nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2017‒10‒22
fifty-four papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Hydrothermal Carbonization (HTC) of Green Waste: An Environmental and Economic Assessment of HTC Coal in the Metropolitan Region of Berlin, Germany By Jakob Medick; Isabel Teichmann; Claudia Kemfert
  2. Welfare and Environmental Impact of Incentive Based Conservation: Evidence from Kenyan Community Forest Associations By Boscow Okumu; Edwin Muchapondwa
  3. Roads & SDGs, tradeoffs and synergies: Learning from Brazil's Amazon in distinguishing frontiers By Pfaff, Alexander S. P.; Robalino, Juan D.; Reis, Eustáquio José; Walker, Robert T.; Perz, Stephen George L.; Laurance, William F.; Bohrer, Claudio; Aldrich, Steven; Arima, E. Y.; Caldas, Marcellus Marques; Kirby, Katherine
  4. Utilitarian framings of biodiversity shape environmental impact assessment in development cooperation By Jean Huge; Anne Julie A.J. Rochette; Luc L. Janssens de Bisthoven; Farid Dahdouh-Guebas; Nico Koedam; Maarten P M M.P.M. Vanhove
  5. Public debt, pollution and environmental taxes: Nash and Stackelberg equilibria By Halkos, George; Papageorgiou, George
  6. Uncertainty and ambiguity in environmental economics: conceptual issues By Geoffrey Heal, Anthony Millner
  7. Defragmenting resource management on the Southeast Arm of Lake Malawi: Case of Fisheries By Ngochera, Maxon; Donda, Steve; Hara , Mafaniso; Berge, Erling
  8. Implementing the SDGs Responding to the Challenges of Interconnectivity and Balance By Navam Niles; Karin Fernando
  9. Unilateral climate Policy and the Green Paradox: Extraction Costs matter By Kollenbach, Gilbert
  10. On the Effects of Infrastructure Investments on Industrial CO2 Emissions in Portugal By Alfredo Marvão Pereira; Rui Manuel Pereira
  11. Directed Technological Change in a post-Keynesian Ecological Macromodel By Naqvi, Syed Ali Asjad; Engelbert, Stockhammer
  12. An Optimized Microeconomic Modeling System for Analyzing Industrial Externalities in Non-OECD Countries By Agnibho Roy; Abhishek Mohan
  13. Commitment vs. Discretion in Climate and Energy Policy By Florian Habermacher; Paul Lehmann
  14. The Intricacy of Adapting to Climate Change: Flood Protection as a Local Public Goods Game By Anton Bondarev; Beat Hintermann; Frank C. Krysiak; Ralph Winkler
  15. The Organizing Framework of Ecosystem Services and its use in River Management By Pamela Kaval; Marjan van den Belt
  16. Directed Technological Change in a post-Keynesian Ecological Macromodel By Asjad NAQVI; Engelbert STOCKHAMMER
  17. Transiting from Plan to Implementation: Challenges and Opportunities Ahead for Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria By Eberechukwu Uneze; Adedeji Adeniran; Uzor Ezechukwu
  18. How Green Self Image Affects Subjective Well-Being: Pro-Environmental Values as a Social Norm By Heinz Welsch; Jan Kuehling
  19. The rise of green bonds: Financing for development in Latin America and the Caribbean By -
  20. Human capital, pollution control, and endogenous growth By Kirschbaum, Birgit; Soretz, Susanne
  21. Adoption of Soil Fertility Management Technologies in Malawi: Impact of Drought Exposure By Katengeza, Samson P.; Holden , Stein T.; Fisher , Monica
  22. Do Clean Development Mechanism projects generate local employment? Testing for sectoral effects across Brazilian municipalities By Yadira Mori Clement; Birgit Bednar-Friedl
  23. A Cost-Benefit Approach for Prioritizing Invasive Species By Pierre Courtois; Charles Figuières; Chloe Mulier; Joakim Weill
  24. Signal and Political Accountability: Environmental Petitions in China By Jiankun LU; Pi-Han Tsai
  25. Lobbying over Exhaustible-Resource Extraction By Achim Voss; Mark Schopf
  26. Mainstreaming disaster risk management strategies in development instruments: Policy briefs for selected member countries of the Caribbean Development and Cooperation Committee By Bello, Omar; Khamis, Marion; Osorio, Claudio; Peralta, Leda
  27. Global demographic change and climate policies By Gerlagh, Reyer; Jaimes Bonilla, Richard; Motavasseli, Ali
  28. Beyond wishful thinking: Explorative Qualitative Modeling (EQM) as a tool for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) By Neumann, Kai; Anderson, Carl; Denich, Manfred
  29. Barriers to the development of temperate agroforestry as an example of agroecological innovation: Mainly a matter of cognitive lock-in? By Line Louah; Marjolein Visser; Alice Blaimont; Charles De Cannière
  30. La economía del cambio climático en América Latina y el Caribe. Síntesis 2016: una visión gráfica By -
  31. Validity and Reliability of Contingent Valuation and Life Satisfaction Measures of Welfare: An Application to the Value of National Olympic Success By Brad R. Humphreys; Bruce K. Johnson; John C. Whitehead
  32. The problem of non-optimal management of urban green areas in Warsaw By Zbigniew Szkop
  33. Sustaining nature-based tourism in Iceland By Douglas Sutherland; Jane Stacey
  34. Roles of Agricultural Transformation in Achieving Sustainable Development Goals on Poverty, Hunger, Productivity, and Inequality By Katsushi S. Imai
  35. National Level Implications of SDG Implementation in Ecuador By Marcela Morales; Mireya Villacis Taco; Vanessa Gutierrez Reyes; Juan Jose Herrera
  36. National Level Implications of the Implementation of SDG 7: Access to Modern Cooking Fuels in India By Pooja Vijay Ramamurthi; Shweta Srinivasan; Deepthi Swamy; Rahul Kuttickat
  37. Emission Taxes, Relocation, and Quality Differences By Voßwinkel, Jan; Birg, Laura
  38. Towards an Action Plan for Monitoring the Sustainable Development Goals in Turkey By Mehmet Arda
  39. Implications of Implementing SDGs at the National Level: A Case of Pakistan By Khalida Ghaus; Nadeem Ahmed; Shehryar Khan Toru; Rabia Manzoor; Muhammad Sohaib
  40. Policy Brief : Scanning capabilities and the impact of environmental characteristics By van Uden, A.; Voeten, Jaap
  41. The Optimal Use of Exhaustible Resources under Nonconstant Returns to Scale By Kaniovski, Serguei
  42. Coaseian Biodiversity Conservation. Who Benefits? By Thomas Eichner; Rüdiger Pethig
  43. Unpacking Data Challenges: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Tanzania By Blandina Kilama; Constantine George; Lucas Katera
  44. National Level Implications of Implementing SDGs in Paraguay By Veronica Serafini Geoghegan
  45. National Level Implications of SDG Implementation: The Case of Sri Lanka By Ganga Tilakaratna; Wimal Nanayakkara; Sunimalee Madurawala; Suwendrani Jayaratne; Kanchana Wickramasinghe
  46. Mediterraneo e Unione Europea tra migrazioni e crescita sostenibile By Schilirò, Daniele
  47. Measuring Post-2015 Sustainable Development in Senegal Phase II Follow-up Study By Maam Suwadu Sakho-Jimbira; Ibrahima Hathie; Aminata Niang; M. Lamine Samake
  48. Geoengineering at the ‘edge of the world’: exploring perceptions of ocean fertilization through the Haida Salmon Restoration Corporation By Kate Elizabeth Gannon, Mike Hulme
  49. Natural Disasters and the Measurement of Industrial Production : Hurricane Harvey, a Case Study By Kimberly Bayard; Ryan Decker; Charles Gilbert
  50. Klima, Politik und Moral By Pies, Ingo
  51. Financing the Future: An Argument for a Parallel Optional Currency By Brunnhuber, Stefan
  52. Desarrollo sostenible, urbanización y desigualdad en América Latina y el Caribe: dinámicas y desafíos para el cambio estructural By -
  53. La gobernanza de los recursos naturales y los conflictos en las industrias extractivas: el caso de Colombia By Ramos Suárez, Eduardo; Muñoz, Cristina; Pérez, Gabriel
  54. Working Paper 286 - Climatic Shocks and Food Security The Role of Foreign Aid By AfDB AfDB

  1. By: Jakob Medick; Isabel Teichmann; Claudia Kemfert
    Abstract: Based on a life-cycle sustainability assessment and the calculation of carbon abatement costs, we quantify the greenhouse-gas emission reductions and costs if green waste in the metropolitan region of Berlin, Germany, is diverted from composting into the production of hydrothermally carbonized coal (HTC coal) that is used as a substitute for hard coal in the generation of electricity and heat. Depending on the geographical origin of the green waste, we specify an urban scenario, a rural-urban scenario, and a rural scenario. Approximately 302 kilogram (kg) of carbon-dioxide equivalents (CO2e) can be saved per megagram (Mg) of fresh-matter (FM) input in the urban scenario, 298 kg CO2e/Mg FM input in the rural-urban scenario, and 316 kg CO2e/Mg FM input in the rural scenario. All three scenarios combined can mitigate a total of 70,511 Mg CO2e per year. This corresponds to about 1.6% of Berlin’s annual greenhouse-gas reduction targets overthe 2005-2020 period. If only private costs are considered, the HTC scenarios are less profitable than their reference cases. However, the inclusion of emissionrelated damage costs has the potential to render them socially preferable. The respective thresholds for social desirability coincide with the carbon abatement costs, about 163 €/Mg CO2e in the urban scenario, 74 €/Mg CO2e in the rural-urban scenario, and 75 €/Mg CO2e in the rural scenario. The lower abatement costs in the latter two scenarios are due to HTC-coal co-firing in an existing power plant rather than mono-firing it in a newly built biomass power plant. This shows that a comparatively favorable use of HTC coal might be as a bridging technology.
    Keywords: Hydrothermal carbonization, char, biocoal, climate change, renewable energy, biomass, waste management, life cycle
    JEL: Q42 Q51 Q54
    Date: 2017
  2. By: Boscow Okumu; Edwin Muchapondwa
    Abstract: This paper focuses on whether the provision of landless forest-adjacent communities with options to grow appropriate food crops inside forest reserves during early stages of reforestation programmes enable vertical transition of low income households and conserves forests. We consider the welfare and environmental impact of a unique incentive scheme known as the Plantation Establishment and Livelihood Improvement Scheme (PELIS) in Kenya. PELIS was aimed at deepening community participation in forestry, and improving the economic livelihoods of adjacent communities. Using data collected from 22 Community Forest Associations and 406 households, we evaluated the mean impact of the scheme on forest cover and household welfare using matching methods and further assessed the heterogeneous impact of the scheme on household welfare using the endogenous quantile treatment effects model. The study revealed that on average, PELIS had a significant and positive impact on overall household welfare (estimated between 15.09% and 28.14%) and on the environment (between 5.53% and 7.94%). However, in terms of welfare, the scheme cannot be defended on equity grounds as it has inequitable distributional impacts on household welfare. The scheme raises welfare of the least poor than the poorest and marginalizes sections of the community through elite capture and lack of market linkages.
    Keywords: household welfare, heterogeneity, Selection Matching, QTE
    JEL: D02 Q23
    Date: 2017–08
  3. By: Pfaff, Alexander S. P.; Robalino, Juan D.; Reis, Eustáquio José; Walker, Robert T.; Perz, Stephen George L.; Laurance, William F.; Bohrer, Claudio; Aldrich, Steven; Arima, E. Y.; Caldas, Marcellus Marques; Kirby, Katherine
    Abstract: To inform the search for SDG synergies in infrastructure provision, and to reduce SDG tradeoffs, the authors show that road impacts on Brazilian Amazon forests have varied significantly across settings. Forest loss varied predictably with prior development - both prior roads and prior deforestation - and in a spatial pattern suggesting a synergy between forests and urban growth in such frontiers. Examining multiple roads investments, the authors estimate impact for settings of high, medium and low prior roads and deforestation. Census-tract observations are numerous for each setting and reveal a pattern, not consistent with endogeneity, that confirms our predictions for this kind of frontier. Impacts are: low after relatively high prior development; larger for medium prior development, at the forest margin; then low again for low prior development. For the latter setting, the authors note that in such isolated areas, interactions with conservation policies influence forest impacts over time. These Amazonian results suggest "SDG strategic" locations of infrastructure, an idea they suggest for other frontiers while highlighting differences in those frontiers and their SDG opportunities.
    Keywords: deforestation,roads,infrastructure,climate change,biodiversity,Brazil
    JEL: O12 O13 H23 H41 Q23 Q24 Q56
    Date: 2017
  4. By: Jean Huge; Anne Julie A.J. Rochette; Luc L. Janssens de Bisthoven; Farid Dahdouh-Guebas; Nico Koedam; Maarten P M M.P.M. Vanhove
    Abstract: Biodiversity is under threat from anthropogenic pressures, in particular in biodiversity-rich developing countries. Development cooperation actors, who traditionally focus on the improvement of socio-economic conditions in the South, are increasingly acknowledging the linkages between poverty and biodiversity, e.g. by referring to the ecosystem services framework. However, there are many different framings which stress the need for biodiversity integration and which influence how biodiversity and development are and/or should be linked. Moreover, there is a gap between the lip service paid to biodiversity integration and the reality of development cooperation interventions. This study analyses how biodiversity framings are reflected in environmental impact assessment (EIA) practice, and how these framings influence EIA and decision-making. The findings, based on an in-depth qualitative analysis of World Bank EIAs undertaken in West Africa, indicate the incoherent quality but also the dominance of the ‘utilitarian’ and ‘corrective’ framings, which respectively stress human use of nature and mitigation of negative unintended development impacts. Identifying and highlighting these discursive trends leads to increased awareness of the importance of biodiversity among all development actors in North and South. However, some framings may lead to an overly narrow human-centred approach which downplays the intrinsic value of biodiversity. This study proposes recommendations for an improved integration of biodiversity in development cooperation, including the need for more systematic baseline studies in EIAs.
    Keywords: Africa; Baseline; Biodiversity; Development cooperation; Environmental impact assessment (EIA)
    Date: 2017–09
  5. By: Halkos, George; Papageorgiou, George
    Abstract: Public debt accumulation and pollution result to disutility while time path must be sustainable. Policy weapons available to the government with regard to public debt is the generation of primary surpluses to sustain public debt while concerning pollution environmental taxation is expected to reduce emissions. In this paper, we address these factors in a simple dynamic game in order to find ways at which the notions of public debt, pollution, and taxation are interrelated. The starting point of the model is the identity of current account as the equation of motion of public debt, while public debt is considering as a stock and the stress of the regulator is to raise the nation’s primary surplus. Nash and Stackelberg differential game solutions are used to explore the strategic interactions. In the Nash equilibrium establishment of cyclical strategies, during the game between the polluters in one hand and the government on the other, requires that the discount rate of the polluters must be greater than government’s discount rate. That is the polluters must be more impatient than the government. In the case of hierarchical setting, the analytical expressions of the strategic variables and the steady state value of public debt stock are provided. Furthermore, we found the analytical expressions of the value functions, making, therefore, the policy implications an easy task. Finally, we found the conditions under which the conflict is more intensive, in the two cases of equilibrium, according to the shadow price of the environmental damages.
    Keywords: Public debt; Pollution; Taxation; Dynamic games; Nash equilibrium; Stackelberg equilibrium.
    JEL: C72 H23 H62 Q52 Q53 Q58
    Date: 2017–10
  6. By: Geoffrey Heal, Anthony Millner
    Abstract: Uncertainty is ubiquitous in Environmental Economics. This is inevitable: we study the interactions between socioeconomic systems and biogeochemical systems, and in general neither of these is fully understood. Climate change is a good example: the scientific community understands some aspects of the behaviour of the climate system well, but others poorly. We are certainly no better off, and often worse off, when it comes to our understanding of economic systems. And we are particularly weak at the interactions between the two. Biodiversity loss is another important problem for which our lack of knowledge is striking. We are in the midst of a mass extinction comparable to those of prehistory, yet we have little formal understanding of why biodiversity matters to us or how to model the economic consequences of its loss. In this paper, the authors' treatment of uncertainty in environmental applications is motivated by two leading examples: climate change and biodiversity loss. They argue that in these cases uncertainty is sufficiently far-reaching that standard decision-making tools such as expected utility theory may no longer capture important aspects of our uncertainty preferences. Richer models of decision-making, which allow us to express lack of confidence in our information, may be more desirable.
    Date: 2017–09
  7. By: Ngochera, Maxon (Senga Bay Fisheries Research Center); Donda, Steve (Fisheries Department); Hara , Mafaniso (Institute for poverty, Land and Agrarian Studies (PLAAS), School of Government, Faculty of Economic and Management Science, University of Western Cape,); Berge, Erling (Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences)
    Abstract: The Southeast Arm of Lake Malawi catchment has a wide range of natural resources that require prudent management for sustainability and maximisation of benefits. The current management practice is government sector based, with individual Departments and Ministries using their own policies, legislations and management approaches, yet dealing with the same composite resource and user communities. This has resulted in fragmentation of management leading to the lack of alignment between formal and informal institutions, and competition for power and authority for management. Fragmentation is also leading to loss of resource rent. This paper analyses how and why management is fragmented in the Southeast Arm of Lake Malawi catchment and suggests how management could be defragmented, with special interest on fisheries. Activities with high negative impacts on fisheries include: overfishing; soil erosion resulting in siltation and turbidity of the lake; chemical and organic pollution; loss of access to land and beaches; and habitat loss. There is need for a better and more holistic understanding of how human activities represent both livelihood benefits and a threat to sustainability of natural resources in order to find ways for balancing these two aspects. We suggest that to increase the efficacy of management of Lake Malawi’s Southeast Arm will require ‘defragmented decentralization’, an approach whereby devolution of authority and responsibility are ceded to the district and local levels, respectively.
    Keywords: Management; institutions; fragmentation; defragmented decentralisation; devolution; Lake Malawi
    JEL: H11 H70 P48 Q28
    Date: 2017–10–16
  8. By: Navam Niles; Karin Fernando
    Abstract: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) present two challenges for integrated planning and implementation at the national level. One is that policies and plans need to identify and accommodate interconnectivities amongst the SDGs. Second is the need to balance the three dimensions: economic growth, social inclusion and environmental protection. This paper uses network analysis to explore interconnectivity and balance of the Sri Lankan policies or plans in relation to SDG 7, that advocates clean energy security. The findings suggest that the selected policies or plans are not only clearly linked to SDG 7, but also shows strong connectivity to SDG 1 (poverty), 10 (inequality), 11 (cities) and 12 (sustainable consumption and production) as well as other SDGs. This emphasises the need to recognise sectoral cross links for an integrated plan. In terms of balance there is a skew towards the environmental dimension over the economic and social dimensions. There are also conflicts between the environmental and economic dimensions that need to be acknowledged and reconciled, while more focus is needed to meet the objective of energy for all. Lastly the paper shows that network analysis can assist policymakers and planners to move towards building an integrated approach to develop sustainable policies and plans.
    Keywords: SDG 7, network analysis, Sri Lankan energy policies and plans, interconnectivity and balance, clean energy security
    Date: 2017–01
  9. By: Kollenbach, Gilbert
    Abstract: To analyze the effect of unilaterally tightened climate policies, we augment the two country model of Hoel (2011) with fossil fuel extraction costs. It turns out that a tighter climate policy of the country with the initially stricter policy causes neither a weak nor a strong green paradox if the fossil fuel stock is sufficiently small. In case of a tighter climate policy in the country with the initially laxer policy, a weak green paradox depends on the price-elasticity of energy demand.
    JEL: Q41 Q42 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2017
  10. By: Alfredo Marvão Pereira (Department of Economics, The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg VA 23187); Rui Manuel Pereira (Department of Economics, The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg VA 23187)
    Abstract: We estimate how infrastructure investments affect industrial CO2 emissions in Portugal. Using empirical evidence on the economic effects of twelve types of infrastructure investments at the industry level, we consider twenty-two industries and the respective CO2 emission factors. Our conclusions are as follows. First, given the current emission factors for each industry, almost all types on infrastructure investments help the emissions intensity of the economy. Only for investments in airports and in health facilities are such positive effects absent. Second, the relevance of the economic effects of the different types of infrastructure investments on the electrical power industry is central in determining the overall effects on emissions. This is not surprising, given that electric power accounts for nearly 35% of CO2 emissions in Portugal and the extremely high emissions factor of this industry amplifies even small economic effects. Third, under an alternative scenario in which the emissions from the electric power industry have been eliminated – due to the use of renewable energy in production, for example – , or are otherwise ignored, we still see that most infrastructure investments lead to a decline in the CO2 emissions intensity. In this case, however, investments in national roads leave the emissions intensity essentially unchanged, while investments in health infrastructure have adverse effects on emissions. There are several important policy implications of these results when we consider infrastructure investment strategies that are mindful of their CO2 emission effects. Consider, for instance, transportation infrastructures. Given the present electric power generating mix, investment in national roads would be an appropriate policy recommendation from an environmental perspective, while investments in airport infrastructure should be avoided. Under a scenario of aggressive use of renewable energy sources in the production of electricity, however, the best investments would be in railroads and airports, two industries highly dependent on the use of electricity
    Keywords: Infrastructure Investment, CO2 Emissions, Industry-level Economic Effects, Industry-level Emission Effects, VAR, Portugal
    JEL: C32 E22 H54 L90 O52 Q43 Q58
    Date: 2017–10
  11. By: Naqvi, Syed Ali Asjad; Engelbert, Stockhammer
    Abstract: This paper presents a post-Keynesian ecological macro model that combines three strands of literature: the directed technological change mechanism developed in mainstream endogenous growth theory models, the ecological economic literature which highlights the role of green innovation and material ows, and the post-Keynesian school which provides a framework to deal with the demand side of the economy, nancial ows, and inter- and intra-sectoral behavioral interactions. The model is stock-fow consistent and introduces research and development (R&D) as a component of GDP funded by private rm investment and public expenditure. The economy uses three complimentary inputs - Labor, Capital, and (non-renewable) Resources. Input productivities depend on R&D expenditures, which are determined by relative changes in their respective prices. Two policy experiments are tested; a Resource tax increase, and an increase in the share of public R&D on Resources. Model results show that policy instruments that are continually increased over a long-time horizon have better chances of achieving a "green" transition than one-off climate policy shocks to the system, that primarily have a short-run affect.
    Keywords: directed technological change, research and development, green transition, ecological economics,post- keynesian ecomomics, stock-flow consistency
    Date: 2017–10–09
  12. By: Agnibho Roy; Abhishek Mohan
    Abstract: In this paper, we provide an integrated systems modeling approach to analyzing global externalities from a microeconomic perspective. Various forms of policy (fiscal, monetary, etc.) have addressed flaws and market failures in models, but few have been able to successfully eliminate modern externalities that remain an environmental and human threat. We assess three primary global industries (pollution, agriculture, and energy) with respect to non-OECD entities through both qualitative and quantitative studies. By combining key mutual points of specific externalities present within each respective industry, we are able to propose an alternative and optimized solution to internalizing them via incentives and cooperative behavior rather than by traditional Pigouvian taxes and subsidies.
    Date: 2017–10
  13. By: Florian Habermacher; Paul Lehmann
    Abstract: To decarbonize the power sector policy-makers need to commit to long-term credible rules for climate and energy policy. Otherwise, time-inconsistent policy-making will impair investments into low-carbon technologies. However, the future benefits and costs of decarbonization are subject to substantial uncertainties. Thus, there may also be societal gains from allowing policy-makers the discretion to adjust the policies as new information becomes available. We examine how this trade-off between policy commitment and discretion affects the optimal intertemporal design of policies to support the deployment of renewable energy sources. Using a dynamic partial equilibrium model of the power sector, we show that commitment to state-contingent renewable subsidies outperforms both unconditional commitment and discretion. The choice between the practically more feasible approaches of unconditional commitment and discretion is analytically ambiguous. A numerical illustration with naïve assumptions suggests that policy discretion may outperform unconditional commitment in terms of welfare. However, extensions to more realistic cases where only a limited fraction of climate uncertainty resolves, where future policy-makers have own agendas, or with risk-averse investors show commitment as favorable.
    Keywords: climate change, public policy, subsidies, renewable energy, time inconsistency, uncertainty, commitment, hold-up
    JEL: H23 Q42 Q48 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2017
  14. By: Anton Bondarev; Beat Hintermann; Frank C. Krysiak; Ralph Winkler
    Abstract: We study adaptation to climate change in a federalist setting. To protect themselves against an increase in flood risk, regional governments choose among adaptation measures that vary with respect to their costs, the level of protection they offer, and the presence and nature of spillovers to neighboring regions. The central government can provide co-funding in response to specific proposals. If it has to deduce the vulnerability of regions by their actions, the resulting adaptation measures are too costly from a social point of view. The results show that adaptation cannot be expected to be efficient without specifically designed incentive schemes.
    Keywords: climate change, adaptation, federalism, asymmetric information, vertical interaction, spillovers, non-cooperative games, signaling
    JEL: C72 C73 H23 H41 H77 Q52 Q54 Q58 R53
    Date: 2017
  15. By: Pamela Kaval; Marjan van den Belt
    Abstract: An Ecosystem Services approach can be used as an organizing framework to enhance the management of ecosystems, as multiple values and trade-offs can be identified and communicated through an ecosystem services lens. This can support more systemic, rather than incremental, planning, decision-making, and longer term value propositions. As rivers and their catchments/watersheds (RCW) are the lifeblood of many ecosystems, ecosystem services must adequately be taken into account in RCW planning, decision-making, and management to sustain and/or enhance this important natural capital. In this literature review, we discuss if/how an ecosystem services lens has been applied in the peer reviewed literature in the context of RCW management. Overall, the results reveal continual increases worldwide in the popularity and importance of considering ecosystem services in terms of RCW. Our findings also reveal that most of these studies have focussed on the themes of modelling, valuation, and/or mapping, but have not necessarily comprehensively used all three. We conclude that there is room for an ecosystem services approach to reach its full potential as an organizing framework, in particular across regions/countries and at multiple levels of scale.
    Keywords: ecosystem services; river; watershed; catchment; ecosystem service organizing framework; river management
    JEL: Q2 Q57 Q25 Q26 Q28
    Date: 2017–10–16
  16. By: Asjad NAQVI (Vienna University of Economics and Business, Welthandelsplatz 1, 1020 Vienna, Austria); Engelbert STOCKHAMMER (Kingston University Dept. of Economics Penrhyn Road Kingston upon Thames Surrey KT1 2EE UK)
    Abstract: This paper presents a post-Keynesian ecological macro model that combines three strands of literature: the directed technological change mechanism developed in mainstream endogenous growth theory models, the ecological economic literature which highlights the role of green innovation and material flows, and the post-Keynesian school which provides a framework to deal with the demand side of the economy, financial flows, and inter- and intra-sectoral behavioral interactions. The model is stock-flow consistent and introduces research and development (R&D) as a component of GDP funded by private rm investment and public expenditure. The economy uses three complimentary inputs - Labor, Capital, and (non-renewable) Resources. Input productivities depend on R&D expenditures, which are determined by relative changes in their respective prices. Two policy experiments are tested; a Resource tax increase, and an increase in the share of public R&D on Resources. Model results show that policy instruments that are continually increased over a long-time horizon have better chances of achieving a "green" transition than one-off climate policy shocks to the system, that primarily have a short-run affect.
    Keywords: directed technological change, research and development, green transition, ecological economics,post- keynesian ecomomics, stock-flow consistency
    Date: 2017–10
  17. By: Eberechukwu Uneze; Adedeji Adeniran; Uzor Ezechukwu
    Abstract: Global efforts over the next 15 years will focus on successfully implementing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) agreed to under the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Most developing countries will face enormous challenges because they lack the necessary means of implementation (MoI). This study examines the adequacy of various MoI for the SDGs in Nigeria, focusing on five key areas: the ease of mainstreaming international goals into national plans; the efficacy of management, coordination, and monitoring and evaluation mechanisms; the ability of financing options to meet financing needs; the robustness of stakeholders and partnerships; and the level of statistical capacity. The study finds that the existing MoI in Nigeria are inadequate, and will require significant improvement to implement the SDGs successfully. However, there is potential to mitigate the challenges with proactive government and complementary roles by key stakeholders, such as development partners, the private sector and civil society.
    Keywords: Nigeria, national-level challenges, SDGs, means of implementation (MoI)
    Date: 2016–04
  18. By: Heinz Welsch (University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics); Jan Kuehling (University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: Recent literature has found that individuals holding a greener self-image display higher levels of life satisfaction. We extend the single-country setting of that research to a transnational perspective and explore whether a relationship exists between green self-image (GSI) and life satisfaction (LS), both European-wide and at the national level. In order to explain differences in the GSI-LS relationship across nations and time, we study the role of pro-environmental values as a shared social norm. We find a significantly positive GSI-LS relationship in a pool of 35 European countries and in the majority of individual countries. In addition, we show that the well-being benefit of holding a green self-image is greater in societies that are less divided with respect to environmental attitudes, that is, where being green is a shared social norm.
    Keywords: green self-image; subjective well-being; life satisfaction; social norm; social division
    Date: 2017–10
  19. By: -
    Abstract: The 2030 Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals present a unique opportunity to promote new instruments and innovative mechanisms for financing social and production development in Latin America and the Caribbean. “Green bonds” are an example of alternative financial instruments becoming increasingly available to investors. This report examines the growing green bond market, with emphasis on Latin America and the Caribbean.
    Date: 2017–10
  20. By: Kirschbaum, Birgit; Soretz, Susanne
    Abstract: We analyse an endogenous growth model with pollution and abatement. Human capital is used in the production sector as well as in pollution control. We show that greener preferences may increase the pollution level, driven by the decrease in human capital intensity in the production sector and the human capital reallocation. This can help to explain why environmental quality in emerging countries frequently deteriorates.
    JEL: O1 O4 Q2 Q5
    Date: 2017
  21. By: Katengeza, Samson P. (Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences); Holden , Stein T. (Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences); Fisher , Monica (Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology)
    Abstract: Soil fertility management (SFM) technologies may potentially protect against climate risks, reduce nutrient depletion and enhance food security. In this paper, we study impact of drought exposure on adoption and adoption intensity of SFM technologies, specifically, focusing on maize-legume intercropping and organic manure. The paper uses four-round panel data collected from six districts in Malawi over a period of nine years and we use correlated random effects models with a control function approach for data analysis. Results show an increase in adoption rates from 33% in 2006 to 76% in 2015 for maize-legume intercropping and from 30% (2006) to 53% (2015)for organic manure. Regression results reveal that exposure to early and late dry spells increases the likelihood of adoption and adoption intensity of maize-legume intercropping with late droughts also having a positive impact on adoption and adoption intensity of organic manure. We also find positive effects of fertilizer use intensity and fertilizer price on adoption and adoption intensity of both intercropping and organic manure.
    Keywords: Soil fertility management; maize-legume intercropping; organic manure; adoption; drought impacts; Malawi
    JEL: Q12 Q16 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2017–10–16
  22. By: Yadira Mori Clement (University of Graz); Birgit Bednar-Friedl (University of Innsbruck)
    Abstract: Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) investments have the two-fold objective of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and contributing to sustainable development. But while the contribution to mitigation has been analysed extensively in the literature, the impact on development has barely been quantified empirically. This paper intends to address this latter gap by investigating the impact of different types of CDM investments on local employment generation. A dynamic panel regression model for the period 2004-2014 across Brazilian municipalities supports that some CDM projects have not only stimulated job creation beyond the renewable energy sector, but also had a contractive effect in some economic sectors. We find moreover a clear difference by project type: For waste handling and methane avoidance projects, overall employment increases while no such effect emerges for hydro projects. However, these job effects are mainly transitory, i.e. in the first or second year after the project's registration; the expansion effect can be explained as a result of local employment demands generated during the project's construction and operation phases. The lack of durability or the temporary effects in employment of these projects might question the contribution of their benefits to local sustainable development.
    Keywords: Employment generation; Clean development mechanism; Industry; Regional development; Municipality level; Brazil; Dynamic panel model
    JEL: P48 Q52 Q56 R23
    Date: 2017–05
  23. By: Pierre Courtois (INRA - SAE2, LAMETA); Charles Figuières (Aix-Marseille Univ. (Aix-Marseille School of Economics), CNRS, EHESS and Centrale Marseille); Chloe Mulier (Innovation, Montpellier); Joakim Weill (Dpt of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 2159 Social Sciences and Humanities, University of California, Davis)
    Abstract: Biological invasions entail massive biodiversity losses and tremendous economic impacts that justify significant management efforts. Because the funds available to control biological invasions are limited, there is a need to identify priority species. This paper first review current invasive species prioritization methods and explicitly highlights their pitfalls. We then construct a cost-benefit optimization framework that incorporates species utility, ecological value, distinctiveness, and species interactions. This framework offers the theoretical foundations of a simple and operational method for the management of invasive species under a limited budget constraint. It takes the form of an algorithm for the prioritization of multiple biological invasions.
    Keywords: prioritization, biological invasions, cost/benefit, optimization, diversity
    JEL: Q28 Q57 Q58
    Date: 2017–09
  24. By: Jiankun LU (Zhejiang University of Finance and Economics. Address: Xueyuan Street No. 18, Xiasha Higher Education Park, Hangzhou, China, 310018); Pi-Han Tsai (Zhejiang University. Address: 38 Zheda Rd, Xihu, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, 310027)
    Abstract: Vertical accountability in China has long been considered as essentially indirect or informal. This paper provides evidence that direct local accountability may exist to a greater or lesser degree in China under current political institutions. By using provincial environmental petition data, this paper finds that the number of environmental petitions is positively associated with provincial governments' investments in pollution mitigation. The increased petitions serve as a signal to provincial leaders of the possibility of potential social instability. However, since "local" provincial party secretaries are better informed, the signaling effect of the petitions is lessened in these cases.
    Keywords: political signal; political accountability; environmental expenditure
    JEL: H11 H70 P26 Q58
    Date: 2017–06
  25. By: Achim Voss (School of Economics and Social Sciences, University of Hamburg); Mark Schopf (University of Hagen)
    Abstract: We characterize the resource-extraction path that is chosen by a government which is influenced by a resource-supplier lobby group. The lobby group pays the government in exchange for a deviation from welfare-maximization. We show how the development of payments relates to the development of a conflict of interest between profit-maximization and welfare-maximization. Due to stock-pollution damages, the government prefers a lower long-run level of cumulative extraction than the lobby group. Moreover, the resource suppliers’ aim of maximizing profit implies that the distorted extraction may be too slow to maximize welfare, while flow-pollution damages imply that it may be too fast.
    Keywords: Environmental Policy, Exhaustible Resources, Political Economy, Lobbying, Time Consistency, Dynamic Programming
    JEL: D72 Q31 Q38 Q58
    Date: 2017–10
  26. By: Bello, Omar; Khamis, Marion; Osorio, Claudio; Peralta, Leda
    Abstract: This policy brief has the objective of profiling disaster risk management policies in five selected member states of the Caribbean Development and Cooperation Committee: The Bahamas, Belize, The Dominican Republic, Haiti and Jamaica, and analyze their interactions with broader development issues and instruments, such as national development plans and climate change adaptation strategies. To this end, firstly, it presents the five pillars for Disaster Risk Managenent (DRM), namely risk identification, risk reduction, preparedness, financial protection, and resilient recovery, as well as their applications to disaster assessments.1 Secondly, it describes the integration of DRM into development policies. The structure of the analysis will allow countries to identify strengths and weaknesses of the DRM policies and how they interact with other planning and development instruments. Finally, it presents policy recommendations to strengthen the role of DRM and to improve the use of resources through multisectoral projects that build resilience to disasters and climate change.
    Date: 2017–09
  27. By: Gerlagh, Reyer (Tilburg University, Center For Economic Research); Jaimes Bonilla, Richard (Tilburg University, Center For Economic Research); Motavasseli, Ali (Tilburg University, Center For Economic Research)
    Abstract: Between 1950 and 2017, world average life expectancy increased from below-50 to above-70, while the fertility rate dropped from 5 to about 2.5. We develop and calibrate an analytic climate-economy model with overlapping generations to study the effect of such demographic change on capital markets and optimal climate policies. Our model replicates findings from the OLG-demography literature, such as a rise in households’ savings, and a declining rate of return to capital. We also find that demographic change raises the social cost of carbon, at 2020, from 28 euro/tCO2 in a model that abstracts from demography, to 94 euro/tCO2 in our calibrated model.
    Keywords: climate change; social cost of carbon; environmental policy; demographic trends
    JEL: H23 J11 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2017
  28. By: Neumann, Kai; Anderson, Carl; Denich, Manfred
    Abstract: The UN's Sustainable Development Goals in their generalized form need to be further reflected in order to identify synergies and trade-offs between their (sub-)targets, and to apply them to concrete nations and regions. Explorative, qualitative cause and effect modeling could serve as a tool for adding crucial factors and enabling a better understanding of the interrelations between the goals, eventually leading to more informed concrete measures better able to cope with their inherent obstacles. This work provides and describes a model that could serve as a template for concrete application. The generalized model already points to some potential ambivalences as well as synergies that can be reflected on using some of the latest theories and concepts from economics and transition research, among other fields. Its first analyses cautiously raise doubts that some possible assumptions behind the original Sustainable Development Goals might overlook some systemic boundaries. For example, an undifferentiated increase of productivity contradicts a lessened environmental impact and need for resources in light of potential planetary boundaries.
    Keywords: SDG,transition,sustainability,modeling,explorative,participatory,qualitative,insight matrix,soft factors,feedback loops,evolutionary psychology,know why,decoupling,circular economy,social lab
    JEL: A19 C19 B49 C38 C69 O10 O19
    Date: 2017
  29. By: Line Louah; Marjolein Visser; Alice Blaimont; Charles De Cannière
    Abstract: Agroforestry (AF) is promoted as an environmentally sound farming practice to address the pressing challenges of meeting a rising global demand for agricultural commodities while conserving biodiversity. Although AF played an important role in European farming in the past, reintroducing the planting of trees in fields is a radical innovation in the modern context, and is, initially, a researcher's idea. This paper investigates stakeholders’ perspectives on modern AF in two contrasting sub-regions of southern Belgium (Wallonia). Using Q methodology to identify patterns of subjectivity, we found that the conversation splits into three idealised-types of discourse that reflect different farming styles. Only one of the three discourses is in favour of AF. The results indicate that the paradigm type (holism vs. reductionism) underlying each discourse is a major factor that influences stakeholders’ position on AF. The main barriers hampering mainstreaming of AF seem cognitive in nature, and are related to the level of ecological knowledge. By exploring the ‘cognitive unlocking process’, our Q methodological study led to the identification of two readily available strategies to scale up AF: (1) ecological education and (2) social learning within multi-actor innovation networks. Such networks could foster on-farm innovation development and research, in which the farmer is an expert at the same level as the researcher. While this study focuses on the development of AF, the findings could be extrapolated to other agroecological innovations.
    Keywords: Agroecology; Agroforestry; Qmethodology; Stakeholder perception
    Date: 2017–09
  30. By: -
    Abstract: El cambio climático es uno de los grandes desafíos del siglo XXI debido a sus causas y consecuencias globales y a la magnitud de los esfuerzos necesarios y simultáneos para amortiguar sus impactos negativos, adaptarse a las nuevas condiciones climáticas y llevar a cabo los procesos de mitigación de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero. El principal objetivo de esta publicación es presentar las hipótesis y las cifras básicas de la economía del cambio climático en América Latina y el Caribe de forma resumida y gráfica. Estos hechos estilizados buscan contribuir a un mejor diseño, instrumentación y evaluación de las políticas públicas referidas al cambio climático en el siglo XXI, de manera que permitan la transformación del actual estilo de desarrollo y la transición hacia un desarrollo sostenible. Además del prólogo y esta introducción, se incluyen nueve tesis y siete desafíos que definen las características del cambio climático en América Latina y el Caribe.
    Date: 2017–10
  31. By: Brad R. Humphreys; Bruce K. Johnson; John C. Whitehead
    Abstract: The contingent valuation method (CV) has long been used to estimate nonmarket values of environmental and other public goods and amenities. Recently, life satisfaction (LS) measures have been used to estimate nonmarket values. This paper empirically compares CV and LS measures of welfare. We elicit willingness-to-pay (WTP) estimates for medals won by Canadian athletes and LS measures using Canadian survey data collected before and after the 2010 Winter Olympic Games. These data permit comparative analyses of reliability and validity of CV and LS measures. Both exhibit econometric reliability. CV and LS WTP estimates for medals increases after the Olympics. CV measures of WTP exhibit temporal reliability but LS measures of welfare lack temporal reliability and are significantly greater than CV measures. Key Words: contingent valuation method; life satisfaction method; willingness-to-pay; validity reliability
    JEL: C18 C52 D12 D62 I15 Q51
    Date: 2017
  32. By: Zbigniew Szkop (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw)
    Abstract: In his paper the author looks at management of urban green areas in Warsaw as a principal agent problem. In the study the principal is the City Mayor, while the agent is institution responsible for managing street trees in Warsaw (ZOM). While the City Mayor is interested in enhancing the welfare of their constituency, the lower level officers do not have to be preoccupied with the same concerns - they are interested in maximizing their utility subject to some constraints imposed by their bosses. This is a standard hierarchical agency theory model. As the agent’s contract is not incentive compatible, the theoretical "residual claimancy" condition does not hold, and the species composition is different from what it would have been if the principal-agent model implemented was incentive compatible.
    Keywords: Principal-agent models, urban trees, ecosystem services
    JEL: H49 Q53 Q57 R59
    Date: 2017
  33. By: Douglas Sutherland; Jane Stacey
    Abstract: Iceland has been experiencing a tourism boom. The number of tourists visiting annually quadrupled between 2010 and 2016 and shows continued strength. The tourism sector is now the major export earner and is also creating new jobs and supporting new businesses. The government budget has also benefitted from high tax revenues. The surge in tourism supported growth after the crisis and the sector has become a major pillar of the economy. But, the breakneck growth of tourism has created a number of challenges. Growing pains have emerged as accommodation supply has lagged in the wake of unexpectedly large number of tourists, contributing to pressure on the local housing market. The environment, particularly in some popular sites, has also come under pressure. The government has reacted to these environmental and social impacts and has worked with the industry to agree on a path forward. Sustaining a nature-based tourism for Iceland will require more coordinated policy across government and a long-term strategic plan that builds on Iceland's strengths. Protecting the unique environmental attractions of Iceland - while mitigating adverse social impacts - will lay the basis for the healthy development of a new important sector. This working paper relates to the 2017 OECD Economic Survey of Iceland ( c-survey-iceland.htm).
    Keywords: environment, growth, housing, sustainabile development, Tourism
    JEL: O44 Q56 R31
    Date: 2017–10–11
  34. By: Katsushi S. Imai (Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration (RIEB), Kobe University, Japan and School of Social Sciences, University of Manchester, UK)
    Abstract: This paper examines the role of the transformation of the rural agricultural sector in achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 1, 2 and 10 drawing upon the cross-country panel data over the past four decades for 105 developing countries. We define agricultural transformation by three different indices, namely, (i) the agricultural openness index – the share of agricultural export in agricultural value added of the country, (ii) the commercialization index - the share of processed agricultural products, fruits, green vegetables, and meats in all primary and processed agricultural products, and (iii) the product diversification index to capture the extent to which the country diversify the agricultural production. Drawing upon the dynamic panel model, we have found that transformation of the agricultural sector in terms of agricultural openness has dynamically increased the overall agricultural productivity and its growth and has consequently reduced national, rural and urban poverty significantly. We have also found that agricultural openness tends to significantly alleviate child malnutrition, namely underweight and stunting, and improve food security in terms of energy supply adequacy, protein supply, lack of food deficit and reduction of the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women. The agricultural openness is found to be negatively associated with the Gini coefficient at both national and subnational levels (for both rural and urban areas). Except for Latin America, product diversification reduces agricultural productivity, implying the efficiency gains from economies of scale of fewer crops. On the other hand, we argue that the commercialisation does not generally increase the agricultural productivity and this may be related to a positive effect of the higher share of cereal production on productivity observed in Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. It has been suggested that policies improving the efficiency of agricultural production, for example through better rural infrastructure, or promoting agricultural exports, through regional economic integrations or reducing transaction costs such as tariff and non-tariff barriers, would help to achieve SDGs 1, 2 and 10 indirectly through the productivity improvement. However, a separate policy to support the poorest below the US$1.90 a day poverty line is also necessary for achieving SDG 1.
    Date: 2017–10
  35. By: Marcela Morales; Mireya Villacis Taco; Vanessa Gutierrez Reyes; Juan Jose Herrera
    Abstract: This study contributes to the understanding of the implications of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) implementation by presenting and analysing the case of Ecuador, based on lessons learned from implementing the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In general, the country will have to enhance its existing mechanisms to monitor the accomplishment of the SDGs in order to identify the areas where it will require further attention and more efforts, such as maternal and child mortality, gender equity and sustainability. It is also important and necessary to take full advantage of the existing institutional capacities and identify areas for improvement. In this sense, the monitoring process of the SDGs will have to include higher participation levels from institutions at the national level and stronger coordination with sub-national governments to observe the implementation and adaptation of goals and targets to the local realities. Among the main challenges for the country are the financial issues. A possible economic crisis might affect the country’s priorities in terms of funding and might have an impact on the adoption of the SDGs. This paper examines five key areas as a basis for further discussion and deeper analysis such as the integration of the SDGs in the national planning process; coordination, management and leadership; adequacy of financing and other means of implementation; partnership and stakeholder participation; and the capacity of national statistical agencies.
    Keywords: Ecuador, national-level challenges, SDG implementation, National Plan for Good Living (NPGL), National Decentralized Participatory Planning System (NDPPS), SEN National Statistics System (SEN), priorities in state budget
    Date: 2016–10
  36. By: Pooja Vijay Ramamurthi; Shweta Srinivasan; Deepthi Swamy; Rahul Kuttickat
    Abstract: Sustainable Development Goal 7 (SDG 7) aims to “ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all†by 2030. India is home to the world’s largest population without access to modern energy – 400 million people do not have access to electricity and 800 million people still cook with traditional biomass. In this context, this study analyses the potential to embed the SDG 7 target of universal access to clean fuels and technologies into India’s national agenda. The analysis of the present paper shows that at the current pace of deployment of clean cooking technology, it seems unlikely that India will meet the SDG 7 target by 2030. In order to progress towards achieving this target, India needs to adopt a two-pronged technological approach – access to modern cooking fuel needs to be increased alongside efforts to make traditional cooking fuels safer to use. Consumer affordability, access and awareness all remain large barriers to the successful uptake of clean cooking technologies. There exists a lack of intra-governmental coordination, and existing networks are not effectively utilised. Non-governmental stakeholders have a key role to play in facilitating market finance, robust ‘last-mile’ distribution, community engagement, awareness-raising and after-sales services. Current data monitoring mechanisms also need to be modified so as to effectively track progress towards the SDG 7 target.
    Keywords: India, modern cooking fuels, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), clean cooking roadmap, SDG
    Date: 2016–11
  37. By: Voßwinkel, Jan; Birg, Laura
    Abstract: This paper studies the effect of an emission tax on the relocation decision of firms, when a duopolistic market is characterized by vertical quality differentiation. The Nash-equilibria of relocation choices depend discontinuously on the cost of relocation φ and the quality difference λ. If also the foreign country F applies an emission tax and both governments set taxes uncooperatively, the high quality firm never relocates to F in equilibrium.
    JEL: H23 F18 L13 Q58
    Date: 2017
  38. By: Mehmet Arda
    Abstract: Monitoring the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires a considerable amount of data. Regardless of their level of development, most countries’ statistical services demand some adaptation or improvement in an attempt to reduce, to the greatest possible extent, the current lacunae in information. In Turkey, one area that requires particular improvement is data disaggregation, especially according to social groupings, and along a rural-urban distinction that reflects a more functional understanding of this distinction. Administrative data collected during the delivery of governmental services could provide substantial amounts of relevant information; however, at present such collection processes are neither regular nor systematic. Ensuring consistency and continuity in the collection, measurement and definitions of data, as well as promoting improvements in the formulation of survey questions, could go a long way to improving the availability of information in Turkey, both for SDG monitoring and for the general design and implementation of policies and measures. While Turkey intends to follow the SDG Monitoring Road Map being developed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), important work by the Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkStat) on developing a Wellbeing Index is an already significant step forward towards improving the SDG monitoring in Turkey.
    Keywords: Turkey, data disaggregation, SDG implementation monitoring, Wellbeing Index, Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkStat)
    Date: 2016–12
  39. By: Khalida Ghaus; Nadeem Ahmed; Shehryar Khan Toru; Rabia Manzoor; Muhammad Sohaib
    Abstract: The present study focuses on the implications of implementing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the context of Pakistan. The study has identified the structural impediments confronted due to political and bureaucratic hierarchies to be the main reasons for the lower level of attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The research suggests that the primary approach for the provincial governments towards SDG implementation should be integrating the SDGs into the provincial Medium Term Development Framework (MTDF). In addition, leadership provided by federal government is considered to be essential for an improved coordination and management of forward and backward linkages. However, this is often challenged by the inter-provincial political rivalries and lack of monitoring mechanisms. The need and the importance of conflict management tactics have been identified as key factors to keep the provincial rivalry under control and also to bridge the trust deficit. This responsibility can partially be entrusted upon the SDGs Unit and the Secretariat. There are serious capacity issues (human and financial) both at federal and provincial government levels. All four provincial governments need to chalk out their respective plans to avail sources of Means of Implementation. Finally, the paper emphasises on conducting a mapping exercise to gauge the existing resource availability and the future resource needs for implementing the SDGs.
    Keywords: Pakistan, Medium Term Development Framework (MTDF), national-level challenges, SDGs, Means of implementation (MoI), Provincial governments
    Date: 2016–07
  40. By: van Uden, A.; Voeten, Jaap (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management)
    Date: 2017
  41. By: Kaniovski, Serguei
    Abstract: The paper offers a complete analysis of the welfare-maximizing capital investment and resource depletion policies in the DHSS model with capital depreciation and any returns to scale. We establish a general existence result and show that an optimal admissible policy may not exist if the output elasticity of the resource equals one. We characterize the optimal policies by applying an appropriate version of the Pontryagin maximum principle for infinite-horizon optimal control problems.
    JEL: C61 O38 Q01 Q56
    Date: 2017
  42. By: Thomas Eichner; Rüdiger Pethig
    Abstract: We consider a world economy, in which the global public good ’biodiversity’ is positively correlated with that share of land which is protected by land-use restrictions against the deterioration of habitats and ecosystems. The willingness-to-pay for biodiversity conservation is positive in ’rich’ developed countries (North), but very low in ’poor’ developing countries (South). Taking the no-policy scenario (Regime 1) as our point of departure, we analyze the changes in allocations and welfare when the North financially supports biodiversity conservation in the South – as stipulated in the Convention on Biological Diversity (1992). We model that support as a market for biodiversity conservation and distinguish the cases, in which the North does (Regime 3) or does not (Regime 2) coordinate its biodiversity conservation actions. Our numerical examples exhibit various unexpected and even undesirable results. The move from Regime 1 to Regime 2 hardly improves welfare and biodiversity in our examples irrespective of whether governments act strategically. That may explain the low level of North’s financial support of biodiversity in the South we observe in practice. Without strategic action, the move from Regime 1 to 3 enhances aggregate welfare, because Regime 3 is efficient, but the North or the South may be worse off due to unfavorable changes in their terms-of-trade. If governments act strategically, the aggregate welfare may decline when moving from Regime 1 to 3, but the welfare changes with opposite signs for North and South tend to be smaller than without strategic action.
    Keywords: biodiversity, conservation, protected areas, developing countries
    JEL: Q15 Q57 Q58
    Date: 2017
  43. By: Blandina Kilama; Constantine George; Lucas Katera
    Abstract: Following the successful completion of Phase I of the project, “Unpacking the Data Revolution†in Tanzania, the second phase was undertaken with the aim to explore in further detail those SDG monitoring areas that face particular data challenges. The objective is to increase understanding of these challenges, explore their implications and identify possible solutions. This paper focuses on two particular goal areas that have been identified for Tanzania to have significant data gaps, namely environment and governance. The present paper shows that in case of environment, data collection suffers from limited spatial coverage. As for governance, the available data is highly reliant on perception surveys. Findings reveal that although both these two goals have been given the necessary attention in previous national strategies, the availability of data for measuring progress towards selected targets is significantly lacking. Therefore, it is essential to build data capture capacity to facilitate the monitoring and assessment of indicators for environment and governance-related goals. The present paper suggests to improve coordination between data collectors in Tanzania, especially between the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) and other agencies that collect routine (administrative) data to ensure the harmonisation and comparison of data from these different sources.
    Keywords: Tanzania, data gaps, monitoring SDGs, environment, governance, National Bureau of Statistics (NBS)
    Date: 2016–07
  44. By: Veronica Serafini Geoghegan
    Abstract: This paper looks at the national level implications of implementing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Paraguay. Specifically, it examines the compatibility of the SDGs with the objectives of Paraguay’s National Development Plan (NDP); the coordination, management and monitoring mechanisms available for implementing the SDGs; the political, institutional and economic challenges for achieving the SDGs; the existence of (or potential for) effective partnerships and stakeholder participation; and the capacity of government statistics agencies to monitor and report the SDG targets. The study suggests that implementing the SDGs in Paraguay will not be an easy task. The challenges range from institutional weaknesses and poor coordination capacity to inadequate financing and social accountability mechanisms. In order to optimize Paraguay’s performance to accomplish the SDGs, the government will need to improve its ability to design and implement public policies, and increase the effectiveness and efficiency of its national statistics system. It will also have to promote platforms for civil society participation and work closely with local government institutions throughout the country. In addition, it will need to put more efforts to reduce illicit financial flows, and increase foreign direct investment (FDI).
    Keywords: Paraguay, National Development Plan (NDP), SDG implementation challenges, civil society participation, Social Cabinet, Equipo Económico Nacional (EEN), Secretaría Técnica de Planificación del Desarrollo Económico y Social (STP)
    Date: 2017–06
  45. By: Ganga Tilakaratna; Wimal Nanayakkara; Sunimalee Madurawala; Suwendrani Jayaratne; Kanchana Wickramasinghe
    Abstract: Sri Lanka is one of the signatories of the UN mandate on Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) comprise 17 goals and 169 targets, ranging from poverty, inequality, health, education and environment. This paper examines the implications of SDG implementation in Sri Lanka, in particular how the SDGs are embedded in the national context, and issues related to coordination, monitoring, partnerships and stakeholder participation. It reveals that most of the SDGs and their targets are relevant to Sri Lanka, and are in line with the priority areas. The study stresses the need of a designated national-level body to coordinate activities carried out by different stakeholders and to drive implementation and monitoring of the SDGs in Sri Lanka. Participation of a range of stakeholders, including the government, international organisations, private sector and civil society organisations, academia and general public, is crucial for the successful implementation of SDGs. Inadequacy of awareness of the SDGs among many stakeholders and the general public is a key constraint to the effective implementation of the SDGs. Partnership and stakeholder participation can play an important role in raising awareness and monitoring of SDGs, sharing knowledge/expertise, as well as in mobilising financial and technical resources. Monitoring the progress of SDGs will also require strengthening the capacity of the national statistics office and other relevant agencies involved in the data compilation.
    Keywords: Sri Lanka, First 1000 Days of SDGs, partnership and stakeholder participation, adequacy of financing, relevance of SDGs, statistical capacity
    Date: 2017–03
  46. By: Schilirò, Daniele
    Abstract: Mediterraneo ed Europa sono due realtà storicamente legate da rapporti economici, culturali e sociali. Questo contributo esamina, in particolare, gli aspetti economici e sociali delle migrazioni verso l’Europa provenienti dai paesi del Sud ed Est del Mediterraneo e i diversi problemi che questi flussi stanno creando nei paesi dell’Unione europea, cercando di fornire qualche indicazione di policy utile per il superamento della difficile e complessa situazione e per realizzare una crescita sostenibile.
    Keywords: Mediterraneo; Unione Europea; migrazioni; demografia; crescita sostenibile
    JEL: F5 J0 J1 J11 J15 O11 O15 Q56
    Date: 2016–12
  47. By: Maam Suwadu Sakho-Jimbira; Ibrahima Hathie; Aminata Niang; M. Lamine Samake
    Abstract: This report presents the results of Phase II of the Post-2015 Data Test initiative. It aims to address the challenges and opportunities, identified in the pilot study, for measuring and implementing the SDGs. The report provides solutions, organised within a national plan of actions, that aim towards addressing data problems and proposing measures for an effective SDGs implementation. In Senegal, despite important efforts and investments that have been made regarding the national statistical system, many challenges still remain, including the access, availability, reliability, and financing of data for monitor the SDGs. These gaps risk compromising the monitoring and implementation of the SDGs. Therefore to address sustainable development challenges by 2030, it is crucial to involve all national stakeholders as the means of implementation, including financing, human resources and reliable data. This report recommends, through an inclusive plan of action, concrete proposals that are consistent with national needs yet responsive to international challenges. A first recommendation is to ensure a strong political leadership and commitment from key decision-makers. This will facilitate a good ownership of the SDGs, and therefore their alignment with the Senegal’s new economic and social policy framework. Another recommendation is to establish efficient SDG monitoring and evaluation mechanisms, through an operationalisation of the Harmonised Monitoring-Evaluation Framework; bringing together the monitoring of SDG indicators and PSE indicators. In addition, capacity should be built for ensuring the production of quality data on SDGs, by deepening the present work on mapping data sources during the Data Test study. A key recommendation is to promote the domestic resource mobilisation, through the development of public-private partnership or the creation of an annual budget line dedicated to the production of sectorial statistics. Finally, an effective communication is required on SDGs and their data-related needs in order to develop a strong sense of national ownership.
    Keywords: Senegal, measuring SDGs, data gaps, political leadership and commitment, Harmonised Monitoring-Evaluation Framework, domestic resource mobilisation, Plan for Emerging Senegal (PSE)
    Date: 2016–11
  48. By: Kate Elizabeth Gannon, Mike Hulme
    Abstract: This paper describes an opportunistic case study of the 2012 Haida Salmon Restoration Corporation’s ocean fertilization project. Anchored in notions of place and identity, the Haida Salmon Restoration Corporation marks a novel entry point into social research on geoengineering, which enables a more situated engagement with ocean fertilization, in keeping with geographical traditions. The paper adopts an innovative design that combines ethnography with Q-Methodology, to identify clusters of shared meaning around the way in which contestation surrounding the geoengineering ambitions of the Haida Salmon Restoration Corporation invoked different interpretations about the role and nature of ‘nature’ and human agency. This case study suggests that ‘geoengineering’ will always be performed and interpreted through contextually specific meanings and such local particularities as geography, people, practices and place. Nevertheless, interpretative resources that have been described in relation to a range of geoengineering technologies, (including solar radiation management proposals), through earlier, and less situated, social science literatures, are also traced from this place-based experience of geoengineering. Furthermore, we suggest that our Q-Methodology factors have some interpretative overlap with ideal-typical ‘worldview’ heuristics, used to describe contemporary Western cultural currents in earlier literatures. This connects ocean fertilization in Haida Gwaii with debates about other geoengineering technologies and with wider cultural meanings and literatures that consider the human relationship with nature. We suggest that the Q-factors may serve as useful mnemonics for helping to conceptualise some of the deeper contested values and assumptions that drive public contestation about geoengineering.
    Date: 2017–09
  49. By: Kimberly Bayard; Ryan Decker; Charles Gilbert
    Abstract: The Federal Reserve's G.17 release on industrial production (IP) and capacity utilization published on September 15, 2017, included one of the first estimates of the impact on a specific measure of economic activity by Hurricane Harvey, which made landfall in Texas on August 25. As reported in the release, total industrial production fell 0.9 percent in August, most of which (about 3/4 percentage point) could be accounted for by storm-related outages.
    Date: 2017–10–11
  50. By: Pies, Ingo
    Abstract: Dieser Text wurde als Beitrag für einen wirtschaftsethischen Blog geschrieben. Er listet sechs bedeutsame Mängel der nationalen und internationalen Klimapolitik auf. Diese Mängel haben zur Folge, dass die bislang ergriffenen Maßnahmen trotz erheblicher Sonderanstrengungen (und Kosten) einen erschreckend geringen Beitrag zur Erreichung des moralischen Ziels leisten, die globalen Treibhausgasemissionen wirksam zu reduzieren. An diesen kritischen Befund schließen sich vier wirtschaftsethische Thesen an, die deutlich machen, dass es in Deutschland nicht an gutem Willen, wohl aber an moralischer Aufklärung mangelt.
    Keywords: Klima,Politik,Moral,Moralismus,Erneuerbare Energien,climate,politics,morality,moralism,renewable energies
    Date: 2016
  51. By: Brunnhuber, Stefan
    Abstract: This talk aims to provide an argument for a parallel, optional, complementary currency system in order to overcome the constraints of the global economy and finance social and ecological projects on a global level. This argument goes beyond regulatory efforts and co-financed redistribution. The advantages of implementing this or a similar mechanism are manifold: firstly, it can be implemented in a fast and targeted manner and is relatively cheap. Secondly, it would have an anticyclical, antiinflationary and resilient impact on our trading and payment system. Thirdly, it builds on findings in systems theory, thus avoiding the tedious discussion between the different schools of economics. Fourthly, it addresses the magnitude, volume and significance of the global challenges ahead. In short: this argument is based on a new kind of thinking on how to design a monetary ecosystem to make the world a better place.
    Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs),financing global commons,parallel optional currency
    Date: 2017
  52. By: -
    Abstract: Una de las características más sobresalientes del desarrollo de América Latina y el Caribe en el siglo pasado, fue la transición desde patrones de producción, distribución y consumo asociados al mundo rural y agrícola hacia otros vinculados con el desarrollo industrial y los servicios. Esto significó la consolidación del carácter urbano de la región. Las concentraciones urbanas son la base de crecientes aumentos en la productividad del capital y el trabajo; para mayores grados de especialización y de diversificación económico-productiva. Son el lugar donde se generan las mayores economías de escala y de aglomeración, elementos claves en el crecimiento y desarrollo sostenible de los países de la región. A su vez, son el lugar donde se expresan las externalidades negativas del proceso de urbanización: desigualdad, pobreza, y carencias en general. La ciudad sintetiza las formas de crecimiento desigual que se manifiestan en segregación, segmentación y exclusión social. Es importante considerar el aumento en la vulnerabilidad ambiental y las condiciones de riesgo en las ciudades. Esta situación profundiza la desigualdad y la exclusión; los costos de los impactos se distribuyen en forma inequitativa. Esta publicación busca entonces relevar, en el contexto de la implementación de la Nueva Agenda Urbana en América Latina y el Caribe, un análisis estructuralista para una propuesta urbano-territorial como una opción para un desarrollo urbano territorial, inclusivo y sostenible.
    Date: 2017–09
  53. By: Ramos Suárez, Eduardo; Muñoz, Cristina; Pérez, Gabriel
    Abstract: El presente documento explora la génesis, profundización, resolución y transformación de los conflictos sociales vinculados con las industrias extractivas, con miras a los distintos contextos económicos, sociopolíticos e históricos de la región. Para ello presenta distintas visiones del problema, tanto desde el punto de vista del gobierno, como del sector privado y las comunidades locales. El documento presenta el vínculo entre la nueva gobernanza de los recursos naturales para América Latina y el Caribe promovida por la CEPAL y los distintos mecanismos existentes para la superación de la conflictividad social aplicables al sector de las industrias extractivas.
    Date: 2017–09
  54. By: AfDB AfDB
    Date: 2017–10–04

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