nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2018‒01‒15
35 papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Research Methodology By Mohajan, Haradhan
  2. Estimation of Environmental Kuznets Curve for CO2 Emission: Role of Renewable Energy Generation in India By Sinha, Avik; Shahbaz, Muhammad
  3. Environmental Degradation, ICT and Inclusive Development in Sub-Saharan Africa By Asongu, Simplice; Le Roux, Sara; Biekpe, Nicholas
  4. Application of the Ecosystem Service Concept to a Local-Scale: The Cases of Coralligenous Habitats in the North-Western Mediterranean Sea By Laure Thierry de Ville D 'Avray; Dominique Ami; Anne Chenuil; Romain David; Jean-Pierre Feral
  5. Enhancing ICT for Environmental Sustainability in Sub-Saharan Africa By Asongu, Simplice; Le Roux, Sara; Biekpe, Nicholas
  6. When starting with the most expensive option makes sense: optimal timing, cost and sectoral allocation of abatement investment By Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Meunier, Guy; Hallegatte, Stéphane
  7. Market Power and Instrument Choice in Climate Policy By Mbéa Bell; Sylvain Dessy
  8. Portafolio de políticas públicas de adaptación al cambio climático y mitigación de sus efectos con beneficios adicionales o “sin arrepentimiento” en América Latina By Galindo, Luis Miguel; Samaniego, Joseluis; Beltrán, Allan; Ferrer, Jimy; Alatorre, José Eduardo
  9. The Agnostic's Response to Climate Deniers: Price Carbon! By Rezai, Armon; van der Ploeg, Frederick
  10. Willingness to Pay for Clean Air in China By Richard Freeman; Wenquan Liang; Ran Song; Christopher Timmins
  11. Green Car Adoption and the Supply of Alternative Fuels By Pavan, Giulia
  12. Building bridges for the adoption of deep green agri-environment measures: The emergence of environmental knowledge brokers By Paolo Melindi-Ghidi; Tom Dedeurwaerdere; Giorgio Fabbri
  13. The race to solve the sustainable transport problem via carbon-neutral synthetic fuels and battery electric vehicles By Hannula, I.; Reiner, D.
  14. Sraffa and the revenue of the owner of non- renewable natural resources: notes on a never- ending debate By Yoann Verger
  15. Food Trade, Biodiversity Effects and Price Volatility By Cecilia Bellora; Jean-Marc Bourgeon
  16. Asymmetric Innovation Agreements under Environmental Regulation By Naoto Aoyama; Emilson C.D. Silva
  17. Políticas públicas sectoriales para el cambio climático en América Latina: una aproximación By Caballero, Karina
  18. Manage energy/environmental footprints of travel: A proposed solution/methodology By Rouhani, Omid
  19. The timing of environmental policies with excess burden of taxation in free-entry mixed markets By Xu, Lili; Lee, Sang-Ho
  20. ICT, Openness and CO2 emissions in Africa By Simplice Asongu
  21. Taxation, redistribution and observability in social dilemmas By Daniel Brent; Lata Gangadharan; Anca Mihut; Marie Villeval
  22. Standardisation and guarantee systems: what can participatory certification offer? By Sylvaine Lemeilleur; Gilles Allaire
  23. Climate-sensitive Decisions and Use of Climate Information: Insights from selected La Trinidad and Atok, Benguet Agricultural Producers By Reyes, Celia M.; Domingo, Sonny N.; Agbon, Adrian D.; Olaguera, Ma. Divina C.
  24. Credit constraints, energy management practices, and investments in energy saving technologies: German manufacturing in close-up By Löschel, Andreas; Lutz, Benjamin Johannes; Massier, Philipp
  25. Estimación del valor económico de la captura de carbono por efecto de la forestación en el Uruguay By Caffera, Marcelo; D’Agosti, Natalia
  26. Estudio de las opciones y repercusiones de la aplicación de un sistema de permisos comercializables para la reducción de emisiones de carbono en Panamá By Brandt R., Arturo
  27. Anglers’ views on stock conservation: Sea Bass angling in Ireland By Grilli, Gianluca; Curtis, John; Hynes, Stephen; O'Reilly, Paul
  28. Cost-benefit analysis for flood risk management and water governance in the Netherlands; an overview of one century By Bos, Frits; Zwaneveld, Peter
  29. Severe Air Pollution and School Absences: Longitudinal Data on Expatriates in North China By Liu, Haoming; Salvo, Alberto
  30. Extracting spatial resources under possible regime shift By Christopher Costello; Bruno Nkuiya; Nicolas Querou
  31. Energy and the Military: Convergence of Security, Economic, and Environmental Decision-Making By Nuttall, W.; Samaras, C.; Bazilian, M.;
  32. Élaboration d'indicateurs socio-économiques liés à la qualité de l'eau By Pierre Rainelli; Francois Bonnieux; G. Miclet
  33. La situación de las estadísticas, indicadores y cuentas ambientales en América Latina y el Caribe By -
  34. La modélisation économique peut-elle aider à préserver la biodiversité ? By Jean-Michel Salles
  35. Des marchandises dans la ville : Un enjeu social, environnemental et économique majeur By Laetitia Dablanc; Michel Savy; Pierre Veltz; Axel Culoz; Muriel Vincent

  1. By: Mohajan, Haradhan
    Abstract: This chapter presents all the tools and systems used for this dissertation. It discusses the methodological epistemologies and approaches that support mathematical economics and social choice research. The research is based on: mathematical modeling of economic analysis in optimizations, social choice and game theory, voting system, environmental pollution, healthcare, and sustainable economy, NNP, social welfare and sustainability, GHG emissions, global warming and climate change that effects on modern economy, and finally green taxes on environment pollution to reduce GHG emissions. This chapter introduces the research strategy and the empirical methods for the general approach, and specific techniques to address the objectives for the research. It also presents the research design and the methods used in the selection of the research participants, and for data collection. Research methodology indicates the logic of development of the process used to generate theory that is procedural framework within which the research is conducted (Remenyi et al. 1998). It provides the principles for organizing, planning, designing, and conducting research. Methodological decisions are determined by the research paradigm that a researcher is following. The research paradigm not only guides the selection of data gathering and analysis methods but also the choice of competing methods of theorizing (Sayer 1992). This study is based on both primary and secondary data that are collected from various sources. Primary data have been collected from the 500 female garment workers of the slum areas of Chittagong City Corporation (CCC) of Bangladesh by random sampling technique through open-ended questionnaire. The open-ended response questions are most beneficial when a researcher conducts exploratory research, especially if the range of respondents is not known. The open-ended questions can be used to learn what words and phrases people spontaneously give to the free-response questions. The secondary data are collected from the websites, books and e-books, previous published articles, theses, conference papers, case studies, magazines, and various research reports. Here we have tried to discuss in brief, and clarify how evidence in this study was collected and analyzed, as well as to introduce the research strategy and the empirical techniques applied in this research. The research strategy adopted was face-to-face interview of the garments workers. The mathematical and theoretical data are collected and developed to make this empirical research fruitful.
    Keywords: Research methodology,mathematical economics, social welfare,sustainable development.
    JEL: B4 C1
    Date: 2017–12–10
  2. By: Sinha, Avik; Shahbaz, Muhammad
    Abstract: The existing literature on environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is mainly focused on finding out the optimal sustainable path for any economy. Looking at the present renewable energy generation scenario in India, this study has made an attempt to estimate the EKC for CO2 emission in India for the period of 1971-2015. Using unit root test with multiple structural breaks and autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration, this study has found the evidence of inverted U-shaped EKC for India, with the turnaround point at USD 2937.77. The renewable energy has found to have significant negative impact on CO2 emissions, whereas for overall energy consumption, the long run elasticity is found to be higher than short run elasticity. Moreover, trade is negatively linked with carbon emissions. Based on the results, this study concludes with suitable policy prescriptions.
    Keywords: India, CO2 emission, EKC, ARDL, Renewable energy
    JEL: A10
    Date: 2017–12–10
  3. By: Asongu, Simplice; Le Roux, Sara; Biekpe, Nicholas
    Abstract: This study examines how information and communication technology (ICT) complements carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to influence inclusive human development in forty-four Sub-Saharan African countries for the period 2000-2012. ICT is measured with internet penetration and mobile phone penetration. The empirical evidence is based on Generalised Method of Moments. The findings broadly show that ICT can be employed to dampen the potentially negative effect of environmental pollution on human development. We establish that: (i) ICT complements CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption to increase inclusive development; (ii) ICT interacts with CO2 intensity to negatively affect inclusive human development and (iii) the net effect on inclusive human development is positive from the complementarity between mobile phones and CO2 emissions per capita. Conversely, we also establish evidence of net negative effects. Fortunately, the corresponding ICT thresholds at which these net negative effects can be completely dampened are within policy range, notably: 50 (per 100 people) mobile phone penetration for CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption and CO2 intensity. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed.
    Keywords: CO2 emissions; ICT; Economic development; Africa
    JEL: C52 O38 O40 O55 P37
    Date: 2017–01
  4. By: Laure Thierry de Ville D 'Avray (IMBE - Institut méditerranéen de biodiversité et d'écologie marine et continentale - UAPV - Université d'Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - INEE - INSB - Institut de recherche pour le développement [IRD] : UMR237 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, GREQAM - Groupement de Recherche en Économie Quantitative d'Aix-Marseille - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - ECM - Ecole Centrale de Marseille); Dominique Ami (GREQAM - Groupement de Recherche en Économie Quantitative d'Aix-Marseille - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - ECM - Ecole Centrale de Marseille); Anne Chenuil (IMBE - Institut méditerranéen de biodiversité et d'écologie marine et continentale - UAPV - Université d'Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - INEE - INSB - Institut de recherche pour le développement [IRD] : UMR237 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Romain David (IMBE - Institut méditerranéen de biodiversité et d'écologie marine et continentale - UAPV - Université d'Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - INEE - INSB - Institut de recherche pour le développement [IRD] : UMR237 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Jean-Pierre Feral (IMBE - Institut méditerranéen de biodiversité et d'écologie marine et continentale - UAPV - Université d'Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - INEE - INSB - Institut de recherche pour le développement [IRD] : UMR237 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: In an era when we witness the erosion of biodiversity it is essential to understand the benefits provided by ecosystems and find ways to maintain them. The concept of ecosystem service has been applied in this perspective, but mainly in large-scale surveys and on terrestrial ecosystems. The primary objective of this project is to validate the inclusion of the concept of ecosystem service as a useful input to local (small-scale) community decision making in the marine environment. A second objective is to define the beneficial services provided to local areas by the coralligenous habitats. The application of the concept of ecosystem service at a local scale is more appropriate to local regulatory and management issues. This research was focused on the complex and threatened coralligenous habitats, about which the benefits and services provided are relatively little understood. To address these issues and get around the paucity of prior research, we collected the opinions of 43 experts for two marine sites (Bay of Marseille and Port-Cros National Park) on 15 services using interviews, an online questionnaire and workshops. This work validated 10 services: the most evident were "food", "diving sites", "research" and "inspiration". We also showed that even in very close-by sites, slight differences in the bundle of services may occur, and we highlighted knowledge gaps especially concerning those services (so-called regulating services) that help to regulate environmental impacts of other phenomena. This work concluded that there is a strong need to employ a referential frame to identify and then estimate services based on local criteria such as: geographical and temporal scale, size of the population of beneficiaries, value of the benefits, and state of ecosystem well-being. These results are a basis for further evaluation of these ecosystem services and can indicate their positive contribution to local decision-making concerning the regulation and management of coralligenous habitats.
    Keywords: experts knowledge,Marseille,Port-Cros,appraisals,interviews,workshops,questionnaire,coralligenous habitats,ecosystem services,local-scale,concept application
    Date: 2017–10
  5. By: Asongu, Simplice; Le Roux, Sara; Biekpe, Nicholas
    Abstract: This study examines how increasing ICT penetration in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) can contribute towards environmental sustainability by decreasing CO2 emissions. The empirical evidence is based the Generalised Method of Moments and forty-four countries for the period 2000-2012. ICT is measured with internet penetration and mobile phone penetration while CO2 emissions per capita and CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption are used as proxies for environmental degradation. The following findings are established: First, from the non-interactive regressions, ICT (i.e. mobile phones and the internet) does not significantly affect CO2 emissions. Second, with interactive regressions, increasing ICT has a positive net effect on CO2 emissions per capita while increasing mobile phone penetration alone has a net negative effect on CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption. Policy thresholds at which ICT can change the net effects from positive to negative are computed and discussed. These policy thresholds are the minimum levels of ICT required, for the effect of ICT on CO2 emissions to be negative. Other practical implications for policy and theory are discussed
    Keywords: CO2 emissions; ICT; economic development; Sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: C52 O38 O40 O55 P37
    Date: 2017–01
  6. By: Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Meunier, Guy; Hallegatte, Stéphane
    Abstract: This paper finds that it is optimal to start a long-term emission-reduction strategy with significant short-term abatement investment, even if the optimal carbon price starts low and grows progressively over time. Moreover, optimal marginal abatement investment costs differ across sectors of the economy. It may be preferable to spend $25 to avoid the marginal ton of carbon in a sector where abatement capital is expensive, such as public transportation, or in a sector with large abatement potential, such as the power sector, than $15 for the marginal ton in a sector with lower cost or lower abatement potential. The reason, distinct from learning spillovers, is that reducing greenhouse gas emissions requires investment in long-lived abatement capital such as clean power plants or public transport infrastructure. The value of abatement investment comes from avoided emissions, but also from the value of abatement capital in the future. The optimal levelized cost of conserved carbon can thus be higher than the optimal carbon price. It is higher in sectors with higher investment needs: those where abatement capital is more expensive or sectors with larger abatement potential. We compare our approach to the traditional abatement-cost-curve model and discuss implications for policy design.
    Keywords: climate change mitigation, transition to clean capital, path dependence, social cost of carbon, marginal abatement cost, timing
    JEL: Q52 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2017–10
  7. By: Mbéa Bell; Sylvain Dessy
    Abstract: This paper compares a clean energy standard (CES) and a carbon tax (CT), using theory and quantitative experiments. A two-stage duopolistic competition in the electricity sector between a polluting plant and its non-polluting rival anchors the model underlying these experiments. The CT induces both plants to contribute to clean electricity, whereas the CES only incentivizes the non-polluting plant. Ultimately, what matters for the ranking of these instruments is the size of the pre-existing competitive gap between the two rival plants. When this gap is sufficiently small, the CES becomes the more cost-effective instrument, irrespective of the pre-specified emissions reduction target.
    Keywords: Electricity, Cost-effectiveness, Duopoly, Innovation, Quantitative analysis.
    JEL: H20 H32 L13 L51
    Date: 2017
  8. By: Galindo, Luis Miguel; Samaniego, Joseluis; Beltrán, Allan; Ferrer, Jimy; Alatorre, José Eduardo
    Abstract: El principal objetivo de este estudio es describir los criterios utilizados en la economía del cambio climático para ordenar y/o clasificar las políticas públicas, atendiendo a diversos criterios de eficiencia e incertidumbre o potenciales efectos sobre otras variables económicas, sociales o ambientales y presentar un software que determina, a través de métodos de multi-criterio, el ordenamiento jerárquico de diversas políticas públicas referidas a la adaptación y mitigación del cambio climático.
    Date: 2017–12
  9. By: Rezai, Armon; van der Ploeg, Frederick
    Abstract: With the election of President Trump, climate deniers moved from the fringes to the centre of global policy making and need to be addressed in policy-making. An agnostic approach to policy, based on Pascal's wager, gives a key role to subjective prior probability beliefs about whether climate deniers are right. Policy makers that assign a 10% chance of climate deniers being correct set the global price on carbon to $19.1 per ton of emitted CO2 in 2020. Given that a non-denialist scientist making use of the DICE integrated assessment model sets the price at $21.1/tCO2, agnostics' reflection of remaining scientific uncertainty leaves climate policy essentially unchanged. The robustness of an ambitious climate policy also follows from using the max-min or the min-max regret principle. Letting the coefficient of relative ambiguity aversion vary from zero corresponding to expected utility analysis to infinity corresponding to the max-min principle, it is possible to show how policy makers deal with fundamental climate model uncertainty when they are prepared to assign prior probabilities to different views of the world being correct. Allowing for a wide range of sensitivity exercises including damage uncertainty, it turns out that pricing carbon is the robust response under rising climate scepticism.
    Keywords: ambiguity aversion; climate model uncertainty; climate scepticism; DICE integrated assessment model; max-min; min-max regret; robust climate policies
    JEL: H21 Q51 Q54
    Date: 2017–11
  10. By: Richard Freeman; Wenquan Liang; Ran Song; Christopher Timmins
    Abstract: We develop a residential sorting model incorporating migration disutility to recover the implicit value of clean air in China. The model is estimated using China Population Census Data along with PM2.5 satellite data. Our study provides new evidence on the willingness to pay for air quality improvement in developing countries and is the first application of an equilibrium sorting model to the valuation of non-market amenities in China. We employ two novel instrumental variables based on coal-fired electricity generation and wind direction to address the endogeneity of local air pollution. Results suggest important differences between the residential sorting model and a conventional hedonic model, highlighting the role of moving costs and the discreteness of the choice set. Our sorting results indicate that the economic value of air quality improvement associated with a one-unit decline in PM2.5 concentration is up to $8.83 billion for all Chinese households in 2005.
    JEL: Q51 Q53 R23
    Date: 2017–12
  11. By: Pavan, Giulia
    Abstract: Easy access to stations serving alternative fuels is an obvious concern for customers considering to buy a "green" car. Yet, the supply of fuel is seldom considered analyzing how to promote the adoption of environmentally friendly vehicles. I develop and estimate a joint model of demand for cars and supply of alternative fuels. I use this framework to compare the effectiveness of a subsidy to consumers who buy cars running on alternative fuels to that of a subsidy to gas stations installing alternative fuel pumps. Counterfactual simulations suggest that subsidizing fuel retailers to offer alternative fuels is a more effective policy that indirectly increases low emission car sales.
    Keywords: Alternative fuel cars; Entry; Environmental policy
    JEL: H23 H25 L11 L91 Q48
    Date: 2017–12
  12. By: Paolo Melindi-Ghidi (EconomiX - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Tom Dedeurwaerdere (Université catholique de Louvain - Institut des Sciences de la Vie); Giorgio Fabbri (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes)
    Abstract: The activities of intermediary organisations in the context of payments for agri-environmental services have broadly increased in all European countries over the last two decades. However, the impact of this new governance mechanism on environmental protection and changes in individuals' behavior has not yet been studied in the economic literature. To explore this issue, we develop a new theoretical economic framework that allows us to compare the main environmental effects of an incentive mechanism with intermediaries, such as environmental knowledge brokers and information providers, as compared to those of a standard central governance mechanism. This paper bridges the knowledge-brokering theory developed in the literature in environmental science with the process of individual preferences formation and transmission developed in the economic literature. The analysis shows that the emergence of knowledge intermediaries is particularly valuable in the context of payments for agri-environmental services in a situation where individuals, such as farmers, initially have a low level of environmental awareness. The same conclusion holds when the public institution organizing the scheme is not sufficiently apprised of individuals' characteristics. This allows us to give a theoretical justification for previous empirical results on payment schemes for agri-environmental measures.
    Keywords: Knowledge Brokers, Cultural Transmission, Pro-environmental Culture,Moral Hazard, Principal-agent
    Date: 2017–12–15
  13. By: Hannula, I.; Reiner, D.
    Abstract: Carbon-neutral synthetic fuels (CNSFs) could offer sustainable alternatives to petroleum distillates that currently dominate the transportation sector, and address the challenge of decarbonising the fuel mix. CNSFs can be divided into synthetic biofuels and 'electrofuels' produced from CO2 and water with electricity. We provide a framework for comparing CNSFs to battery electric vehicles (BEVs) as alternatives to reduce vehicle emissions. Currently, all three options are significantly more expensive than conventional vehicles using fossil fuels, and would require carbon prices in excess of $250/tCO2 or oil prices in excess of $150/bbl to become competitive. BEVs are emerging as a competitive option for short distances, but their competitiveness quickly deteriorates at higher ranges where synthetic biofuels are a lower-cost option. For electrofuels to be viable, the challenge is not simply technological learning, but access to a low-cost ultra-low-carbon electric power system, or to low-carbon electric generators with high annual availability.
    Keywords: Carbon-neutral synthetic fuels, electrofuels, advanced biofuels, battery electric vehicles, low-carbon transportation alternatives
    JEL: Q41 Q42 Q55 R41 R48 O33
    Date: 2017–12–29
  14. By: Yoann Verger (ECOSYS - Ecologie fonctionnelle et écotoxicologie des agroécosystèmes - AgroParisTech - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique)
    Abstract: A rich literature exists about the way to handle non-renewable natural resources in the context of classical theory. This article sums up the different approaches that we could consider when we calculate the revenue of the owner of a non-renewable natural resource in a Sraffian framework. It clarifies the concepts of differential rent, depreciation of wasting assets, Hotelling rent, and rent as a share of the product, and links this last concept with some empirical facts about non-renewable natural resource extraction industries.
    Abstract: Une riche littérature existe concernant la façon de considérer les ressources naturelles non-renouvelables dans la théorie classique. Cet article résume les différentes approaches que nous pouvons considérer lorsque l'on calcule le revenu d'un propriétaire d'une ressource naturelle non-renouvelable dans un système Sraffien. Il clarifie les concepts de rente différentielle, dépréciation d'un actif décroissant, rente d'Hotelling, et rente comme partage du produit, et lie ce dernier concept avec quelques faits empiriques concernant les industries extrayant les ressources naturelles non-renouvelables.
    Keywords: non-renewable natural resource, rent, extractive industry,Sraffa, Hotelling,ressourcenaturelle non-renouvelable,rente,industrie extractive
    Date: 2017–09–27
  15. By: Cecilia Bellora (CEPII - Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales - Centre d'analyse stratégique); Jean-Marc Bourgeon (Department of Economics, Ecole Polytechnique - Polytechnique - X - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Biotic factors such as pests create biodiversity effects that increase food production risks and decrease productivity when agriculture specializes. Under free trade, they reduce the specialization in food production that otherwise prevails in a Ricardian two-country setup. Pesticides allow farmers to reduce biodiversity effects , but they are damaging for the environment and for human health. When regulating farming practices under free trade, governments face a trade-off: they are tempted to restrict the use of pesticides compared to under autarky because domestic consumption partly relies on imports and thus depends less on them, but they also want to preserve the competitiveness of their agricultural sector on international markets. Contrary to the environmental race-to-the-bottom tenet, we show that at the symmetric equilibrium under free trade restrictions on pesticides are generally more stringent than under autarky. As a result, trade increases the price volatility of crops produced by both countries, and, depending on the intensity of the biodiversity effects, of some or all of the crops that are country-specific.
    Keywords: food prices,agricultural trade,agrobiodiversity,pesticides
    Date: 2017–12–20
  16. By: Naoto Aoyama; Emilson C.D. Silva
    Abstract: In a domestic market, a duopoly produces a homogeneous final good, pollution, pollution abatement and R&D. One of the firms (foreign) has superior technology. The government regulates the duopoly by levying a pollution tax to maximize domestic welfare. We consider the potential implementation of three innovation agreements: cooperative research joint venture (RJV), non-cooperative RJV and licensing. In the cooperative (non-cooperative) RJV, the firms (do not) internalize R&D spillovers. We show that, for the domestic firm, the cooperative RJV dominates and licensing is the least desirable alternative. Although licensing is dominant for the foreign firm, it is not implementable. Both RJVs are implementable. While the non-cooperative RJV is more likely the greater the degrees of asymmetry (in terms of efficiency and R&D spillover rates) between the firms, the cooperative RJV is more likely the lower the degrees of asymmetry. Implementation of both types of RJVs improve the competitiveness of the domestic firm and welfare. A subsidy policy that induces the foreign firm to accept a feasible cooperative RJV when it strictly prefers a feasible non-cooperative RJV is always welfare improving.
    Keywords: environmental regulation, innovation, research joint ventures, licensing
    JEL: D43 D62 F23 L13 L24 L51 Q55 Q58
    Date: 2018
  17. By: Caballero, Karina
    Abstract: El principal objetivo de este documento es identificar conjuntos de políticas públicas para atender el desafío del cambio climático el cual, es uno de los grandes desafíos del siglo XXI ateniendo a sus causas y consecuencias globales, a sus impactos negativos sobre las actividades económicas, las condiciones sociales y los ecosistemas, a los proceso necesarios para adaptarse a las nuevas condiciones climáticas y a los esfuerzos necesarios para realizar los procesos de mitigación. En este sentido y desde una óptica económica, el cambio climático puede definirse como una externalidad negativa global que es consustancial al actual estilo de desarrollo.
    Date: 2017–12–27
  18. By: Rouhani, Omid
    Abstract: Congestion is a growing challenge in major urban areas worldwide; a challenge that imposes enormous social and private costs to society. Despite these substantial costs, our knowledge is limited about how transportation users value choices that can reduce fuel consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG), and criteria pollutant emissions (PM2.5, NOx, CO, etc.). In this regard, I proposed the advanced traveler general information system (ATGIS), a scheme that can estimate/provide travelers with travel cost data that they currently do not have. In this paper, I explain the steps required to test, examine, and develop such a scheme for a metropolitan area.
    Keywords: Advanced traveler information systems, emissions costs, fuel costs, travel behavior, Social/private costs of travel
    JEL: R00 R41 R42
    Date: 2017–12
  19. By: Xu, Lili; Lee, Sang-Ho
    Abstract: This study investigates the timing of environmental policies in free-entry mixed markets with excess burden of taxation. We consider two scenarios in which the government chooses the optimal tax before or after firms enter the market, and compare these ex-ante and ex-post taxations. When the excess burden of taxation is small (large), we find that ex-post taxation imposes a lower (higher) tax level than ex-ante taxation, which induces a larger (smaller) number of firms and a higher (lower) environmental damage. Finally, the effect of excess burden of taxation can increase the welfare, but ex-ante taxation always yields higher welfare than ex-post taxation.
    Keywords: Environmental policy; Ex-ante taxation; Ex-post taxation; Free entry; Mixed oligopoly
    JEL: H25 L13 L32 Q58
    Date: 2018–01–02
  20. By: Simplice Asongu (Yaoundé/Cameroun)
    Abstract: This study investigates how information and communication technology (ICT) complements globalisation in order to influence CO2 emissions in 44 Sub-Saharan African countries over the period 2000-2012. ICT is measured with internet penetration and mobile phone penetration whereas globalisation is designated in terms of trade and financial openness. The empirical evidence is based on the Generalised Method of Moments. The findings broadly show that ICT can be employed to dampen the potentially negative effect of globalisation on environmental degradation like CO2 emissions. Practical, policy and theoretical implications are discussed.
    Keywords: CO2 emissions; ICT; Economic development; Africa
    JEL: C52 O38 O40 O55 P37
    Date: 2017–05
  21. By: Daniel Brent (LSU - Louisiana State University - Louisiana State University [Baton Rouge]); Lata Gangadharan (Department of Economics and Business - Monash University); Anca Mihut (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne] - Université de Lyon - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Marie Villeval (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne] - Université de Lyon - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: In the presence of social dilemmas, cooperation is more difficult to achieve when populations are heterogeneous because of conflicting interests within groups. We examine cooperation in the context of a non-linear common pool resource game, in which individuals have unequal extraction capacities and have to decide on their extraction of resources from the common pool. We introduce monetary and nonmonetary policy instruments in this environment. One instrument is based on two variants of a mechanism that taxes extraction and redistributes the tax revenue. The other instrument varies the observability of individual decisions. We find that the two tax and redistribution mechanisms reduce extraction, increase efficiency and decrease inequality within groups. The scarcity pricing mechanism, which is a per-unit tax equal to the marginal extraction externality, is more effective at reducing extraction than an increasing block tax that only taxes units extracted above the social optimum. In contrast, observability impacts only the Baseline condition by encouraging free-riding instead of creating moral pressure to cooperate.
    Keywords: Common Pool Resource game, taxation mechanisms, observability, cooperation, heterogeneity, experiment
    Date: 2017–10–04
  22. By: Sylvaine Lemeilleur (UMR MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - INRA Montpellier - Institut national de la recherche agronomique [Montpellier] - CIHEAM - Centre International des Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier, Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement); Gilles Allaire (US ODR - Observatoire des Programmes Communautaires de Développement Rural - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique)
    Abstract: The legitimacy of certification for agricultural products depends on the belief that product labelling can provide information and guarantee the quality that consumers want. The neoclassic paradigm actually suggests that the problem of quality is to do with simple asymmetric information between economic agents. In our paper, however, we consider that the notion of quality is by no means objective: practices required (to obtain the given quality) and the credibility and legitimacy of quality control used in the different guarantee systems (to ensure standard compliance), constitute an institutionalised compromising device. This situation results from the balance of power and beliefs that exists between the organisations concerned. In this paper, we compare two different organisational mechanisms when examining the agricultural product standards designed to improve sustainable development: (i) the third party certification (TPC) is a mechanism that most public bodies recognise as being legitimate for the certification of sustainability standards; and (ii) the alternative mechanism of participatory guarantee systems (PGS), which is struggling to gain recognition from public authorities. Finally, we argue that the effectiveness of proximity and social control for guaranteeing sustainability standards in PGS seems just as credible and legitimate as the effectiveness of the independence and neutrality claimed by the TPC in the framework of international standards. In fact, TPC and PGS are alternative and complementary systems, rather than competitive systems, for implementing different sustainability standards.
    Abstract: La légitimité de la certification des produits agricoles repose sur la croyance de la possibilité de garantir une qualité recherchée aux consommateurs, en apposant un label sur les produits concernés. Alors que le paradigme néoclassique postule que la qualité relève seulement d’une problématique liée à la distribution d’information entre les agents du marché, nous pensons que le concept de qualité ne peut pas être considéré comme objectif. De ce point de vue, les pratiques requises pour obtenir cette qualité, ainsi que la crédibilité de la manière de les contrôler pour garantir le respect de ce cahier des charges, deviennent également des compromis institutionnels, issus d’un équilibre entre des rapports de forces et des croyances des organisations concernées. Dans cet article, nous nous comparons deux dispositifs rencontrés lorsque l’on s’intéresse aux normes relevant du développement durable : (i) la certification tierce partie (CTP) qui est le dispositif le plus fréquent pour la certification de standards de durabilité internationaux (ii) les dispositifs alternatifs que constituent les systèmes de garantie participatifs (SPG) qui luttent pour obtenir une reconnaissance légale dans de nombreux pays. Nous concluons que la proximité et le contrôle social pour garantir les labels dans les SPG pourraient donc apparaitre largement autant crédibles et légitimes en termes d’efficacité que la CTP. La CTP et les SPG seraient donc des dispositifs alternatifs et complémentaires pour la mise en œuvre de standards de durabilité.
    Keywords: voluntary sustainability standards,third party certification,participatory guarantee systems,quality,organic farming,institutional approach,standardization,standard,sustainable development,approche volontaire,standardisation,norme,développement durable,agriculture biologique,certification,qualité,économie institutionnelle
    Date: 2017–09–26
  23. By: Reyes, Celia M.; Domingo, Sonny N.; Agbon, Adrian D.; Olaguera, Ma. Divina C.
    Abstract: Valuing climate information is now an important discourse in mainstream economic thinking with the development of the von Neumann-Morgenstern utility hypothesis and of the refinement of decision theory under uncertainty. This discourse is important in valuing weather information and climate-related decision support, particularly among agricultural stakeholders. The need to understand better the use and value of climate information and climate-sensitive decisions among smallholder farmers in selected farmers in Atok and La Trinidad Benguet, Philippines is the aim of this paper. Measures implemented to mitigate the effects La Nina and El Nino include changing the timing of planting and crop shifting and changing the location of crops. Farmers rely to indigenous knowledge when it comes to frost forecasting. On the average, 300 truckers from the trading post transport commodities outside the province on a daily basis. But during typhoons, many traders prefer to delay their deliveries. Farmers shared that weather/climate information is a major factor taken into consideration in their planning and crop decision making. Climate date for the rainy and or dry season was considered as the most important information they need. Given the unique microclimatic condition of the province, farmers need a localized forecast from PAGASA.
    Keywords: climate, climate information, climate-sensitive decisions, weather information, Benguet
    Date: 2017
  24. By: Löschel, Andreas; Lutz, Benjamin Johannes; Massier, Philipp
    Abstract: We analyze the drivers and barriers that influence investments increasing the energy efficiency of firms' production processes or buildings in the German manufacturing sector based on microdata. In particular, we shed light on the relationship between financial barriers (e. g. credit constraints), information and knowledge (e. g. energy management practices), salience of energy-related topics, and the investments in energy saving technologies. A better understanding of firms' investment behavior regarding energy saving technologies is crucial to design efficient policy measures, which are necessary to achieve the imposed ambitious climate and energy policy targets. We use data from 701 structured telephone interviews in combination with commercial and confidential firm-level data. Our results suggest that energy management practices have a statistically significant positive relationship with investment decisions on energy saving technologies for production processes and buildings. Credit constraints are a barrier to investments in the energy efficiency of firms' production processes. Furthermore, high energy cost shares of heating or cooling, high energy intensity, energy self-generation and structured internal decision making processes influence the investments in energy efficiency positively.
    Keywords: Energy efficiency,Credit constraints,Energy management,Manufacturing,industry,Investment behavior
    JEL: D22 H23 Q41 Q48 Q58
    Date: 2017
  25. By: Caffera, Marcelo; D’Agosti, Natalia
    Abstract: En años recientes, Uruguay ha tenido emisiones netas negativas (captura) de carbono (CO2), lo que deriva en una externalidad positiva para el resto del mundo. El gobierno uruguayo puede usar este hecho como herramienta de negociación en su estrategia de financiamiento de reducciones adicionales de gases de efecto invernadero. Para tales efectos, en el presente trabajo se informa a los encargados de la política nacional de cambio climático sobre el valor económico que las capturas de CO2 realizadas en Uruguay tienen para el resto del mundo, utilizando un sencillo modelo de Evaluación Integrada, ejercicio que no se había realizado en el país.
    Date: 2017–12–21
  26. By: Brandt R., Arturo
    Abstract: El cambio climático representa uno de los desafíos más importantes de la humanidad, el cual debe enfrentarse desde diferentes perfectivas. Aunque Panamá no se encuentra dentro de los grandes emisores, se espera que sufra sus consecuencias y se vea especialmente afectado por el fenómeno climático. Actualmente, en Panamá, existe un gran potencial para la disminución de gases de efecto invernadero, en particular en las áreas de fomento a la forestación y reforestación. Lo que además tiene efectos favorables en los procesos de adaptación. Algunas de las políticas públicas que pueden instrumentarse en el contexto de las estrategias de mitigación incluyen la aplicación de un impuesto al carbono o el establecimiento de un régimen al comercio de emisiones transables.
    Date: 2017–12–30
  27. By: Grilli, Gianluca; Curtis, John; Hynes, Stephen; O'Reilly, Paul
    Abstract: Bottom-up approaches to natural resource management are considered to be more effective for conservation than traditional top-down approaches because the policy-making process is legitimized by stakeholders. In particular, when decisions are shared with direct users of the resource, compliance with the law may be achieved more easily and potential sources of conflict averted. However, empirical evidence on this topic is still limited. In this paper, we investigate how recreational anglers perceive stricter legislation for sea bass fishing, using Ireland as a case study. The new legislation aims to limit harvest rates to restore a viable bass population following years of declining stocks. Data were collected by means of an angler survey and analysed with a seemingly unrelated ordered probit model. Results suggest that most respondents are willing to trade harvested fish for a healthier and long-term sustainable bass population, suggesting strong compliance with this new law.
    Date: 2017–12
  28. By: Bos, Frits; Zwaneveld, Peter
    Abstract: The Netherlands is a global reference for flood risk management. This reputation is based on a mix of world-class civil engineering projects and innovative concepts of water governance. For more than a century, cost-benefit analysis has been important for flood risk management and water governance in the Netherlands. It has helped to select the most effective and efficient flood risk projects and to coordinate and reconcile the interests of various policy areas, levels of government and private stakeholders. This paper provides for the first time an overview of this well-developed practice. This includes the cost-benefit analysis in the 1901 act for enclosure of the Zuiderzee, van Dantzig’s famous formula for the economically optimal strength of dikes and a whole set of cost-benefit analyses for More room for rivers and the Delta Program for the next century. Dutch practice illustrates how cost-benefit analysis can support and improve flood risk management and water governance; other countries may learn from this. Rough calculations indicate that investing in cost-benefit analysis has been a highly profitable investment for Dutch society.
    Keywords: History of cost-benefit analysis in the Netherlands, management of natural resources, optimal strength of dikes, value of statistical life, biodiversity, Lely, Tinbergen, van Dantzig, Eijgenraam, Zuiderzee Works, Delta Works, More room for rivers, Delta Program for the next century
    JEL: A1 B0 C44 D61 H54 Q5
    Date: 2017–08
  29. By: Liu, Haoming (National University of Singapore); Salvo, Alberto (National University of Singapore)
    Abstract: Little is known about how children of high-income expatriate families, often from rich nations, adapt to temporary residence in a severely polluted city of the developing world. We use a six-year panel of 6,500 students at three international schools in a major city in north China to estimate how fluctuation in ambient PM2.5 over the preceding fortnight impacts daily absences. Our preferred estimates are based on the exclusion restriction that absences respond to atmospheric ventilation such as thermal inversions only through ventilation's effect on particle levels. A large and rare 100 to 200 μg/m3 shift in average PM2.5 in the prior week raises the incidence of absences by 1 percentage point, about one-quarter of the sample mean. We find stronger responses for US/Canada nationals than among Chinese nationals, and among students who generally miss school the most. Overall responses are mod-est compared to the effect on absences from more moderate in-sample variation in pollution estimated for the US using aggregate data. Using school absence patterns as a window into short-run health and behavior, our study suggests that high-income families find ways to adapt, likely by moving life indoors, even if temporary residence in north China comes at the expense of long-term health.
    Keywords: environmental valuation, environmental damage, environmental health, atmospheric ventilation, thermal inversions, heterogeneous effects, longitudinal study, acute exposure, PM2.5, particulate matter, air pollution, school absences, avoidance behavior, distributed lags, instrumental variables
    JEL: I18 J24 Q51
    Date: 2017–11
  30. By: Christopher Costello (Bren School of Environmental Science and Managemen); Bruno Nkuiya (University of Alberta); Nicolas Querou (LAMETA - Laboratoire Montpelliérain d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - UM1 - Université Montpellier 1 - UM3 - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - INRA Montpellier - Institut national de la recherche agronomique [Montpellier] - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier, CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: We examine theoretically a system of spatially-connected natural resource concessions with limited tenure. The resource migrates around the system and thus induces a spatial externality, so complete decentralization will not solve the tragedy of the commons. We analyze a system in which conces-sions can be renewed, but only if their owners maintain resource stocks above a pre-defined target. We show that this instrument improves upon the decentralized property right solution and can replicate (under general conditions) the socially optimal extraction path in every patch, in perpetuity. The duration of tenure and the dispersal of the resource play pivotal roles in whether this instrument achieves the socially optimal outcome, and sustains cooperation of all concessionaires.
    Keywords: regime shift,spatial management,renewable ressources,property rights,renewable resources,gestion de l'espace,adaptation au changement climatique,droit de propriété,ressource renouvelable
    Date: 2017–10–12
  31. By: Nuttall, W.; Samaras, C.; Bazilian, M.;
    Abstract: Energy considerations are core to mission delivery of armed forces worldwide. The interaction between military energy issues and non-military energy issues is not often explicitly treated in the literature or media, although in the last decade there has been some increase driven especially by the issues of clean energy. It is recognized that the military has for more than a hundred years taken a leadership role in terms on research and development (R&D) of specific energy technologies - most commonly where they are applicable in theater. More recently that R&D leadership has moved to the energy efficiency of home-country bases, and the development of renewable energy projects for areas as diverse as mini-grids for in-country installations, to alternative fuels for submarines and jets. Nevertheless, the military in most major countries tends to see energy issues as a matter of mission delivery or conversely the denial of enemy energy supply chains as a source of advantage. In this paper we explore the evolving relationship between energy issues and defense planning, and show how these developments have implications for military tactics and strategy and for civil energy policy.
    Keywords: Energy Technology; Defense Policy; Innovation
    JEL: F50 H56 Q20 N42 N44 Q40
    Date: 2017–11–20
  32. By: Pierre Rainelli (ESR, Rennes - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Francois Bonnieux (Unité d'Économie et sociologie rurales de Rennes - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); G. Miclet (Agrocampus)
    Abstract: Élaboration d'indicateurs socio-économiques liés à la qualité de l'eau (application aux lacs d'Annecy et du Bourget)
    Keywords: France,Lac du Bourget,Lac d'Annecy,contrat de recherche,qualité de l'eau,pollution de l'eau
    Date: 2017–09–26
  33. By: -
    Abstract: Este documento presenta una visión general del progreso de las Estadísticas Ambientales (EA) en los países de América Latina y el Caribe (ALC), utilizando los resultados de una encuesta realizada por la División de Estadísticas de la CEPAL en 2015 que tuvo por finalidad la evaluación de EA, el monitoreo de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS), y de la Contabilidad Económica – Ambiental (cuentas ambientales) en los países de América Latina y el Caribe. Los resultados de la encuesta sirvieron para obtener un amplio panorama sobre el estado actual en estas áreas, incluyendo los desafíos claves y necesidades de avance.Esta permitió además realizar un análisis más profundo del desarrollo de las EA durante los últimos siete años, dado que incorporó los criterios de un estudio anterior realizado por la CEPAL en 2009.
    Date: 2017–12–29
  34. By: Jean-Michel Salles (LAMETA - Laboratoire Montpelliérain d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - UM1 - Université Montpellier 1 - UM3 - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - INRA Montpellier - Institut national de la recherche agronomique [Montpellier] - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier, CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: La modélisation économique peut-elle aider à préserver la biodiversité ?
    Date: 2017–09–26
  35. By: Laetitia Dablanc (IFSTTAR/AME/SPLOTT - Systèmes Productifs, Logistique, Organisation des Transports et Travail - IFSTTAR - Institut Français des Sciences et Technologies des Transports, de l'Aménagement et des Réseaux - Communauté Université Paris-Est); Michel Savy (UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée); Pierre Veltz (ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech); Axel Culoz (Alte8 - parent); Muriel Vincent (Terra Nova - parent)
    Abstract: The transport of goods in the city (urban logistics) is a central issue for our urban societies. The explosion of direct deliveries to individuals with the development of e-commerce and the multiplication of logistics centers in the peripheries of our cities transform the urban landscape and our lifestyles. The economics of digital platforms found in urban logistics one of its privileged fields of development. The jobs associated with these activities are very numerous (290,000 in Ile-de-France to which we must add the interim, particularly important) and strategic because they concern people with low and medium school qualifications. Yet, despite this visibility and topicality, logistics remains the poor relation of debates and public policies in metropolises. Cities have little use of the arsenal of regulatory instruments available to them. One of the reasons for this situation is that urban freight transport essentially renders the services expected of it. The freight system is very flexible and continuously adapts to the expectations of companies and consumers. But this "efficiency" is achieved only at the cost of heavy environmental, social and urbanistic counterparts.
    Abstract: Le transport des marchandises en ville (la logistique urbaine) est un enjeu central pour nos sociétés urbaines. L'explosion des livraisons directes aux particuliers avec le développement du e-commerce et la multiplication des centres logistiques dans les périphéries de nos agglomérations transforment le paysage urbain et nos modes de vie. L'économie de plates-formes numériques trouve dans la logistique urbaine un de ses terrains privilégiés de développement. Les emplois liés à ces activités sont très nombreux (290000 en Ile-de-France auquel il faut rajouter l'interim, particulièrement important) et stratégiques car ils concernent des personnes à qualification scolaire faible et moyenne. Pourtant, malgré cette visibilité et cette actualité, la logistique reste le parent pauvre des débats et des politiques publiques dans les métropoles. Les villes n'utilisent que faiblement l'arsenal des instruments de régulation dont elles disposent. Une des raisons de cette situation est que, pour l'essentiel, le transport urbain de marchandises rend les services qu'on attend de lui. Le système de fret est très flexible et s'adapte continument aux attentes des entreprises et des consommateurs. Mais cette "efficacité" ne s'obtient qu'au prix de lourdes contreparties, environnementales, sociales et urbanistiques.
    Date: 2017–01–01

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