nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2018‒03‒19
29 papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Application of a green jobs SAM with employment and CO2 satellites for informed green policy support the case of Indonesia By Alarcon, J. V.; Ernst, C.
  2. CO2 mitigation in developing countries: the role of foreign aid By Mohamed BOLY
  3. Business between Profitability and Sustainability By Nidžara Osmanagić Bedenik
  4. Trade and Climate: Towards Reconciliation By Dominique Bureau; Lionel Fontagné; Katheline Schubert
  5. Mainstreaming green job issues into national employment policies and implementation plans a review By Van de Ree, Kees.
  6. Optimal fiscal policy with environmental tax and abatement spending in a model with pollution and utility-enhancing environmental quality: the case of Bulgaria By Vasilev, Aleksandar
  7. Social risks of forest fires: a methodological proposal for their monetary evaluation By Isabel Mendes
  8. Renewable Energy Policy in Indonesia: The Qur'anic Scientific Signals in Islamic Economics Perspective By Jaelani, Aan; Firdaus, Slamet; Jumena, Juju
  9. Instrumento de Pagamento por Serviço Ambiental: o caso do Ribeirão Abóbora By Cleidinaldo de Jesus Barbosa; Antonio Marcos de Queiroz; Francis Lee Ribeiro; José Guilherme Vidal
  10. A Real-Business-Cycle model with pollution and environmental taxation: the case of Bulgaria By Vasilev, Aleksandar
  11. The central position of agriculture within the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: By Omilola, Babatunde; Robele, Sophia
  12. The role of natural resources in production: Georgescu-Roegen/ Daly versus Solow/ Stiglitz By Quentin Couix
  13. Compensating households from carbon tax regressivity and fuel poverty: a microsimulation study By Audrey Berry
  14. Is electricity affordable and reliable for all in Vietnam? By Minh Ha-Duong; Hoai Son Nguyen
  15. La politique commerciale au service de la politique climatique By Lionel Fontagné; Jean Fouré
  16. Case Study—Copanor, Brazil By Wilson Dos Santos Rocha; Maria Salvetti
  17. Does Host Market Regulation Induce Cross Border Environmental Innovation? By Antonello Zanfei; Giovanni Marin
  18. Did the Paris Agreement Plant the Seeds of a Climate Consistent International Financial Regime? By Dipak Dasgupta; Etienne Espagne; Jean Charles Hourcade; Irving Mintzer; Seyni Nafo; Baptiste Perrissin Fabert; Nick Robins; Alfredo Sirkis
  19. Le droit à l'énergie : dangereuse chimère ou juste exigence ? By Minh Ha-Duong
  20. Buses, Houses or Cash? Socio-Economic, Spatial and Environmental Consequences of Reforming Public Transport Subsidies in Buenos Aires By Paolo Avner; Shomik Raj Mehndiratta; Vincent Viguie; Stéphane Hallegatte
  21. E15 and E85 Demand Under RIN Price Caps and an RVP Waiver By Gabriel E. Lade; Sebastien Pouliot; Bruce A. Babcock
  22. An Econometric Analysis of Divergence of Renewable Energy Invention Efforts in Europe By Grafström, Jonas
  23. Financing water: Investing in sustainable growth By OECD
  24. Externalidades Negativas Associadas à Agropecuária no Estado de Goiás: problemas ambientais e sociais By Priscila Casari; Felipe Silva Domiciano
  25. Optimizing Discount Rates: Expressing Preferences for Sustainable Outcomes in Present Value Calculations By Axelrod, David
  26. Psychosocial Factors and Quality of Life Among Flood Victims in Malaysia By Najib Ahmad Marzuki
  27. "The Role of Street-Level Bureaucrats in Implementing Renewable Energy Policy in Indonesia" By Anugerah Yuka Asmara
  28. Assessing the Total Economic Value of Barbados Welchman Hall Gully By Mamingi, Nlandu; Maurin, Alain; Montauban, Jean-Gabriel
  29. Allocating the costs of cleaning a river; estimating responsibilities versus incentive compatibility By Jorge Alcalde-Unzu; Maria Gomez-Rua; Elena Molis

  1. By: Alarcon, J. V.; Ernst, C.
    Abstract: Climate change is a challenge world-wide; hence countries must adjust their economies as well as their labour markets. Recently, most economies attempt to shift to more environmentally friendly consumption and production patterns as well as compatible technologies, among others, to improve labour conditions and reduce emissions. The Green Jobs Social Accounting Matrix (GJ- SAM) -based analysis, combined with scenario simulation, has the ambition to provide helpful inputs for policy discussion and decision-making. The results based on the analysis of derived SAM model indicators and two sets of simulations results form the core of this study. The scenario simulations refer to a counter-factual of a fiscal stimulus package that can help test green-jobs sectors performance vis-à-vis brown-jobs sectors, in particular, and hybrid sectors, in general, by providing insights into how to comparatively evaluate policies aimed at shifting towards ecologically friendly technologies. This study shows that shifting towards a green economy may help reducing green-house gas emissions in Indonesia, however, as expected, the process situation is more complex and less straightforward. It also shows clearly the inter-dependencies between the economic, the environmental and the labour spheres; hence a successful sustainable and inclusive development strategy would need to take into account all three spheres simultaneously.
    Keywords: 1, 2, 3, 4
    Date: 2017
  2. By: Mohamed BOLY
    Abstract: This paper empirically investigates the link between foreign aid and pollution, specifically CO2 emissions in developing countries. We use a more complete and recent dataset to re-assess the environmental impact of foreign aid. Focusing on 112 aid recipient countries over the period 1980 - 2013, we find that the effect of aid depends on the donor, with multilateral aid more likely to reduce pollution than bilateral aid for which we find no effect. However, when we more precisely look at the composition of bilateral aid, we find it has an effect when specifically targeted toward environment. This effect is non-linear, since we observe a pollution-reducing effect only for important amounts of bilateral environmental aid.
    Keywords: CO2 emissions, Foreign aid, Environmental aid, Threshold effect.
    JEL: Q54 Q53 O11 F35 E6
    Date: 2018–03
  3. By: Nidžara Osmanagić Bedenik (Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Zagreb)
    Abstract: It has commonly been thought and said that the main goal of a company is to make profit and increase its value. If this is so, then the ways of achieving those goals are irrelevant. Are they really irrelevant? We are witnesses of excessive depletion of natural resources, climate change and a loss of biodiversity. Water, air, soil, light and noise pollution is increasing. We are also faced with the ignorance of human rights and income inequality. At the end the quality of life is worsening as well. The need of paradigm change from profitability to sustainability is self-evident. Sustainability is an integrative, holistic and long-term approach that advocates balance between economic, social and ecological dimensions of business, making companies responsible not only for monetary, short-term goals, but also for people and the planet. It is a known fact that many companies are mightier than numerous countries. But let us not forget that the reverse side of might is responsibility. Companies which choose the path of responsible business publish sustainable reports that reflect their efforts in respecting social and ecological business dimensions. Companies in Croatia accept this new understanding of business more and more. According to research results, they are aware of an increasing importance of social and ecological consequences of business, and the trend of sustainable reporting is on the rise. Top management has the most important function in implementing the sustainable company policy. Research shows that successful companies have a prominent role in pioneering the paradigm change. The aim of the paper is to raise awareness of sustainability in business, to reaffirm everlasting values such as respect of human rights and nature, to share examples from a small country, and to stimulate benchmarking and cooperation between international researchers.
    Keywords: profit (ability), sustainability, economy of soul, Croatian companies, sustainable reporting
    JEL: M21
    Date: 2018–03–12
  4. By: Dominique Bureau; Lionel Fontagné (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Katheline Schubert
    Abstract: To limit greenhouse-gas emissions, is it necessary to restrict international trade? By dissociating where products are produced from where they are consumed, international trade contributes significantly to greenhousegas emissions worldwide, especially when goods are transported. It also displaces the location of emissions: the consumption-induced carbon footprint of OECD countries is higher than their level of emissions. Large emerging countries find themselves in the opposite case. However, halting international trade would be particularly ineffective to reduce GHG emissions. According to oursimulations, raising average import tariffs to 17% (as opposed to current 5%, except for agricultural products) and accepting a fall in aggregate production of 1.8% would only lead to 3.5% GHG emission reduction by 2030. We confirm that a uniform and moderate import tariff imposed by a “club” of countries adopting ambitious and binding policies to fight climate change, against all imports from countries outside of the club, would be effective.
    Keywords: international trade, international transport, greenhouse gas emissions
    Date: 2017–01–30
  5. By: Van de Ree, Kees.
    Abstract: Effectively mainstreaming environmental sustainability in national employment policies calls for increased policy coherence between employment and environmental goals, and policy-oriented research to assess the impact of environmentally friendly technologies and patterns of production and consumption on employment in order to inform and facilitate social dialogue throughout the policy-making process. It also requires solid coordination mechanisms to enable environment and employment actors to work together. This paper documents in detail the type of measures that an increasing number of countries are adopting to promote more and better employment and a just transition to environmental sustainability.
    Keywords: 1, 2, 3, 4
    Date: 2017
  6. By: Vasilev, Aleksandar
    Abstract: This paper characterized optimal fiscal policy - with environmental taxes, and public spending on abatement - in the presence of pollution, and evaluated it relative to the exogenous (observed) one in Bulgaria, an economy with a largely unreformed and polluting industry. The results are evaluated in light of the optimal environmental taxation of dirty production and the optimal spending on abatement, and the effect of those fiscal measures on the utility-enhancing environmental quality. To this end, a dynamic general-equilibrium model is calibrated to Bulgarian data (1999-2016). The main findings from the computational experiments performed are: (i) The optimal steady-state income tax rate is zero; (ii) The benevolent Ramsey planner provides twenty percent higher utility-enhancing environmental quality; (iii) The optimal level of carbon taxes is almost three times higher, and the optimal level of abatement spending is six times higher; (iv) The optimal steady-state consumption tax is twice lower.
    Keywords: Ramsey policy,pollution,environmental tax,environmental quality
    JEL: C68 Q58
    Date: 2018
  7. By: Isabel Mendes
    Abstract: The risk of forest fire in Portugal ranks among the highest in Europe. In recent times, fears have risen over the incidence of major forest fires with a scale and dimension that generate extremely high economic, environmental and social costs. Combatting this type of fire represents a particularly difficult and expensive objective and, in some cases, with a far from desirable level of efficiency. Particularly due to the national context characterised by severe budgetary restrictions, guaranteeing greater effectiveness and efficiency in forest fire prevention and fighting represents core objectives. One of the ways of improving the decision making process involves the monetary estimation of the total costs caused by fires and their respective risk levels, thus the cost of the risk of fire (in the sense of the economic cost calculated from the perspective of society in contrast to the concept of economic cost calculated according to the private ownership perspective) and that includes the probability of the incidence of fire and its propagation and the total cost of the damage that incorporates both the specific social costs, the economic cost and the environmental cost. This working paper holds the objective of contributing towards the conceptual and methodological discussion around this theme.
    Keywords: forest fires; social cost; monetary evaluation; methodology.
    JEL: Q23 Q51
    Date: 2018–02
  8. By: Jaelani, Aan; Firdaus, Slamet; Jumena, Juju
    Abstract: This study confirms that renewable energy sources become the solution for energy development in Indonesia due to the increasingly depleted use of fossil-based energy, due to an increase in the population that increases energy consumption and waste in fuel consumption. The Qur'an has provided simple concepts and illustrations about renewable energy sources that can be utilized by humans, energy conservation, and energy enrichment. With the codification and content analysis approach to energy policy in Indonesia and energy themes in the Qur'an, this paper asserts that the Government of Indonesia's renewable energy policy focuses on providing and developing renewable energy as part of sustainable development. This renewable energy policy can be proven scientifically with the implementation of scientific Qur'anic terms about renewable energy sources such as water, geothermal, ocean, vegetation, and wind. The policy on energy conservation through energy saving becomes a religious obligation for every person, institution, and government because to meet the needs of consumers, maintain the survival of the community, and preserve the environment.
    Keywords: renewable energy, energy conservation, energy efficiency, energy economy
    JEL: Q20 Q28 Q42 Q48 Q58
    Date: 2017–06–01
  9. By: Cleidinaldo de Jesus Barbosa (FACE-UFG); Antonio Marcos de Queiroz (FACE-UFG); Francis Lee Ribeiro (PPAGRO-UFG); José Guilherme Vidal (FACE-UFG)
    Abstract: Payment for environmental services (PSA) has been highlighted as an economic instrument of environmental policy aimed at minimizing and / or recognizing negative and positive externalities, respectively. The objective of this research is to analyze the experience of payment for environmental service for water producers that has been developed next to the Ribeirão Abóbora microbasin, located in the municipality of Rio Verde - GO, in order to identify if the respective experience is aligned with the Economic fundamentals of the environmental policy instrument entitled PES. In this line, the hypothesis is assumed that such experience is, in fact, aligned with the economic fundamentals of an environmental policy instrument called PSA. The following characteristics of the analyzed scheme were identified: voluntary adherence; Indication of at least one environmental service; Payment association to the verification, by means of technical survey, of the provision of environmental service; Existence of conditionality and buyers of the environmental service. In this line, it is corroborated the hypothesis that such experience is aligned with the economic fundamentals of the environmental policy instrument called PSA.
    Keywords: Payment for environmental service, National Water Agency, Water Producer
    JEL: Q1 Q2 P28
    Date: 2017–10
  10. By: Vasilev, Aleksandar
    Abstract: We introduce an environmental dimension into a real-business-cycle model augmented with a detailed government sector. We calibrate the model to Bulgarian data for the period following the introduction of the currency board arrangement (1999-2016). We investigate the quantitative importance of utility-enhancing environmental quality, and the mechanics of environmental ("carbon") tax on polluting production, as well as the effect of government spending on pollution abatement over the cycle. In particular, a positive shock to pollution emission in the model works like a positive technological shock, but its effect is quantitatively very small. Allowing for pollution as a by-product of production improves the model performance against data, and in addition this extended setup dominates the standard RBC model framework, e.g., Vasilev (2009).
    Keywords: Business cycles,pollution,environmental quality,environmental tax,abatement spending
    JEL: E32 C68 Q58
    Date: 2018
  11. By: Omilola, Babatunde; Robele, Sophia
    Abstract: This paper provides a helpful framing to understand both why and how policy attention and investments should be channeled through agriculture and agrifood systems as key vehicles for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It illustrates the ways in which agriculture, particularly within the context of food value chains, is uniquely positioned to holistically address the social, economic, and environmental dimensions of sustainable development because of its existing reach and future potential. In this paper’s examination of the multiplicity of entry points the sector offers for fostering inclusive and sustainable economic growth, reversing harmful environmental trends, and enhancing the resilience of the poorest and most vulnerable populations, it traces some of the most potent pathways for agricultural policies and interventions to accelerate development outcomes across all country contexts.
    Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals; agriculture; poverty; food security; famine; sustainable development; environment; economic development; social change; gender; nutrition; resilience; climate change; agricultural policies; agricultural development,
    Date: 2017
  12. By: Quentin Couix (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper proposes a historical and epistemological account of one of the key controversy between natural resources economics and ecological economics, lasting from early 1970s to the end of 1990s. It shows that the theoretical disagreement on the scope of the economy's dependence to natural resources, such as energy and minerals, has deep methodological roots. On one hand, Solow's and Stiglitz's works are built on a “model-based methodology”, where the model precedes and supports the conceptual foundations of the theory and in particular the assumption of “unbounded resources productivity”. On the other hand, Georgescu-Roegen's counter-assumption of “thermodynamic limits to production”, later revived by Daly, rest on a methodology of “interdisciplinary consistency” which considers thermodynamics as a relevant scientific referent for economic theory. While antagonistic, these two methodologies face similar issues regarding the conceptual foundations that arise from them, which is a source of confusion and of the difficult dialogue between paradigms.
    Keywords: natural resources,thermodynamics,growth,sustainability,model,theory,methodology
    Date: 2018–01
  13. By: Audrey Berry (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - AgroParisTech - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement)
    Abstract: For households, taxing carbon raises the cost of the energy they use to heat their home and to travel. This paper studies the distributional impacts of the recently introduced French carbon tax and the design of compensation measures. Using a microsimulation model built on a representative sample of the French population from 2012, I simulate for each household the taxes levied on its consumption of energy for housing and transport. Without recycling, the carbon tax is regressive and increases fuel poverty. However, I show how compensation measures can offset these impacts. A flat cash transfer offsets tax regressivity by redistributing
    Keywords: Carbon tax,Distributional impacts,Fuel poverty,Revenue recycling,Microsimulation
    Date: 2018–01–23
  14. By: Minh Ha-Duong (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - AgroParisTech - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement); Hoai Son Nguyen (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - AgroParisTech - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement)
    Abstract: Access to clean and affordable energy for all is the seventh sustainable development goal. This manuscript examines the state of access to electricity for all in Vietnam, based on national households’ surveys conducted in the time period 2008-2014. We find that in Vietnam, the problem of providing access to clean energy for all is largely solved for now: the fraction of households without access to electricity is below two percent, the median level of electricity usage in 2014 was 100 kWh per month per household, the fraction of households declaring unsatisfied electricity needs is below three percent. We find that electricity is becoming a heavier burden in Vietnamese households’ finances. In 2010, the electricity bill exceeded 6% of income for 2.4% of households, but in 2014 that number reached 5.5% of households. In practical terms, we discuss the challenge of a socially just increase of electricity tariff, necessary to finance a clean development of energy system. Our theoretical contribution to debates on energy poverty is to account for the human dimension by using a self-reported satisfaction indicator. Our study shows that subjective energy poverty indicators –designed from surveys asking people if they had enough electricity to meet their households needs– are as relevant as objective indicators –from engineering or economic data. While objectivity is laudable, development is not only about technology and money: measuring human satisfaction matters.
    Keywords: Electricity,Vietnam,Sustainable Development Goals,Indicators
    Date: 2018–01–25
  15. By: Lionel Fontagné (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics); Jean Fouré (CEPII - Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales - Centre d'analyse stratégique)
    Abstract: S’il constitue une avancée, l’Accord de Paris, entré en vigueur en novembre 2016, pose un certain nombre de questions, notamment quant à la responsabilité « commune mais différenciée » – qui se traduit par des engagements très variables d’un pays signataire à l’autre –, mais aussi concernant l’articulation entre politique climatique et politique commerciale. Pour réduire les émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES), une politique commerciale ferait-elle mieux qu’une politique climatique ? À défaut, pourrait-elle inciter à des engagements plus ambitieux de réduction des émissions ? Cette Lettre montre, à partir de simulations d’un modèle dynamique de l’économie mondiale développé au CEPII, que la politique commerciale seule n’est pas un bon outil pour limiter les émissions de CO2, mais qu’elle peut venir compléter une politique plus ambitieuse.
    Keywords: gaz à effet de serre, protectionnisme, commerce international,climat
    Date: 2017–01–25
  16. By: Wilson Dos Santos Rocha; Maria Salvetti
    Keywords: Environment - Water Resources Management Water Resources - Water Policy & Governance Water Supply and Sanitation - Water Supply and Sanitation Economics Water Supply and Sanitation - Water Supply and Sanitation Governance and Institutions Water Supply and Sanitation - Water Supply and Sanitation Policy, Legislation and Regulation
    Date: 2017–08
  17. By: Antonello Zanfei (Department of Economics, Society & Politics, Università di Urbino "Carlo Bo"); Giovanni Marin (Department of Economics, Society & Politics, Università di Urbino "Carlo Bo")
    Abstract: TThis paper evaluates the effect of host-country environmental policy stringency on the offshoring of environmental patents for 2000 top world R&D performers. It is shown that a more stringent environmental regulation triggers both the extensive and intensive margin of patent offshoring in the field of environmental technologies. Results are robust to various different specifications, alternative definitions of innovation offshoring and of regulation restrictions, and to the consideration of possible endogeneity of regulation. It is suggested inter alia that R&D subsidies and non-market based regulatory measures are more important than market-based instruments as drivers of cross-border environmental innovation
    Keywords: MNE, environmental policy, patent data
    JEL: F10 F23 O33 Q55
    Date: 2018
  18. By: Dipak Dasgupta; Etienne Espagne (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - AgroParisTech - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement); Jean Charles Hourcade (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - AgroParisTech - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement); Irving Mintzer (JHU - Johns Hopkins University); Seyni Nafo; Baptiste Perrissin Fabert (CGDD - Commissariat Général au Développement Durable - Ministère de l'Ecologie, du Développement Durable, des Transports et du Logement); Nick Robins; Alfredo Sirkis
    Keywords: Paris Agreement,COP 21,Climate finance
    Date: 2018–01–25
  19. By: Minh Ha-Duong (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - AgroParisTech - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement)
    Abstract: Survivre au froid en hiver et au chaud en été sont des besoins humains essentiels, tout comme manger cuit dans un air intérieur libre de fumée. L’objectif de développement durable « Accès à une énergie propre et abordable pour tous » reconnaît ainsi un droit à l’énergie comme une juste exigence universelle. Mais le garantir au quotidien pour sept milliards de contemporains soulève des questions pratiques : Les pays en développement ont ils le droit d’utiliser les énergies fossiles comme l’ont fait les pays riches ? Comment définir et repérer les ménages en situation de précarité énergétique, et comment les aider ? Ce texte propose quelques réponses concrètes, qui s’appuient sur le cas d’un pays riche la France, et d’un pays à revenu intermédiaire le Vietnam.
    Date: 2018–01–25
  20. By: Paolo Avner (The World Bank - The World Bank - The World Bank); Shomik Raj Mehndiratta (The World Bank - The World Bank - The World Bank); Vincent Viguie (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - AgroParisTech - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement); Stéphane Hallegatte (The World Bank - The World Bank - The World Bank)
    Date: 2018–01–29
  21. By: Gabriel E. Lade (Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD)); Sebastien Pouliot (Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD)); Bruce A. Babcock
    Abstract: An understanding of several technical and economic factors is needed to understand the current discussions about the RFS and E15. Here we briefly discuss how the EPA could implement a RIN price cap. We then summarize how fuel content restrictions currently limit year-round sales of mid-ethanol blend fuels. Last, we summarize the role of RINs in incentivizing consumption of high ethanol-blend fuels.
    Date: 2018–03
  22. By: Grafström, Jonas (The Ratio Institute)
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to investigate the presence of convergence (or divergence) of invention efforts per capita in the renewable energy field across European Union (EU) countries. Divergence may imply a risk of a lower level of goal fulfilment regarding the share of renewable energy in the EU energy mix. This is due to free-rider issues and sub-optimal investment levels, in turn making it more expensive and cumbersome to expand renewable energy production. Convergence suggests a possible faster renewable energy goal achievement. The econometric analysis is based on patent application counts per capita for 13 EU Member States over the time period 1990–2012. The methods used draw on the economic convergence literature. First, we rely on a panel data set to test for conditional β-convergence. Moreover, a distributional dynamics approach is employed to test for σ- and γ-convergence, and analyse the intra-distributional dynamics. The results indicate conditional β- and σ-divergence in renewable energy invention capabilities across the 13 countries, thus suggesting that some EU countries tend to free-ride on the development efforts of other Member States.
    Keywords: convergence; divergence; renewable energy development; patent counts; EU
    JEL: O30 O40 O44
    Date: 2017–12–04
  23. By: OECD
    Abstract: This paper sets out essential facts about the economic case for water-related investment and the financing gap. It charts a series of actions to better value water and ultimately facilitate investment at a scale commensurate with the commitments of the global community.
    Date: 2018–03–16
  24. By: Priscila Casari (PPE/FACE/UFG); Felipe Silva Domiciano (FACE/UFG)
    Abstract: This work aims to analyze the externalities generated by agriculture and the public policies related to the problem in the State of Goiás. For this, a literature review on agriculture in the State, the externalities to the environment and society, and the policies and solutions for the control of the same was made. The main negative externalitites arising from agriculture in the State of Goiás are the rampant deflorestation to create pastures and crops, the erosion caused by mismanagement of soil, the contamination of water resources and living beings by pesticides, and the increasing inequality arising from the growth of agribusiness. The current policies are, mostly, command and control, and due to lack of supervision and high deployment costs, are not effective in the control of externalities.
    Keywords: Goiás. Agriculture. Externalities.
    JEL: Q50 D62
    Date: 2016–12
  25. By: Axelrod, David
    Abstract: This paper describes how the discount rate used in present value calculations expresses the preference for sustainability in decision making, and its implication for sustainable economic growth. In essence, the lower the discount rate, the greater the regard for the future, and the more likely we choose behaviors that lead to long-term sustainability. The theoretical framework combines behavioral economics and holonomics, which involve limitations of regard for the future due to constraints on processing uncertainty. An alternative formulation for present value calculations, which includes a survival function, is developed. A taxonomy of institutions based on discount rate is proposed.
    Keywords: Discount Rate, Regard, Sustainability, Present Value, Holonomics, Certainty, Behavioral Economics
    JEL: B59 D03 D81 D9
    Date: 2017–07
  26. By: Najib Ahmad Marzuki (School of Applied Psychology, Social Work and Policy, Universiti Utara Malaysia Author-2-Name: Che Su Mustaffa Author-2-Workplace-Name: School of Multimedia Technology and Communication, Universiti Utara Malaysia Author-3-Name: Mohd Sukeri Khalid Author-3-Workplace-Name: School of Government, Universiti Utara Malaysia)
    Abstract: Objective – The study seeks to determine the relationship between psychosocial factors, namely social support, impression management and emotional factors (stress, anxiety and depression), with quality of life among flood victims. The Conservation of Resources Stress Approach Model and The Social Support Deterioration Model suggest that quality of life is dependent upon these psychosocial factors. Methodology/Technique – The cross-sectional study examined 1300 flood victims in flood prone areas in Malaysia. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, The Bolino and Turnley Impression Management Scale and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale questionnaires were used to measure the psychosocial factors, while The WHO Quality of Life instrument was used to measure quality of life. The results were analysed using Pearson Correlations. Findings – The findings demonstrate that, in general, psychosocial factors are associated with quality of life. Social support dimensions and emotional factor dimensions were significantly correlated with quality of life. In addition, two dimensions of impression management were correlated with quality of life. The findings are consistent with the psychosocial theory that implies an overall relationship between the variables studied. Novelty – This study suggests that there is much to be done in terms of community flood education in Malaysia, as well as training for emergency aid providers to decrease the likelihood of negative effects of psychosocial factors on individuals' quality of life. A psychosocial support programme is recommended to enhance overall quality of life for flood victims.
    Keywords: Psychosocial; Social Support; Impression Management; Stress; Anxiety; Depression; Quality of Life
    JEL: I30 I31
    Date: 2017–12–22
  27. By: Anugerah Yuka Asmara (Researcher of Science-Technology-Innovation Policy at Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) Master Student of Public Administration and Policy at University of Indonesia (UI))
    Abstract: "Objective – This empirical paper aims to describe what action the Government of Indonesia is taking to provide alternative energy sources, such as solar cells, biomass, wind energy, ocean energy, and other renewable energy (RE) sources. Methodology/Technique – The method of analysis used in this study consists of an individual factor, a contextual factor, an external factor, an organizational factor, and a political factor. Findings – The results show that the role of street level bureaucrats in implementing RE policy in Indonesia is influenced by legal regulation and specific values in internal organizations, created by themselves. Novelty – The study highlights that street-level bureaucrats in Dirjen-EBTKE have a discretion when introducing and implementing new RE programs. The paper involves qualitative research by providing descriptive data through a case study"
    Keywords: Role; Street-Level Bureaucrats; Renewable Energy; Policy; Indonesia.
    JEL: P40 P48 P59
    Date: 2017–12–26
  28. By: Mamingi, Nlandu (University of the West Indies, Cave Hill, Department of Economics); Maurin, Alain (Laboratoire d’Economie Appliquée au Développement (LEAD), Université des Antilles, U.F.R des Sciences Juridiques et Economiques, Campus de Fouillole); Montauban, Jean-Gabriel (Laboratoire d’Economie Appliquée au Développement (LEAD), Université des Antilles, U.F.R des Sciences Juridiques et Economiques, Campus de Fouillole)
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to derive the total economic value of Welchman Hall Gully, a tourist site which contributes in its own right to the economic prosperity of Barbados. The objective is achieved through the derivation of use and non-use values of the amenity. Despite its limitations, contingent valuation method (CVM) is of interest to derive such values. The data for analysis come from a well-crafted CVM survey. Using statistical tools and Tobit modelling, the paper finds that the additional annual use value could reach BDS$45,924.00 or US$22,962.00 and the yearly non-use value could be BDS$72,765.00. Taking the present entrance fees into account, the total undiscounted economic value of the site could reach BDS$289,289.00. Income size, love for the environment, gender and level of education positively affect willingness to pay for an additional entrance fee. Gender, age and membership in a non-governmental organization, sensibly affect willingness to contribute to a fund for the preservation of the site. The results of the valuation coupled with cost information can motivate the manager of the site in identifying policy or mechanisms by which the site can be maintained and/or improved owing to smart use of funds generated from the utilization of the site.
    Keywords: Welchman Hall Gully; private provision of public good; environmental good; Tobit model; contingent valuation method (CVM)
    JEL: C24 O54 Q26
    Date: 2017–05–15
  29. By: Jorge Alcalde-Unzu (Public University of Navarre, Department of Economics.); Maria Gomez-Rua (University of Vigo, Department of Statistics and Operations Research.); Elena Molis (Department of Economic Theory and Economic History, University of Granada.)
    Abstract: We model a river as a segment divided into subsegments, each occupied by one region, from upstream to downstream. The waste is transferred from one region to the next at some rate t. Given that t may be unknown, Alcalde-Unzu et al. (2015) proposed the UR method to allocate the costs of cleaning a river in which each region pays the responsibility that it would have if t was its expected value. We prove in this paper that this allocation di ers from the expected responsibility of each region and propose and characterize a new solution, the EUR, that assigns to each region precisely its expected responsibility. We show that although this new solution improves the estimation of responsibilities, there is a trade-o in terms of incentive compatibility: meanwhile with the EUR solution it is possible that a region can reduce the cost allocated to it by discharging more waste, this could not happen with the UR. Moreover, the UR solution is, between the ones that do not have this problem in a general family, the solution that minimizes the bias with respect to the EUR.
    Keywords: Cost allocation; waste river; responsibility; incentive compatibility; characterization
    JEL: C71 D61
    Date: 2018–03–04

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