nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2018‒02‒05
25 papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Regulatory institutions and market-based climate policy in China By Coraline Goron; Cyril C. Cassisa
  2. Land use, forest preservation and biodiversity in Asia By Halkos, George; Managi, Shunsuke
  3. Developing Green GDP Accounting for Thai Agricultural Sector Using the Economic Input Output - Life Cycle Assessment to Assess Green Growth By Attavanich, Witsanu; Mungkung, Rattanawan; Mahathanaseth, Itthipong; Sanglestsawai, Santi; Jirajari, Athiwatr
  4. EU Emissions Trading: Policy-Induced Innovation, or Business as Usual? Findings from Company Case Studies in the Republic of Croatia By Martin Larsson
  5. Environment Case Study: Forestry and Water Management in Thailand: A Win Win Situation By Mamoon, Dawood
  6. Threshold Policy Effects and Directed Technical Change in Energy Innovation By Lionel Nesta; Elena Verdolini; Francesco Vona
  7. Planning and Construction of Canop-E Networks for Inclusive, Sustainable Growth in Developing Countries (E.g.- India) By Hegadekatti, Kartik
  8. The energy costs of historic preservation By Hilber, Christian A. L.; Palmer, Charles; Pinchbeck, Edward W.
  9. Innovation as Adaptation to Natural Disasters By Hongxiu Li
  10. Urban and peri-urban agriculture in Cameroon: Status and perspectives for development By Urcil Papito Kenfack Essougong
  11. Persistent openness and environmental innovation: An empirical analysis of French manufacturing firms By Caroline Mothe; Thuc Uyen Nguyen-Thi
  12. Measuring and understanding the microeconomic resilience of businesses to lifeline service interruptions due to natural disasters By Nina Graveline; Marine Gremont
  13. Endogenous timing with a socially responsible firm By Garcia, Arturo; Leal, Mariel; Lee, Sang-Ho
  14. Mars: Economic Analysis of Constructing Sustainable Open-Air Human Settlements in The Martian Environment By Hegadekatti, Kartik
  15. Sustainable urban development in India: a tale of two Mahindra World Cities By Kattumuri, Ruth; Kurian, Sunil
  16. Gastos Ambientais no Brasil: proposta metodológica para aplicação no orçamento federal By Adriana Maria Magalhães de Moura; Ana Paula Moreira da Silva; João Paulo Viana; Juliana Ferreira de Santana; Júlio César Roma; Nilo Luiz Saccaro Júnior; Regina Helena Rosa Sambuichi; Reycha Sabana Diabate
  17. Certification of Quality as a Forerunner of Environmental Sustainability Standards Adoption in the Olive Oil Production Industry By Rocio Carillo Labella; Manuel Parras Rosa; Fatiha Fort; Eva María Murgado Armenteros
  18. Tailored Feedback and Worker Green Behavior By Romensen, Gert-Jan; Soetevent, Adriaan
  19. Resource urbanisms: Asia’s divergent city models of Kuwait, Abu Dhabi, Singapore and Hong Kong By Rode, Philipp; Gomes, Alexandra; Adeel, Muhammad; Sajjad, Fizzah; McArthur, Jenny; Alshalfan, Sharifa; Schwinger, Peter; Tunas, Devisari; Lange, Christiane; Montagne, Clemence; Hertog, Steffen; Koch, Andreas; Murshed, Syed Monjur; Wendel, Jochen; Duval, Alice
  20. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity and the Cost of Capital By Trinks, Arjan; Ibikunle, Gbenga; Mulder, Machiel; Scholtens, Bert
  21. Condicionantes Institucionais à Execução dos Investimentos em Infraestrutura Econômica no Brasil: licenciamento ambiental By Bolívar Pêgo; Júlio César Roma; José Gustavo Feres; Larissa Schmidt
  22. Macroeconomic impacts of the 2010 earthquake in Haiti By Rohan Best; Paul J Burke
  23. Optimal location of renewable power By Henrik Bjørnebye; Cathrine Hagem; Arne Lind
  24. The contribution of microbial biotechnology to economic growth and employment creation By Kenneth Timmis; Victor Lorenzo; Willy Verstraete; Juan Luis Ramos; Antoine Danchin; Harald Brüssow; Brajesh Singh; James Timmis
  25. Trash Crisis and Solid Waste Management in Lebanon-Analyzing Hotels’ Commitment and Guests’ Preferences By Socrat Ghadban; Maya Shames; Haifa Abou Mayaleh

  1. By: Coraline Goron; Cyril C. Cassisa
    Abstract: Domestic regulatory institutions are essential components of emissions trading systems (ETS). Not only do they shape the ways that markets operate, they also condition the environmental value of the carbon credits they produce. However, the literature on global carbon politics has paid little attention to local ETS regulators. In a decentralized system increasingly based on a noodle bowl of diversified environmental markets, the study of carbon markets must integrate the institutions in which they operate. This article focuses on China, which, due to its size, is both keen to and expected to have a significant impact on the global system of market-based instruments. We examine how China’s regulatory institutions have worked to implement the seven ETS pilots launched since 2012, and tease out some implications regarding how China’s national ETS may contribute to global climate change governance. In this study, we analyze both formal and informal regulatory institutions, through the practice of local actors. The main finding is that the tension between the state and markets in China’s ETS implementation has resulted in a reinforcement of state domination rather than the emergence of robust regulatory institutions. The contribution that the ETS makes to China’s emissions reduction is also limited by more pressing environmental and industrial policies that local regulators must prioritize. Local nonregulatory implementation practices could undermine the long-term objective to integrate China’s ETS with others under article 6 of the UNFCCC.
    Date: 2017–02
  2. By: Halkos, George; Managi, Shunsuke
    Abstract: Continuous increase in one side of human populations and on the other side on the number of extinct and endangered species in Asia requires appropriate land use and forest preservation. Forests provide a number of benefits such as regulation of global climate and ecosystems, provision of raw materials and wild foods for local communities, watershed protection for a region, national income from ecotourism, carbon sequestration, being a landscape and habitat of rare species. This introduction provides summary for land use, forest preservation and biodiversity policy in Asia.
    Keywords: Asia; Land use; Ecosystem Service; Biodiversity.
    JEL: Q10 Q23 Q56
    Date: 2017–11
  3. By: Attavanich, Witsanu; Mungkung, Rattanawan; Mahathanaseth, Itthipong; Sanglestsawai, Santi; Jirajari, Athiwatr
    Abstract: There is no indicator measuring Thailand’s green growth by valuing the resource degradation and environmental damage costs. This article aims to estimate Thailand’s green gross domestic (GDP) that takes into account environmental damage costs with the detailed analysis on the agricultural sector using the Economic Input Output - Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) approach. The representative product in each sector was selected based on the available life cycle inventory data, economic values and their magnitude of impacts. Here we find that oil palm cultivation (Sector 011 in the economic input-output table), fibre crops (Sector 013), rice cultivation using chemicals (Sector 001), coffee-tea-cocao (Sector 015), and coconut growing (Sector 010), respectively, generated the highest environmental damage value. This study revealed that the total environmental damage costs of agricultural products was $22.05 million per year accounting for only 0.1003 percent of total GDP in agricultural sector while the total environmental damage cost from all sectors is equal to $36,950.79 million accounting for 14.58 of total GDP.
    Keywords: Green GDP, EIO-LCA, Life Cycle Assessment, Economic Input Output, Agricultural Sector, Green Growth
    JEL: O1 O13 Q51 Q56
    Date: 2016–11
  4. By: Martin Larsson (The Institute of Economics, Zagreb)
    Abstract: The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), while primarily designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in an effective and efficient way, is supposed to serve as an instrument promoting investments in clean, low-carbon technologies by way of incentivizing associated innovation activity. Since empirical results concerning the instrument´s capacity of reaching this secondary policy goal are rare, this paper examines the innovation impact of the EU ETS among emissions-intensive companies in the Republic of Croatia. To this end the effects of the instrument on research, development and demonstration (RD&D), adoption, and organizational change are examined. The study accounts for the impacts of various context factors, including firm-external and firm-internal variables. The empirical analysis employs a multiple case study approach. While findings support the assertion that policy-induced innovation effects arise from the pricing of carbon, the innovation-fostering capacity of the instrument remains limited due to continued low levels of policy stringency and predictability. Long-term expectations of market actors appear to play a decisive role in decisions surrounding innovation activity, suggesting that signals of policy commitment are highly influential.
    Keywords: European Union, emissions trading, Croatia, carbon, climate policy
    JEL: O31 Q58
    Date: 2017–10
  5. By: Mamoon, Dawood
    Abstract: The article offers a critique for the argument that forest clearing by the people in the upper areas of the watershed is the main reason for decrease in water supply. Instead he considers increased demand of water for agricultural activity especially during dry season by both upstream and downstream areas as the main cause of water shortage. Thus unlike previous studies, who blame people from upper lands for water shortage, he talks about the fair share of scare resources and rights protection for upstream farmers.
    Keywords: Natural Resource Management, Forest Preservation, Farmer Livelihoods
    JEL: Q2 Q23 Q25 Q28 Q57
    Date: 2017–12–21
  6. By: Lionel Nesta (Université Côte d'Azur; GREDEG CNRS; OFCE Sciences Po. Paris; SKEMA Business School); Elena Verdolini (Fondazione ENI Enrico Mattei (FEEM)); Francesco Vona (OFCE Sciences Po. Paris; SKEMA Business School)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effect of environmental policies on the direction of energy innovation across countries over the period 1990-2012. Our novelty is to use threshold regression models to allow for discontinuities in policy effectiveness depending on a country's relative competencies in renewable and fossil fuel technologies. We show that the dynamic incentives of environmental policies become effective just above the median level of relative competencies. In this critical second regime, market-based policies are moderately effective in promoting renewable innovation, while command-and-control policies depress fossil based innovation. Finally, market-based policies are more effective to consolidate a green comparative advantage in the last regime. We illustrate how our approach can be used for policy design in laggard countries.
    Keywords: Directed technical change, threshold models, environmental policies, policy mix
    JEL: Q58 Q55 Q42 Q48 O34
    Date: 2018–01
  7. By: Hegadekatti, Kartik
    Abstract: In the next few years, India will be the most populous nation on earth. This large population will need a huge increase in agricultural productivity. At the same time, agricultural activity is highly energy and resource intensive. Moreover, many places in India are facing water crisis. Therefore an integrated solution to cultivate food for the people by using water and resources in a sustainable manner is needed. A Canop-E is a large structure that has integrated harnessing of water, energy and food. I propose an idea to build a network of structures called Canop-E Network which will harness solar and wind power in an integrated manner in developing nations. Additionally it will provide water harvesting facilities also. Using the renewable energy and harvested water, we can grow food. The energy generated can also be used to desalinate water and used in arid areas. At the same time it will also protect the inhabitants of settlements in the structure from rain, sunlight and inclement weather. Thus an integrated solution to food, water and energy security can be obtained. This can be extrapolated to other developing nations to provide the people with inexpensive, inclusive and sustainable living.
    Keywords: Renewable Energy, Solar, Wind, Water, Hydroponics, Water Harvesting
    JEL: O18 P28 P48 Q01 Q18 Q25 Q42 Q43 Q48 Q55 Q56
    Date: 2017–03–31
  8. By: Hilber, Christian A. L.; Palmer, Charles; Pinchbeck, Edward W.
    Abstract: We explore the impact of historical preservation policies on domestic energy consumption. Using panel data for England from 2006 to 2013 and employing a fixed effects-strategy, we document that (i) rising national energy prices induce an increase in home energy efficiency installations and a corresponding reduction in energy consumption and (ii) this energy saving effect is significantly less pronounced in Conservation Areas and in places with high concentrations of Listed Buildings, where the adoption of energy efficiency installations is typically more costly and sometimes legally prevented altogether. Preservation policies increase private energy costs and the social cost of carbon per designated dwelling by around £8,000 and £2,550, respectively. These costs ought to be weighed against any benefits of preservation
    Keywords: preservation policies; land use regulation; energy efficiency; energy consumption; climate change
    JEL: Q48 Q54 R38 R52
    Date: 2017–06–01
  9. By: Hongxiu Li (Department of Economics, University of Waterloo)
    Abstract: Can innovation be motivated by past natural disasters? Despite some recent research, the determinants of disaster-mitigating innovation are not well understood. Starting from a conceptual model combining perceived risk theory with the profit motive, this paper investigates the salience of innovation induced by natural disasters, using a unique dataset that includes U.S.patent data, and f ood, drought, and earthquake damage data for the years 1977 to 2005. To address the potential endogeneity of disaster damage, I employ the control function approach with instrumental variables constructed from disaster intensity measurements. The results show that impact-reducing innovations at the state level respond to national disaster damage in the U.S. In general, the impact of natural disasters is not localized to a state-that is, disaster damage in a state also stimulates innovations in more-distant states.The fndings in this paper highlight a policy role for the federal government in channelling and more effectively spurring impact-reducing innovations nationwide.
    JEL: O31 Q54 Q55
    Date: 2017–11
  10. By: Urcil Papito Kenfack Essougong (UGENT - Ghent University [Belgium])
    Abstract: Like elsewhere in the world, Cameroon is experiencing rapid and unplanned urbanisation. Simultaneously, there is a growing number of urban and peri-urban farmers. This paper analyses the status of urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) in Cameroon. We found that UPA is widely practised by urban dwellers of all social category and provides multiple benefits ranging from employment creation, revenues, food security and environmental services. However, due to an improper planning, its non-official recognition, insufficient access to productive resources especially land and water; in some cases, UPA can negatively impact human health and environment because of an uncontrolled intensification of production systems and the questionable quality of the food supplied by urban farmers. Therefore, to build sustainable urban production systems, we recommend an official recognition of UPA, its inclusion in urban master plans; the demarcation and development of agricultural zones in cities, the design and implementation of programmes and projects to support urban farmers; intensive farmers capacity building and the promotion of urban waste valorisation through composting. Furthermore, more empirical researches are needed to provide up to date quantifiable information on UPA contribution to urban livelihoods, food security and environmental protection, and the types of relationships existing among the various stakeholders involved in UPA.
    Keywords: Cameroon,Sustainability,Urban planning,Food security,Livelihoods,Environment,Moyens de subsistance,Environnement,Durabilité,Planification Urbaine,Sécurité alimentaire,Cameroun
    Date: 2017
  11. By: Caroline Mothe (IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - USMB [Université de Savoie] [Université de Chambéry] - Université Savoie Mont Blanc); Thuc Uyen Nguyen-Thi (CEPS/INSTEAD - Centre d'Etudes de Populations, de Pauvreté et de Politiques Socio-Economiques / International Networks for Studies in Technology, Environment, Alternatives, Development - Centre d'Etudes de Populations, de Pauvreté et de Politiques Socio-Economiques / International Networks for Studies in Technology, Environment, Alternatives, Development)
    Abstract: The antecedents of environmental innovation and the impact of openness on technological innovation have been well studied, yet the role of external knowledge search remains largely unknown. This study explores whether six dimensions of open search (external R&D, acquisition, R&D cooperation, and three types of external information sourcing) enhance firms' radical and incremental innovation with environmental effects (EI) when used either sporadically or persistently. It shows that the temporal dimension of openness matters. Persistent open knowledge search efforts are associated with a firm's propensity to introduce EI, more so than sporadic search. Furthermore, the different types of knowledge search have heterogeneous effects on different types of EI. It also shows that persistent innovation is more relevant in the case of radical EI.
    Keywords: Search,Environmental innovation, Incremental/radical, Openness,Persistence
    Date: 2017
  12. By: Nina Graveline (BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM)); Marine Gremont (BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM))
    Abstract: Facing rising natural hazards, urban environments are particularly prone to suffer economic impacts from business interruptions due to disaster-induced lifeline service disruptions. Enhancing the ability of local economies to maintain function and hasten recovery in the aftermath of natural disasters triggers the need to both measure economic resilience and better understand its drivers. Based on a conceptual framework that highlights the peculiarities of resilience with respect to vulnerability and adaptation, this paper develops a scientifically sound operational indicator of the economic resilience of individual businesses to lifeline service interruptions caused by natural disasters. The indicator is constructed so as to compare patterns of economic resilience across firms or events and identify hotspots of poor resilience that public policies should target as a priority. In order to demonstrate its scientific and operational relevance, it is applied to individual businesses located in the Urban Community of Central Martinique (French West Indies). A business survey is used to collect empirical data for two hypothetical equal hazard scenarios leading to the disruption of the drinking water and electricity networks. An econometric analysis then investigates the dependence of economic resilience to a set of individual characteristics such as business demographics and operating characteristics. Results show that businesses are relatively more resilient to drinking water interruptions than to electricity cuts and that turnover and flexibility in both working hours and production processes are significant drivers of economic resilience. We discuss the limitations of this indicator and pinpoint the challenge for future research of isolating pre-existing sensitivity to shocks from overall economic impacts.
    Keywords: Disaster risk reduction,Lifeline service disruption,Business interruption,Economic resilience,Indirect impacts,Resilience indicator
    Date: 2017
  13. By: Garcia, Arturo; Leal, Mariel; Lee, Sang-Ho
    Abstract: This study considers a mixed duopoly in which a socially responsible firm competes with a private firm by incorporating environmental externality and clean technology. We analyze the endogenous market structure in which both firms strategically decides quantities sequentially or simultaneously, which also affects abatement activities. We show that depending on the relative concerns on environment and consumers surplus, the socially responsible firm can be less or more aggressive in the production and abatement. Thus, not only the signifiicance of externality but also the instrumental conflict of social concerns are crucial factors in determining the equilibrium of endogenous timing game, in which the socially responsible firm might earn higher profits.
    Keywords: endogenous timing; socially responsible firm; mixed duopoly; clean technology; environmental externality
    JEL: L13 L31 Q5
    Date: 2018–01–18
  14. By: Hegadekatti, Kartik
    Abstract: With a high surface radiation, very low and fluctuating temperature and a windy but thin atmosphere, Mars seems an inhospitable place. The dangers on the Martian surface entail that humans stay within indoors habitats on Mars. But it may be possible to build open air settlements on Mars where a direct connection to the Martian atmosphere is feasible. In such a scenario, humans may be able to inhabit Mars with minimal external protection like pressurized suits. For this to happen, humans need to be in atmospheric conditions similar to that on Earth. To achieve these results we need to excavate deep into the Martian crust to depths where air pressures will be sufficient to allow humans to survive without pressurized suits. The paper discusses about the various aspects and economic analysis of such an exercise. The hurdles for implementing this plan are also analyzed. The paper concludes by summarizing the feasibility, benefits and difficulties in undertaking such an activity.
    Keywords: mars, space,colonization,mining, open air habitat, greenhouse
    JEL: F02 L72 P28 P48 Q01 Q56
    Date: 2017–03–18
  15. By: Kattumuri, Ruth; Kurian, Sunil
    Abstract: About fourteen percent of the total world population lives in India. Approximately 350 million people live in urban and peri-urban areas. With the country’s urbanization rate currently being 2.5 per year, it is estimated that around 600 million people will be living in towns and cities by 2030. Developing sustainable urban conglomerations is a key priority for India’s growth and development. The Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) launched in December 2005, Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) launched in June 2015, Smart Cities Mission launched in 2015 are all evidence of the government’s active engagement toward economic and social development of cities in India. There is growing awareness of the great potential that exists in business development models that are environmentally sustainable. Additionally, following a low-carbon development path with help toward achieving various Sustainable Development Goals including #3 (good health and wellbeing), #6 (clean water and sanitation), #7 (affordable and clean energy), #9 (industry, innovation and infrastructure) and #11 (sustainable cities and communities)...
    JEL: Q15
    Date: 2017–09
  16. By: Adriana Maria Magalhães de Moura; Ana Paula Moreira da Silva; João Paulo Viana; Juliana Ferreira de Santana; Júlio César Roma; Nilo Luiz Saccaro Júnior; Regina Helena Rosa Sambuichi; Reycha Sabana Diabate
    Abstract: A crescente preocupação dos países em promover a proteção ao meio ambiente tem motivado a geração de dados e informações atualizados e precisos para apoiar o processo de tomada de decisão nas políticas públicas relacionadas ao tema. Nesse sentido, o Ipea busca contribuir para a estimação do gasto público em meio ambiente no governo federal. Este texto analisa e compara as metodologias adotadas no Brasil e por organizações internacionais, com o objetivo de encontrar a melhor abordagem para identificar os gastos ambientais no país. The growing concern of the countries to promote environmental protection has motivated the production of accurate data to support the decision-making on public policies related to the theme. In this sense, Ipea aims to contribute to the estimation of public spending on the environment by the Federal Government. This paper analyzes and compares methods adopted in Brazil and by international organizations, with the objective of identifying the best approach to determine the environmental expenditures by the country.
    Date: 2017–12
  17. By: Rocio Carillo Labella (UMR MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - INRA Montpellier - Institut national de la recherche agronomique [Montpellier] - CIHEAM - Centre International des Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier, UJA - Universidad de Jaén); Manuel Parras Rosa (UJA - Universidad de Jaén); Fatiha Fort (UMR MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - INRA Montpellier - Institut national de la recherche agronomique [Montpellier] - CIHEAM - Centre International des Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier, Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Eva María Murgado Armenteros (UJA - Universidad de Jaén)
    Abstract: Agriculture is one of the sectors which is considered to have the greatest impact on the environment. That is particularly true in the area of olive oil production where the concept of sustainability is gaining a major importance not only for administrations and organisations but also for consumers and olive oil producers. This sector has previously focused on the quality management certified by different standards (ISO 9001, ISO 22000, BRC, and IFS); however, these days some interest in environmental responsibility is being shown. This interest goes beyond what is being enforced by the regulations and we can see this by the implementation of environmental standards such as the ISO 14001 within these companies. In this paper, through the analysis of the adoption processes of the ISO 14001 standard by both cooperatives and non-cooperative companies, we can determine their level of involvement in the environmental sustainability of olive oil production in the province of Jaén (Spain), where 20% of the world’s production is located. To that effect, we have first studied how many of the 330 companies analysed have adopted the ISO 14001 standard and secondly, qualitative research has been carried out with in-depth interviews involving some of the previously mentioned companies. Results obtained reveal that previous experience of the certification processes ease the adoption of new environmental certifications in such a way that companies which have adopted the ISO 14001 or have stated their intention of doing so possess a high degree of adherence to the ISO 9001 standard. At the same time, they consider that the adoption of that standard makes them more competitive in foreign markets.
    Keywords: environmental sustainability,competitiveness,foreign trade, olive oil,sustainability,sustainable development,international trade,durabilité,développement durable,certification,marketing,compétitivité,commerce international,huile d'olive
    Date: 2017
  18. By: Romensen, Gert-Jan; Soetevent, Adriaan (Groningen University)
    Date: 2017
  19. By: Rode, Philipp; Gomes, Alexandra; Adeel, Muhammad; Sajjad, Fizzah; McArthur, Jenny; Alshalfan, Sharifa; Schwinger, Peter; Tunas, Devisari; Lange, Christiane; Montagne, Clemence; Hertog, Steffen; Koch, Andreas; Murshed, Syed Monjur; Wendel, Jochen; Duval, Alice
    Abstract: This report presents the key findings of the Resource Urbanisms project that LSE Cities at the London School of Economics and Political Science led between 2015 and 2017. This research, supported by the Kuwait Programme at the LSE Middle East Centre investigated questions of urban form, geography and sustainability in Kuwait and the Gulf States as part of a broader comparative analysis of divergent forms of urban growth in Asia. Given the distinct patterns of urban development, and the central role of land availability and natural resources, particularly oil, in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states, this research focused on two natural resources, land and energy, and explored their relationships with urban form, transport and housing. It analysed these relationships through a comparative case study approach focusing on the city of Kuwait and Abu Dhabi in the GCC, and Hong Kong and Singapore in East Asia. Both the GCC and East Asian case studies are cities with similar income levels, but exhibit contrasting forms of urban development. More importantly, Kuwait and Abu Dhabi are endowed with vast amounts of natural resources, while Hong Kong and Singapore possess limited natural resources, making them useful and contrasting cases for comparative purposes. The research had four main objectives: first, it analysed the models of urban development that have emerged in Kuwait, Abu Dhabi, Hong Kong and Singapore through an inter-urban and intra-urban comparison. Second, it compared the GCC models of urbanisation (Kuwait and Abu Dhabi) with the contrasting forms of development in Hong Kong and Singapore. Third, it provided fresh evidence on the relationship between the built environment, land availability and energy costs, with a particular focus on transport and urban form as well as housing and urban morphology. Finally, it sought to better understand the dynamics between the availability and costs of resources, government interventions, urban form and infrastructure, and environmental outcomes...
    JEL: Q15
    Date: 2017–11
  20. By: Trinks, Arjan; Ibikunle, Gbenga; Mulder, Machiel; Scholtens, Bert (Groningen University)
    Date: 2017
  21. By: Bolívar Pêgo; Júlio César Roma; José Gustavo Feres; Larissa Schmidt
    Abstract: Este Texto para Discussão faz parte de uma pesquisa que teve como objetivo compreender os Condicionantes institucionais à execução do investimento em infraestrutura no Brasil contemporâneo e propor melhorias das políticas públicas. A justificativa são as evidências que indicam a baixa capacidade do governo federal e do empresariado brasileiro para executar de forma acelerada o investimento em projetos de infraestrutura. Para a análise foram selecionados seis estudos de caso, sendo três considerados exitosos e três não exitosos; quais sejam, exitosos: usina termelétrica (UTE) de Candiota fase III, usina hidrelétrica (UHE) Teles Pires e Transporte Rápido por Ônibus (Bus Rapid Transit – BRT) saída sul do Distrito Federal; e não exitosos: ferrovia Transnordestina, metrô de Salvador e BR-163, trecho norte, de Mato Grosso a Santarém, no estado do Pará. Para cada estudo de caso, sete condicionantes foram analisadas: i) planejamento, projeto, gestão e coordenação intragovernamental; ii) licitação e contratação; iii) licenciamento socioambiental; iv) desapropriação e conflitos fundiários; v) articulação federativa na relação Estado e sociedade; vi) controles burocráticos e judiciais (Sistema U); e vii) mercado privado de proteção de bens e serviços. Este texto, em particular, aborda a condicionante licenciamento ambiental (LA). No Brasil, o licenciamento vem passando, nos últimos anos, por alterações no seu marco regulatório, que tem sido um tema ainda pouco compreendido e objeto de crítica permanente, particularmente pelo setor produtivo e ligado aos grandes projetos de infraestrutura econômica. São citadas questões como tomada de decisão demorada e com baixa fundamentação, ideologização do processo, entre outras, que contribuem para atrasos, aumento de custos, judicialização, criação de passivos contingentes e não cumprimento de metas de oferta de serviços para aprimorar o bem-estar da sociedade. Este texto tem como objetivo geral fazer uma análise desses problemas, tendo como pergunta geral norteadora: quais os fatores e condições de ordem institucional que interferem na execução do investimento público e privado em infraestrutura econômica no Brasil? Duas perguntas específicas também direcionam o tema do trabalho: i) como e por que o licenciamento incide sobre a capacidade de execução? e ii) quais as alternativas possíveis para aperfeiçoá-lo? Diante disso, alguns pontos analisados nas referências e nos seis estudos de caso selecionados ajudam a responder a pergunta geral norteadora: a ainda baixa capacidade de coordenação geral do Ministério do Meio Ambiente (MMA); a pouca articulação e cooperação entre as instituições envolvidas dentro e fora do Sistema Nacional do Meio Ambiente (Sisnama); o órgão licenciador é permanentemente sobrecarregado com questões e demandas que não são, necessariamente, de sua responsabilidade; a intervenção importante, mas às vezes excessiva, do Ministério Público Federal (MPF); entre outros. A primeira pergunta específica norteadora pode ser respondida pelo fato de que o licenciamento é preterido ou pouco considerado nas tomadas de decisões; pelo andamento das obras dos projetos; contaminação ideológica do processo; excesso de “desenvolvimentismo” dos empreendedores; empreendedores com grande poder econômico e político; má qualidade dos estudos técnicos; entre outros. Quanto à segunda pergunta específica norteadora, são feitas sugestões de melhorias de política envolvendo questões institucionais, regulatórias, contratos, multiplicidade de atores, judicialização etc. This text for discussion is part of a research aimed to understand the institutional constraints to the implementation of investment in infrastructure in contemporary Brazil “and to propose public policy improvement. The rationale for their implementation is that there is evidence that indicate the low capacity of the Federal Government and Brazilian companies to perform “accelerated” investment in infrastructure projects. For analysis were selected six case studies, three successful and not successful three considered, namely: exitosos: thermoelectric of Candiota III hydroelectric power plant phase Teles Pires and BRT south exit DF; and successful not-Transnordestina, subway of Salvador and BR-163 North of Mato Grosso, Santarém (Pará). For each case study, seven conditions were analyzed: planning, designing, managing and coordinating intragovernamental; Bidding and Contracting; Socio-environmental licensing; Expropriation and land conflicts; Federal joint, State and society; Bureaucratic and judicial controls (“U”); and private protection Market of goods and services. This text, in particular, addresses the environmental licensing etching. In Brazil, through licensing, in recent years, through changes in its regulatory framework, has been a theme yet little understood and object of permanent criticism, particularly by the productive sector and linked to major economic infrastructure projects. Are cited issues such as slow decision-making and reasoning, ideological content, process and contribute to delays, increased costs, judicialization, creation of contingent liabilities and non-compliance with service delivery goals to improve the well-being of society. This text aims to make a general analysis of the problems, with the general question: what are the guiding factors and institutional conditions that interfere with the implementation of public and private investment in economic infrastructure in Brazil? Two specific questions are were defined: i) how and why the licensing relates to the ability to execute? and ii) what are the possible alternatives to improve it? Given this, some points analyzed in references and in six selected case studies help answer the question guiding general: i) the still low overall coordination capacity of MMA; ii) little articulation and cooperation between the institutions involved within and outside of Amazonia; iii) the licensing body is continually overwhelmed with questions and demands that are not necessarily of its responsibility; and iv) important intervention but sometimes excessive MPF; among others. As to the first question guiding specific, can be answered by licensing be deprecated or little considered in decision-making; by the progress of works of the projects; ideological contamination of the process; excess “developmentalism” of entrepreneurs; entrepreneurs with great economic and political power; poor quality of technical studies; among others. As for the second question guiding specific suggestions for improvements are make involving policy, regulatory, institutional issues contracts, multiplicity of actors, judicialization, etc.
    Date: 2017–12
  22. By: Rohan Best; Paul J Burke
    Abstract: In this paper we use the synthetic control method to estimate the macroeconomic losses from the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, one of the most severe natural disasters in the modern era. The macroeconomic effects of the earthquake were equal to an average loss of up to 12 percent of gross domestic product over the period 2010–2015. While surges in imports and foreign aid supported a temporary increase in aggregate consumption, aggregate investment and services-sector output experienced large contractions. The road transport sector was severely affected. Impacts on electricity use have been less pronounced. The data suggest that macroeconomic losses may be permanent. The earthquake is thus a case of an extreme natural disaster contributing to divergence in development outcomes.
    Keywords: macroeconomic impact, Haiti, earthquake, synthetic control method
    JEL: E21 E22 E23 O11 O54
    Date: 2017
  23. By: Henrik Bjørnebye; Cathrine Hagem (Statistics Norway); Arne Lind
    Abstract: A decarbonization of the energy sector calls for large new investments in renewable energy production. When choosing the location for increased production capacity, the producer has typically limited incentives to take fully into account the investments costs of the subsequent need for increased grid capacity. This may lead to inefficient choices of location. We discuss the regulatory background for an integrated EU electricity market, the binding renewable targets, and renewable incentives. We explore analytically the design of feed-in premiums that secure an optimal coordinated development of the entire electricity system. We investigate numerically the potential welfare cost of a non-coordinated development of grids and production capacity in the Norwegian energy system. Our result indicates that grid investment costs can be substantially higher when the location decision is based on private profitability compared with a socially optimal location. However, the difference in the sum of grid investment cost and production cost is much more modest, as location based on private profitability leads to capacity increase in areas with better wind conditions.
    Keywords: Energy policy; renewable targets; wind power; location of renewable energy production; feed-in premiums
    JEL: Q42 Q48 Q58
    Date: 2017–06
  24. By: Kenneth Timmis (Technische Universität Braunschweig [Braunschweig]); Victor Lorenzo (CNB-CSIC - Centro Nacional de Biotecnología [Madrid] - Biocomputing Unit [Madrid]); Willy Verstraete (Ghent University - UGENT - Ghent University [Belgium]); Juan Luis Ramos (Estacion Experimental del Zaidin (CSIC) - CSIC - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas [Spain]); Antoine Danchin (ICAN - Unité de Recherche sur les Maladies Cardiovasculaires, du Métabolisme et de la Nutrition = Institute of cardiometabolism and nutrition - UPMC - Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6 - Assistance publique - Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP) - INSERM - Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale - CHU Pitié-Salpêtrière [APHP]); Harald Brüssow (Chaumeny); Brajesh Singh (HIE - Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment [Richmond] - UWS - Western Sydney University); James Timmis (Imperial College London)
    Abstract: Our communication discusses the profound impact of bio-based economies – in particular microbial biotechnologies – on SDG 8: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all. A bio-based economy provides significant potential for improving labour supply, education and investment, and thereby for substantially increasing the demographic dividend. This, in turn, improves the sustainable development of economies.
    Date: 2017
  25. By: Socrat Ghadban (Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management - Lebanese University [Beirut]); Maya Shames (CEPN - Centre d'Economie de l'Université Paris Nord - UP13 - Université Paris 13 - USPC - Université Sorbonne Paris Cité - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Haifa Abou Mayaleh (Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management - Lebanese University [Beirut])
    Abstract: Lebanon has witnessed in 2015 a severe trash crisis that had serious health and environmental impacts. Trash crisis has recently evolved, and is mostly related to inefficiency in networking, political leadership, and strategic management system and information flow. Trash crisis can be avoided with effective crisis management plan and waste management strategies. The latter is gaining broader attention, especially in the developing countries, with waste management being not well implemented. Until now, no studies have been conducted to measure and evaluate the impacts of the garbage crisis on the Lebanese tourism industry, which is a main income generator sector. Therefore, this research seeks to examine how tourism organizations, especially hotels as main producer of solid waste, are managing their waste to reduce the impacts of the crisis and to understand visitors’ perceptions of solid waste management strategies adopted by hotels. 18 hotels’ managers in Beirut were interviewed and 124 questionnaires were filled by hotels’ guests, who were randomly selected in different areas of the capital. Results revealed that large hotels tend to effectively manage their solid waste which allowed them to overcome the crisis with minimal negative impacts. For the majority of respondents, selecting hotels is not primarily influenced by the implementation of solid waste management strategies. Moreover, results showed that 46% of respondents have hesitated to visit Lebanon during the crisis.
    Keywords: Trash crisis,Hotels,Sustainable development,Solid waste management,Crisis management,Lebanon
    Date: 2017

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