nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2018‒04‒09
forty-six papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Sustainable development, environmental policy and renewable energy use: A dynamic panel data approach By Fotis, Panagiotis; Polemis, Michael
  2. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and GDP: What National Accounts Bring to the Table By Thomas Alexander; Claudia H Dziobek; Tadeusz Galeza
  3. Optimal recycling under heterogeneous waste sources and the environmental Kuznets curve By Fouad El Ouardighi; Konstantin Kogan; Raouf Boucekkine
  4. The Role of Electricity for the Decarbonization of the Portuguese Economy - DGEP Technical Report By Pereira, Alfredo; Pereira, Rui
  5. Regulating Mismeasured Pollution: Implications of Firm Heterogeneity for Environmental Policy By Eva Lyubich; Joseph S. Shapiro; Reed Walker
  6. Climate Change, Strict Pareto Improvements in Welfare and Multilateral Income Transfers By Christos Kotsogiannis; Alan Woodland
  7. A Real-Business-Cycle model with pollution and environmental taxation: the case of Bulgaria By Aleksandar Vasilev
  8. Banks and Environmental Sustainability: Some reflections from the perspective of financial stability By J. Nieto, María
  9. Optimal Pollution Control in a Mixed Oligopoly with Research Spillovers By Shoji Haruna; Rajeev K. Goel
  10. Trade, Environment and Income Inequality: An Optimal Taxation Approach By Philippe Bontems; Estelle Gozlan
  11. Feldstein Meets George: Land Rent Taxation and Socially Optimal Allocation in Economies with Environmental Externality By Nguyen Thang Dao; Ottmar Edenhofer
  12. Pathways toward Zero-Carbon Electricity Required for Climate Stabilization By Richard Audoly; Adrien Vogt-Schilb; Céline Guivarch; Alexander Pfeiffer
  13. Addressing the Climate Problem: Choice between Allowances, Feed-in Tariffs and Taxes By Eirik S. Amundsen; Peder Andersen; Jørgen Birk Mortensen
  14. Climate Adaptive Response Estimation: Short And Long Run Impacts Of Climate Change On Residential Electricity and Natural Gas Consumption Using Big Data By Maximilian Auffhammer
  15. The Efficiency and Sectoral Distributional Implications of Large-Scale Renewable Policies By Mar Reguant
  16. Policies for decarbonizing a liberalized power sector By Newbery, David M. G.
  17. Determinants of energy efficiency and renewable energy in European SMEs By Jové Llopis, Elisenda,; Segarra Blasco, Agustí, 1958-
  18. The EU ETS price may continue to be low for the foreseeable future – Should we care? By Elkerbout, Milan; Egenhofer, Christian
  19. Economic Growth, Income Distribution, and Climate Change By Armon Rezai; Lance Taylor; Duncan Foley
  20. Intellectual property rights protection and the international transfer of low-carbon technologies By Damien Dussaux; Antoine Dechezleprêtre; Matthieu Glachant
  21. A bottom-up approach to environmental Cost-Benefit Analysis By Johannes Friedrich Carolus; Nick Hanley; Søren Bøye Olsen; Søren Marcus Pedersen
  22. ICT, Openness and CO2 emissions in Africa By Asongu, Simplice
  23. The cost of adapting to climate change: evidence from the US residential sector By François Cohen; Matthieu Glachant; Magnus Söderberg
  24. Nudging and environmental corporate responsibility: A natural experiment By Leonardo Becchetti; Francesco Salustri; Pasquale Scaramozzino
  25. Renewable energy consumption and economic growth in Indonesia. Evidence from the ARDL bounds testing approach By Hlalefang Khobai
  26. Measurement of economic welfare risk and resilience of the Philippine regions By Yonson, Rio; Noy, Ilan
  27. Linking the economics of water, energy, and food: A nexus modeling approach: By Al-Riffai, Perrihan; Breisinger, Clemens; Mondal, Md. Hossain Alam; Ringler, Claudia; Wiebelt, Manfred; Zhu, Tingju
  28. Forest Taxation and REDD+: An Analysis of Potential Impacts in Cameroon, Ghana and Sierra Leone By Spratt, Stephen; Kargbo, Philip; Marfo, Emmanuel; Ngungoh, Emmanuel; Ramcilovik-Suominen, Sabaheta
  29. Oyster farming value chains in light of sanitary hazards: the case of oyster farmers By Véronique Le Bihan; Marie Catalo; Jeanine Le Bihan
  30. Governance, Science–Policy Interfaces, Societal Organisation and the Transition to an Ecosystemic Model of Culture By Pilon, André Francisco
  31. Développement agricole et forestier dans les hautes terres du Bassin Amazonien en Amérique du Sud : développement durable, criticité et résilience By Paulin Ibanda Kabaka
  32. How Smart Are `Water Smart Landscapes'? By Christa Brelsford; Joshua K. Abbott
  33. Spatial risk measures and rate of spatial diversification By Erwan Koch
  34. Linking Permit Markets Multilaterally By Baran Doda; Simon Quemin
  35. Ecosystem of entrepreneurship: risks related to loss of trust in stability of economic environment in Kazakhstan By Elena Petrenko; Nurlan Iskakov; Oleg Metsyk; Tatyana Khassanova
  36. Spatial resource wars: A two region example By Giorgio Fabbri; Silvia Faggian; Giuseppe Freni
  37. Temperature and Growth: A Panel Analysis of the United States By Riccardo Colacito; Bridget Hoffmann; Toan Phan
  39. Information provision and willingness to pay irrigation water in Tunisian local associations for agricultural development: An experimental economics study By Stefano Farolfi; Dimitri Dubois; Sylvie Morardet; Imen Nouichi; Serge Marlet
  41. Stakeholders’ Views on the Ecodesign Directive By Egenhofer, Christian; Drabik, Eleanor; Alessi, Monica; Rizos, Vasileios
  44. Innovative products and services with environmental benefits: design of search strategies for external knowledge and absorptive capacity By Caroline Mothe; Uyen Nguyen-Thi; Angela Triguero-Cano
  46. Optimally allocating renewable generation in Ireland: a long-term outlook until 2050 By Slednev, Viktor; Bertsch, Valentin; Ruppert, Manuel; Fichtner, Wolf

  1. By: Fotis, Panagiotis; Polemis, Michael
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to cast light on the relationship between sustainable development environmental policy and renewable energy use. We utilize a dynamic GMM approach over a panel of 34 European Union (EU) countries spanning the period 2005-2013. Our findings reveal a positive monotonic relationship between development and pollution. Energy saving positively affects environmental degradation, while energy intensity increases air pollution. Our findings imply important policy implications to policy makers toward sustainability. Despite the fact that the Europe “20-20-20” climate and energy package strategy seems to be achieved, the recently adopted Energy Roadmap 2050 must be updated on regular basis in order to be effectively implemented and monitored by government officials and firms’ stakeholders. Therefore, we argue that EU countries must increase the use of new technology and renewable energy capacity in order to align environmental policies towards more efficient energy use and sustainable development among the EU periphery.
    Keywords: Sustainable Development; Environmental Policy; Renewable Energy Sources; Dynamic Panel Data Analysis
    JEL: D23 L16 O11 Q56
    Date: 2018–02–19
  2. By: Thomas Alexander; Claudia H Dziobek; Tadeusz Galeza
    Abstract: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by the UN General Assembly in 2015 represent a new global consensus to end poverty, promote prosperity, and protect the environment. Goal 8 seeks to improve global resource efficiency in consumption and production and to decouple economic growth (GDP) from environmental degradation while Goal 12 focuses on sustainable consumption and production. While GDP does not capture these broader goals, we suggest that the System of National Accounts which incorporates but goes well beyond GDP, can be used for the measurement of these SDGs and to support policy. We construct a conceptual “super balance sheet” with an expanded asset boundary to include durable consumer goods used to produce services, human capital, and access to resources such as clean water and air, education, health, and infrastructure, to produce an expanded household net worth.
    Date: 2018–03–07
  3. By: Fouad El Ouardighi (Operation management Department - Essec Business School); Konstantin Kogan (Bar-Ilan University [Israël]); Raouf Boucekkine (GREQAM - Groupement de Recherche en Économie Quantitative d'Aix-Marseille - ECM - Ecole Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales)
    Abstract: We investigate how the relationship between economic growth and pollution is affected by the source of pollution: production or consumption. We are interested in polluting waste that cannot be naturally absorbed, but for which recycling efforts aim to avoid massive pollution accumulation with harmful consequences in the long run. We distinguish the cases where recycling efforts are capital-improving or capital-neutral. Based on both environmental and social welfare perspectives, we determine how the interaction between growth and polluting waste accumulation is affected by the source of pollution, i.e., either consumption or production, and by the fact that recycling may or may not act as an income generator, i.e., either capital-improving or capital-neutral recycling efforts. Several new results are extracted regarding optimal recycling policy and the Environmental Kuznets Curve. Beside the latter concern, we show both analytically and numerically that the optimal control of waste through recycling allows to reaching larger (resp., lower) consumption and capital stock levels under consumption-based waste compared to production-based waste while the latter permits to reach lower stocks of waste through lower recycling efforts.
    Keywords: Economic growth,Capital,Consumption,Polluting waste,recycling efforts JEL Classification Q57,C61
    Date: 2017–11
  4. By: Pereira, Alfredo; Pereira, Rui
    Abstract: The objective of this work is to examine the environmental, economic, and distribution effects of carbon taxation and environmental tax reform policies in Portugal. Decarbonization of the Portuguese economy will necessarily be based on an increasing electrification of energy demand and the production of electricity from renewable energy resources. Carbon and energy pricing policies coupled with appropriate recycling of the carbon tax revenues can contribute towards the decarbonization of the Portuguese economy and an increase in the use of renewable energy resources in the production of electric power. In this work we provide full details as to the model, calibration, and simulation results within the economic framework of the DGEP model.
    Keywords: economic effects, distributional effects, electrification, decarbonization, carbon taxation, Portugal
    JEL: C68 H2 O5 Q43 Q5
    Date: 2017–09
  5. By: Eva Lyubich (UC Berkeley); Joseph S. Shapiro (Cowles Foundation, Yale University); Reed Walker (University of California, Berkeley, IZA, & NBER)
    Abstract: This paper provides the ?rst estimates of within-industry heterogeneity in energy and CO2 productivity for the entire U.S. manufacturing sector. We measure energy and CO2 productivity as output per dollar energy input or per ton CO2 emitted. Three ?ndings emerge. First, within narrowly de?ned industries, heterogeneity in energy and CO2 productivity across plants is enormous. Second, heterogeneity in energy and CO2 productivity exceeds heterogeneity in most other productivity measures, like labor or total factor productivity. Third, heterogeneity in energy and CO2 productivity has important implications for environmental policies targeting industries rather than plants, including technology standards and carbon border adjustments.
    JEL: F18 H23 Q56
    Date: 2018–01
  6. By: Christos Kotsogiannis (Department of Economics, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK); Alan Woodland (School of Economics, UNSW Business School, UNSW, Australia)
    Abstract: This paper explores the role of multilateral transfers in achieving strict Pareto improvements in welfare, focusing on identifying conditions under which their use is warranted when carbon prices differ internationally and there are impediments to international trade. Using a general equilibrium model of international trade with global emission externalities, it is shown that strict Pareto improvements in welfare may arise from multilateral income transfers when either trade or carbon taxes are constrained away from their Pareto optimal levels. The purpose of transfers is then to account for the impact on emissions of the trade distortions and inappropriate carbon pricing. Such transfers exist if and only if a generalized normality condition is violated. A numerical example illustrates the transfer mechanism.
    Keywords: Global emissions, environmental externalities, multilateral income transfers, Pareto-improving reforms
    JEL: H23 F18
    Date: 2018–04
  7. By: Aleksandar Vasilev (Independent researcher)
    Abstract: We introduce an environmental dimension into a real-business-cycle model augmented with a detailed government sector. We calibrate the model to Bulgarian data for the period following the introduction of the currency board arrangement (1999-2016). We investigate the quantitative importance of utility-enhancing environmental quality, and the mechanics of environmental ("carbon") tax on polluting production, as well as the effect of government spending on pollution abatement over the cycle. In particular, a positive shock to pollution emission in the model works like a positive technological shock, but its effect is quantitatively very small. Allowing for pollution as a by-product of production improves the model performance against data, and in addition this ex- tended setup dominates the standard RBC model framework, e.g., Vasilev (2009).
    Keywords: Business cycles, pollution, environmental quality, environmental tax, abatement spending
    JEL: E32 C68 Q2 Q4 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2018–03
  8. By: J. Nieto, María
    Abstract: There is growing evidence suggesting that climate change risks have important implications for financial stability, although the analysis of the complexity of the potential risks to the financial sector is still at an early stage. This Policy Brief quantifies the direct (syndicated) loan exposure to elevated environmental risk sectors of the largest banks in the EU, Switzerland, the US, Japan and China on average at between 0.3 to 3.7% of total banking assets and €1.35 trillion in total as of December 2014. Policy recommendations: The policy recommendations operationalise the 2016 recommendations on climate-related issues issued by the Enhanced Disclosure Task Force (EDTF) to G20 countries and advise revising the banks´ prudential policy to consider environmental risks. • Better understanding the direct exposure to high environmental risk sectors demands a reliable and harmonised statistical framework that allows for detailed identification of sectors exposed to high environmental risks along the SIC (and NACE in the EEA) classifications. • Develop credit registers to become a tool that facilitates the assessment of environmental risk drivers in ‘carbon stress tests’. • Environmental aspects should be considered in the revisions of the assessment methodology of the Basel Core Principles for Effective Bank Supervision
    Date: 2017–05
  9. By: Shoji Haruna; Rajeev K. Goel
    Abstract: We study optimal pollution abatement under a mixed oligopoly game when firms engage in emissions-reducing R&D that is imperfectly appropriable. The regulator uses a tax to curb emissions. Results show that in a mixed oligopoly, the public firm has positive emissions reduction in equilibrium; however, emissions reductions of the private firm could be positive or zero. Under certain conditions, the optimal pollution tax is positive; otherwise, the tax reverts to a subsidy. Comparing mixed and private duopolies, privatization leads to reductions in R&D and output, but to an increase in overall emissions, so privatization tends to make the environment worse.
    Keywords: mixed oligopoly, R&D, pollution, spillovers, taxation, subsidy
    JEL: D43 D62 O33 Q55
    Date: 2018
  10. By: Philippe Bontems (TSE - Toulouse School of Economics - Toulouse School of Economics); Estelle Gozlan (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AgroParisTech)
    Abstract: In a small open economy, how should a government pursuing both environmental and redistributive objectives design domestic taxes when redistribution is costly? And how does trade liberalization affect the economy's levels of pollution and inequalities, when taxes are optimally and endogenously adjusted? Using a general equilibrium model under asymmetric information with two goods, two factors (skilled and unskilled labor), and pollution, this paper characterizes the optimal mixed tax system (nonlinear income tax and linear commodity and production taxes/subsidies) with both production and consumption externalities. While optimal income taxes are not directly affected by environmental externalities, conditions are derived under which under- or over-internalization of social marginal damage is optimal for redistributive considerations. Assuming that redistribution operates in favor of the unskilled workers and that the dirty sector is intensive in unskilled labor, simulations suggest that trade liberalization involves a clear trade-off between the reduction of inequalities and the control of pollution when the source of externality is only production; this is not necessarily true with a consumption externality. Finally, an increase in the willingness to redistribute income toward the unskilled results paradoxically in less pollution and more income inequalities.
    Abstract: Dans une petite économie ouverte, quel système fiscal est optimal pour un gouvernement concerné par l’environnement et les inégalités de revenu, lorsque la redistribution est coûteuse? Et comment la libéralisation des échanges affecte-t-elle les niveaux de pollution et les inégalités dans cette économie, lorsque les taxes sont optimales et ajustées de manière endogène? A l’aide d'un modèle d'équilibre général en information asymétrique avec deux biens, deux facteurs (main-d'œuvre qualifiée et non qualifiée) et la pollution, cet article caractérise le système fiscal mixte optimal (impôt non-linéaire sur le revenu et taxes/subventions linéaires sur la production et la consommation) en présence d’externalités de production et de consommation. Alors que les taux marginaux d’imposition sur le revenu sont pas directement affectés par les externalités environnementales, les conditions sont dérivées pour lesquelles la sous- ou sur-internalisation des dommages est optimale pour des considérations redistributives. En supposant que la redistribution opère en faveur des travailleurs non qualifiés et que le secteur polluant est relativement intensif en main-d'œuvre non qualifiée, les simulations suggèrent que la libéralisation du commerce implique un arbitrage clair entre la réduction des inégalités et la le contrôle de la pollution lorsque la pollution est une externalité de production; ce n'est pas nécessairement le cas avec une externalité de consommation. Enfin, une augmentation dans le poids des travailleurs non-qualifiés dans l’objectif du gouvernement se traduit paradoxalement par moins de pollution et plus d'inégalités de revenu.
    Keywords: Environnement,Inégalités de revenu,international trade,environmental control,modèle d'équilibre général,asymétrie d'information,inégalité des richesses,commerce international,taxation optimale,protection de l'environnement
    Date: 2018
  11. By: Nguyen Thang Dao; Ottmar Edenhofer
    Abstract: We consider an overlapping generations (OLG) economy with land as a fixed factor of production and an environmental externality on production in which tax revenue from land rent and/or from other schemes such as labor income, capital income, and production taxation can be used for environmental protection through investment in emission mitigation. We show that, for any given target of stationary stock of pollution, the land rent taxation scheme leads to a higher steady state capital accumulation than the other schemes, and hence the steady state consumption of agents when young under this scheme is also higher than under the others. In addition, under an ambitious mitigation target when the efficiency of the mitigation technology is relatively high compared to the dirtiness of production, the land rent taxation also provides a higher steady state consumption when old, resulting in higher social welfare, than the others. In the second part of the paper, we propose a period-by-period balanced budget policy, which includes land rent and capital income taxes with intergenerational transfers, to decentralize the socially optimal allocation during the transitional phase to the social planner's steady state.
    Keywords: overlapping generations economy, land rent, taxation, socially optimal allocation
    JEL: H23 I31 Q50
    Date: 2018
  12. By: Richard Audoly; Adrien Vogt-Schilb; Céline Guivarch; Alexander Pfeiffer
    Abstract: This paper covers three policy-relevant aspects of the carbon content of electricity that are well established among integrated assessment models but under-discussed in the policy debate. First, climate stabilization at any level from 2?C to 3?C requires electricity to be almost carbon-free before the end of the century. As such, the question for policy makers is not whether to decarbonize electricity but when to do it. Second, decarbonization of electricity is still possible and required if some of the key zero-carbon technologies — such as nuclear power or carbon capture and storage — turn out to be unavailable. Third, progressive decarbonization of electricity is part of every country’s cost-effective means of contributing to climate stabilization. In addition, this paper provides cost-effective pathways of the carbon content of electricity — extracted from the results of AMPERE, a recent integrated assessment model comparison study, and the IPCC AR5 database. These pathways can be used to benchmark existing decarbonization targets, such as those set by the European Energy Roadmap or the Clean Power Plan in the United States, or inform new policies in other countries. These pathways can also be used to assess the desirable uptake rates of electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles, electric stoves and heat pumps, industrial electric furnaces, or other electrification technologies
    Keywords: Zero-Carbon Electricity, Environmental Policy, Electricity, Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation, environmental policy, climate change
    JEL: Q54 Q01 Q4 Q5
    Date: 2017–08
  13. By: Eirik S. Amundsen; Peder Andersen; Jørgen Birk Mortensen
    Abstract: Instruments chosen to pursue climate related targets are not always efficient. In this paper we consider an economy with three climate related targets for its electricity generation: a given share of “green” electricity, a given expansion of “green” electricity, and a given reduction of “black” (fossil based) electricity. At its disposal the country has three instruments: an allowance system (tradable green certificates), a subsidy system (feed-in tariffs) and a Pigouvian fossil tax. Each of these instruments may be used to attain any of the given targets. Within the setting of the model it is verified that each kind of the target has only a single efficient instrument under certainty, and that there is a deadweight loss of using other instruments to achieve the target. Similarly, there is also an analysis of instrument choice when several targets are to be attained at the same time. The paper also discusses the case of simultaneous targets as well as the relevance of the various targets.
    Keywords: energy policy, green certificates, subsidies, Pigouvian taxes, climate change
    JEL: C70 Q28 Q42 Q48
    Date: 2018
  14. By: Maximilian Auffhammer
    Abstract: This paper proposes a simple two-step estimation method (Climate Adaptive Response Estimation - CARE) to estimate sectoral climate damage functions, which account for long- run adaptation. The paper applies this method in the context of residential electricity and natural gas demand for the world's sixth largest economy - California. The advantage of the proposed method is that it only requires detailed information on intensive margin behavior, yet does not require explicit knowledge of the extensive margin response (e.g., technology adoption). Using almost two billion energy bills, we estimate spatially highly disaggregated intensive margin temperature response functions using daily variation in weather. In a second step, we explain variation in the slopes of the dose response functions across space as a function of summer climate. Using 18 state-of-the-art climate models, we simulate future demand by letting households vary consumption along the intensive and extensive margins. We show that failing to account for extensive margin adjustment in electricity demand leads to a significant underestimate of the future impacts on electricity consumption. We further show that reductions in natural gas demand more than offset any climate-driven increases in electricity consumption in this context.
    JEL: Q4 Q54
    Date: 2018–03
  15. By: Mar Reguant
    Abstract: Renewable policies have grown in popularity across states in the US, and worldwide. The costs and benefits from renewable policies are unevenly distributed across several margins. The incidence of alternative designs varies substantially across producers and consumers, across types of producers, across types of consumers, and across regions. In particular, the efficiency and distributional implications of large-scale policies crucially depend on the design of wholesale policies and how targets are set, but also on how the costs of such policies are passed-through to consumers. Given that renewable costs are mostly non-marginal, due to the large presence of fixed costs, there are many different ways to implement these policies on both the environmental design and retail pass-through margins. Using data from the California electricity market, I develop a model to illustrate the interaction between large-scale renewable policies (carbon taxes, feed-in tariffs, production subsidies and renewable portfolio standards) and their pricing to final consumers under alternative retail pricing schemes (no pass-through, marginal fees, fixed flat tariffs and Ramsey pricing). I focus on the trade-off between charging residential versus industrial consumers to highlight tensions between efficiency, distributional and environmental objectives.
    JEL: Q4 Q5
    Date: 2018–03
  16. By: Newbery, David M. G.
    Abstract: Given the agreed urgency of decarbonizing electricity and the need to guide decentralized private decisions, an adequate and credible carbon price appears essential. The paper models and quantifies the useful concept of the break-even carbon price for mature zerocarbon electricity investments. It appears an attractive alternative given the difficulty of measuring the social cost of carbon, but modelling shows it extremely sensitive to projected fuel prices, the rate of interest, and the capital cost of generation options, all of which are very uncertain. This has important implications, and justifies combining a carbon price floor with suitable long-term contracts for electricity investments.
    Keywords: carbon price,electricity,investment,renewables
    JEL: C65 Q42 Q48 Q51 Q54
    Date: 2018
  17. By: Jové Llopis, Elisenda,; Segarra Blasco, Agustí, 1958-
    Abstract: This paper empirically investigates the factors driving the adoption of energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy (RE) measures in a sample of 8,213 Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in European countries. Using a bivariate probit model we examine their drivers, complementarities, and potential temporal persistence in three European country clusters (Core countries, Mediterranean countries and New EU members). Our results suggest that sustainable energies actions (EE and RE) are highly persistent both at the firm level and across countries and that there are relevant complementarities between EE and RE practices, as well as other resource efficient practices. In addition, strategies for EE seem to rely more on cost saving and regulations, while those for RE are more linked to public support and environmental awareness. This paper ends with some recommendations for policymakers suggesting that Europe needs to design an energy policy for the SMEs firms that jointly pursues both EE and the diffusion of RE according to the technological gap of each member country. Keywords: energy efficiency, renewable energy, European Union, SMEs firms
    Keywords: Energies renovables -- Unió Europea, Països de la, Empreses petites i mitjanes -- Aspectes ambientals -- Unió Europea, Països de la, 338 - Situació econòmica. Política econòmica. Gestió, control i planificació de l'economia. Producció. Serveis. Turisme. Preus,
    Date: 2018
  18. By: Elkerbout, Milan; Egenhofer, Christian
    Abstract: Carbon prices in the EU ETS have been low for a number of years and might remain at relatively low levels for the foreseeable future. That does not mean that the EU ETS, or the price signal it produces, is meaningless. Incentives to abate greenhouse gas emissions exist at any price level (it is just stronger with higher prices). This is true even if the impact is different between the power and industrial sectors, partly but not only because of the difference in allocation rules. What the ETS price signal does not drive, however, is long-term investment decisions, which are more a function of price expectations and expected returns on investment.
    Date: 2017–06
  19. By: Armon Rezai; Lance Taylor; Duncan Foley (Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis (SCEPA))
    Abstract: This paper explores how climate damage affects the long-run evolution of the economy. Climate change induced by greenhouse gas lowers profitability, reducing investment and cutting output in the short and long runs. Short-run employment falls due to deficient demand. In the long run, productivity growth is slower, lowering potential income levels. Climate policy can increase incomes and employment in the short and long runs, while a continuation of business-as-usual leads to a dystopian income distribution with affluence for few and high levels of unemployment for the rest.
    Keywords: climate change, economic growth, integrated assessment, demand and distribution, energy productivity, unemployment
    JEL: H21 Q51 Q54
    Date: 2017–10
  20. By: Damien Dussaux (CERNA i3 - Centre d'économie industrielle i3 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - PSL - PSL Research University - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Antoine Dechezleprêtre (CERNA i3 - Centre d'économie industrielle i3 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - PSL - PSL Research University - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Matthieu Glachant (CERNA i3 - Centre d'économie industrielle i3 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - PSL - PSL Research University - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris)
    Abstract: We examine the effect of intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection on the two main channels of international transfer of low-carbon technologies i.e. trade in low-carbon capital goods, and foreign direct investments (FDI) by firms producing low-carbon technologies. Our data describes cross-country transfer through these channels between developing and developed countries in eight climate-related technology fields from 2001 to 2011. At the world level, we find that strengthening IPRs protection increases transfer in six technology fields (hydro power, solar PV, solar thermal, heating, lighting, and cleaner vehicles), while the effect is statistically insignificant in the others. The results slightly change when focusing on non-OECD countries. In particular, we find that a stricter IPRs regime may reduce their imports of solar equipment. These results have important implications for climate negotiations on North-South technology transfer.
    Keywords: Climate change, Technology transfer, Intellectual property rights, International trade, Foreign direct investment.
    Date: 2017–12
  21. By: Johannes Friedrich Carolus (Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen); Nick Hanley (University of Glasgow, Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health & Comparative Medicine); Søren Bøye Olsen (Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen); Søren Marcus Pedersen (Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen)
    Abstract: Cost-Benefit Analysis is a method to assess the effects of policies and projects on social welfare. CBAs are usually applied in a top-down approach, in the sense that a decision-making body first decides on which policies or projects are to be considered, and then applies a set of uniform criteria to identifying and valuing relevant cost and benefit flows. This paper investigates the possible advantages, prerequisites and limitations of applying CBA in what may be considered an alternative, “bottom-up”. Instead of starting out with a pre-defined policy option, the suggested approach begins with the underlying environmental problem, and then assesses costs and benefits of various strategies and solutions suggested by local and directly affected stakeholders. For empirical case studies concerning two river catchments in Sweden and Latvia, the bottom-up CBA approach utilises local knowledge, assesses plans which are not only developed for local conditions but are also likely to be more acceptable to local society, and sheds additional light on possible distributional effects. By not only benefitting from, but also supporting participative environmental planning, bottom-up CBA is in line with the growing trend of embedding stakeholder participation into environmental policy and decision-making.
    Keywords: Environmental Planning, Stakeholder Approach, Participatory Approaches, Ecosystem Services, Water Framework Directive, Catchment Management
    JEL: B41 D61
    Date: 2018–02
  22. By: Asongu, Simplice
    Abstract: This study investigates how information and communication technology (ICT) complements globalisation in order to influence CO2 emissions in 44 Sub-Saharan African countries over the period 2000-2012. ICT is measured with internet penetration and mobile phone penetration whereas globalisation is designated in terms of trade and financial openness. The empirical evidence is based on the Generalised Method of Moments. The findings broadly show that ICT can be employed to dampen the potentially negative effect of globalisation on environmental degradation like CO2 emissions. Practical, policy and theoretical implications are discussed.
    Keywords: CO2 emissions; ICT; Economic development; Africa
    JEL: C52 O38 O40 O55 P37
    Date: 2017–05
  23. By: François Cohen (CERNA i3 - Centre d'économie industrielle i3 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - PSL - PSL Research University - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Matthieu Glachant (CERNA i3 - Centre d'économie industrielle i3 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - PSL - PSL Research University - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Magnus Söderberg (NIVA - Norwegian Institute for Water Research - Norwegian Institute for Water Research)
    Abstract: Using household-level data from the American Housing Survey, this paper assesses the cost of adapting housing to temperature increases. We account for both energy use adjustments and capital adjustments through investments in weatherization and heating and cooling equipment. Our best estimate of the present discounted value of the cost for adapting to the A2 « business-as-usual » climate scenario by the end of the century is $5,600 per housing unit, including both energy and investment costs. A more intense use of air conditioners will be compensated for by a reduction in heating need, leading to a shift from gas to electricity consumption.
    Date: 2017–01–29
  24. By: Leonardo Becchetti (DEF & CEIS, University of Rome "Tor Vergata"); Francesco Salustri (DEF,University of Rome "Tor Vergata" and University of Turin); Pasquale Scaramozzino (DEF & CEIS,University of Rome "Tor Vergata" and SOAS)
    Abstract: We devise a ‘nudging’ natural experiment to test the impact of a simple form of advertising on environmentally responsible products with/without the increase of the responsible product price. We find that the simple use of a small shelf-poster explaining the importance of buying a green product (with/without a concurring price increase) generates significant changes in market shares for some of the product classes for both food and non-food products. Part of the effect is generated by the reduced price elasticity of consumers to the poster-plus-price-increase treatment.
    Keywords: nudging, environmental sustainability, randomised field experiment
    JEL: C93 D12 M14 Q56
    Date: 2018–04–03
  25. By: Hlalefang Khobai (Department of Economics, Nelson Mandela University)
    Abstract: This study serves to examine the effects of renewable energy consumption on economic growth in Indonesia. Quarterly time series data was used for the period 1990 – 2014. Applying the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach, the study established that there is a long run relationship between economic growth, renewable energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, capital and employment. It is established that renewable energy consumption has a significant positive effect on economic growth both in the long run and short run. The findings from the vector error correction model (VECM) technique suggest that there is a long run causality flowing from renewable energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, capital and employment to economic growth. The findings of this study suggest that the government, energy policy makers and associated bodies should act together to improve on the renewable energy infrastructure and lower carbon growth in Indonesia.
    Keywords: Renewable energy consumption, Economic growth, Co-integration, Causality, Indonesia.
    JEL: D04 Q47 Q42 Q01
    Date: 2018–02
  26. By: Yonson, Rio; Noy, Ilan
    Abstract: Using an economic model to assess welfare risk and resilience to disasters, this paper systematically tackles the questions: 1) How much asset and welfare risks does each region in the Philippines face from riverine flood disasters? 2) How resilient is each region to riverine flood disasters? and 3) What are the available interventions per region to strengthen resilience to riverine flood disasters and what will be their measured benefit? We study the 18 regions of the Philippines to demonstrate the channels through which macroeconomic asset and output losses from disasters translate to consumption and welfare losses at the microeconomic level. Apart from the prioritization of regions based on resilience and welfare risk, we identify a menu of policy options ranked according to their level of effectiveness in increasing resilience and reducing welfare risk from riverine floods. While there are similarities in the ranking of policies among regions with comparable levels of resilience and welfare risk, the ranking of priorities varies for different regions. This suggests that there are region-specific conditions and drivers that need to be integrated into policies and development processes so that these conditions are effectively addressed. Overall, the results indicate that reduction of adverse disaster impacts, including welfare losses, and reduction of poverty are generally complementary.
    Keywords: Disasters, Floods, Risk, Resilience, Floods, Philippines,
    Date: 2018
  27. By: Al-Riffai, Perrihan; Breisinger, Clemens; Mondal, Md. Hossain Alam; Ringler, Claudia; Wiebelt, Manfred; Zhu, Tingju
    Abstract: We use an innovative methodology to model the socioeconomic linkages between water, energy, and food in the East Nile Basin. Based upon a theoretical nexus framework, the methodology is expanded into a quantifiable modeling suite that under-lies the analysis of each of three country case studies. The advantages are that, despite resource shortages being a challenge, the modeling suite aids in devising policies and strategies that formulate these sectoral interdependencies and provide the evidence-based research results necessary for their design in a way that exploits synergies existing across sectors, countries, and regions (Al-Zubari n.d.). This paper lays out the methodology and gives an example of an application and scenarios by focusing on three countries in the East Nile Basin. This methodology paper will be followed by three individual country case studies that highlight the water, energy, and food nexus for each.
    Keywords: EGYPT; ARAB COUNTRIES; MIDDLE EAST; NORTH AFRICA; AFRICA; ETHIOPIA; SUDAN; sustainable development; socioeconomic development; food security; models; water; energy; computable general equilibrium (CGE) models; MARKAL/TIMES model; dynamic computable general equilibrium (DCGE)
    Date: 2017
  28. By: Spratt, Stephen; Kargbo, Philip; Marfo, Emmanuel; Ngungoh, Emmanuel; Ramcilovik-Suominen, Sabaheta
    Abstract: This research explores the impacts that REDD+ could have on forest tax systems in three countries in sub-Saharan Africa, and considers how policy could be designed to increase the chances that these impacts are positive. To assess this, a methodological framework is identified and adapted. The framework has been used to explore how the implementation of a new policy regime affects the interests and thus behaviours of actors in related, existing regimes. The implementation of REDD+ in relation to forest tax systems seems well suited to such an approach. The countries concerned are Cameroon, Ghana and Sierra Leone. While they are at different stages of the process, a common finding is that long-term impacts will depend on the detail of REDD+ design and implementation, and that many of the most important decisions have yet to be taken. Domestically, the key outstanding questions are: the extent of stakeholder participation in the design and implementation of programmes; how equitably financial benefits are distributed; whether REDD+ coverage is restricted to forest areas that are already protected, or extended to areas currently used for commercial forestry; how monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) is implemented and whether this overlaps with forestry reporting practices; whether REDD+ is implemented nationally or locally; and whether existing or new channels are used.
    Keywords: Governance,
    Date: 2018
  29. By: Véronique Le Bihan (LEMNA - Laboratoire d'économie et de management de Nantes Atlantique - UN - Université de Nantes); Marie Catalo (LEMNA - Laboratoire d'économie et de management de Nantes Atlantique - UN - Université de Nantes); Jeanine Le Bihan (CERHIO - CEntre de Recherches HIstoriques de l'Ouest - UM - Le Mans Université - UA - Université d'Angers - UBS - Université de Bretagne Sud - UR2 - Université de Rennes 2 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Since the mid-2000s, the French oyster industry has faced hazards of various origins. The results of a field survey conducted under the " GIGASSAT " 1 ANR Agrobiosphere programme have highlighted productive changes in the oyster farming industry in the Bay of Bourgneuf and the Mor Braz area (Southern Brittany). Beyond this observation, one may wonder to what extent technological and biotechnological developments as well as environmental risks participate in the reorganization of production. In order to study this dynamics, we have relied on the theoretical concept of Porter's value chain (1986) in the context of a value chain analysis. The survey covered different topics such as the perception of oyster mortality causes, adaptation strategies in terms of supply, abandonment of offshore farming areas in favour of foreshore areas and economic performance in oyster farming. The analysis of oyster farmers' operational activities raises questions about the existence of various types of value chains at the beginning of the period of study, which should be seen in the context of technological innovation, natural advantages and interactions with other actors. The survey also shows that in a sanitary crisis context, some oyster farmers question the configuration of their value chain from a survival perspective, whereas others maintain it. This work contributes to the identification and characterization of the various trajectories adopted by farms within the same sector in the face of environmental changes.
    Keywords: environmental risks,Porter’s value chain,adaptation strategies,shellfish farmers
    Date: 2018–01–11
  30. By: Pilon, André Francisco
    Abstract: An analytical, ecosystemic, epistemological and methodological framework, encompassing the combination and co-design of four dimensions of being in the world (intimate, interactive, social and biophysical), is posited to identify and deal with the problems of difficult settlement or solution in the world, reconceptualising roles and drives, in view of a transformative change of the current paradigms of development, growth, power, wealth, work and freedom embedded at institutional, cultural, economic and political level.
    Keywords: Public Policies, Ecosystems, Education, Ethics, Economics
    JEL: I0 I2 I25 I28 I3 O21 Q5 Q56 Q57 Q58
    Date: 2018–01–28
  31. By: Paulin Ibanda Kabaka (UPPA - Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, Centre de recherche Pau Droit Public - UPPA - Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, LAM - Les Afriques dans le monde - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Dans cet article, les auteurs traitent du développement agricole et forestier dans les hautes terres du Bassin Amazonien en Amérique du Sud en comparant les différents systèmes d'utilisation des terres vers 1995 au regard de leurs impacts écologiques et du développement durable. Ils examinent respectivement les menaces de l'utilisation des terres sur les ressources forestières, les conditions de la durabilité des écosystèmes et le rôle des politiques gouvernementales dans l'adoption des systèmes durables d'exploitation agricole et forestière.
    Date: 2018–02–01
  32. By: Christa Brelsford; Joshua K. Abbott
    Abstract: Understanding the effectiveness of alternative approaches to water conservation is crucially important for ensuring the security and reliability of water services for urban residents. We analyze data from one of the longest-running "cash for grass" policies - the Southern Nevada Water Authority's Water Smart Landscapes program, where homeowners are paid to replace grass with xeric landscaping. We use a twelve year long panel dataset of monthly water consumption records for 300,000 households in Las Vegas, Nevada. Utilizing a panel difference-in-differences approach, we estimate the average water savings per square meter of turf removed. We find that participation in this program reduced the average treated household's consumption by 18 percent. We find no evidence that water savings degrade as the landscape ages, or that water savings per unit area are influenced by the value of the rebate. Depending on the assumed time horizon of benefits from turf removal, we find that the WSL program cost the water authority about $1.62 per thousand gallons of water saved, which compares favorably to alternative means of water conservation or supply augmentation.
    Date: 2018–03
  33. By: Erwan Koch
    Abstract: An accurate assessment of the risk of extreme environmental events is of great importance for populations, authorities and the banking/insurance industry. Koch (2017) introduced a notion of spatial risk measure and a corresponding set of axioms which are well suited to analyse the risk due to events having a spatial extent, precisely such as environmental phenomena. The axiom of asymptotic spatial homogeneity is of particular interest since it allows to quantify the rate of spatial diversification when the region under consideration becomes large. In this paper, we first investigate the general concepts of spatial risk measures and corresponding axioms further. Second, in the case of a general cost field, we especially give sufficient conditions such that spatial risk measures associated with expectation, variance, Value-at-Risk as well as expected shortfall and induced by this cost field satisfy the axioms of asymptotic spatial homogeneity of order 0, -2, -1 and -1, respectively. Last but not least, in the case where the cost field is a function of a max-stable random field, we mainly provide conditions on both the function and the max-stable field ensuring the latter properties. Max-stable random fields are relevant when assessing the risk of extreme events since they appear as a natural extension of multivariate extreme-value theory to the level of random fields. Overall, this paper improves our understanding of spatial risk measures as well as of their properties with respect to the space variable and generalises many results obtained in Koch (2017).
    Date: 2018–03
  34. By: Baran Doda; Simon Quemin
    Abstract: Linkages between emissions trading systems (ETSs) are crucial for the cost-effective implementation of the Paris Agreement. Yet we know little about the determinants of economic gains in a multilaterally linked system, how they are shared among participating jurisdictions and less still about their magnitude. We characterize these gains for an arbitrary linkage group, decompose them into gains in the group's internal bilateral linkages and prove linkage is superadditive. Relative to autarky linkage reduces permit price volatility on average but not necessarily for individual linkage group members. In a quantitative application calibrated to five hypothetical ETSs covering the power sectors in Canada, continental Europe, South Korea, the UK and the USA, linking generates gains of up to $370 million (constant 2005US$) per year relative to autarky. Focusing on linkage groups with two and three members which are themselves not linked, we find that maximum aggregate gains decline by $43-178 million.
    Keywords: Climate change policy, International emissions trading systems, Multilateral linking, Effort and risk sharing
    JEL: Q58 H23 F15
    Date: 2018
  35. By: Elena Petrenko (SUSU - South Ural State University); Nurlan Iskakov (Almaty Management University); Oleg Metsyk (Institute of Economics, The Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences); Tatyana Khassanova (SUSU - South Ural State University)
    Abstract: Favorable ecosystem of entrepreneurship plays crucial role for successful development of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and their sustainability. One of preconditioms of encouraging business environment is its' stability, and trust in long-term stability. Meanwhile the global economic crisis has created a state of economic and political instability, what consequently affected trust of business entities, and therefore contributed to increase of social and economic risks. The article discusses the decline of trust in the entrepreneurship of Kazakhstan, examines the causes and consequences of loss of confidence as an important institutional resource.
    Keywords: state,corruption,SMEs,entrepreneurship ecosystem,trust,business risks,economics,Kazakhstan
    Date: 2017–09–29
  36. By: Giorgio Fabbri (Univ.Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, INRIA, Grenoble INP, GAEL, Grenoble, France); Silvia Faggian (Department of Economics, University Of Venice Ca’ Foscari, Italy); Giuseppe Freni (Department of Business and Economics, University of Naples “Parthenope”, Naples, Italy.)
    Abstract: We develop a spatial resource model in continuous time in which two agents strategically exploit a mobile resource in a two-location setup. In order to contrast the overexploitation of the resource (the tragedy of commons) that occurs when the player are free to choose where to fish/hunt/extract/harvest, the regulator can establish a series of spatially structured policies. We compare the three situations in which the regulator: (a) leaves the player free to choose where to harvest; (b) establishes a natural reserve where nobody is allowed to harvest; (c) assigns to each player a specific exclusive location to hunt. We show that when preference parameters dictate a low harvesting intensity, the policies cannot mitigate the overexploitation and in addition they worsen the utilities of the players. Conversely, in a context of harsher harvesting intensity, the intervention can help to safeguard the resource, preventing the extinction and also improving the welfare of both players.
    Keywords: Spatial harvesting problems, Markov perfect equilibrium, Environmental protection policies, Differential Games
    JEL: Q28 C72 Q23 C61 R12
    Date: 2018
  37. By: Riccardo Colacito; Bridget Hoffmann; Toan Phan
    Abstract: This paper documents that seasonal temperatures have significant and systematic effects on the U.S. economy, both at the aggregate level and across a wide crosssection of economic sectors. This effect is particularly strong for the summer: an increase of 1°F in the average summer temperature is associated with a reduction in the annual growth rate of state-level output of 0:15 to 0:25 percentage points. When these estimates are combined with projected increases in seasonal temperatures it is found that a reduction of U.S. economic growth by up to one third could occur over the next century.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Labor Productivity Growth, Annual Growth Rate, Economic Impact Analysis, Economic Growth, Environmental economics, Insurance companies, Retail, Wholesale, Real Estate, Food Services, economic impact, economic growth, labor productivity
    JEL: Q59 R11 O51 O44
    Date: 2016–05
    Date: 2018
  39. By: Stefano Farolfi (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International des Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - AgroParisTech - IRSTEA - Institut national de recherche en sciences et technologies pour l'environnement et l'agriculture - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, UM - Université de Montpellier); Dimitri Dubois (LAMETA - Laboratoire Montpelliérain d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - UM1 - Université Montpellier 1 - UM3 - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - INRA Montpellier - Institut national de la recherche agronomique [Montpellier] - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier, UM - Université de Montpellier); Sylvie Morardet (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International des Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - AgroParisTech - IRSTEA - Institut national de recherche en sciences et technologies pour l'environnement et l'agriculture - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, IRSTEA - Institut national de recherche en sciences et technologies pour l'environnement et l'agriculture, UM - Université de Montpellier); Imen Nouichi (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International des Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - AgroParisTech - IRSTEA - Institut national de recherche en sciences et technologies pour l'environnement et l'agriculture - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement); Serge Marlet (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International des Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - AgroParisTech - IRSTEA - Institut national de recherche en sciences et technologies pour l'environnement et l'agriculture - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, UM - Université de Montpellier)
    Abstract: L'eau d'irrigation est une ressource cruciale pour le développement économique et social en Tunisie. Dans un contexte de décentralisation et de dévolution du rôle de l'Etat, une part importante de la gestion de cette eau d'irrigation a été confiée aux Groupements de Développement Agricole (GDA). Ces groupements souffrent cependant d'un manque de reconnaissance de la part des usagers, qui se manifeste essentiellement par un faible consentement de leur part à payer les redevances. Dans cet article nous nous demandons dans quelle mesure l'information fournie aux usagers sur le fonctionnement du système (information « institutionnelle ») et/ou sur les décisions prises par les autres usagers (information « sociale ») peut impacter leur consentement à payer. Notre analyse s'est faite en deux temps. Nous avons commencé par une enquête sur le terrain, laquelle révèle effectivement une demande des irrigants en matière de diffusion d'informations. Nous avons ensuite élaboré une expérience permettant d'isoler l'impact de différents types d'information sur les décisions prises par les individus dans le cadre d'un jeu qui a des propriétés proches de la situation de terrain. Les données collectées en laboratoire confirment l'existence d'une relation de causalité entre l'information fournie aux usagers et leur consentement à payer pour une ressource commune comme l'eau d'irrigation. Abstract Irrigation water is a crucial resource for economic and social development in Tunisia. In a context of decentralization and State devolution, the local associations for agricultural development or 'Groupements de Développement Agricole (GDA)' manage today a large share of irrigation water in the country. However, these institutions are experiencing a lack of acknowledgment by water users, resulting in a low willingness to pay (WTP) for water. In this article we study to what extent information provided to users on the functioning of the system (« institutional » information) and/or on the decisions taken by other users (« social » information) can affect their WTP. Our analysis is twofold. A field survey first revealed the farmers' demand for better information provision. A laboratory experiment allowed then to isolate the impact of the two types of information on subjects' decisions through a game with similar properties to those observed in the field. Data collected in the lab confirm the existence of a causality relation between information provided to users and their WTP for a common resource such as irrigation water.
    Keywords: Information ,experimental economics ,water,irrigation,Tunisia,économie expérimentale,eau,Tunisie
    Date: 2018–01–16
    Date: 2018
  41. By: Egenhofer, Christian; Drabik, Eleanor; Alessi, Monica; Rizos, Vasileios
    Abstract: The Ecodesign Directive (ED) provides consistent EU-wide rules for improving the environmental performance of products, such as household appliances, information and communication technologies or engineering. This report summarises the responses of 27 stakeholders who were interviewed to obtain their assessment of the implementation of the ED, particularly the successes and shortcomings, the results and the processes and the Directive’s contribution to encouraging the circular economy. The objective was to gather the views of both EU-level and Member State experts and stakeholders on the following questions: To what extent has the Directive met its objectives? What are the main obstacles in the implementation? How does the ED interact with other policies? How does the Directive contribute to the circular economy? Full Title: "Stakeholders’ Views on the Ecodesign Directive: An assessment of the successes and shortcomings" This paper was written at the request of the Ex-Post Evaluation of the Directorate for Impact Assessment and European Added Value, within the Directorate General for Parliamentary Research Services (DG EPRS) of the General Secretariat of the European Parliament, and can be downloaded from the Parliament’s website. It is republished as a CEPS Research Report with the kind permission of the European Parliament.
    Date: 2018–03
    Date: 2018
  43. By: Hiroki Sunohara (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, Tokyo, Japan)
    Abstract: New Zealand reviewed its policy for earthquake-prone buildings (EPB) and implemented a new system for managing EPBs as of July 1, 2017. This study explored the details and current state of its application and compared them to those of the similar program in Japan under the Act on Promotion of Seismic Retrofit of Buildings, through a survey of the respective laws and regulations of New Zealand and Japan, their publications, and other literature as well as analyses of the EPB register and by tabulating and analyzing the seismic assessment data of buildings published by the relevant agencies in Japan. It is concluded that the EPB program is taking an approach different from that of Japan in the applicable buildings, requirements, target performance, contents and methodology of disclosure. For instance, the New Zealand system requires seismic upgrading only on limited groups of buildings, a performance target of one third of the current level imposed on new construction, its seismic assessment to be published in two levels, and the building to be labeled as an EPB if so determined.
    Date: 2018–03
  44. By: Caroline Mothe (IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - USMB [Université de Savoie] [Université de Chambéry] - Université Savoie Mont Blanc); Uyen Nguyen-Thi (LISER - Luxembourg Institute of Socio-Economic Research); Angela Triguero-Cano (Department of International Economics - University of Castilla-La Mancha)
    Abstract: Although the antecedents of environmental innovation and open innovation strategies have been well studied separately, the relationship between a firm's openness and environmental technological innovation still remains an interesting topic to research, especially in terms of the various modes of openness on the one hand and the product–process distinction on the other. This study relies on data from the French Community Innovation Survey to differentiate the association of three dimensions of open inbound innovation search strategies—acquiring, sharing, and information sourcing—with environmental product (ecoproduct) and process (ecoprocess) innovations. Inbound innovation, attained through the acquisition of machinery, equipment, and software, is more likely to be associated with ecoprocess than ecoproduct innovations; external R&D only drives ecoproducts. Inbound sharing through R&D cooperation seems associated with the introduction of both ecoproducts and ecoprocesses. For inbound innovation sourcing, external market sources of information are positively associated with firms' involvement in all types of environmental innovation.
    Keywords: R&D cooperation,Sourcing,R&D acquisition,Environmental innovation,Inbound innovation
    Date: 2018
    Date: 2018
  46. By: Slednev, Viktor; Bertsch, Valentin; Ruppert, Manuel; Fichtner, Wolf

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