nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2018‒02‒12
29 papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. The Status of Climate Policy Integration in EU Energy Policy By Claudia Kettner-Marx; Daniela Kletzan-Slamanig
  2. Ефекат стакленика, глобално загревање и Кјотски протокол By Bukvić, Rajko
  3. To build or not to build? Capital stocks and climate policy By Elizabeth Baldwin, Yongyang Cai, Karlygash Kuralbayeva
  4. Regulating Mismeasured Pollution: Implications of Firm Heterogeneity for Environmental Policy By Eva Lyubich; Joseph S. Shapiro; Reed Walker
  5. Climate policy with tied hands optimal resource taxation under implementation lags By di Maria, C.; Smulders, Sjak; van der Werf, E.H.
  6. Stakeholder Views on Interactions between Low-carbon Policies and Carbon Markets in China: Lessons from the Guangdong ETS By Jiang, M.; Liang, X.; Reiner, D.; Lin, B.
  7. Climate Policy Integration at the National and Regional Level. A Case Study for Austria and Styria By Claudia Kettner-Marx; Daniela Kletzan-Slamanig
  8. Efficiency of sustainability management in Bulgarian agriculture By Bachev, Hrabrin
  9. When does a disaster become a systemic event? Estimating indirect economic losses from natural disasters By Sebastian Poledna; Stefan Hochrainer-Stigler; Michael Gregor Miess; Peter Klimek; Stefan Schmelzer; Johannes Sorger; Elena Shchekinova; Elena Rovenskaya; JoAnne Linnerooth-Bayer; Ulf Dieckmann; Stefan Thurner
  10. EU-Energieeffizienzpolitik: Wie eine kostengünstigere Dekarbonisierung gelingen könnte By Tischler, Benjamin
  11. Intellectual property rights protection and the international transfer of low-carbon technologies By Damien Dussaux, Antoine Dechezlepretre, Matthieu Glachant
  12. Temperature, Climate Change, and Mental Health: Evidence from the Spectrum of Mental Health Outcomes By Jamie Mullins; Corey White
  13. Governance, Science–Policy Interfaces, Societal Organisation and the Transition to an Ecosystemic Model of Culture By Pilon, André Francisco
  14. Proportional Allocation of Resources under Climate Change By Sang-Chul Suh; Yuntong Wang
  15. Energy savings through foreign acquisitions? Evidence from Indonesian manufacturing plants By Arlan Brucal, Inessa Love, Beata Javorcik
  16. The EU-Wide Individual Farm Model for Common Agricultural Policy Analysis (IFM-CAP v.1): Economic Impacts of CAP Greening By Kamel Elouhichi; Maria Espinosa Goded; Pavel Ciaian; Angel Perni Llorente; Bouda Vosough Ahmadi; Liesbeth Colen; Sergio Gomez Y Paloma
  17. Understanding interpersonal violence: the impact of temperatures in Mexico By Francois Cohen, Fidel Gonzalez
  18. Modelisation of the French forest Sector By Antonello Lobianco
  19. Minerals and Metals to Meet the Needs of a Low-Carbon Economy By Kirsten Lori Hund; Daniele La Porta; John Drexhage
  20. Failures of the national policy for sustainable development of Bulgaria – economic dimensions By Nozharov, Shteryo; Koralova, Petya
  21. Weather and crime in South Africa By Bruederle, Anna; Peters, Jörg; Roberts, Gareth
  22. Rainfall Inequality, Political Power, and Ethnic Conflict in Africa By Andrea Guariso; Thorsten Rogall
  23. Natural Resources and Political Patronage in Africa: An Ethnicity Level Analysis By Nemera Mamo; Sambit Bhattacharyya
  24. Interpreting sustainable development goals for 2030: implications for Malawi By Chirwa, Themba
  25. Le changement climatique et les entreprises : enjeux, espaces d’action, régulations internationales By Franck Aggeri; Mélodie Cartel
  26. Natural disasters and governmental aid: Is there a charity hazard? By Andor, Mark; Osberghaus, Daniel; Simora, Michael
  27. Case Study—SISAR Ceará, Brazil By Wilson Dos Santos Rocha; Maria Salvetti
  28. Willingness to Pay for Government-Certified Agri-Products in South Korea By Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Kim, KyungJa
  29. Case Study—Chimoio, Manica, and Gondola, Mozambique By Dinis Juízo; Maria Salvetti

  1. By: Claudia Kettner-Marx (WIFO); Daniela Kletzan-Slamanig (WIFO)
    Abstract: The integration of climate policy concerns in other policy areas, where decisions are taken that determine greenhouse gas emissions, is a prerequisite for effectively mitigating climate change. There are particularly strong interlinkages between energy policy and climate policy as the major part of greenhouse gas emissions is related to energy supply and use. In this paper we initially compile a set of seven indicators for assessing climate policy integration (political commitment, actors, functional overlap, time perspective, weighting and resources, policy instruments, and emission impact). We then apply the criteria for an appraisal of climate policy integration in EU energy policy during the last decade, i.e., we focus on CPI from a horizontal perspective. The focus of our research lies on strategic energy policy documents, on the one hand, and on the comparison of four key energy policy documents in the context of the 2016 Winter Package to existing legislation, on the other. Our results show that mitigation of climate change is a key objective in all energy policy documents analysed. Furthermore, EU legislative processes ensure a comprehensive involvement of all stakeholders. The energy policy objectives regarding renewable energy and energy efficiency are synergetic and reinforcing with climate policy. It has to be noted, however, that other energy policy documents, like the Energy Security Strategy, contain conflicting issues and the proposed recasts of existing legislation reduce preferential treatment for renewables.
    Keywords: climate policy, energy policy, climate policy integration, European Union
    Date: 2018–02–01
  2. By: Bukvić, Rajko
    Abstract: Serbian. У раду се разматра проблем стакленичких гасова (СГ), и акције и механизми за смањење њихове емисије. Емисија таквих гасова, пре свега угљен-диоксида, сматра се за један од главних антропогених узрока раста концентрације угљеника у атмосфери, и последично глобалних климатских промена. Од времена Индустријске револуције емисија СГ у атмосферу достигла је 300 гигатона угљеника. Борба с атмосферским загађењем до сада је ишла у три правца: административно регулисање, систем економских механизама и формирање тржишних односа. У другој половини 20. века за решавање проблема предложене су многе шеме стварања тржишног механизма, који се сматра повољнијим у више праваца. Ти напори посебно су се увећали у последњој деценији 20. века, и најзад је Кјотски протокол 1997. године подржао неколико такозваних еластичних механизама: трговина квотама (квотирање и трговина), пројекти заједничког остваривања и механизми чистог развоја, који су били разрађени 2001. године у Маракешу. Али, без обзира на све те напоре, током првог периода њихове примене (2008–2012) емисије угљеника у атмосферу су порасле. Данас се светско тржиште угљеника креће ка развоју националних, регионалних и субрегионалних система регулисања, али уз очување међународног сегмента (системи ОКИК ОУН). Конференција у Дохи 2012. године допунила је и прецизирала услове у којима ће Стране Конвенције изграђивати своју климатску политику у следећим годинама. Водећа тенденција (пренос акцената на регионалне, субрегионалне и националне системе регулисања) је сачувана, али сачуван је и „кјотски” систем, који ће у новој етапи имати улогу прелазног на путу ка новом очекиваном глобалном споразуму. English. This article considers the problem of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and actions and mechanisms for its reduction. Emissions of the GHG are observed as one of the main anthropogenic causes of the increasing carbon concentration in the atmosphere, and consequently the global climate change. Until the Industrial Revolution, the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere amounted to 300 gigatonnes of carbon. The fight against atmosphere pollution goes in three directions: administrative regulations, a system of economic mechanisms and market relations building. In the second half of the XX century many schemes for involving the market mechanism in solving these problems were proposed. These efforts especially increased in the last decade of XX century and finally the Kyoto Protocol 1997 supported many flexible mechanisms (trade of quotas – cap and trade, joint implementation projects and clean development mechanisms), as a solution to these problems, which was explained in 2001 in Marrakesh. In spite of all these efforts, during the first period of its implementation (2008–2012) the emissions of carbon increased. Today, the world “carbon” market is moving to the development of national, regional and subregional regulation systems while keeping its international level (system UNFCCC). The Doha Conference held in 2012 precised the conditions upon which the convention parties would define its climate policies in the next years. The leading tendency (transition to regional, subregional and national regulation systems) was maintained, as well as the “Kyoto” system, which in the new stage would play a transitional role on the road to a new expected global agreement.
    Keywords: ефекат стакленика, стакленички гасови (СГ), емисије CO2, антропогени утицаји, Кјотски протокол, тржишта угљеника, еластични механизми greenhouse effect, greenhouse gases (GHG), emissions of CO2, anthropogenic impact, the Kyoto Protocol, carbon markets, flexible mechanisms
    JEL: H23 K32 L50 L51 Q53 Q56
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Elizabeth Baldwin, Yongyang Cai, Karlygash Kuralbayeva
    Abstract: We investigate how irreversibility in “dirty” and “clean” capital stocks affects optimal climate policy, from both theoretical and numerical perspectives. An increasing carbon tax will reduce investments in assets that pollute, and so reduce emissions in the short term: our “irreversibility effect”. As such the “Green Paradox” has a converse if we focus on demand side capital stock effects. We also show that the optimal subsidy increases with the deployment rate: our “acceleration effect”. Considering second-best settings, we show that, although carbon taxes achieve stringent targets more efficiently, in fact renewable subsidies deliver higher welfare when policy is more mild.
    Date: 2018–01
  4. By: Eva Lyubich; Joseph S. Shapiro; Reed Walker
    Abstract: This paper provides the first estimates of within-industry heterogeneity in energy and CO2 productivity for the entire U.S. manufacturing sector. We measure energy and CO2 productivity as output per dollar energy input or per ton CO2 emitted. Three findings emerge. First, within narrowly defined industries, heterogeneity in energy and CO2 productivity across plants is enormous. Second, heterogeneity in energy and CO2 productivity exceeds heterogeneity in most other productivity measures, like labor or total factor productivity. Third, heterogeneity in energy and CO2 productivity has important implications for environmental policies targeting industries rather than plants, including technology standards and carbon border adjustments.
    JEL: F18 H23 Q56
    Date: 2018–01
  5. By: di Maria, C. (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management); Smulders, Sjak (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management); van der Werf, E.H. (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management)
    Abstract: In the presence of implementation lags, announced Pigouvian taxation leads to fossil fuel prices that are too low from society’s perspective. This results in excessive emissions and reduced incentives for green innovation. Such effects are compounded by the presence of pre-existing subsidies to fossil fuel use. We show that the intertemporal resource tax path may need to be modified to optimally take into account the perverse incentives from policy lags and pre-existing policies. We find that it might be optimal to subsidize, rather than tax resource extraction at the instant of implementation.
    Date: 2017
  6. By: Jiang, M.; Liang, X.; Reiner, D.; Lin, B.
    Abstract: China set up pilot Emission Trading Schemes (ETS) in seven cities and provinces from 2013 as a new instrument to incentivise carbon dioxide emission reduction and to reach its 40-45% carbon intensity reduction target by 2020. Using a two-stage survey (a closed-form questionnaire followed by open interviews), we elicit views of stakeholders from Guangdong province on carbon markets, with an emphasis on how ETS would interact with other existing or proposed low-carbon and clean energy policies. Our survey shows that academic stakeholders viewed the interactions between the carbon market and other lowcarbon policies as a significant potential problem but there was less awareness by stakeholders from other sectors. There is a positive correlation between recognising such policy interactions may pose a problem and the time spent working on energy saving and emission reduction policies. Whereas both increasing renewable targets and imposing a carbon tax in addition to an existing ETS would be expected to depress prices in the ETS, relatively few respondents identified this effect correctly. Apart from government respondents, all other stakeholders lacked confidence in China's carbon markets, which is associated with both their lack of knowledge and information about the market and concerns regarding uncertainties and government policy design. The need for learning from the pilot schemes particularly on monitoring, reporting and verification was seen as vital but challenging given the speed of rolling out a national ETS.
    Keywords: Emissions trading, China, Carbon pricing; Guangdong ETS pilot; Stakeholder survey; Climate change policy; Low-carbon policy interactions
    JEL: H23 Q58 N45 Q48 Q54
    Date: 2018–02–05
  7. By: Claudia Kettner-Marx (WIFO); Daniela Kletzan-Slamanig (WIFO)
    Abstract: In order to limit climate change the cross-cutting nature of climate policy needs to be recognised. Many climate-relevant decisions are taken in other policy areas with only little regard to climate change impacts. In order for climate policy to be successful it has to be integrated in decision making and legislative processes in basically all policy areas and all levels of government. In this paper we analyse the extent of climate policy integration in Austrian policy-making via in-depth expert interviews, both on the federal level as well as on the regional level using Styria as case study. The results show a broad range of perceptions regarding the degree of climate policy integration in Austria. On the one hand, the consideration of climate policy issues depends on the core competence of the respective institution. On the other hand, we found widely diverging views on whether climate policy in Austria is too ambitious or too weak. Especially, potential negative impacts of climate policy on competitiveness or employment are seen to hamper a more ambitious implementation of mitigation policies. Cooperation on climate policy issues is generally rated as good by the interviewees from administration and interest groups, but conflicts of interest that result from the organisations' core functions negatively impact on the perceived quality of cooperation. In case of conflicting targets it is widely noticed that "traditional" policy objectives like employment or competitiveness are given priority over climate issues.
    Keywords: climate policy, energy policy, climate policy integration, European Union
    Date: 2018–02–01
  8. By: Bachev, Hrabrin
    Abstract: This paper applies a holistic framework for assessing efficiency of environmental and sustainability management in Bulgarian agriculture. Initially the multiprinciple, multictiteria and mulriindicator framework for assessing environmental and sustainability management in agriculture is outlined. After that environmental sustainability of Bulgarian agriculture at national and farms levels is evaluated. Finally, factors for improving environmental and sustainability management in agricultural farms in the country are identified. Our assessment at national and farm level have found out that there are significant discrepancies in efficiency levels based on aggregate national data and assessment (perception) of farm managers. Therefore, in management practices all kind of data have to be used in order to be able to take efficient decision at different managerial levels. Having in mind the importance of holistic assessments of efficiency of environmental and sustainability management in agriculture, and the enormous benefits for the farm management and agrarian policies, such studies are to be expended and their precision and representation increased.
    Keywords: environmental management, efficiency, sustainability, Bulgarian agriculture
    JEL: Q1 Q12 Q13 Q18 Q2 Q3 Q5
    Date: 2018–01
  9. By: Sebastian Poledna; Stefan Hochrainer-Stigler; Michael Gregor Miess; Peter Klimek; Stefan Schmelzer; Johannes Sorger; Elena Shchekinova; Elena Rovenskaya; JoAnne Linnerooth-Bayer; Ulf Dieckmann; Stefan Thurner
    Abstract: Reliable estimates of indirect economic losses arising from natural disasters are currently out of scientific reach. To address this problem, we propose a novel approach that combines a probabilistic physical damage catastrophe model with a new generation of macroeconomic agent-based models (ABMs). The ABM moves beyond the state of the art by exploiting large data sets from detailed national accounts, census data, and business information, etc., to simulate interactions of millions of agents representing \emph{each} natural person or legal entity in a national economy. The catastrophe model introduces a copula approach to assess flood losses, considering spatial dependencies of the flood hazard. These loss estimates are used in a damage scenario generator that provides input for the ABM, which then estimates indirect economic losses due to the event. For the first time, we are able to link environmental and economic processes in a computer simulation at this level of detail. We show that moderate disasters induce comparably small but positive short- to medium-term, and negative long-term economic impacts. Large-scale events, however, trigger a pronounced negative economic response immediately after the event and in the long term, while exhibiting a temporary short- to medium-term economic boost. We identify winners and losers in different economic sectors, including the fiscal consequences for the government. We quantify the critical disaster size beyond which the resilience of an economy to rebuild reaches its limits. Our results might be relevant for the management of the consequences of systemic events due to climate change and other disasters.
    Date: 2018–01
  10. By: Tischler, Benjamin
    Abstract: Auf EU-Ebene nehmen neue Gesetzesvorschläge für eine "saubere Energiepolitik" Form an. Es wird aktuell über die verstärkte Reduzierung von CO2-Emissionen sowie EU-weite Energieverbrauchsziele und daraus abzuleitende, nationale Energieeffizienzziele und -maßnahmen bis 2030 diskutiert. Doch was passiert, wenn die Zielvorgaben widersprüchlich werden und sich gegenseitig untergraben? Ein restriktives Energieverbrauchsziel kann zum großen Hindernis für die Erreichung des energie- und klimapolitischen Oberziels einer kostengünstigen Dekarbonisierung des Energiesystems werden. In den EU ETS Sektoren können falsch designte wirtschaftspolitische Instrumente zur Steigerung der Energieeffizienz eine möglichst kostengünstige Dekarbonisierung verhindern. In Sektoren außerhalb des EU ETS können Energieeffizienzziele und entsprechende wirtschaftspolitische Maßnahmen aber einen sinnvollen Beitrag leisten. Instrumente zur Steigerung der Energieeffizienz sollten darauf abzielen die technische Energieeffizienz zu verbessern. Vor diesem Hintergrund muss die Konzeption von Zielgrößen und Instrumenten verbessert werden. Die bisher verwendeten makroökonomischen Kennzahlen 'Energieeffizienz' beziehungsweise 'Energieintensität' sind als einfache politische Ziele ungenügend und verleiten zu falschen Schlüssen bezüglich des Erfolgs der eingesetzten wirtschaftspolitischen Instrumente. Die Kennzahlen müssen entscheidend verbessert werden zum Beispiel durch Berücksichtigung von Faktoren wie Konjunktur und Wirtschaftswachstum, dem Anteil von Erneuerbaren Energien oder dem von energieintensiven und weniger energieintensiven Branchen. Auch eine bessere Datenbasis ist vonnöten.
    JEL: Q52 Q58
    Date: 2018
  11. By: Damien Dussaux, Antoine Dechezlepretre, Matthieu Glachant
    Abstract: We examine the effect of intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection on the two main channels of international transfer of low-carbon technologies i.e. trade in low-carbon capital goods, and foreign direct investments (FDI) by firms producing low-carbon technologies. Our data describes cross-country transfer through these channels between developing and developed countries in eight climate-related technology fields from 2001 to 2011. At the world level, we find that strengthening IPRs protection increases transfer in six technology fields (hydro power, solar PV, solar thermal, heating, lighting, and cleaner vehicles), while the effect is statistically insignificant in the others. The results slightly change when focusing on non-OECD countries. In particular, we find that a stricter IPRs regime may reduce their imports of solar equipment. These results have important implications for climate negotiations on North-South technology transfer.
    Date: 2018–01
  12. By: Jamie Mullins (Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst); Corey White (Department of Economics, California Polytechnic State University)
    Abstract: This paper characterizes the link between ambient temperatures and a broad set of mental health measures. We find that the realization of low temperatures leads to fewer self-reported days of poor mental health, fewer mental-health related emergency department visits, and fewer suicides. Conversely, exposure to more hot days is associated with more days of self-reported poor mental health, more mental health-related emergency department visits, and higher rates of suicide. We consider the efficacy of a number of potential mitigating factors including access to mental health services and residential penetration of air conditioning, among others. We find that the identified relationship is insensitive to all considered modulating factors and has not moderated over time, suggesting a lack of effective adaptation. We offer evidence for sleep quality as the mechanism by which temperatures impact mental health and discuss the implications of our findings in light of climate change.
    Keywords: Mental Health, Weather, Climate, Suicide, Health
    JEL: I10 I12 I18 Q50 Q51 Q54
    Date: 2018
  13. By: Pilon, André Francisco
    Abstract: The ecosystemic approach favours the development of healthy societies, that invest in each other rather than in mega-projects with intensive use of resources, it extends to environmental problems, quality of life and the state of the world a larger conceptual framework that includes ontological and epistemological issues, in view of the isomorphy and transfers of concepts, laws and models in various fields; it relates to how taken for granted worldviews, values and perceptions affect the definition and treatment of the problems by public policies, research and teaching programmes in the contemporary world.
    Keywords: Public Policies, Ecosystems, Education, Ethics, Economics
    JEL: I0 I2 I25 I28 I3 O21 Q5 Q56 Q57 Q58
    Date: 2018–01–28
  14. By: Sang-Chul Suh (Department of Economics, University of Windsor); Yuntong Wang (Department of Economics, University of Windsor)
    Abstract: The global economy under climate change is represented by countries, each of whom owns a technology that emits GHGs to produce output and privately owns a certain amount of permits. The permits are treated as the only input that is perfectly transferable among the countries, unlike regular factor inputs such as labor or capital. First, we axiomatically characterize a series of solutions called the proportional solutions. We hypothetically separate countries into two groups, permit contributors and technology contributors, and identify solutions under which countries receive rewards systematically according to the two types of contribution they provide (Separation Principle). Two other main axioms (NART and NARP), saying that no group of countries benefit from rearranging their contributions of technologies or permits among themselves, are used in characterizing the proportional solutions. Second, we introduce another axiom called Voluntary Participation to the solutions of sharing the surplus produced beyond the autarky economy output. This addition of Voluntary Participation leads to an interesting result; the surplus must be shared equally between the two groups, the permit (input) contributors and technology contributors. Hence the equal share proportional solution is uniquely characterized.
    Keywords: Proportional Solution, Pollution Permits, Axioms, Voluntary Participation, Separation Principle
    JEL: D51 D63 D71 F51 Q54
    Date: 2018–02
  15. By: Arlan Brucal, Inessa Love, Beata Javorcik
    Abstract: The link between foreign ownership and environmental performance remains a controversial issue. This paper contributes to our understanding of this subject by analyzing the impact of for- eign acquisitions on plant-level energy intensity. The analysis applies a difference-in-differences approach combined with propensity score matching to the data from the Indonesian Manufac- turing Census for the period 1983-2001. It covers 210 acquisition cases where an acquired plant is observed two years before and at least three years after an ownership change and for which a carefully selected control plant exists. The results suggest that while foreign ownership increases the overall energy usage due to expansion of output, it decreases the plant's energy intensity. Specifically, compared to plants that remained domestic, acquired plants reduce energy inten- sity by about 30% two years after acquisition. In contrast, foreign divestments tend to increase energy intensity. At the aggregate level, we find that entry of foreign-owned plants is associated with industry-wide reduction in energy intensity.
    Date: 2018–01
  16. By: Kamel Elouhichi (European Commission - JRC); Maria Espinosa Goded (; Pavel Ciaian (; Angel Perni Llorente (; Bouda Vosough Ahmadi (European Commission - JRC); Liesbeth Colen (European Commission - JRC); Sergio Gomez Y Paloma (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: This report presents the first EU-wide individual farm level model (IFM-CAP) aiming to assess the impacts of CAP towards 2020 on farm economics and environmental effects. The rationale for such a farm-level model is based on the increasing demand for a micro simulation tool capable to model farm-specific policies and to capture farm heterogeneity across the EU in terms of policy representation and impacts. Based on Positive Mathematical Programming, IFM-CAP seeks to improve the quality of policy assessment upon existing aggregate and aggregated farm-group models and to provide assessment of distributional effects over the EU farm population. To guarantee the highest representativeness of the EU agricultural sector, the model is applied to every EU-FADN (Farm Accountancy Data Network) individual farm (83292 farms). The report provides a detailed description of the first IFM-CAP model version (IFM-CAP V.1) in terms of design, mathematical structure, data preparation, modelling livestock activities, allocation of input costs, modelling of the CAP post-2013 and calibration process. The theoretical background, the technical specification and the outputs that can be generated from this model are also briefly presented and discussed. Model capability is illustrated in this study with an analysis of the EU farmers' responses to the greening requirements introduced by the 2013 CAP reform.
    Keywords: Common Agricultural Policy, CAP greening, farm model, positive mathematical programming model, EU, IFM-CAP
    Date: 2018–01
  17. By: Francois Cohen, Fidel Gonzalez
    Abstract: We estimate the effect of temperature on criminality in Mexico and question conventional wisdom that high temperatures impact human psychology. Using high-frequency data, we find a linear effect of temperatures on criminality, inconsistent with the belief that only high temperatures cause disturbances. A significant share of weather-related crimes can be explained by higher alcohol consumption (9%) and changes in time allocation during weekends (17%). Also 28% of weather related crimes are committed at night, and temperatures are mild, and a third is driven by short term displacements, causing no additional victims.
    Date: 2018–01
  18. By: Antonello Lobianco (LEF - Laboratoire d'Economie Forestière - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AgroParisTech)
    Abstract: Given the importance of anthropogenic determinants in forest ecosystems within Europe, the objective of the FFSM++ model is to link the evidence arising from biological models with socio-economic determinants, where the expected returns of forest investments represent the main drivers. An (inventory-based) forest dynamic model is hence coupled with a (partial equilibrium) market module and a (micro-based) management one in a national level forest sector model for France (FFSM++).
    Keywords: forest model sector,modélisation filière bois
    Date: 2016–11–21
  19. By: Kirsten Lori Hund; Daniele La Porta; John Drexhage
    Keywords: Energy - Electric Power Energy - Energy and Environment Energy - Energy and Mining Energy - Solar Energy Energy - Windpower Environment - Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases Industry - Mining & Extractive Industry (Non-Energy)
    Date: 2017–09
  20. By: Nozharov, Shteryo; Koralova, Petya
    Abstract: Bulgaria is a member of the EU since 2007. The country has issues with its economic policy, which issues could have negative impact over the EU’s policies as a whole. When the economic policy of a Member State is blemished by a systematic strategic misconceptions, it is necessary this to be analysed in depth. The debate, about the future of the EU after Brexit and the concept about multi-speed Europe is consequence of the efficiency of the economic and political systems in each individual Member States. Economic challenges arising by the failure of Bulgarian’s national policy for sustainable development for the period 2000-2015, are examined in this publication. In terms of the economic globalization and energy and ecological regulations, remedies for the identified strategic misconceptions are proposed.
    Keywords: European Union; economic policy, sustainable development
    JEL: E02 O21 Q56
    Date: 2017–11–17
  21. By: Bruederle, Anna; Peters, Jörg; Roberts, Gareth
    Abstract: South Africa has one of the highest crime rates in the world, incurring high cost for society. The present paper examines the effect of weather shocks on various types of crime. Using a 12-year panel data set at monthly resolution on the police ward level, we demonstrate a short-term effect of warmer temperatures on violent crime and thereby offer support for the heat-aggression link as suggested by psychological research. Furthermore, we find evidence for a mid-term effect of weather on crime via agricultural income, which is in line with the economic theory of crime. Our findings have direct policy implications for the design of crime prevention strategies, in which weather forecasts could play an important role.
    Keywords: South Africa,weather,crime,income shocks
    JEL: C33 O55 Q54 R11
    Date: 2017
  22. By: Andrea Guariso; Thorsten Rogall
    Abstract: Does higher resource inequality between ethnic groups lead to ethnic conflict? In this paper, we empirically investigate this question by constructing a new measure of inequality using rainfall on ethnic homelands during the plant-growing season. Our dataset covers the period 1982-2001 and includes 214 ethnicities, located across 42 African countries. The analysis at the country level shows that one standard-deviation increase in rainfall-based inequality between ethnic groups increases the risk of ethnic conflict by 16 percentage points (or 0.43 standard deviations). This relationship depends on the power relations between the ethnic groups. More specifically, the analysis at the ethnicity level shows that ethnic groups are more likely to engage in civil conflicts whenever they receive less rain than the leading group. This effect does not hold for ethnic groups that share some political power with the leading group and is strongest for groups that have recently lost power. Our findings are consistent with an increase in resource inequality leading to more ethnic conflicts by exacerbating grievances in groups with no political power.
    Keywords: Conflict, Ethnic Inequality, Rainfall, Africa, Ethnic Power Relations
    JEL: D63 D74 E01
    Date: 2017
  23. By: Nemera Mamo (Department of Economics, University of Sussex; SOAS, University of London); Sambit Bhattacharyya (Department of Economics, University of Sussex)
    Abstract: We investigate the effect of resource discoveries on ethnicity level political patronage in Africa using a large geospatial dataset of 254 ethnic groups in 15 countries over the period 1960 to 2004. We find that the first (or single first) resource discovery in a virgin ethnic homeland increases the share of cabinet posts of that ethnicity. The effect is induced by both expectations and rent. Overall the effect is mainly driven by major mineral discoveries as opposed to oil and gas. The discovery shocks do not trigger monopoly or dominant access to power, autonomy, separatism, and exclusion. Our analysis reveals that point source resource (mineral) rents are far more important political currency than diffuse agricultural commodity rents. Furthermore, by ranking ministries into Top and Bottom levels we find some evidence of window dressing politics. Our results survive a battery of robustness tests and controls.
    Keywords: Resource discovery; Political Patronage; Africa
    JEL: D72 O11
    Date: 2018–01
  24. By: Chirwa, Themba
    Abstract: The paper assesses the likelihood of Malawi achieving its post-2015 sustainable development goals by 2030, especially goal number 1 of eradicating extreme poverty. The results show that for Malawi to eliminate extreme poverty of less than $1.25 a day from an estimated 74.4% in 2015 to as low as 1.0% in 2030; real GDP per capita is expected to grow at a rate of 21% p.a. If this is to be achieved, Malawi will be expected to invest approximately US$136 billion within the post-2015 period in order for real incomes to increase to levels that eliminate extreme poverty. These are extreme and very hard growth conditions to be achieved for a low-income economy like Malawi; especially when the average growth in real GDP per capital during the period 2010-2014 averaged 1.6% p.a. The study concludes that concerted efforts and significant financial support from the global community is required and needs to be put in place as quickly as possible if countries with high poverty incidences like Malawi are to achieve this ambitious goal of eliminating extreme poverty by 2030.
    Keywords: Malawi; Post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals; Extreme Poverty; Economic Growth
    JEL: E17 N17 O11
    Date: 2016–04–07
  25. By: Franck Aggeri (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Mélodie Cartel (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Keywords: Carbon accounting,Low carbon transitions,Corporation,Climate change,Comptabilité carbone,transition bas carbone,Entreprise,Changement climatique
    Date: 2017
  26. By: Andor, Mark; Osberghaus, Daniel; Simora, Michael
    Abstract: In the aftermath of natural disasters, governments frequently provide financial aid for affected households. This policy can have adverse effects if individuals anticipate it and forgo private precaution measures. While theoretical literature unequivocally suggests this so called 'charity hazard', empirical studies yield ambiguous results. Drawing on rich survey data from German homeowners, we analyze charity hazard for different flood precaution strategies and different flood risk areas. Our results indicate a substantial charity hazard in the insurance market for individuals residing in floodprone areas. In contrast, we find a positive correlation between governmental aid and non-financial protection measures. Moreover, our results suggest that insurance and non-financial protection measures are rather complements than substitutes. Finally, we provide suggestive evidence that status-quo bias might play an important role for insurance uptake.
    Keywords: adaptation,flood protection,flood insurance,objective flood risk,charity hazard
    JEL: Q54 C35 R22
    Date: 2017
  27. By: Wilson Dos Santos Rocha; Maria Salvetti
    Keywords: Environment - Water Resources Management Water Resources - Water Policy & Governance Water Supply and Sanitation - Water Supply and Sanitation Economics Water Supply and Sanitation - Water Supply and Sanitation Governance and Institutions Water Supply and Sanitation - Water Supply and Sanitation Policy, Legislation and Regulation
    Date: 2017–08
  28. By: Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Kim, KyungJa
    Abstract: This study investigated the value that government-issued certification labels adds to agricultural products. Using a face-to-face questionnaire administered in the Greater Seoul area, it assessed consumers’willingness to pay for government certification labels on four types of agri-products. Our results indicated that the premium for goods with these labels ranged from 7 to 32 per cent above the prices of non-certified products of the same types, while organic certificates for meat products earned higher willingness-to-pay scores than other certificate types. This clearly indicates the importance of such certification schemes to South Korean consumers. 본 연구에서는 다양한 정부인증마크가 부착된 농축산물에 대한 소비자 지불의도를 파악하고자 하였다. 이를 위해 수도권 지역 주부 소비자 306 명을 설문지를 이용한 대면면접 방식으로 조사하였다. 조사대상 농축산물은 곡류(쌀), 과일(사과), 채소(배추), 축산물(쇠고기)를 선정하고 인증마크가 없는 농축산물의 기준가격을 제시한 다음 유기농 마크와 우수농산물마크(GAP), 지리적 표시(GIS) 생산자이력추적 표시(APTMS)가 부착된 농축산물에 대한 추가지불의도(WTP)를 각각 측정하였다. 조사결과 인증마크가 부착된 농축산물에 대한 추가지불의도는 인증마크 미부착 농축산물에 비해 7~32% 높게 나타났다. 인증마크별로는 유기농 인증에 대한 지불의사가 가장 높았고 품목별로는 축산물에 대한 지불의사가 가장 높았다. 인증마크와 품목별 지불의사에 영향을 미치는 요소들도 또한 분석하였다.
    Keywords: certification system, Korean agri-product market, Willingness to pay, contingent valuation method (CVM)
    JEL: C83 D12 Q13
    Date: 2017–12
  29. By: Dinis Juízo; Maria Salvetti
    Keywords: Environment - Water Resources Management Water Resources - Water Policy & Governance Water Supply and Sanitation - Water Supply and Sanitation Economics Water Supply and Sanitation - Water Supply and Sanitation Governance and Institutions Water Supply and Sanitation - Water Supply and Sanitation Policy, Legislation and Regulation
    Date: 2017–08

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