibrises by influence of technological verifications in the south water area of Romania By Eremia, Florentina
  30. Políticas de fomento productivo para el desarrollo de sectores intensivos en recursos naturales: la experiencia del Programa Nacional de Minería Alta Ley By Castillo, Jonathan; Correa Mautz, Felipe; Dini, Marco; Katz, Jorge
  31. Spécificités des sources de connaissances pour l'innovation environnementale des PME By Amandine Pinget; Rachel Bocquet
  33. School or work? The role of weather shocks in Madagascar By Francesca MARCHETTA; David SAHN; Luca TIBERTI
  35. Financial Development in Sub-Saharan Africa; Promoting Inclusive and Sustainable Growth By Montfort Mlachila; Ahmat Jidoud; Monique Newiak; Bozena Radzewicz-Bak; Misa Takebe

  1. By: Boiangiu, Marius Cosmin
    Abstract: The paper does a qualitative assessment of the current European Union policies for dealing with climate change. In the EU mitigation policies are derived from the international agreements for reducing and limiting greenhouse gases emissions. Mitigation policies have a strict compliance regime using both positive and negative reinforcement. On the other side, adaptation measures, meant to increase nature’s and society’s resilience to climate change negative impact, are designed more as recommendations complementing sectoral policies. Agriculture has a relatively low potential of curbing GHG emissions but are some of the most vulnerable sectors to climate change. By examining the relative projected efficiency of EU’s mitigation efforts compared to the overall goal of stopping global warming, the paper finds that there is clear imbalance between mitigation policies and adaptation policies. It concludes that in the absence of matching binding commitments from other large emitters of GHG, the climate objective will not be met. This requires at European level a medium and long-term strategy for the societal and economic adaptation to the new climate conditions and, on short-term, more focus on adaptation policies in vulnerable sectors such as agriculture.
    Keywords: Climate change policies, European Union, mitigation, adaptation, agriculture
    JEL: O38 Q01
    Date: 2017–11–16
  2. By: Stéphane De Cara (SAE2 - Département Sciences Sociales, Agriculture et Alimentation, Espace et Environnement - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AgroParisTech); Loïc Henry (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AgroParisTech); Pierre-Alain Jayet (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AgroParisTech)
    Abstract: Environmental policies often include exemptions for some firms, e.g. the small emitters. This paper explores the implications of such exemptions in the case of an emission tax, and in the presence of monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) costs. We develop an analytical framework capturing the trade-off between the cost-effectiveness of a broader tax base, and the savings on MRV costs enabled by a partial coverage. Second-best partial coverage is defined by a threshold value of some characteristic of the firms below which firms are exempted. We characterize the optimal threshold and discuss its welfare implications. Since determining this threshold is demanding in terms of information regarding firm-level MRV and abatement costs, we show how limited knowledge about these costs at the aggregate level can be used in practice to approximate the optimal threshold. We apply this framework to assess the welfare implications of such an instrument in the case of greenhouse gas emissions from European agriculture. The findings indicate that exempting the small emitters may provide significant savings on MRV costs compared to the full coverage, while still incentivizing cost-effective reductions in emissions.
    Keywords: Climate policy, Emission tax, Partial coverage, Greenhouse gas emissions,Agriculture
    Date: 2018–05
  3. By: Claudio Morana (Università di Milano Bicocca, CeRP-Collegio Carlo Alberto and Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis); Giacomo Sbrana (NEOMA Business School)
    Abstract: Concurrent with the rapid development of the market for catastrophe (cat) bonds, a steady decline in their risk premia has been observed. Whether the latter trend is consistent with the evolution of natural disasters risk is an open question. Indeed, a large share of outstanding risk capital in the cat bonds market appears to be exposed to some climate change-related risk as, for instance, hurricane risk, which global warming is expected to enhance. This paper addresses the above issue by assessing the global warming evidence, its implications for the natural environment and the drivers of cat bonds risk premia. We find that radiative forcing, i.e. the net insolation absorbed by the Earth, drives the warming trend in temperature anomalies and the trend evolution of natural phenomena, such as ENSO and Atlantic hurricanes, enhancing their disruptive effects. Hence, in the light of the ongoing contributions of human activity to radiative forcing, i.e., greenhouse gases emissions, natural disasters risk appears to be on a raising trend. Yet, the latter does not appear to have been accurately priced in the cat bonds market so far. In fact, while we find that the falling trend in cat bonds multiples is accounted by the expansionary monetary stance pursued by the Fed, we do also find evidence of significant undervaluation of natural disasters risk.
    Keywords: Cat Bonds, Risk Premia/Multiples, Temperature Anomalies, Global Warming, Radiative Forcing, ENSO, El Niño, Atlantic Hurricanes, Dynamic Conditional Correlation Model
    JEL: G11 G23 C32
    Date: 2018–02
  4. By: Yu, H.; Reiner, D.; Chen, H.; Mi, Z.
    Abstract: Using a representative national survey in the United Kingdom, we investigated public attitudes towards different low-carbon technologies (carbon capture and storage (CCS), wind and nuclear power) and the factors influencing public support. Overall, we found that respondents were far more likely to support wind energy as their preferred means of mitigating climate change. Older people and those of a higher social grade are more supportive of nuclear power, while age and social grade do not significantly affect support for wind energy. Supporters of the Conservative Party were more likely to oppose wind power. Neither attitudes towards climate change nor environmental attitudes were found to influence public support for wind power or nuclear. Trust in information from environmental groups was associated with greater support for wind energy but lower support for nuclear power. Perceived cost and objective knowledge significantly influenced public support for all three technology types, that is, higher perceived costs and the poorer objective knowledge lead to lower public support. However, self-assessed knowledge did not influence public support. Many factors, including most of the tested demographic factors, did not affect support for any of the three technologies.
    Keywords: Public preferences, Low carbon, Energy technologies, CCS, Wind, Nuclear
    JEL: C54 Q42 Q54
    Date: 2018–04–10
  5. By: Orsatti, Gianluca; Perruchas, François; Consoli, Davide; Quatraro, Francesco (University of Turin)
    Abstract: The present paper investigates whether and through which channels green public procurement (GPP) stimulates local environmental innovation capacity. To this end, we use detailed data sources on green patents and procurement expenditure at the level of US Commuting Zones for the period 2000-2011. We also check for the moderating effects of local labor market composition in the relation between green public procurement and green innovation capacity. Lastly, we exploit the richness of patent information to test for differential effects of green public procurement on different classes of green technologies. The main finding is that GPP is an important driver in explaining the growth of local green-tech stock. The positive effect of GPP is mainly driven by expenditures for procured green services and is magnified by the local presence of high shares of abstract- intensive occupations. When separately considering diverse kinds of green technologies, we do find evidence of a more pronounced effect of GPP on the growth of local knowledge stocks of mitigation technologies.
    Date: 2018–04
  6. By: Gale A. Boyd; Jonathan M. Lee
    Abstract: This paper addresses the relative effectiveness of market vs program based climate policies. We compute the carbon price resulting in an equivalent reduction in energy from programs that eliminate the efficiency gap. A reduced-form stochastic frontier energy demand analysis of plant level electricity and fuel data, from energy-intensive chemical sectors, jointly estimates the distribution of energy efficiency and underlying price elasticities. The analysis controls for plant level price endogeneity and heterogeneity to obtain a decomposition of efficiency into persistent (PE) and time-varying (TVE) components. Total inefficiency is relatively small and price elasticities are relatively high. If all plants performed at the 90th percentile of their efficiency distribution, the reduction in energy is between 4% and 13%. A modest carbon price of between $9.48/ton and $14.01/ton CO2 would achieve reductions in energy use equivalent to all manufacturing plants making improvements to close the efficiency gap.
    Keywords: Energy efficiency, price elasticities, manufacturing, stochastic frontier, plant-level data
    Date: 2018–04
  7. By: El Alaoui, Aicha; Nekrache, Hassane
    Abstract: This paper tries to examine the link between economic growth and environmental damage in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Egypt, denoted MATE. The main objective for these countries in the coming years is to improve economic growth, which is necessary in response to the increasing demand of their populations, the improvement of the life’s quality of their citizens, and to meet the environmental challenges they face. For that, two steps are followed to investigate the relationship between economic growth and environmental damage. In the first step, a basic Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) equation for each country over the period 1970-2010 is tested to measure the effect of economic growth on environmental quality and to determinate the possibility of the existence of an EKC. In the second step, a few variables are introduced in the basic EKC equation (model tested in the first step) such as economic openness indicator, enrollment rate, and urbanization rate. The purpose is to measure the possible influence of these variables (included economic growth) on the environmental damage, and to determinate also the possibility of the existence of an EKC. The results of both models show that the relationship between economic growth and environment is complex and ambiguous. It is not possible to find a unique form of this relationship and each variable introduced in the model can give some explanation where the application of EKC is unclear and uncertain. So, each country through policymakers, governmental and nongovernmental organizations must apply preventive and precautionary measures to reduce environmental damages. These measures must be appropriate to its economic and environmental conditions benefiting from the experiences of neighbors, especially those of developed countries, and to take lessons from their past mistakes related to pollution, regional development and resource management.
    Keywords: Economic Growth, Environmental degradation, EKC
    JEL: C13 N57 Q56
    Date: 2017–05
  8. By: Améline Vallet (CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, CIFOR - Center for International Forestry Research - CIFOR, CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - AgroParisTech - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, AgroParisTech); Bruno Locatelli (CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, CIFOR - Center for International Forestry Research - CIFOR); Harold Levrel (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - AgroParisTech - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, AgroParisTech); Sven Wunder (CIFOR - Center for International Forestry Research - CIFOR)
    Abstract: Understanding interactions between ecosystem services (ES) is a high priority in ES research. Two types of interaction are commonly defined: (1) tradeoffs, in which one service increases while another one decreases in time or space; (2) synergies, in which both services either increase or decrease. Most studies on ES use statistical analysis and descriptive methods to assess ES spatial or temporal correlation. Recently, a new framework for ES interactions based on ecological-economic production possibilities frontier (EEPPF) has been developed, which relies on the production theory branch of microeconomics. Applied to natural capital, this framework considers different levels of ES produced across a broad range of management actions and landscape configurations and describes graphically the nature and intensity of ES interactions by determining the production frontier (i.e. the set of Pareto-optimal values for pairs of ES). This study aims to estimate empirically EEPPF using multiple ES maps and to compare the EEPPF framework with statistical approaches. InVEST software was used to model and map ES production in the upper part of the Reventazón watershed (Costa Rica) for carbon storage (C), water yield, sediment retention, nitrogen retention (n) and phosphorus retention (p). Agricultural production (pa) was represented by its economic value. Spatial concordance and temporal covariation between ES were analyzed using statistical correlations for four observed land-uses (LU) over time. EEPPF curves were constructed using a set of 32 contrasting LU scenarios generated considering slope and altitude constraints for some LU and assuming different LU proportions and distributions (either random or clustered). The nature and intensity of interactions between ES varied widely according to the methodologies used for evaluating tradeoffs. In comparison with the analysis of spatial and temporal ES correlations, EEPPF curves brought supplementary information related to tradeoff intensity and identification of optimal LU scenarios.
    Keywords: Ecosystem Services mapping,Tradeoff,Modeling,Production possibilities frontier
    Date: 2016–10–18
  9. By: Thomas Coen; Arif Mamun; Claudia Ringler; Ephraim Nkonya; Kristen Velyvis; Hua Xie; Helen Powell; Jeremy Brecher-Haimson; Anca Dumitrescu; Matt Sloan
    Abstract: The Environmental and Natural Resources Management (ENRM) Project works to reduce costly disruptions and increase the efficiency of hydropower generation in Malawi by mitigating aquatic weed growth and sedimentation in the Shire River Basin. It is comprised of three main activities: (1) The Weed and Sediment Management (WSM) activity; (2) the ENRM activity; and (3) the Social and Gender Enhancement Fund (SGEF) activity.
    Keywords: ENRM, Malawi, land management, hydropower, conservation agriculture
    JEL: F Z
  10. By: Lionel Nesta (Université Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Gredeg, OFCE SciencesPo and SKEMA Business School); Elena Verdolini (FEEM and CMCC); Francesco Vona (OFCE SciencesPo, SKEMA Business School and Université Côte d'Azur (GREDEG))
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effect of environmental policies on the direction of energy innovation across countries over the period 1990-2012. Our novelty is to use threshold regression models to allow for discontinuities in policy effectiveness depending on a country's relative competencies in renewable and fossil fuel technologies. We show that the dynamic incentives of environmental policies become effective just above the median level of relative competencies. In this critical second regime, market-based policies are moderately effective in promoting renewable innovation, while command-and-control policies depress fossil based innovation. Finally, market-based policies are more effective to consolidate a green comparative advantage in the last regime. We illustrate how our approach can be used for policy design in laggard countries.
    Keywords: Directed Technical Change, Threshold Models, Environmental Policies, Policy Mix
    JEL: Q58 Q55 Q42 Q48 O34
    Date: 2018–02
  11. By: Jared C. Carbone (Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines); Nicholas Rivers (Graduate School of Public and International Affairs and Institute of the Environment, University of Ottawa); Akio Yamazaki (Department of Economics, University of Calgary); Hidemichi Yonezawa (ETH Zurich)
    Abstract: We treat the implementation of the carbon tax in British Columbia as a natural experiment and compare the results of econometric estimates of its effects to counterfactual experiments conducted using an applied general equilibrium (CGE) model of the Canadian economy. The comparison allows us to test the theory-driven predictions of the CGE model. It also allows us to test the identifcation strategy of our econometric model, using the CGE model to indicate under what circumstances general equilibrium policy responses might undermine our attempts at statistical inference. Ex post, we find statistically and economically signifcant effects on sectoral employment levels from the carbon tax --- with levels falling in the most carbon-intensive sectors and rising in the least carbon-intensive. Ex ante, we predict employment responses of very similar sign and magnitude to our econometric measurements (Pearson correlation coefficient of approximately 0.9). We find no evidence to suggest that our difference-in-difference estimator is likely to be undermined by general equilibrium effects in this policy setting. Finally, we explore the use of the econometric estimates to deepen the empirical content of the CGE model.
    Keywords: climate policy, carbon tax, computable general equilibrium
    JEL: C68 H23 Q54
    Date: 2018–04
  12. By: Andrew Prag (International Energy Agency); Dirk Röttgers (OECD); Ivo Scherrer (OECD)
    Abstract: This paper explores the role of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) in the low-carbon transition in OECD and G20 countries. It tracks GHG emissions and energy investments by SOEs and analyses the impact of SOEs on investments in renewable electricity. A descriptive analysis of SOEs’ role in the electricity sector shows the continued importance of SOEs, including prominent investments in both renewables and fossil-fuel-based electricity generation..
    Keywords: China, climate change, climate finance, decarbonisation, estimation, investment, low-carbon transition, market power, public intervention, regression, renewable energy, SOEs, state-owned enterprises
    JEL: F30 H23 L41 L94 Q42 Q48 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2018–04–18
  13. By: Viscarra Riveros, Federico Ernesto; Giupponi, Carlo; Mendelsohn, Robert
    Abstract: En los últimos años, la frontera agrícola en el Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia se ha expandido considerablemente. Debido al cambio climático, se espera una reducción del rendimiento de los cultivos, lo que producirá una nueva expansión en dicha frontera. Por este motivo, es necesario desarrollar una agricultura más eficiente, que incluya medidas de adaptación vinculadas a políticas macroeconómicas de protección de los recursos naturales. Para cuantificar el impacto y la eficacia de estas medidas, en el estudio se utilizan modelos de simulación matemática para el rendimiento de los cultivos, vinculados a un modelo de equilibrio genera computable dinámico recursivo. Se evalúan cuatro medidas de adaptación microeconómicas que contrarrestan el impacto del cambio climático e incrementan el rendimiento de los cultivos.
    Date: 2018–03–26
  14. By: Kiyoka Akimoto (Graduate School of Economics, Osaka University); Koichi Futagami (Graduate School of Economics, Osaka University)
    Abstract: We construct a Ramsey-type model where households recycle waste generated by con- sumption and the non-recycled waste has negative externality. The aim of this paper is the following two points. Firstly, we examine a structural change process from \a linear economy" based on consumption-disposal toward \a sound material-cycle economy" or \a circular economy" based on consumption-recycling. Secondly, we examine dynamics of op- timal consumption tax and recycling subsidy. Additionally, we discuss the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). Previous theoretical literature explains the mechanism of the EKC through changes in production sectors such as an introduction of abatement technology or technological change. In contrast, this paper tries to explain the EKC through the aforementioned structural change process.
    Keywords: Economic growth; Environmental Kuznets Curve; Environmental policies; House- hold waste recycling; Ramsey Model
    JEL: O44 Q53 Q58
    Date: 2018–04
  15. By: Giovanna d’Adda (University of Milano, Department of Economics); Yu Gao (Politecnico di Milano, Department of Management and Economics); Russell Golman (Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Social and Decision Sciences); Massimo Tavoni (Politecnico di Milano, Department of Management and Economics and FEEM)
    Abstract: Environmental policies based on information provision are widespread, but have often proven ineffective. One possible explanation for information’s low effectiveness is that people actively avoid it. We conduct an online field experiment on air conditioning usage to test the theory of moral wiggle room, according to which people avoid information that would compel them to act morally, against the standard theory of information acquisition, and identify conditions under which each theory applies. In the experiment, we observe how exogenously imposing a feeling of moral obligation to reduce air conditioning usage and exploiting natural variation in the cost of doing so, given by outside temperature, influences subjects’ avoidance of information about their energy use impacts on the environment. Moral obligation increases information avoidance when it is hot outside, consistent with the moral wiggle room theory, but decreases it when outside temperature is low. Avoiding information positively correlates with air conditioning usage. These findings provide guidance about tailoring the use of nudges and informational tools to the decision environment.
    Keywords: Information Avoidance, Energy Efficiency, Moral Wiggle Room
    JEL: D4 Q4
    Date: 2018–03
  16. By: Jason Li-Ying (DTU - Technical University of Denmark [Lyngby]); Caroline Mothe (IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - USMB [Université de Savoie] [Université de Chambéry] - Université Savoie Mont Blanc); Uyen Nguyen-Thi (LISER - Luxembourg Institute of Socio-Economic Research - Luxembourg Institute of Socio-Economic Research)
    Abstract: Environmental innovation research has not yet clarified how different forms of inbound innovation might exert effects. The current article proposes four driver-based EI types according to two main dimensions: compliance versus voluntary and own value capture versus customer value capture. With a problem-solving perspective, we develop links from different forms of inbound innovation to various types of EI and test the related hypotheses with two waves of the French Community Innovation Survey. On a short-term basis, R&D cooperation and technology acquisition correlate positively with all four types of EI, but over time, persistent R&D cooperation and technology acquisition are associated with EI only at the production stage, according to voluntary/strategic or compliance drivers. Inbound innovation enables quick responses to market demands for EI in the final use stage.
    Keywords: Environmental innovation,Inbound open innovation,R&D acquisition,R&D cooperation,Technology sourcing,Value creation and capture
    Date: 2017
  17. By: Valentina Bosetti; Cristina Cattaneo; Giovanni Peri
    Abstract: There is extensive evidence that higher temperature increases the probability of local conflict. There is also some evidence that emigration represents an important margin of adaptation to climatic change. In this paper we analyse whether migration influences the link between warming and conflicts by either attenuating the effects in countries of origin and/or by spreading them to countries of destination. We find that in countries where emigration propensity, as measured by past diaspora, was higher, increases in temperature had a smaller effects on conflict probability, consistent with emigration functioning as "escape valve" for local tensions. We find no evidence that climate-induced migration increased the probability of conflict in receiving countries.
    JEL: F22 H56 Q34 Q54
    Date: 2018–03
  18. By: Jean-Francis Ory (REGARDS - Recherches en Économie Gestion AgroRessources Durabilité Santé- EA - URCA - Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne - SFR Condorcet - URCA - Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne - UPJV - Université de Picardie Jules Verne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Jean-Luc Petitjean (REGARDS - Recherches en Économie Gestion AgroRessources Durabilité Santé- EA - URCA - Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne - SFR Condorcet - URCA - Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne - UPJV - Université de Picardie Jules Verne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Thierry Côme (CRDT - Centre de Recherche Droit et Territoire(s) - EA - URCA - Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne)
    Abstract: Firstly, the article points the multidimensional aspect of Universities performances, concomitantly with, on the one hand, the definition of new approaches to sustainable development and social responsibility and, on the other hand, the importance taken by stakeholders in their strategy, their steering and in their communication, in particular through a document called " Plan vert ". It then presents the case of three French universities using such a Green Plan, in order to verify, on the ground, the role given to this tool, namely, between strategic plan and communication tool.
    Abstract: Cet article établit tout d'abord le constat d'une performance multidimensionnelle dans l'université, concomitante d'une part de la définition de nouvelles démarches portant sur le développement durable et la responsabilité sociale et d'autre part de l'importance prise par les parties prenantes dans leur stratégie et leur pilotage, mais aussi de la nécessité de communiquer à destination de ces parties prenantes, notamment par le moyen d'un Plan vert. Elle présente ensuite le cas de trois universités françaises qui utilisent un tel Plan vert, permettant de vérifier, sur le terrain, le rôle donné à cet outil, entre plan stratégique et outil de communication.
    Keywords: sustainable development,University,stakeholders,Plan vert,Université,développement durable,parties prenantes,RSU,Responsabilité Sociale des Universités RSU
    Date: 2016–12
  19. By: Petros C. Mavroidis (Columbia Law School and University of Neuchâtel); Damien Neven (Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies);
    Abstract: This paper considers the APEC and proposed EGA agreements which grant tariff concession in favor of "green" goods. We ?find that the practical signi?cance of the APEC agreement should not be overestimated as it involves modest tariff concessions over a subset of goods which are not heavily traded. Still, these agreements involve a paradigm shift to the extent that they use tariffs concessions negotiated on a purilateral basis as a policy instrument to meet public policy concern, instead of making market access conditional on meeting national regulations. We model the mechanism through which these tariff preferences provide incentives to change production in favor of green goods in exporting countries and highlight the challenges that the implementation of these agreements involve.
    Keywords: WTO, APEC, EGA, Tari¤s, Terms of Trade, ex outs
    JEL: K40
    Date: 2018–01
  20. By: Yesim Aliefendioglu; Gizem Var; Harun Tanrivermis
    Abstract: Creating employment opportunities and increasing the national income, the tourism sector contributes to increased prosperity. In the Tenth Development Plan of Turkey covering the 2014-2018 period, it has been emphasized that sustainable tourism activities will be enhanced within the scope of an environmentally sensitive and responsible tourism understanding and the sociocultural and environmental degradation associated with tourism will be reduced. In the implementation of tourism activities for local and regional economic development, the main objective is minimizing the impact on the environment and socio-cultural structures.In this study, sustainable tourism opportunities in settlements, of which development is based on tourism, are elaborated and the Göreme Municipality, whose tangible and intangible cultural assets are at risk of being lost due to the indirect effects of uncontrolled tourism, are chosen as the study area. Settlements such as Göreme that owe their economic development success to culture tourism have to protect their existing natural, cultural, and social features in order to ensure the continuation of this development. While conservation of the gained identities of settlements is a necessity for urban and regional development, it is also a requirement to feel the sense of belonging to the city or the region. The Göreme Municipality is a settlement with an identity thanks to the existence of a cultural landscape and in such settlements, although the main objective of tourism is to enhance the quality of life economic viability, the sustainability of tangible and intangible assets that should be protected should not be thrown into the background. However, the study results suggest that with the transformation of the old residential buildings of the region built using traditional materials to hotels due to demand pressures, the local population becomes alienated from the town and the culture around them.The sustainability of the intangible cultural heritage has not been achieved; the real estate in the region changed hands with the appeal of hotel investments to investors out of the region; and the low level of utilization of the local people from increased revenues has led to a failure in ensuring regional development and a fall in the quality of life of residents in the area. It is understood that in case the current trends continue, tourism will have a damaging structure rather than providing economic contribution for the local com
    Keywords: Governance; local and regional development; real estate ownership; Sustainable and cultural tourism; Transformation
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2017–07–01
  21. By: Michela Faccioli (: Land, Environment, Economics and Policy Institute (LEEP), University of Exeter); Mikołaj Czajkowski (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw); Klaus Glenk (Land Economy & Environment, Scotland’s Rural College); Julia Martin-Ortega (Sustainability Research Institute, University of Leeds)
    Abstract: Economic valuation is frequently employed to provide evidence of people's preferences for environmental goods. However, it is also often criticised for providing a simplified representation of preferences, with many factors that affect value formation not accounted for. This is the case of environmental attitudes and especially place identity perceptions, which have been largely overlooked in economic valuation, despite representing amongst the most important drivers of people's behaviour towards the environment, according to the environmental psychology and sociology literature. To address this gap, we designed and conducted a choice experiment where we explored the simultaneous role of environmental attitudes and place identity perceptions on willingness to pay (WTP), taking peatland restoration in Scotland as a case study. This study adds to the existing literature in that no valuation study to date has simultaneously integrated both aspects in preference modelling. Given that both factors are potentially strong drivers of preferences, focusing only on one or the other provides a partial picture of the determinants of WTP. Moreover, we do not just look at 'generic' environmental attitudes, but also at ‘specific’ environmental attitudes. Our results, estimated through a novel and econometrically robust approach based on the hybrid choice model, show that people with more positive environmental attitudes and those who feel attached to Scotland and think that peatlands are an important part of Scotland's identity and landscape tend to display higher WTP. These findings are important to provide a richer understanding of the determinants of preferences for environmental goods. Our results also open up new insights to the discipline in relation to the spatial heterogeneity of preferences: we have shown that people do not only relate with the space around them by focusing on the distance to the improvement site, as most frequently postulated in valuation studies. The idea that place can be understood as a space with emotional and cultural meanings also plays a critical role in shaping preferences. All these are critical elements to better inform policy-makers in the design of more socially acceptable and effective environmental policies.
    Keywords: environmental valuation, discrete choice experiment, environmental attitudes, place identity, hybrid choice models, peatlands, Scotland
    JEL: Q51 D6 D91 Q20
    Date: 2018
  22. By: Sharat Ganapati (Dept. of Economics, Yale University); Joseph S. Shapiro (Cowles Foundation, Yale University); Reed Walker (University of California, Berkeley, IZA, & NBER)
    Abstract: This paper studies how changes in energy input costs for U.S. manufacturers a?ect the relative welfare of manufacturing producers and consumers (i.e., incidence). In doing so, we develop a novel partial equilibrium methodology designed to estimate the incidence of input taxes. This method simultaneously accounts for three determinants of incidence that are typically studied in isolation: incomplete pass-through of input costs, di?erences in industry competitiveness, and substitution amongst inputs used for production. We apply this methodology to a set of U.S. manufacturing industries for which we observe plant-level unit prices and input choices. We ?nd that about 70 percent of energy price-driven changes in input costs are passed through to consumers. We combine industry-speci?c pass-through rates with estimates of industry competitiveness to show that the share of welfare cost borne by consumers is 25-75 percent smaller (and the share borne by producers is correspondingly larger) than models featuring complete pass-through and perfect competition would suggest.
    Keywords: Pass-through, incidence, energy prices, productivity, climate change
    JEL: H22 H23 Q40 Q54
    Date: 2016–05
  23. By: Atasoy, Ayse Tugba (E.ON Energy Research Center, Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN))
    Abstract: I study behavioral responses to the green building certification system by the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design program (LEED). LEED provides four different certification levels (‘Certified’, ‘Silver’, ‘Gold’, and ‘Platinum’) that are all defined by a threshold. Using micro data on LEED-certified buildings, I document intense bunching of buildings at or slightly above the different cutoffs. This finding is robust to different specifications, observed for different versions of LEED as well as for a comparable building certification system from the UK (the Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method). Using the methods from the public finance literature, which studies bunching responses to ‘kinks’ and ‘notches’ in tax systems (e.g., Chetty et al., 2011; Kleven and Waseem, 2013), I quantify the bunching mass at the threshold. Using cross-sectional variation in bunching across different states of the US, I find a significant negative relationship between the bunching estimators and energy prices.
    Keywords: Labels; Green Buildings; Energy Efficiency; Notches; Bunching
    JEL: D62 H23 Q48
    Date: 2016–12
  24. By: Wangsness, Paal Brevik (Institute of Transport Economics – Norwegian Centre for Transport Research); Proost, Stef (Department of Economics-KULeuven); Rødseth, Kenneth Løvold (Norwegian University of Life Sciences)
    Abstract: Norway has the world’s highest share of electric vehicles in its vehicle stock – in particular battery electric vehicles (BEVs). BEVs have reached a 20% share of the new car sales in Norway, thanks to a set of policies that include high purchase taxes for fossil fueled cars, and for BEVs, free parking, no tolls, and the right to drive on the bus lanes. This paper uses a stylized model of the transport market in the greater Oslo area (1.2 million inhabitants) to analyze transport policies. First, we explore the medium-term effects of the current BEV friendly policies. Second, the model is used to explore the potential of better pricing of car and public transport use, and of better car purchase taxes. We find that the current policies lead to massive penetration of BEVs and therefore to a strong reduction of CO2 emissions. However, they also lead to much more congestion and a decrease in the use of public transport. Better policies require efficient pricing of road congestion, a better use of public transport, and provide incentives for consumers to choose the most efficient combinations of cars. Such policies lead to a less extreme penetration of BEVs, and lower CO2 emissions reductions than the current transport policies. However, they do achieve a better transport equilibrium and substantial resource cost savings, leading to higher welfare levels.
    Keywords: electric vehicles; climate policy; urban transport policy; transport modeling
    JEL: H23 H71 Q54 Q58 R41 R48
    Date: 2018–04–13
  25. By: Colin Green; John Spencer Heywood; Maria Navarro Paniagua
    Abstract: We examine the London congestion charge introduced in 2003 and demonstrate significant reductions in a number of pollutants relative to controls. We even find evidence of reductions per mile driven suggesting amelioration of a congestion externality. Yet, we find a robust countervailing increase in harmful NO2 likely reflecting the disproportionate share of diesel vehicles exempt from the congestion charge. This unintended consequence informs on-going concern about pollution from diesel based vehicles and provides a cautionary note regarding substitution effects implicit in congestion charging schemes.
    Keywords: Pollution, Traffic, Congestion Charging
    JEL: I18 R48 H27
    Date: 2018
  26. By: Dayana Zhappassova (Department of Economics, University of Wyoming); Ben Gilbert (Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines); Linda Thunstrom (Department of Economics, University of Wyoming)
    Abstract: It is well-known from the mental accounting literature that consumers would rather pay up-front for a luxury good like a vacation, but pay later for a durable good like a dishwasher. This occurs because the hedonic benefits and monetary costs enter differently in the mental accounts. But how does the mental accounting process change if the durable good saves money over time, as with an energy efficiency upgrade, or signals wealth and ``green status'', like a rooftop solar panel or an electric car? In this paper, we derive a mental accounting model of energy efficient and green durable investment that incorporates the consumer heterogeneity in the psychological ``pain of paying''. The model predicts that pain of paying attenuates the willingness to pay for status signaling and environmental protection, but increases the willingness to pay more up front in order to reduce long run energy bills. Consumers with a high pain of paying may therefore act as if they have a low discount rate when they are more accurately described as being conflicted about their intertemporal preferences. We test these predictions using a survey-based discrete choice experiment with solar and energy efficient homes, in which we measured individual subjects' susceptibility to pain of paying.
    Keywords: mental accounting, pain of paying, solar, energy efficiency, green durables
    JEL: Q40 Q42 D91
    Date: 2018–04
  27. By: Erwan Koch
    Abstract: A meticulous assessment of the risk of extreme environmental events is of great necessity for populations, civil authorities as well as the insurance/reinsurance industry. Koch (2017, 2018) introduced a concept of spatial risk measure and a related set of axioms which are well-suited to analyse and quantify the risk due to events having a spatial extent, precisely such as natural disasters. In this paper, we first carry out a detailed study of the correlation (and covariance) structure of powers of the Smith and Brown-Resnick max-stable random fields. Then, using the latter results, we thoroughly investigate spatial risk measures associated with variance and induced by powers of max-stable random fields. In addition, we show that spatial risk measures associated with several classical risk measures and induced by such cost fields satisfy (at least) part of the previously mentioned axioms under appropriate conditions on the max-stable fields. Considering such cost fields is particularly relevant when studying the impact of extreme wind speeds on buildings and infrastructure.
    Date: 2018–04
  28. By: Simone Tagliapietra; Georg Zachmann
    Abstract: The issue Under the Paris Agreement, the European Union has committed to cut its greenhouse gas emissions to 40 percent below 1990 levels by 2030. Between 1990 and 2015, emissions decreased significantly in all sectors with the exception of transport, which has seen a 20 percent increase. Transport is thus becoming a key obstacle to EU decarbonisation and more aggressive policies are needed to decarbonise this sector. A particular focus should be decarbonisation of road transport because it is responsible for more than 70 percent of overall transport emissions. Decarbonising road transport would also improve air quality in cities, which remains a fundamental challenge for better public health in Europe. Policy challenge So far, national and EU policies have failed to foster road transport decarbonisation. However, this trend can be reversed by adopting a new EU post-2020 strategy with three main components. First, the EU should foster political momentum and encourage countries and cities to adopt plans to ban all diesel and petrol vehicles by 2030-2040. This would be a strong signal to the automotive industry to invest more strongly in clean vehicles, and to citizens to adopt more sustainable transport modes. The EU should provide support to countries and cities that take this route though a new EU Clean Transport Fund. Second, the EU should promote a Europe-wide discussion about the future of transport taxation. Third, the EU should focus its transport-related research and innovation funding on supporting new clean technologies that are not yet viable, but are potentially key to ensure deep decarbonisation of road transport in the longer term.
    Date: 2018–04
  29. By: Eremia, Florentina
    Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to determine the best sunflower hybrids (Helianthus annuus) suitable for the southern part of Romania, which under different conditions of fertilization and technology will lead to the achievement of large and stable productions. The experience was located at INCDA Fundulea, on a uniform chernozem soil in terms of fertility and microrelief. The experimental module was of the trifactor type and was arranged according to the subdivision parcel method in three rehearsals. The cultivation of the plants was carried out under optimum conditions, specific to the culture area, in the non-irrigated version, the genotypes taken into study consisting of three hybrids: Performer, Barolo RO and PR64A89. The conclusions are to determine the associated influence of three crop factors, namely plant density, fertilization and hybrid influence on sunflower production under the climatic year 2013.
    Keywords: sunflower, technological links, production, quality
    JEL: D2 Q10 R0 R50
    Date: 2017–11–16
  30. By: Castillo, Jonathan; Correa Mautz, Felipe; Dini, Marco; Katz, Jorge
    Abstract: El presente estudio analiza la experiencia del programa de especialización estratégica inteligente Minería Alta Ley, que la Corporación de Fomento de la Producción de Chile ha impulsado en el marco de la Agenda de Productividad, Innovación y Crecimiento formulada por el gobierno. Este análisis se enmarca, en primer lugar, en la discusión sobre las peculiaridades de los procesos de desarrollo basados en sectores intensivos en recursos naturales. Estas especificidades sugieren la necesidad de un marco analítico que se distancia sensiblemente de la interpretación que ofrecen los modelos económicos tradicionales, especialmente el neoclásico, sugiriendo la necesidad de un enfoque que sepa resaltar las capacidades de adaptación de las empresas a las especificidades físicas, culturales y sociales de los territorios en que operan y, en particular, a las relaciones con las comunidades locales. En segundo lugar, se aterriza la reflexión a la problemática del sector minero de Chile, evidenciando los temas de debate y las decisiones que han caracterizado las orientaciones estratégicas, las principales políticas de fomento productivo y la institucionalidad creada en pro del desarrollo de este sector. En este marco, se coloca la reflexión sobre el programa Alta Ley y se intentan sintetizar los principales logros y se evidencia los elementos que aún quedan por resolver para garantizar su continuidad y su éxito.
    Date: 2018–03–31
  31. By: Amandine Pinget (IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - USMB [Université de Savoie] [Université de Chambéry] - Université Savoie Mont Blanc); Rachel Bocquet (IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - USMB [Université de Savoie] [Université de Chambéry] - Université Savoie Mont Blanc)
    Abstract: Anchored in a knowledge-based view, this research aims to highlight SMEs’ specificities related to knowledge sources for environmental innovations that remain understudied compared to technological innovations. Results show that knowledge sources, which are essential for environmental innovation of SMEs, differ from those used for technological innovations. SMEs introducing environmental innovation rely more on external than internal knowledge sources. This research leads to the formulation
    Abstract: Basada en la perspectiva knowledge-based, esta investigación se pretende destacar las especificidades de las fuentes de conocimientos que contribuyen al desarrollo de las innovaciones medioambientales, poco estudiadas, a diferencia de las innovaciones tecnológicas. Nuestros resultados demuestran que las fuentes de conocimientos fundamentales para las innovaciones medioambientales de las PYME difieren de aquellas movilizadas por las innovaciones tecnológicas. Las PYME que introducen innovaciones medioambientales recurren más a fuentes externas de conocimientos, que internas. Esta investigación nos conduce a formular varias recomendaciones a las PYME y a los actores a cargo de su desarrollo.
    Abstract: Ancrée dans la perspective knowledge-based, cette recherche vise à mettre en évidence les spécificités des sources de connaissances des PME pour les innovations environnementales qui restent peu étudiées comparativement aux innovations technologiques. Les résultats montrent que les sources de connaissances, essentielles pour les innovations environnementales des PME, diffèrent de celles mobilisées pour les innovations technologiques. Les PME qui introduisent des innovations environnementales font davantage appel aux sources externes qu'internes de connaissances. Cette recherche conduit à formuler des recommandations utiles aux PME et aux acteurs en charge de leur développement.
    Keywords: Environnemental innovation,Technological innovation,Knowledge sources,SMEs,innovación medioambiental,innovación tecnológica,fuentes de conociemento,PYME,Innovation environnementale,Innovation technologique,Sources de connaissances,PME
    Date: 2017
    Date: 2018
  33. By: Francesca MARCHETTA (Université d'Auvergne(UdA)); David SAHN (Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur le Développement International(CERDI)); Luca TIBERTI
    Abstract: We examine the impact of rainfall variability and cyclones on schooling and work among a cohort of teens and young adults by estimating a bivariate probit model, using a panel survey conducted in 2004 and 2011 in Madagascar—a poor island nation that is frequently affected by extreme weather events. Our results show that negative rainfall deviations and cyclones reduce the current and lagged probability of attending school and encourage young men and, to a greater extent, women to enter the work force. Less wealthy households are most likely to experience this school-to-work transition in the face of rainfall shocks. The finding is consistent with poorer households having less savings and more limited access to credit and insurance, which reduces their ability to cope with negative weather shocks.
    Keywords: Climate shocks, Employment, Schooling, Africa.
    JEL: I25 J43 Q54
    Date: 2018–04
    Date: 2018
  35. By: Montfort Mlachila; Ahmat Jidoud; Monique Newiak; Bozena Radzewicz-Bak; Misa Takebe
    Abstract: Financial Development in Sub-Saharan Africa
    Date: 2016–09–14
    Date: 2018

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