nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2017‒05‒28
thirty-six papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Consumers' willingness to offset their CO2 emissions from traveling: A discrete choice analysis of framing and provider contributions By Schwirplies, Claudia; Dütschke, Elisabeth; Schleich, Joachim; Ziegler, Andreas
  2. Handle with Care: The Local Air Pollution Costs of Coal Storage. By Akshaya Jha; Nicholas Z. Muller
  3. Relative tax in a vertically differentiated market: the key role of consumers in environment By G. Ceccantoni; O. Tarola; C. Vergari
  4. Too late, too sudden: Transition to a low-carbon economy and systemic risk By Daniel Gros; Philip Lane; Sam Langfield; Sini Matikainen; Marco Pagano; Dirk Schoenmaker; Javier Suarez
  5. Innovation-Led Transitions in Energy Supply By Derek Lemoine
  6. The Value of Biodiversity as an Insurance Device By Emmanuelle Augeraud-Véron; Giorgio Fabbri; Katheline Schubert
  7. Lier la question sociale à la question écologique By Paul Naegel
  8. Multinational and large national corporations and climate adaptation: are we asking the right questions? A review of current knowledge and a new research perspective By Alina Averchenkova; Florence Crick; Adriana Kocornik-Mina; Hayley Leck; Swenja Surminski
  9. Adoption of Environmental Management Practices in the Hotel Industry in Sri Lanka By Kanchana Wickramasinghe
  10. Reducing Siltation and Increasing Hydropower Generation from the Rantambe Reservoir,Sri Lanka By E.P.N. Udayakumara; U.A.D.P. Gunawardena
  11. Climate Change : Behavioral Responses from Extreme Events and Delayed Damages By Ghidoni, Riccardo; Calzolari, G.; Casari, Marco
  12. Where gathering firewood matters: Proximity and forest management effects in hedonic pricing models for rural Nepal By Mani Nepal
  13. Green Technology Adoption and the Business Cycle By Jean-Marc Bourgeon; Margot Hovsepian
  14. Environmental Policy in an Endogenous Growth Model with Expanding Variety By Bianco, Dominique
  15. Accounting price of an exhaustible resource: response and extensions By Kirk Hamilton; Giovanni Ruta
  16. Designing International Environmental Agreements under Participation Uncertainty By Mao, Liang
  17. A Sustainability Index of Mining Countries By Issaka Dialga
  18. Are All Shifting Cultivators poor? Evidence from Sri Lanka's Dry zones By Prabath Nishantha Edirisinghe
  19. Marché européen des quotas de CO2 : Les enjeux du passage à la phase 3 By Christian De Perthuis; Raphaël Trotignon
  20. Monthly Report No. 11/2016 By Vasily Astrov; Mahdi Ghodsi; Vladimir Gligorov; Richard Grieveson; Julia Grübler; Sebastian Leitner; Robert Stehrer
  21. On the Current Account - Biofuels Link in Emerging and Developing Countries: Do Oil Price Fluctuations Matter? By Gabriel Gomes; Emmanuel Hache; Valérie Mignon; Anthony Paris
  22. Valeurs carbone implicites des contributions nationales et trajectoires 2°C By Laureline Coindoz; Patrick Criqui; Sandrine Mathy; Silvana Mima
  23. Sustainable Development GoalsdFreiheit ermöglicht Nachhaltigkeit By Enste, Dominik
  24. Innovation and The Precautionary Principle By Caroline Orset
  25. Green taxes in oligopoly revisited: exogenous versus endogenous number of firms By Requate, Till
  26. How Transaction Costs Obstruct Collective Action: Evidence from California’s Groundwater By Andrew B. Ayres; Eric C. Edwards; Gary D. Libecap
  27. La croissance verte : de l’intention à la mise en oeuvre By Pierre-André Jouvet; Christian De Perthuis
  28. La réforme de l’EU ETS dans le Paquet Energie Climat 2030 : Premières leçons à partir du modèle ZEPHYR By Frédéric Gonand; Christian De Perthuis; Raphaël Trotignon
  29. From planning to policy: Half a century of the CDP By Daniel Gay
  30. ANALYSE DES DETERMINANTS DE L'OFFRE DE L'EAU POTABLE AU CAMEROUN By Hilaire Nkengfack; Edmond Noubissi Domguia; François Kamajou
  31. Is Nepal's Renewable Energy Subsidy Reaching Poor People of Rural Areas? A Study of Biogas amd Solar Home Systems By Dipendra Bhattarai
  32. Changing the Africa's impoverishing economic model: Towards a rewarding sustainable specialization model with a new factor of production By Issaka Dialga
  33. Conservation of Genetic Resources of Crops: Farmer Preferences for Banana Diversity in Sri Lanka By Wasantha Athukorala; Muditha Karunarathna
  34. Voluntary Management of Fisheries under an Uncertain Background Legislative Threat By Anne-Sarah Chiambretto; Hubert Stahn
  35. Excessive and under-investment: on the incentives to adopt new technologies under Pigouvian taxes and tradeable permits By Requate, Till
  36. Ecological transitions within agri-food systems: a Franco-Brazilian comparison By Claire Lamine; Gilles Maréchal; Moacir Darolt

  1. By: Schwirplies, Claudia; Dütschke, Elisabeth; Schleich, Joachim; Ziegler, Andreas
    Abstract: This paper identifies potential drivers and individuals' willingness to pay (WTP) for offsetting their emissions from traveling. We focus on the effects of framing the polluting activity with different modes of transportation (i.e. bus and plane) and travel occasions (i.e. holiday and professional training) as well as the effects of contributions from the travel provider. The analyses are based on discrete choice experiments with a representative sample of about 1000 consumers from Germany. Applying mixed logit and latent class logit models, the findings suggest substantial framing effects resulting from the variation in the mode of transportation as well as a significantly higher WTP when offsets are matched by the travel provider 1:1. The findings further indicate that re-/afforestation projects in the participants' region are the preferred mode for compensation. Respondents who are more willing to offset emissions from traveling seem to be younger and female, have a higher income, exhibit stronger environmental and social preferences, and believe that offsetting is effective in protecting the climate.
    Keywords: climate change,carbon offsetting,framing effects,provider contribution,willingness to pay,discrete choice experiments
    JEL: H41 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2017
  2. By: Akshaya Jha; Nicholas Z. Muller
    Abstract: Burning coal is known to have environmental costs; this paper quantities the local environmental costs of transporting and storing coal at U.S. power plants for the sample period 2002-2012. We first demonstrate that a 10% increase in coal stockpiles (number of deliveries) results in a 0.07% (0.16%) increase in the average concentration of fine particulates (PM2.5) for locations up to 25 miles away from, and downwind from, plants. We next assess the impacts of PM2.5 on average adult and infant mortality rates using coal stockpiles and deliveries as instruments for PM2.5. Our findings within this instrumental variables framework indicate that a 10% increase in PM2.5 leads to a 1.1% (6.6%) increase in average adult (infant) mortality rates; these causal estimates are similar in magnitude to the epidemiological estimates used by the USEPA in their regulatory impact analyses. Our estimated increase in mortality rates implies local environmental costs of $183 ($203) per ton of coal stockpiled (delivered); to put this in perspective, the average power plant paid roughly $48 per ton for coal during our sample period. These sizable but highly localized environmental costs of coal transportation and storage disproportionately impact the economically disadvantaged communities living near coal-fired power plants.
    JEL: H23 Q40 Q52 Q53
    Date: 2017–05
  3. By: G. Ceccantoni; O. Tarola; C. Vergari
    Abstract: In this paper, under the assumption that green consumption has (at least partially) a social/psychological dimension, we analyse the effect of a carbon tax when it is imposed on consumers buying dirty products rather than on polluting firms. The amount of the tax paid is determined by the share of brown consumers in the market and the quality gap between variants. We show that this tax can abate emissions without inducing the undesirable relocation effect which can be observed in the case when a unilateral climate policy is imposed on polluting producers.
    JEL: H30 D43 Q5 L13
    Date: 2017–05
  4. By: Daniel Gros; Philip Lane; Sam Langfield; Sini Matikainen; Marco Pagano; Dirk Schoenmaker; Javier Suarez
    Abstract: Keeping global warming below 2°C will require substantial reductions in global greenhouse gas emissions over the next few decades. To reduce emissions, economies must reduce their carbon intensity; given current technology, this implies a decisive shift away from fossil-fuel energy and related physical capital. In an adverse scenario, the transition to a low-carbon economy occurs late and abruptly. Belated awareness about the importance of controlling emissions could result in an abrupt implementation of quantity constraints on the use of carbon-intensive energy sources. The costs of the transition will be correspondingly higher. This adverse scenario could affect systemic risk via three main channels. First, a sudden transition away from fossil-fuel energy could harm GDP, as alternative sources of energy would be restricted in supply and more expensive at the margin. Second, there could be a sudden repricing of carbon-intensive assets, which are financed in large part by debt. Third, there could be a concomitant rise in the incidence of natural catastrophes related to climate change, raising general insurers' and reinsurers' liabilities. To quantify the importance of these channels, policymakers could aim for enhanced disclosure of the carbon intensity of non-financial firms. The related exposures of financial firms could then be stress-tested under the adverse scenario of a late and sudden transition. In the short-term, joint research efforts of energy experts and macroeconomists could help to better quantify macroeconomic risks and inform the design of scenarios for stress testing. In the medium-term, the availability of granular data and dedicated low-frequency stress tests will provide information about the impact of the adverse scenario on the financial system. JEL Classification: G28
    Keywords: climate change, global warming, sustainability
    Date: 2016–02
  5. By: Derek Lemoine
    Abstract: I reconcile a benchmark model of directed technical change with the historical experience of energy transitions by allowing for a non-unitary elasticity of substitution between machines and the other factor of production, interpreted here as energy resources. I show that the economy becomes increasingly locked-in to the dominant sector when machines and resources are gross substitutes, but a transition from the dominant sector to the other is possible when machines and resources are gross complements. Consistent with history, a transition in research activity leads the transition in resource supply. A calibrated numerical implementation shows that innovation is critical for climate change policy. A policymaker would use a U-shaped emission tax trajectory so as to immediately transition innovation away from the fossil sector, wait for clean technology to improve, and then hasten a transition in resource supply later in the century.
    JEL: N70 O33 O38 O44 Q43 Q54 Q55 Q58
    Date: 2017–05
  6. By: Emmanuelle Augeraud-Véron (MIA - Mathématiques, Image et Applications - ULR - Université de La Rochelle); Giorgio Fabbri (GREQAM - Groupement de Recherche en Économie Quantitative d'Aix-Marseille - Université de la Méditerranée - Aix-Marseille 2 - Université Paul Cézanne - Aix-Marseille 3 - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - Ecole Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Katheline Schubert (PSE - Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper presents a benchmark endogenous growth model including biodiversity preservation dynamics. Producing food requires land, and increasing the share of total land devoted to farming mechanically reduces the share of land devoted to biodiversity conservation. However, the safeguarding of a greater number of species is associated to better ecosystem services – pollination, flood control, pest control, etc., which in turn ensure a lower volatility of agricultural productivity. The optimal conversion/preservation rule is explicitly characterized, as well as the value of biological diversity, in terms of the welfare gain of biodiversity conservation. The Epstein-Zin-Weil specification of the utility function allows us to disentangle the effects of risk aversion and aversion to fluctuations. A two-player game extension of the model highlights the effect of volatility externalities and the Paretian sub-optimality of the decentralized choice.
    Keywords: biodiversity,stochastic endogenous growth,insurance value,recursive preferences
    Date: 2017–03
  7. By: Paul Naegel (Centre François Viète : épistémologie, histoire des sciences et des techniques - UN - Université de Nantes - UBO - Université de Bretagne Occidentale)
    Abstract: Humanity finds itself, at the beginning of the 21th century, faced with two problems: those posed by the social question and the ecological question. It's the casualisation of employment, which currently brings in the short term the social question. The ecological question - with the exception of a few pioneers – was not posed until the end of the 20th century, because associated with climate changes in the long term. These two problems are usually addressed separately, in different disciplinary fields: economic science for the social question, the science of nature and life for the ecological question. The link of the social question with economic activity of humans appeared, for a long time, as obvious. On the other hand, the ecological question does not imply only humans, even if their activities are in part responsible for climate change. To allow future generations to survive on planet Earth, it seems it's time to link social and environmental issues in a same problem, which implies both a change of paradigm and method.
    Abstract: L’humanité se trouve, en ce début de XXIe siècle, confronté à deux problèmes : ceux que posent la question sociale et la question écologique. C’est la précarisation de l’emploi qui fait ressurgir actuellement dans le court terme la question sociale. Quant à la question écologique, elle n’était - à l’exception de quelques précurseurs - pas posée avant la fin du XXe siècle, car associée à des changements climatiques dans le long terme. Ces deux problèmes sont pour le moment généralement abordés séparément, dans des champs disciplinaires différents : la science économique pour la question sociale, les sciences de la nature et de la vie pour la question écologique. Le lien de la question sociale avec l’activité économique des humains est apparu, de longue date, comme évident. Par contre, la question écologique n’implique pas seulement les humains, même si leurs activités sont pour partie à l’origine des changements climatiques. Pour permettre aux générations futures de survivre sur la planète Terre, il semble qu’il est temps de lier les questions sociales et écologiques dans une même problématique, ce qui suppose à la fois un changement de paradigme et de méthode.
    Keywords: écologie, chômage, révoluion industrielle,travail, emploi, transdiciplinarté, systémique
    Date: 2017–03–22
  8. By: Alina Averchenkova; Florence Crick; Adriana Kocornik-Mina; Hayley Leck; Swenja Surminski
    Abstract: Adapting to climate change requires the engagement of all actors in society. Until recently, the predominant research focus has been on governments, communities and the third sector as key actors in the adaptation process. Yet, there is a growing emphasis internationally on understanding the role of and the need to engage businesses in adaptation given their potential to finance projects, develop technologies and innovative solutions, and enhance the scale and cost-effectiveness of certain adaptation measures. Large national and multinational corporations are among the key actors in this respect. Already, many of these corporations are purportedly taking steps to adapt their operations to climate change. Some stated reasons for their engagement include minimising potential impacts on value chains, improving resource efficiency, enhancing production of sustainable raw materials, and supporting customers’, suppliers’ and communities’ climate change adaptation efforts. However, there is a paucity of work analysing adaptation actions by these corporations, their motivations and contribution to broader adaptation and climate resilient development efforts, as well as possible instances of maladaptation. We apply a three-tier framework on drivers, responses and outcomes to examine the state of knowledge according to recent literature on private sector and corporate adaptation to climate change. Our review highlights that the literature on the impact and outcomes of corporate adaptation actions is sparse and we consider the implications for future research. Our analysis concludes with a reflection on the relevance of corporate-led adaptation – for the companies themselves, policy-makers at all scales, as well as society at large.
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2016–07
  9. By: Kanchana Wickramasinghe
    Abstract: Environmental management has not received the attention that it deserves in the case of the hotel industry in Sri Lanka although sustainable growth in the industry requires consideration of such practices. Our study assesses the adoption of good environmental management practices in the Sri Lankan hotel industry, focusing on energy, water, solid waste and waste water management. The study is based on data from 78 registered hotels in the Western Province of Sri Lanka. We obtained primary data on the environmental management practices using a pretested structured questionnaire. In addition to the cross-sectional data, we collected panel data on electricity consumption from these hotels for 2009-2013. The results show that the highest number of practices, 3.7 on average, adopted by hotels is in energy management. The average number of water management practices is 2.6. Low adoption rates are observed for waste water and solid waste management practices. The results from Poisson and Probit regression models show that the hotel characteristics and customer characteristics are significant determinants of the adoption of good practices with large hotels, chain-affiliated hotels and classified hotels more likely to adopt them. Analysis of electricity consumption shows that the occupancy rate and involvement of the hotels in environment management projects lead to a reduction in electricity consumption. From a policy perspective, small hotels,independent hotels, and unclassified hotels need to be motivated to adopt good environmental management practices through training, capacity building and financial support.
  10. By: E.P.N. Udayakumara; U.A.D.P. Gunawardena
    Abstract: Hydropower in Sri Lanka is affected by unanticipated siltation from changes in upstream watersheds. In this study, we examine the costs of soil erosion associated with the Rantambe reservoir. We assess the impact of changing upstream land use patterns on soil erosion, reservoir sedimentation, electricity availability and dredging costs by using the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) Sediment Retention model. We find that the current human-induced average rate of soil erosion in the watershed is 10.7 tons/ ha/year, which is approximately double the permissible rate of soil erosion. Consequently,the reservoir bears an annual hydropower loss of some half a million rupees (over three thousand US$) per year. Our model estimates that these hydel losses could be avoided by incurring an annual cost of dredging of Rs. 259,605 (1,782 US$). Three alternative watershed management strategies would also help lower sedimentation. These include: (I) adoption of a Soil and Water Conservation (SWC) by farmers, (II) re-foresting farmlands with slopesgreater than 60%, and (III) reforesting 10% of current farmlands. Strategy I would reduce the soil erosion rate relative to business as usual by 23%, strategy II would reduce the rate by 16% and strategy III would lower the soil erosion rate by 11%. Thus, SWC strategy (I) provides the best outcome. Undertaking plot level soil and water conservation (strategy I) would result in electricity revenue savings of 15% (460 US$) per year relative to the current scenario. While we focus on the hydel benefits, it is likely that there are also farm level benefits to soil and water conservation.
  11. By: Ghidoni, Riccardo (Tilburg University, Center For Economic Research); Calzolari, G.; Casari, Marco
    Abstract: Understanding how to sustain cooperation in the climate change global dilemma is crucial to mitigate its harmful consequences. Damages from climate change typically occurs after long delays and can take the form of more frequent realizations of extreme and random events. These features generate a decoupling between emissions and their damages, which we study through a laboratory experiment. We find that some decision-makers respond to global emissions, as expected, while others respond to realized damages also when emissions are observable. On balance, the presence of delayed/stochastic consequences did not impair cooperation. However, we observed a worrisome increasing trend of emissions when damages hit with delay.
    Keywords: Social dilemma; Experiments; Greenhouse gas; pollution
    JEL: C70 C90 D03 Q54
    Date: 2017
  12. By: Mani Nepal
    Abstract: A majority of rural, agricultural households in Nepal rely on forests for firewood and fodder. Access to the forest clearly matters, but might not be as simple as proximity if quality varies by management and property regime. Using two rounds (2003/2004 and 2010/2011) of nationally representative survey data for rural Nepal, we analyze the impacts of forest proximity and the type of management regimes on housing values. Results from hedonic pricing modelsindicate that when different property rights regimes are ignored, the implicit price of proximity to the forest from where household collects firewood is positive. However, proximity is no longer a significant determinant when the property regime from where a household gathers firewood is considered. Relative to a housing unit that uses a private forest as its primary firewood source, the value of a similar housing unit using a government forest has a 10 percent (2010/11) to 20 percent (2003/04) lower value; the respective percentage reductions for a similar housing unit with community forest source is about 7 to 10 percent. Given limited private forest lands, results offer a measure of support for newly-adopted collaborative and leasehold programs. In the first, government forests are collaboratively managed by local communities with the government, where revenues are shared equally. In the second, degraded government forests are transferred to the rural poor for 40-year terms so that households can conserve and use forest products privately.
  13. By: Jean-Marc Bourgeon (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AgroParisTech, Département d'Economie - Ecole Polytechnique - X); Margot Hovsepian (Département d'Economie - Ecole Polytechnique - X)
    Abstract: We analyze the adoption of green technology in a dynamic economy affected by random shocks where demand spillovers are the main driver of technological improvements. Firms' beliefs and consumers' anticipations drive the path of the economy. We derive the optimal policy of investment subsidy and the expected time and likelihood of reaching a targeted level of environmental quality under economic uncertainty. This allows us to estimate the value that should be given to the environment in order to avoid an environmental catastrophe as a function of the strength of spillover effects.
    Keywords: uncertainty,sustainability,Growth
    Date: 2017–04–18
  14. By: Bianco, Dominique
    Abstract: In this paper, we analyze the long-term impact of an environmental policy on economic growth, pollution and welfare. A standard growth model with horizontal innovation is modified by including pollution which comes from the use of intermediate goods production. Taxation on pollution reduces profits of final good producer as well as intermediate good producers. In this setting, profit gains is explained by a realloaction of labor from intermediate goods sector to R&D sector which enhances innovation, growth and welfare while it reduces pollution.
    Keywords: Porter hypothesis, endogenous growth, environmental policy
    JEL: D43 O31 O41 Q58
    Date: 2017–03
  15. By: Kirk Hamilton; Giovanni Ruta
    Abstract: Wei (Environ Resour Econ 60:579–581, 2015) presents a novel derivation of the accounting price for an exhaustible resource in a non-optimal economy subject to an allocation mechanism. We show that Wei (2015) and Hamilton and Ruta (Environ Resour Econ 42:53–64, 2009) are in fact employing different and mutually exclusive allocation mechanisms for the economy, and this explains the differences between the respective accounting prices. Because accounting prices must be defined subject to the allocation mechanism for the economy, the prices derived in the two papers are equally valid within their respective allocation domains. Further analysis shows that if there is declining marginal product of factors, a ‘Hartwick investment rule’ for the model economy (set investment just equal to depletion, valued at the accounting price) will lead to declining consumption for the Wei (2015) accounting price, and increasing consumption for the Hamilton and Ruta (2009) accounting price. This result is extended to consider the accounting standards recommended in the UN SEEA (System of environmental-economic accounting 2012: central framework. United Nations, European Commission, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Monetary Fund, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Bank, 2012), as well as accounting for environmental externalities from resource use.
    Keywords: Exhaustible resource; Accounting price; Resource depletion; Hartwick rule; Environmental externality
    JEL: Q01 Q32 Q5 Q53 Q56
    Date: 2016
  16. By: Mao, Liang
    Abstract: We analyze the design of optimal international environmental agreement (IEA) by a three-stage coalition formation game. A certain degree of participation uncertainty exists in that each country choosing to sign the IEA for its best interest has a probability to make a mistake and end up a non-signatory. The IEA rule, which specifies the action of each signatory for each coalition formed, is endogenously determined by a designer, whose goal is to maximize the expected payoff of each signatory. We provide an algorithm to determine an optimal rule and compare this rule to some popular rules used in the literature.
    Keywords: International environmental agreement; coalition formation; participation uncertainty, stable coalition
    JEL: C72 H41 Q54
    Date: 2017–05–15
  17. By: Issaka Dialga (LEMNA - Laboratoire d'économie et de management de Nantes Atlantique - UN - Université de Nantes)
    Abstract: This paper discusses the issue of Sustainable Development (SD) in countries with abundant natural resources with the aim to construct a Sustainability Index of Mining Countries (SIMC) based on the Hartwick's (1977) weak sustainability theoretical framework and the Brundtland et al. (1987) SD’s vision. The specific studies on mining and Top down/ Bottom-up approach allow us to identify five dimensions of sustainability of mining countries namely an economic dimension, a social dimension, an environmental dimension, a transverse dimension and a dimension involving governance, political and institutional issues. Each dimension is declined into measurable indicators, and then, the indicators are weighted and aggregated. An implementation of the constructed tool with Burkina Faso and Niger data reveals a dichotomy between perceived rents and development indicators. A sensitivity and robustness analysis of the SIMC with other development indicators confirms the strength of the tool.
    Keywords: Top down/ Bottom-up approach,Weak sustainability,Environmental cumulative impacts,Tool for decision making,Mining country,Composite index,Burkina Faso,Niger
    Date: 2017–04–03
  18. By: Prabath Nishantha Edirisinghe
    Abstract: Shifting cultivation is one of the main causes of deforestation and forest degradation in Sri Lanka. This study uses household data and satellite images to investigate the determinants of shifting cultivation and the potential to control the intensity of this practice. Some 50% of households studied in Monaragala district of Sri Lanka practiced shifting cultivation during the 2011/2012 cultivation season. This practice is largely characterized by a short fallow period, mono cropping and high input use and repeated annual use of the same plot of land.Households practicing shifting cultivation, on average, use less than 1 hectare every year for this activity. Some 59% of shifting cultivation farmers indicated that they had cultivated the same piece of land every year during the 2006-2011 period. The practice is not restricted to poor landless farmers. Regression results show that households that possess more private land and other assets tend to cultivate larger areas of land. Therefore, the contribution of relatively wealthy households to shifting cultivation is more than that of poor households. Furthermore,households with more adult family members in a family tend to cultivate larger areas of shifting cultivation lands. Full-time non-farm occupations are a deterrent to this practice. To reduce the area of shifting cultivation, the study recommends an integrated plan with alternate income generation options for people who may have to give up existing swidden lands.
  19. By: Christian De Perthuis (LEDa - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine - Université Paris-Dauphine, Chaire économie du climat - Chaire économie du climat); Raphaël Trotignon (Chaire économie du climat - Chaire économie du climat)
    Abstract: Le système européen d’échanges de quotas de CO2 constitue le pivot de la politique climatique européenne visant à mettre la société sur une trajectoire sobre en carbone aux meilleures conditions économiques. Ce système a été affaibli par la faiblesse de sa régulation, par un chevauchement indésirable avec d’autres politiques publiques et par l’ampleur de la crise économique et financière qui a fait plonger le prix du quota sur le marché. Ce Cahier de la Chaire Economie du Climat tente d’identifier les conditions permettant de réussir le passage à la phase 3 du marché (2013-2020). Il tire les leçons historiques de huit années de fonctionnement qui révèlent l’extraordinaire sensibilité du marché à tout changement même modéré des conditions de l’offre et de la demande. Il évalue ensuite, à l’aide du modèle ZEPHYR-Flex, les différentes interventions des pouvoirs publics actuellement discutées pour faire remonter le prix du quota sur le marché ; ces simulations révèlent le risque de report des difficultés sur le futur en brouillant un peu plus la visibilité dont ont besoin les acteurs sur le long terme. Il propose enfin de tirer les leçons de la politique monétaire en esquissant ce que pourrait être le mandat d’une Autorité Indépendante de Régulation, en charge d’une gestion dynamique de l’offre de permis et dont la mission principale serait, à l’instar d’une banque centrale, d’assurer une articulation optimale entre les différents horizons temporels de la stratégie climatique.
    Keywords: Politique de l'environnement
    Date: 2017–04–10
  20. By: Vasily Astrov (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Mahdi Ghodsi (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Vladimir Gligorov (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Richard Grieveson (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Julia Grübler (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Sebastian Leitner (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Robert Stehrer (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: Graph of the month Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) scores and ranks of CESEE countries (p. 1) Opinion corner What will change after Donald Trump's victory? Reflections by wiiw researchers (by Vasily Astrov, Mahdi Ghodsi, Vladimir Gligorov and Robert Stehrer; pp. 2-9) On sustainable development in CESEE countries (by Julia Grübler; pp. 10-14) The relevance of public social expenditures in the EU Member States (by Sebastian Leitner; pp. 15-19) History as a determinant of economic development The Habsburg example (by Richard Grieveson; pp. 20-26) Recommended reading (p. 27) New wiiw Handbook of Statistics forthcoming (p. 28) Statistical Annex Monthly and quarterly statistics for Central, East and Southeast Europe (pp. 29-50)
    Keywords: macro-economic policy, trade policy, international relations, sustainable development, social expenditures, health care, education, social protection, Habsburg empire, role of history, economic convergence
    Date: 2016–11
  21. By: Gabriel Gomes; Emmanuel Hache; Valérie Mignon; Anthony Paris
    Abstract: Many developed countries promote the use of biofuels for environmental concerns, leading to a rise in the price of agricultural commodities utilized in their production. Such environmental policies have major effects on the economy of emerging and developing countries whose activity is highly dependent on agricultural commodities involved in biofuel production. This paper tackles this issue by examining the price impact of biofuels on the current account for a panel of 16 developing and emerging countries, and the potential nonlinear effect exerted by the price of oil on this relationship. Relying on the estimation of panel smooth-transition regression models, we show that positive shocks in the price of biofuels lead to a current-account appreciation for agricultural commodity exporters and producers only when the price of oil is below a certain threshold. When the price of oil exceeds this threshold, fluctuations in the price of biofuels no longer affect the current account. These findings illustrate that a rise in the price of oil exerts a negative effect on the trade balance of commodity exporters which are also oil importers, dampening the biofuel price impact on the current-account position.
    Keywords: Biofuels;Oil;Current Account;Panel Smooth Transition Regression
    JEL: Q16 Q43 F32 C23
    Date: 2017–05
  22. By: Laureline Coindoz (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Patrick Criqui (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Sandrine Mathy (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Silvana Mima (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes)
    Abstract: Ce document de travail analyse le degré d'effort nécessaire à l'atteinte des objectifs INDC des 13 pays du Deep Decarbonization Pathway Project. L'objectif est d'évaluer et de comparer les degrés d'effort requis pour atteindre les objectifs INDC, entre les pays, d'une part et, d'autre part, au regard de trajectoires de plus long terme (2050) s'inscrivant dans l'objectif global de limiter la hausse des températures en deçà de 2°C. Une méthodologie est mise en place pour transcrire les INDC en niveaux d'émissions de CO2 nettes du LULUCF. Le modèle POLES est ensuite utilisé pour révéler la valeur carbone implicite des INDC et permettre une comparabilité des objectifs nationaux entre eux. Enfin, la création d'un scénario INDCext permet d'appréhender les INDC au regard d'objectifs nationaux de plus long terme (2050) compatibles avec l'objectif global de limiter la hausse des températures en deçà de 2°C.
    Keywords: Intended Nationally Determined Contributions , objectifs INDC , scénario ,émissions de CO2
    Date: 2017–03–27
  23. By: Enste, Dominik
    Abstract: Einer aktuellen Studie von UN Global Compact und Accenture (2016) zufolge sind für etwa 50 Prozent aller Unternehmenschefs Unternehmen die wichtigsten Akteure, um die Nachhaltigkeitsziele der UN zu erreichen. Denn Innovationskraft und Kreativität sind genauso gefragt wie mehr Effizienz und kostenbewusster Umgang mit knappen Ressourcen. Voraussetzung dafür ist unternehmerische Freiheit. Dies kann erklären, warum die Erreichung der Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) der UN stark von der unternehmerischen Freiheit abhängt (Enste, 2015).
    Date: 2016
  24. By: Caroline Orset (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AgroParisTech)
    Abstract: Recent environmental policies favour the polluter pays principle. This principle points out the pollutant financial liability for the eventual incidents induced by his activities. In this context, we analyse the decision of an agent to invest in new industrial activities, the consequences of which on human health and the environment are initially unknown. It is not possible for him to delay investing, but the agent has the opportunity to acquire information and to reduce the cost of an accident. This allows the agent to reduce uncertainty regarding dangers associated with the project and to limit potential damages that it might cause. However, the agent's chosen level of these actions may be considered as insufficient and not acceptable by Society as response in the face of a possible danger. Precautionary state regulation may then be introduced. We get that this regulation may slow down innovation and may favour innovation in countries with less safety requirements. We find that agent may get around the goal of the regulation by ignoring the information on the dangerousness of its project. We then propose some policy tools which stimulate innovation and impose a certain level of risk considered as acceptable for Society to the agent. Finally, we use a numerical analysis based on the Monsanto Company for studying the agent's behaviour with different regulatory frameworks.
    Keywords: uncertainty,the precautionary principle,environment, information acquisition,irreversible investment
    Date: 2017–04–03
  25. By: Requate, Till (Center for Mathematical Economics, Bielefeld University)
    Date: 2017–05–10
  26. By: Andrew B. Ayres; Eric C. Edwards; Gary D. Libecap
    Abstract: Collective action to remedy the losses of open access to common-pool resources often is late and incomplete, extending rent dissipation. Examples include persistent over-exploitation of oil fields and ocean fisheries, despite general agreement that production constraints are needed. Transaction costs encountered in assigning property rights are an explanation, but analysis of their role is limited by a lack of systematic data. We examine governance institutions in California’s 445 groundwater basins using a new dataset to identify factors that influence the adoption of extraction controls. In 309 basins, institutions allow unconstrained pumping, while an additional 105 basins have weak management plans. Twenty of these basins are severely overdrafted. Meanwhile, users in 31 basins have defined groundwater property rights, the most complete solution. We document the critical role of transaction costs in explaining this variation in responses. This research adds to the literatures on open access, transaction costs, bargaining, and property rights
    JEL: K11 N52 P48 Q15 Q25 Q58
    Date: 2017–05
  27. By: Pierre-André Jouvet (Economix - Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense (Paris 10), Chaire économie du climat - Chaire économie du climat); Christian De Perthuis (LEDa - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine - Université Paris-Dauphine, Chaire économie du climat - Chaire économie du climat)
    Abstract: Depuis la fin de la seconde guerre mondiale, le monde est engagé sur une croissance permettant de doubler le produit intérieur brut par tête tous les vingt-cinq ans. A partir de 1973, la croissance s’est redéployée, amorçant avec la montée en régime des économies émergentes un correctif à la polarisation séculaire de la richesse sur les pays occidentaux et le Japon. Les craintes que le mur de la rareté des matières premières ne bloque le processus ont été déjouées. La démographie et l’élargissement de la croissance menacent en revanche d’altérer des fonctions régulatrices majeures comme la stabilité du climat, le maintien de la diversité biologique, le cycle de l’eau. La croissance verte consiste à transformer les processus de production et de consommation pour préserver ou reconstituer ces fonctions régulatrices du capital naturel.
    Keywords: Réchauffement de la Terre,Développement économique
    Date: 2017–04–10
  28. By: Frédéric Gonand (LEDa - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine - Université Paris-Dauphine); Christian De Perthuis (LEDa - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine - Université Paris-Dauphine); Raphaël Trotignon (Chaire économie du climat - Chaire économie du climat)
    Abstract: La Commission a publié le 22 janvier ses propositions en vue du futur « Paquet énergie - climat 2030 » qui seront soumises au Conseil européen des 20 et 21 mars prochain. Elles évoquent la création d’une « réserve de stabilité » pour le marché européen du CO².
    Keywords: Politique énergétique
    Date: 2017–04–07
  29. By: Daniel Gay
    Abstract: The United Nations Committee for Development Policy (CDP) comprises 24 independent specialists from a variety of disciplines. It advises the UN Economic and Social Council on emerging economic, social and environmental issues relevant to sustainable development and international co-operation. The paper argues that since its launch in 1965 the CDP has at times struggled to make an impact, but that it has been most effective when it has been at its most creative and when it has broken with convention. It helped put into practice the target that developed countries should devote 0.7% of their gross national income to official development assistance. The Committee created the least developed countries category and continues to monitor and update membership of the group. Its members were prominent in the genesis of the human development approach and continue to conduct new work in the areas of governance, productive capacity and sustainable development.
    Keywords: aid, human development, least developed countries, official development assistance, sustainable development, United Nations
    JEL: F02 N01 O1 O2 O15 O19
    Date: 2017–04
  30. By: Hilaire Nkengfack (Faculté des Sciences Economiques et de Gestion de Dschang - Université de Dschang); Edmond Noubissi Domguia (Faculté des Sciences Economiques et de Gestion de Dschang - Université de Dschang); François Kamajou (Faculté des Sciences Economiques et de Gestion de Dschang - Université de Dschang)
    Abstract: Le Cameroun, malgré des prédispositions naturelles qui lui permettent d’avoir des ressources en eau importantes, a du mal à atteindre la cible 2 de l’objectif 7 des objectifs de développement du millénaire (OMD), à savoir réduire de moitié, d’ici 2015, le pourcentage de la population qui n’a pas accès de façon durable à un approvisionnement en eau potable et à un assainissement de base. Notre objectif à travers cette étude est de fournir un outil de promotion de l’accessibilité à l’eau potable au Cameroun, ainsi qu’à sa gestion durable. Elle cherche à capter les déterminants de l’offre d’eau afin de cerner les raisons de l’inadéquation entre celle-ci (l’offre d’eau) et la demande. L’analyse des données réalisée grâce au logiciel Eviews 5 nous montre que l’insuffisance des investissements réalisés dans le secteur et les perceptions anachroniques des populations en ce qui concerne la gestion de l’eau constituent les principaux freins à une offre suffisante de l’eau potable. Ainsi, la résolution des problèmes hydriques au Cameroun passe inévitablement par une augmentation de l’enveloppe budgétaire allouée au secteur de l’eau et par une sensibilisation des populations sur la nécessité d’une gestion durable des ressources environnementales en général et de la ressource hydrique en particulier.
    Keywords: externalités environnementales, offre d’eau,déterminants
    Date: 2017–04–19
  31. By: Dipendra Bhattarai
    Abstract: The Government of Nepal has been providing financial support to promote biogas technology since the 1970s and Solar Home Systems (SHS) since the 1990s. This paper analyse data from the Nepal Living Standard Survey for the year 2010/11 to determine the extent to which these programs have reached the poor. Only 5 percent of households eligible for a biogas subsidy have adopted biogas. Only 2 percent of biogas adopters are below the poverty line, as compared to a poverty rate of 19 percent in all of Nepal. The probability of biogas adoption is increasing in annual per capita consumption. The adoption rate is much higher for SHS with 27 percent of the households eligible for a subsidy having adopted Solar Home Systems. About 25 percent of adopters are below the poverty line, as compared to a poverty rate of 19 percent in all of Nepal showing that the SHS subsidy program reaches many more of the poor than the biogas subsidy program. The proportion of SHS adopters increases some what with an increase in annual per capita consumption upto the median and then falls steeply. The findings suggest that thegovernment's subsidy for biogas has not reached the low-income population and to do so, the existing subsidy delivery mechanism would have to be rethought. The SHS subsidy has done much better in this regard. The paper discusses the reasons behind the differences.
  32. By: Issaka Dialga (LEMNA - Laboratoire d'économie et de management de Nantes Atlantique - UN - Université de Nantes)
    Abstract: This paper highlights the impoverishing character of Africa’s economic model in its world merchandise trade. With a view to reduce the ousting of the wealth of the continent by its trading partners, we develop a neo-factorial specialization model in which we introduce technology and raw materials as endogenous factors of production of manufactured goods. In addition, we distinguish between skilled labor and unskilled. Considering raw commodities as a factor production (natural capital) and making technology and skilled labor factors endogenous allows us to understand why Africa is historically specialized in raw material exports. We show how Africa can, thanks to its advantage in natural resources, accumulate technology and human capital necessary to its industrialization in the second phase of the model, allowing it to eliminate the impoverishing effects of trade. The model predictions are quite optimistic in the second phase of Africa's opening process to the world. Calibrating the model on real data, results are consistent with some goals of sustainable development particularly in its economic and social dimensions. The environmental dimension is however difficult to reconcile with both others.
    Keywords: impoverishing specialization,African economies,neo-factorial model,natural resources,values chain
    Date: 2017–04–03
  33. By: Wasantha Athukorala; Muditha Karunarathna
    Abstract: This study investigates farmer preferences for banana diversity in Sri Lanka. First, we investigate farmers' attitudes towards banana cultivation in the country. Secondly, we estimate diversity selection models to identify the important factors that contribute to the conservation of banana diversity. The analysis uses survey data covering 450 banana growers in three different districts representing different climatic zones in the country. It employs the Poisson model and OLS for the Shannon Diversity Index to determine the key household, market and other characteristics that are important for the conservation of banana diversity. The studyindicates that maintaining on-farm diversity is receiving increased attention from farmers as a strategy for mitigating production risk and protecting food security in the rural areas of Sri Lanka. The results of the study show that family size, education, experience, method of marketing, and attitude of farmers are the major determinants of banana diversity maintenance on farms. The study recommends a subsidy to farmers to cultivate traditional varieties for the purpose of maintaining farm diversity since farmers are attracted to new varieties for their productivity.
  34. By: Anne-Sarah Chiambretto (GREQAM - Groupement de Recherche en Économie Quantitative d'Aix-Marseille - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - Ecole Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Hubert Stahn (GREQAM - Groupement de Recherche en Économie Quantitative d'Aix-Marseille - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - Ecole Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: We investigate the possibility for governance authorities to avoid a large part of regulatory costs, by simply backing up social norms with a threat of collective punishment. Specifically, we consider the case of fisheries in which the regulatory cap is to sustain an optimal conservation level. We identify a mandatory regulation such that, when it is used as a threat, it ensures that the cap is voluntarily implemented. The mandatory scheme is based on a incentive mechanism which secures the returns of the harvester, and a tax on potential capacity. From the status of mere threat, this mandatory regulation takes time to be enforced though. We show that such a tax scheme, even if it is applied randomly after the first occurrence of a deviation from the optimal conservation level, ensures voluntary compliance, provided a suitable choice of the capacity tax. We study the properties of this tax scheme and build an example using data on the scallop fishery in the Saint-Brieuc Bay (France) to illustrate our point.
    Keywords: voluntary agreements,fisheries,conservation policies
    Date: 2017–04
  35. By: Requate, Till (Center for Mathematical Economics, Bielefeld University)
    Date: 2017–05–10
  36. By: Claire Lamine (ECODEVELOPPEMENT - Unité de recherche d'Écodéveloppement - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Gilles Maréchal (ESO - Espaces et Sociétés - UNICAEN - Université Caen Normandie - UM - Université du Maine - UA - Université d'Angers - UN - Université de Nantes - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - UR2 - Université Rennes 2 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Moacir Darolt (Instituto Agronômico do Parana)
    Abstract: The ecological transition of food systems raises expectations and generates actions, both from public authorities and the civil society. A socio-historical analysis of situated experiences, within a systemic and pragmatic focus, is needed to address the diversity of the transition strategies and understand the mechanisms of change and the conditions of such ecological transition. Four case studies have been selected to analyse and compare such transition processes in France and in Brazil : 2 from rural areas of Southern France (Ardèche and Biovallée) and 2 from urban regions in Brazil and France (Curitiba and Rennes). This compared analysis shows that the transformation of the food system is always the result of complex interactions between a wide range of initiatives and actions, held by diverse and sometimes unexpected players. Those actions can combine and strengthen each other or on the contrary generate conflicts. Appropriate modes of governance are thus needed inside the food system in order to make it desirable and feasible, under environmental, social cultural and economic aspects. The 4 different paths that have been investigated put in evidence two archetypical ways. They rely on differentiated relations between public authorities and the civil society. In all cases, the involvement of civil society has been key to awareness raising and stimulation for food initiatives. But the way this mobilization has been integrated and developed by public authorities deeply differ. In the Southern Ardèche case, the linkages between the farmers’ initiatives and the local policies do not appear strong enough to include the diversity of agrifood actors within a territorial ecological transition path. In the Biovallée and in Rennes, trust and permeability have been built between diverse agricultural and food networks (of farmers, eaters, entrepreneurs) and the decision makers in order to let these different actors collectively take responsibility in the transition process. In the Curitiba case, public intervention has materialized in two ambitious and articulated programmes but it is not really linked to the creativity of social movements.
    Abstract: A partir de l'analyse de 4 études de cas (Sud Ardèche, Biovallée de la Drôme, Rennes Métropole et Curitiba), les auteurs développement une analyse socio-historique des systèmes alimentaires territoriaux. Avec une vision systémique et pragmatique, ils étudient les dynamiques d'acteurs, en particulier entre pouvoirs publics et société civile, qui produisent des voies différenciées de transition.
    Abstract: A partir da análise de quatro estudos de caso (na França Sul Ardèche, Drôme Biovallée, Rennes e Curitiba no Brasil), os autores apresentam uma análise sócio-histórica dos sistemas alimentares territoriais. Com uma abordagem sistémica e pragmática, eles estudam a dinâmica dos atores locais, particularmente as relações entre as autoridades públicas e a sociedade civil, que produzem caminhos de transição diferenciados.
    Keywords: France,Brazil Food strategies,Local food systems,Ecological transition,Systèmes alimentaires territoriaux,Brésil,Transition écologique,Brasil,França,Sistemas alimentares territoriais,Transição agro-ecologica
    Date: 2016–09–23

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