nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2017‒04‒23
33 papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Evolution of the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme: Sectoral Coverage and Point of Obligation By Catherine Leining; Corey Allan; Suzi Kerr
  2. 신기후체제하에서의 국제 탄소시장 활용방안 (Utilization of International Carbon Market under the Paris Agreement) By Moon , Jin-Young; Jung , Jione; Song , Jihei; Lee , Sung Hee
  3. Evolution of the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme: Linking By Catherine Leining; Judd Ormsby; Suzi Kerr
  4. Emission taxation, green innovations and inverted-U aggregate R&D efforts in a linear state oligopoly game By D. Dragone; L. Lambertini; A. Palestini
  5. Environmental Disasters and Electoral Cycle: An Empirical Analysis on Floods and Landslides in Italy By Alessio D'Amato; Giovanni Marin; Andrea Rampa
  6. Distributional Impacts of Climate Change and Food Security in Southeast Asia By Srivatsan V. Raghavan; Jiang Ze; Jina Hur; Liu Jiandong; Nguyen Ngoc Son; Sun Yabin; Liong Shie-Yui
  7. Optimal Climate Policies in a Dynamic Multi-Country Equilibrium Model By Elmar Hillebrand; Marten Hillebrand
  8. Development perspectives of Sub-Saharan Africa under climate policies By Marian Leimbach; Niklas Roming; Gregor Schwerhoff; Anselm Schultes
  9. The Value of Biodiversity as an Insurance Device By Emmanuelle Augeraud-Véron; Giorgio Fabbri; Katheline Schubert
  10. SDGs 도입 이후 개도국 협력전략과 대응과제: 무역과 기후변화의 정책일관성을 중심으로 (A Study on Korea's Cooperation Strategy Along with the Sustainable Development Goals: Focusing on the Trade and Climate Change Policy Coherence) By Kwon , Yul; Jung , Jione; Hur, Yoon Sun; Jeong , Jisun; Lee , Juyoung
  11. Pension funds carbon footprint and investment trade-offs By Martijn Boermans; Rients Galema
  12. Trade Patterns and the Ecological Footprint - a theory-based Empirical Approach By Thi Anh Dam; Markus Pasche; Niclas Werlich
  13. Education for Sustainable Development By Dzintra Atstaja
  14. Pro-environmental behavior: On the interplay of intrinsic motivations and external conditions By Mariateresa Silvi; Emilio Padilla Rosa
  15. Active learning and optimal climate policy By In Chang Hwang
  16. Dynamic agricultural household bio-economic simulator (DAHBSIM) model description: biosight project technical report By Guillermo Flichman; Hatem Belhouchette; Adam M. Komarek; Sophie Drogue; James Hawkins; Roza Chenoune; Siwa Msangi
  17. Politiques énergétique et climatique des États - Unis durant les deux mandats de Barack Obama By Sophie Méritet; Stéphanie Monjon
  18. Joint Use of Liability and Regulation in Environmental Law By Michel, Stephan; Romano, Alessandro; Zannini, Ugo
  19. Does Air Pollution Affect Consumption Behavior? Evidence from Korean Retail Sales By Hyunju Kang; Hyunduk Suh; Jongmin Yu
  20. Development of sustainable product innovations By Stig Ottosson
  21. Decreasing the carbon footprint of KU Leuven staff mobility: How a Carbon Compensation Policy can support sustainable management By Tom Bosserez; Pieter Moonen; Marten Ovaere; Jan Rongé; Niels Smeets; Sarah Van Eynde
  22. Environmental Management Resources and Firm Value: Empirical evidence from Japanese listed manufacturing firms (Japanese) By EDAMURA Kazuma; MIYAGAWA Tsutomu; UCHIYAMA Katsuhisa
  23. Smog in Our Brains: Gender Differences in the Impact of Exposure to Air Pollution on Cognitive Performance By Chen, Xi; Zhang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xin
  24. Defensive Investments and the Demand for Air Quality: Evidence from the NOx Budget Program By Olivier Deschenes; Michael Greenstone; Joseph S. Shapiro
  25. What Drives or Hinders Corporate Environmental Performance? Evidence from Japan (Japanese) By ENDO Kazumi
  26. The political economy of Middle East and North Africa oil exporters in times of global decarbonisation By Simone Tagliapietra
  27. Estimation of climate change damage functions for 140 regions in the GTAP9 database By Martina Sartori; Roberto Roson
  28. Macroeconomic Effects of a Low-Carbon Electricity Transition in Kenya and Ghana: An Exploratory Dynamic General Equilibrium Analysis By Willenbockel, Dirk
  29. América Latina y el Caribe hacia los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible en agua y saneamiento: reformas recientes de las políticas sectoriales By Ferro, Gustavo
  30. La transversalización del enfoque de género en las políticas públicas frente al cambio climático en América Latina By Casas Varez, Marina
  31. Turkiye'de Enerji Uretiminde Fosil Yakit Kullanimi ve CO2 Emisyonu Iliskisi: Bir Senaryo Analizi By Hakan Cetintas; I. Murat Bicil; Kumru Turkoz
  32. Communal violence in the Horn of Africa following the 1998 El Niño By Stijn van Weezel
  33. La Línea Negra y otras áreas de protección de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta: ¿han funcionado? By Gerson Javier Pérez-Valbuena; Iván Higuera-Mendieta; Leonardo Bonilla-Mejía

  1. By: Catherine Leining (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); Corey Allan (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); Suzi Kerr (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research)
    Abstract: When it was launched in 2008, the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (NZ ETS) pioneered the design concept of implementing an emissions trading scheme (ETS) across all sectors of the economy (e.g. stationary energy, transport, industrial processes, forestry, waste and biological emissions from agriculture) and all six major greenhouse gases (GHGs). This reflected New Zealand’s relatively unique emission profile among industrialised countries (with heavy renewable generation, nearly half of emissions from agriculture, and a large land area suitable for forestry) and its interest in finding effective, efficient, and equitable solutions to the challenge of meeting its international emission reduction targets. Further innovations at the time – influenced in part by the government’s previous efforts to implement a carbon tax in the energy and industry sectors – were the selection of predominantly upstream points of obligation in the energy sector, with the potential for some major downstream energy users to opt in voluntarily, and the selection of a default processor-level obligation in the agriculture sector, with the option to shift to a farmer-level obligation. As of 2017, the entry of biological emissions from agriculture has been deferred indefinitely. Otherwise, the proof of concept on both broad sectoral coverage and upstream points of obligation has been demonstrated through practical experience. To help inform future ETS policy making in New Zealand and internationally, this paper provides a conceptual foundation for design decisions on ETS coverage and points of obligation, and explores the history of and rationale for the specific design choices that have been made in this regard in New Zealand.
    Keywords: Emissions trading, sectoral coverage, point of obligation, NZ ETS
    JEL: Q58 Q48 Q50
    Date: 2017–04
  2. By: Moon , Jin-Young (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Jung , Jione (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Song , Jihei (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Lee , Sung Hee (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy)
    Abstract: Korean Abstract: 본 연구는 신기후체제 출범에 대비하여 온실가스 감축목표 이행을 위한 국제 탄소시장 메커니즘 활용방안을 제시하였다. 시장 매커니즘에 관한 그간의 논의 경과를 정리하고, 특히 현재 운영 중인 국제사회의 탄소 상쇄 프로그램의 주요 내용과 특징을 검토하였다. 우리나라는 국가 감축목표 달성을 위해 국제 탄소시장 메커니즘 활용계획을 수립한바, 본 연구에서는 해외 감축사업을 위한 유망 분야 및 지역 선정 시 적용가능한 '탄소감축협력지수'를 개발하였다. 아울러 민간기업의 해외 감축사업 추진을 위한 제약요인을 분석하고, 향후 활성화 과제를 제시하였다. English Abstract: Adopted at the UNFCCC COP21, the Paris Agreement is recognized as the most significant international environmental agreement since the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1992. Laying the foundation for the post-2020 climate regime, the Paris Agreement emphasizes GHG mitigation efforts by all parties, including developed and developing countries. Korea decided to cut the national greenhouse gas emission by 37% in 2030 compared to the business-as-usual emission estimate and included the statement in its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution. In achieving the target, Korea stated that 11.3%p of greenhouse gas reduction will be achieved through international carbon market mechanism while the remaining 25.7% will come from domestic source. Nevertheless, the international community is in the process of developing consensus around the details of trans-boundary carbon market mechanism that is environmentally sound and sustainable enough to be recognized under the Paris Agreement. In this regard, the study aims to present ways for Korea to properly respond to the issue by observing the progress in the climate discussions and analyzing major carbon programs. Particularly since the Korean government is considering the use of cross-border carbon offset programs, the study comprehensively reviews a number of international carbon offset programs and thus seeks to provide implication for Korea. The study considers key principles highlighted in the international community and develops a Mitigation Cooperation Index (MCI), applicable to identifying prospective regions and fields for carbon offset programs. The study also looked at constraints to private participation in implementing international carbon projects and suggests ideas to increase private participation. In order to identify potential carbon partner countries for Korea, the study devised a set of index, namely 'Mitigation Cooperation Index.' The study deemed the following elements as essential: GHG emission level and intent for international carbon transfer, economic ties with Korea, and national development potential. By sub-categorizing and indexing the above-mentioned elements (emission level index, economic exchange index, and national capacity index) and varying the weight among the elements, the study induced values between 0 and 1, with 0 being less prospective and 1 being more prospective. When placing most weight on emission environment, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and Vietnam were analyzed as the most potential partners. Nine out of thirty most potential partners were Asian countries. In terms of economic exchange, Vietnam, Indonesia, the Philippines, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Myanmar and several other Asian countries were included in the more prospective group. In regards to national development capacity, countries with higher income levels while classified as developing countries in the UNFCCC (i.e. Singapore, Israel, Chile, Qatar, etc.), were in the top tier. However, through a MCI analysis, we were able to conclude that it is most effective when national capacity support is provided along with cooperation in carbon reduction in a number of Asian countries. On the Korean side, while private companies are willing to participate in overseas reduction projects, many of them lack local network and capacity. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance private sector competitiveness through adequate institutional and policy design. In terms of finance, Korea must seek a linkage between ODA resources and international carbon reduction programs. Given the financial constraints of low-carbon projects, ODA resources can be linked to lowering entry barriers and inducing private capital inflows. Also, active participation in international carbon finance initiatives by multilateral banks and organizations should be considered. In conclusion, the study suggests the followings to facilitate Korea's participation in international GHG reduction. First, the government should set up and implement a mid- to long-term plan to assist the private sector participation in climate change mitigation. There is a need for a powerful inter-agency control tower beyond the current level to perform and coordinate relevant action plans established by each ministries. Secondly, active support from the government is needed to promote private participation in climate change projects overseas. For example, establishing a one-stop support organization for Korean companies to successfully launch business in overseas green industry sector, building a system for companies to transfer overseas carbon credits to domestic reduction, and supporting private sector competency and experience through domestic institution building. In addition, resource mobilization must be considered. In this respect, Korea may consider supporting GHG mitigation projects in connection with ODA, multilateral funds, and various other financial instruments. Particularly, enhanced efforts to access the Green Climate Fund is necessary. Access to the Fund can be highly potential through a well-devised project plan. Finally, efforts are needed for Korea to engage and collaborate in various international carbon partnership programs. Through participation in the discussions with major international organizations, donors and recipients, Korea will be able to access first-hand information and also cultivate climate capabilities while engaging in actual business. Engagement in such activities will also increase business opportunities and partnership with interested parties.
    Date: 2016–12–30
  3. By: Catherine Leining (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); Judd Ormsby (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); Suzi Kerr (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research)
    Abstract: The New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (NZ ETS) was conceived as New Zealand’s gateway to the international carbon market with two objectives: assisting New Zealand to meet its international climate change obligations and reducing domestic net emissions below business-as-usual levels. Underlying these objectives was the principle of least-cost compliance for both the New Zealand government and NZ ETS participants. Uniquely among ETS to date, from 2008 through mid-2015 the NZ ETS operated with buy-and-sell linkages to the Kyoto market that did not constrain domestic emissions and were used to set the domestic price. As international Kyoto unit prices plunged from 2011 onward, so did New Zealanders’ incentives to invest in higher-cost domestic mitigation. Instead, NZ ETS participants complied by purchasing large numbers of Kyoto units. In November 2012, the government announced it would take its post-2012 commitment under the UNFCCC, not the Kyoto Protocol. NZ ETS participants responded by surrendering low-cost Kyoto units and banking NZUs which were expected to remain usable in the longer term. In mid-2015, the NZ ETS delinked from the Kyoto market. Although the New Zealand government has explored bilateral ETS linkages, none has come to fruition to date. As of 2017, the NZ ETS operates as a stand-alone system with a substantial participant-held NZU bank as the legacy of past linking. The government now faces important decisions about the future of unit supply in the NZ ETS and linkages to international markets. This paper examines New Zealand’s experience with linking and de-linking its ETS to capture lessons that could be of value to policy makers in New Zealand and other countries. It finds that the considerable opportunities to a small ETS market from linking can be negated if the environmental, economic and political risks are not managed strategically. It also highlights some of the technical and political challenges of negotiating bilateral linking agreements. New Zealand’s future policy on ETS linking, and more generally support for international mitigation as part of our global contribution, should ensure the integrity of New Zealand’s contribution to global mitigation and support strategic domestic decarbonisation in the longer term.
    Keywords: Emissions trading, environmental economics, climate change, greenhouse gases, linking emissions trading schemes, environmental public policy, history
    JEL: Q50 Q54 Q58 N5 N57
    Date: 2017–04
  4. By: D. Dragone; L. Lambertini; A. Palestini
    Abstract: We revisit the well known differential Cournot game with polluting emissions dating back to Benchekroun and Long (1998), proposing a version of the model in which environmental taxation is levied on emissions rather than the environmental damage. This allows to attain strong time consistency under open-loop information, and yields two main results which can be summarized as follows: (i) to attain a fully green technology in steady state, the regulator may equivalently adopt an appropriate tax rate (for any given number of firms) or regulate market access (for any given tax rate); (ii) if the environmental damage depends on emissions only (i.e., not on industry output) then the aggregate green R&D effort takes an inverted-U shape, in accordance with Aghion et al. (2005), and the industry structure maximising aggregate green innovation also minimises individual and aggregate emissions.
    JEL: C73 H23 L13 O31 Q52
    Date: 2017–04
  5. By: Alessio D'Amato (University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Italy); Giovanni Marin (University of Urbino 'Carlo Bo', Italy); Andrea Rampa (University of Roma 'Tor Vergata')
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to provide an empirical analysis of the potential drivers of regulators' behaviour in the presence of a potential natural disaster. Specifically, we focus our attention on oods and landslides, and select building permits as our measure of regulatory stringency. We rst build a simpli ed theoretical framework based on political agency modelling, in order to derive theoretical results and testable implications. The empirical analysis is undertaken by relying on a unique dataset covering Italy in the period 1995-2013 and containing information on soil sealing, building permits and natural disasters (floods and landslides), together with data on elections, at a provincial level. Our main conclusions imply that a bad history in terms of disasters decreases building permits, suggesting that such a unfavourable past strengthens the relevance of 'green' voters. On the other hand, the relevance of the construction sector increases the number of building permits issued. Finally, the closeness to elections appears to increase the number of building permits, indirectly suggesting a stronger reactivity of 'brown' voters, linked to the construction sector or not affected by environmental disasters.
    Keywords: International Trade, Hazardous waste, Gravity model, Environmental policy, Factors endowment
    JEL: F18 F64 O44 Q27 Q56
    Date: 2017–04
  6. By: Srivatsan V. Raghavan; Jiang Ze; Jina Hur; Liu Jiandong; Nguyen Ngoc Son; Sun Yabin; Liong Shie-Yui
    Abstract: Climate and agriculture are closely linked, as weather and climate are the primary factors in agricultural production. Due to high levels of CO2, future projections of climate change indicate increasing temperatures and varied rainfall, both which will have major impacts on the agricultural sector. In this context, this paper assesses food security with respect to climate changes over Southeast Asia, with a focus on southern Viet Nam. This multidisciplinary study integrates regional climate modelling, agricultural science-crop modelling and risk assessments, which form the base for the creation of regional/local information products that will have direct societal applications. This study is useful for assessing socio-economic risks and leads to opportunities for interdisciplinary collaboration, which will bring direct benefits to the Southeast Asian/Association of Southeast Asian Nations region to develop adequate adaptive practices towards risk management, food security, diversification, and planning.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Floods, Droughts, Risk Management, Food Security, Policy
    JEL: Q18 Q54
    Date: 2017–03
  7. By: Elmar Hillebrand (EEFA Research Institute); Marten Hillebrand (Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz)
    Abstract: This paper develops a dynamic general equilibrium model with an arbitrary number of different regions to study the economic consequences of climate change under alternative climate policies. Regions di?er with respect to their state of economic development, factor endowments, and climate damages and trade on global markets for capital, output, and exhaustible resources. Our main result derives an optimal climate policy consisting of an emissions tax and a transfer policy. The optimal tax can be determined explicitly in our framework and is independent of any weights attached to the interests of different countries. Such weights only determine optimal transfers which distribute tax revenues across countries. We infer that the real political issue is not the tax policy required to reduce global warming but rather how the burden of climate change should be shared via transfer payments between di?erent countries. We propose a simple transfer policy which induces a Pareto improvement relative to the Laissez faire solution.
    Keywords: Multi-region model; Dynamic equilibrium; Climate change; Optimal climate tax; Optimal transfer policy; Emissions trading system
    JEL: E10 E61 H21 H23 Q43 Q54
    Date: 2017
  8. By: Marian Leimbach; Niklas Roming; Gregor Schwerhoff; Anselm Schultes
    Abstract: Progress in international climate negotiations depends crucially on the contribution of developing countries. Development perspectives determine their incentive structure. This study investigates into two related research questions: Does climate policy slow economic growth of Sub-Saharan Africa? What are interregional and intraregional distributional impacts of climate policies? Based on a scenario analysis with the energy-economy-climate model REMIND, we estimate the economic costs and transformation needs under different assumptions on (i) climate stabilization target, (II) policy and technology cooperation, and (iii) burden sharing. This scenario analysis is supplemented by an ex-post assessment of distributional effects within the Sub-Saharan Africa region based on stylized facts of energy consumption. - Climate change mitigation is affordable and compatible with economic growth - While mitigation costs can be reduced for Sub-Saharan Africa by delayed action, early action can even generate benefits (beyond avoided damages) when global action takes international equity into account - Direct (domestic) mitigation costs can potentially be reduced (up to 8 percentage points) due to revenues on the carbon and biomass market. - Climate policy causes the price for liquid energy to rise much faster in a mitigation scenario than in the business-as usual scenario; until 2030 this increase even exceeds that of the increase in per capita income, resulting in a decline of non-energy consumption
    Keywords: Sub-Saharan Africa, Energy and environmental policy, Developing countries
    Date: 2016–07–04
  9. By: Emmanuelle Augeraud-Véron (Mathématiques, Image et Applications (MIA), Université de La Rochelle); Giorgio Fabbri (Aix-Marseille Univ. (Aix-Marseille School of Economics), CNRS, EHESS and Centrale Marseille); Katheline Schubert (Paris School of Economics, Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne)
    Abstract: This paper presents a benchmark endogenous growth model including biodiversity preservation dynamics. Producing food requires land, and increasing the share of total land devoted to farming mechanically reduces the share of land devoted to biodiversity conservation. However, the safeguarding of a greater number of species is associated to better ecosystem services – pollination, flood control, pest control, etc., which in turn ensure a lower volatility of agricultural productivity. The optimal conversion/preservation rule is explicitly characterized, as well as the value of biological diversity, in terms of the welfare gain of biodiversity conservation. The Epstein-Zin-Weil specification of the utility function allows us to disentangle the effects of risk aversion and aversion to fluctuations. A two-player game extension of the model highlights the effect of volatility externalities and the Paretian sub-optimality of the decentralized choice.
    Keywords: collective decibiodiversity, stochastic endogenous growth, insurance value, recursive preferences
    JEL: Q56 Q58 Q10 Q15 O13 O20 C73
    Date: 2017–03
  10. By: Kwon , Yul (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Jung , Jione (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Hur, Yoon Sun (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Jeong , Jisun (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Lee , Juyoung (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy)
    Abstract: Korean Abstract: 본 연구는 SDGs 채택 이후 개발협력정책의 방향성, 설정된 세부목표와 이행지표를 검토하고, 무역과 개발, 기후변화 관련 정책의 주요 이슈와 쟁점을 분석하였다. 글로벌 개발목표를 효과적으로 달성하기 위해서는 정책적 일관성을 유지하면서 새로운 글로벌 파트너십을 확립하기 위한 체계적인 정책방향 도출이 필요하다. 이를 위해 최빈국 특혜관세조치와 ODA의 연계성, 일반특혜관세(GSP) 제도 도입 등을 통해 개도국과의 무역 및 투자 활성화를 도모하고, 신기후체제하에서 기후변화와 ODA를 연계할 수 있는 방안을 다각도로 제시하였다. English Abstract: In September 2015, the United Nation's member states agreed on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as part of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, a resolution adopted by the General Assembly on its 70th session. Building on the achievement of the Millenium Development Goals and seeking to address emerging challenges, the SDGs are a set of comprehensive and ambitious development goals for the next 15 years and a universal call to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure all people enjoy peace and prosperity. The 17 SDGs and 169 targets are integrated, inter-connected and balance the three dimensions (economic, social and environment) of sustainable development. The implementation of 17 integrated goals and 169 targets requires whole-of-government approaches, enhanced coordination among divergent actors. The SDG target 17.14 specifically calls on all countries to "enhance policy coherence for sustainable development (PCSD)" as an integral part of the means of implementation. In the context of SDGs, it is emphasized to capitalize on synergies between goals, targets and different sectoral polices. The PCSD is highlighted as a policy tool to manage inconsistencies among policy areas such as aid, trade and climate change and subsequently enhance development effectiveness and enable the environment for sustainable development. Under the circumstances, it is important for donor countries to understand the potential impact of "beyond-aid" schemes in trade and climate change, in particular. While it is widely agreed that trade is crucial for economic growth and sustainable development, a large number of low income countries, the Least Developed Countries in particular, remain marginalized in global trade. Tariff and non-tariff barriers to developing countries create negative spill-over effects on the livelihood of poor farmers in developing countries. Another policy area of particular importance is climate change. The Paris Agreement at COP21 marks a decisive turning point in the global response to climate change. In the new climate regime, it is imperative for donor countries to help developing countries strengthen their climate resilience and adaptive capacity while attempting to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
    Date: 2016–12–30
  11. By: Martijn Boermans; Rients Galema
    Abstract: With the adoption of the Paris Agreement in December 2015, better understanding of portfolio carbon dioxide (CO2) exposures has become increasingly important for investors, regulators and society at large. In this paper we measure the portfolio carbon footprints (CFPs) of pension funds' stock investments. We utilize security-by-security holdings of Dutch pension funds over the period 2009-2015 and combine this with firm-level CO2 information to analyze the drivers of CFP at the portfolio level. The results show that pension funds face intricate trade-offs when aiming to reduce portfolio related CO2 emissions: expected dividend yields are positively related to the carbon footprint while portfolios' systematic risk (market beta) is negatively related to the carbon footprint. The dividend trade-off with carbon exposures only applies to well-funded pension funds and is driven to some extent by investments in energy and utility companies. For the period 2013-2015 pension funds which publicly disclose their carbon footprint tend to have relatively lower exposure to firm with high carbon emissions.
    Keywords: carbon emissions; pension funds; institutional investors; socially responsible investment; climate change
    JEL: G11 G23 H55 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2017–04
  12. By: Thi Anh Dam (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena); Markus Pasche (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena); Niclas Werlich (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena)
    Abstract: With global specialization and trade, countries make directly but also indirectly use of the environment via traded goods. Based on the theory of comparative advantages, the Heckscher-Ohlin-Vanek approach, we are using the Ecological Footprint as a broad measure of environmental use because its methodology explicitly accounts for the environmental use embodied in the traded goods. The comparative advantages depend on the endowment of environment as well as on the stringency of environmental policy which regulate the access to these factors. We empirically analyse the determinants of the ecological side of the trade pattern, i.e. whether the net export of the Ecological Footprint, embodied in the traded goods, depends on the comparative advantages as predicted by the theory, but also on a couple of control variables. A special focus is put on the role of environmental policy stringency which links our analysis to the "Pollution Haven" hypothesis. We also briefly analyse the role of FDI flows for the emergence of the ecological specialization pattern of production and trade.
    Keywords: Trade, comparative advantage, Ecological Footprint, environmental policy, Pollution Haven, FDI
    JEL: F18 F14 F11 Q57 Q56
    Date: 2017–04–18
  13. By: Dzintra Atstaja (BA School of Business and Finance)
    Abstract: Traditional education has conditioned us to believe that the world and the universe comprises distinct, isolated, material objects ? all separated from one another and collectively operating according to rational, deterministic, mechanistic laws. It has become conventional to describe sustainable development in terms of three overarching themes: economic, social, and ecological (sometimes called environmental). These are considered to be the fundamental areas of human experience that need to be addressed in any sustainable development scenario. This realisation that we are pushing the planet to its limits will require a more holistic view of education.It implies more of an inter-disciplinary approach and better links among the different school subjects, as well as a growing need for more thematic teaching. The education system will also have to set new goals, both at the level of complexity that the learners have to embrace and on producing learners with increased capacity to act. By combining a deeper and more integrated understanding with social and collaborative learning, students will explore making sustainable choices and decisions about their own lives, the lives of others, and their common environment. Social and collaborative problem-solving, decision-making, and capacity to make informed choices are central characteristics of combining interests and the ability to act. The interconnected environmental, economic, social and political challenges facing humanity demand capable and responsible citizens who can make informed choices and take appropriate action to create the conditions for social, economic, and environmental sustainability ? locally and globally.Education and lifelong learning are essential requisites for making those choices and taking such action.The report will present the Latvian experience and results in the education for Sustainable Development. The author of the article will share her teaching experience, will present her conclusions and provide practical examples for perfecting one?s knowledge and hope that this experience will be of use to her colleagues.
    Keywords: teaching methods, projects, sustainability, Europe, Baltic States
    JEL: A29
  14. By: Mariateresa Silvi (Departament d'Economia Aplicada, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona); Emilio Padilla Rosa (Departament d'Economia Aplicada, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona)
    Abstract: A key issue for ecological economics concerns the processes whereby people engage in ecologically responsible behavior and contribute to environmental quality even when they involve a personal cost for a shared benefit. This paper explores the relative impact of intrinsic motivation versus external conditions and economic incentives on eight pro-environmental behaviors (PEBs). Previous research has mostly focused on one of these two aspects or studied whether external incentives can crowd out moral motivation. More comprehensive accounts of the interplay of these factors are rare and mostly dated or report small-scale experiments and case studies. Using a data set measuring PEBs and environmental attitudes in the European Union’s 28 member states, this paper tests both sets of variables on a wider scale. It assesses the importance of intrinsic motivation as a dominant factor and shows how differing levels of intrinsic motivation influence the effectiveness of external conditions, such as monetary incentives and green infrastructures. External incentives are found to interact positively with intrinsic motivation. The findings also suggest that the influence of external factors varies depending on whether the behavior examined is cost neutral or implies costs or rewards. We further show that other non-strictly-related factors can affect the salience of an environmental norm and consequently the adoption of the corresponding behavior. Pressing economic preoccupations can distract individuals from behaving pro-environmentally, and PEBs are more likely to arise in individuals who care about the future. The results suggest that two-pronged policies, which take into account intrinsic motivation and external conditions, are needed to reach a high observance rate in the population in the short and in the long term. The wider significance of these results for environmental policy and policy guidance for each of the eight PEBs is discussed.
    Date: 2017–04
  15. By: In Chang Hwang
    Abstract: This paper develops a climate-economy model with uncertainty, irreversibility and active learning. Whereas previous papers assume passive learning from one observation per period, or experiment with control variables to gain additional information, this paper considers active learning from research investment in improved observations. We restrict ourselves to improving observations of the global mean temperature. We find that the decision maker invests a significant amount of money in climate research, far more than the current level, in order to increase the rate of learning about climate change. This helps the decision maker take improved decisions. The level of uncertainty decreases more rapidly in the active learning model with research investment than in the passive learning model only with temperature observations. As a result, active learning reduces the optimal carbon tax. The greater the risk, the larger is the effect of learning. The method proposed here is applicable to any dynamic control problem where the quality of monitoring is a choice variable.
    Keywords: The Netherlands/ South Korea, Energy and environmental policy, Optimization models
    Date: 2016–07–04
  16. By: Guillermo Flichman (CIHEAM - International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies); Hatem Belhouchette (CIHEAM - International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies); Adam M. Komarek (International Food Policy Research Institute); Sophie Drogue (UMR MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - INRA Montpellier - Institut national de la recherche agronomique [Montpellier] - CIHEAM - Centre International des Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes); James Hawkins (International Food Policy Research Institute); Roza Chenoune (CIHEAM - International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies); Siwa Msangi (International Food Policy Research Institute)
    Abstract: DAHBSIM is a dynamic, bio-economic model of agricultural households that was designed to be applied to a rural, developing country-setting, for the purpose of addressing questions around the biophysical constraints to on-farm agricultural productivity, and the whole-farm implications of alternative strategies to sustainable agricultural intensification. The model links socio-economic and biophysical aspects, in order to better illustrate the environmental and human welfare implications of different agricultural production practices, as they are influenced by policy-driven changes in prices of inputs or outputs, or by changes in the physical environment.
    Keywords: gender,markets,nutrition,health,dynamic model,environmental control,modèle dynamique,système de production,ménage agricole,productivité,analyse socio-économique,environnement biophysique,marché agricole,protection de l'environnement
    Date: 2016
  17. By: Sophie Méritet (LEDa-CGEMP, Université Paris-Dauphine - Université Paris-Dauphine, PSL Research University); Stéphanie Monjon (LEDa-CGEMP, Université Paris-Dauphine - Université Paris-Dauphine, PSL Research University)
    Abstract: Durant les deux mandats de Barack Obama, la situation énergétique des Etats-Unis a connu de profonds bouleversements, non seulement du fait de l’exploitation des hydrocarbures non conventionnels, mais aussi de l’essor des énergies renouvelables. Ces évolutions résultent d’actions politiques fortes, au niveau fédéral et des Etats, pour diminuer la dépendance énergétique du pays, ainsi que ses émissions de gaz à effet de serre.Ainsi, dans le mix électrique américain d'origine renouvelable, la part combinée du solaire et de l'éolien a fortement augmenté : elle est maintenant supérieure à 20%, soit une part équivalente à celle des biocarburants. En dépit d'une progression spectaculaire au cours des cinq dernières années, les énergies renouvelables (hors hydroélectricité) occupent toujours une place modeste dans le mix électrique américain (7%). L’indépendance énergétique du pays a été un objectif clairement affiché pour ces politiques ; la réduction des émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES) en a été un autre, conduisant à la mise en œuvre d’un large spectre de mesures visant l’ensemble des secteurs du pays.Ces changements de l’offre énergétique du pays, ainsi que les actions prises dans les autres secteurs, ont abouti à un recul important des émissions de GES. Alors qu’entre 1990 et 2007 elles avaient progressé de façon quasi continue, elles enregistrent un recul important depuis. Les réductions les plus importantes ont été observées dans le secteur électrique et dans le secteur des transports. Cette évolution résulte d’une volonté politique au niveau à la fois fédéral et des États. Malgré l’échec de l’American Clean Energy and Security Act qui devait notamment introduire un système de permis d’émissions couvrant les émissions des centrales électriques en 2009, de nombreux États se sont engagés dans une action forte en faveur du climat à la fin des années 2000. Néanmoins, le contraste reste important entre États, que cela soit en matière de niveau d’émissions de GES, ou de politiques climatiques. Certains se sont engagés très tôt dans la lutte contre le changement climatique, en adoptant un objectif de réduction de leurs émissions de GES et en déployant des mesures dans l’ensemble des secteurs économiques. D’autres sont encore assez peu actifs sur la question climatique et se contentent généralement de programmes en faveur des énergies renouvelables.Après sa réélection en 2012, le président Obama a adopté une stratégie différente de la précédente, en renonçant à proposer une nouvelle loi fédérale et en préférant utiliser son pouvoir exécutif sur ce dossier. En juin 2013, il annonce un Plan d’Action sur le Climat qui repose sur la législation existante et les prérogatives de l’Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Les réductions les plus importantes sont attendues dans le secteur de l’énergie avec, d’une part, la baisse des émissions de CO2 des centrales électriques et, d’autre part, la réduction des émissions de méthane des infrastructures d’extraction et de transport du gaz naturel. Barack Obama a également repris place sur la scène internationale. Après avoir été en première ligne de la négociation de l’accord de Copenhague en 2009, l’administration Obama a été présente et moteur tout au long du processus de négociation qui a préparé la 21e Conférence des Parties de la Convention cadre des Nations unies sur les changements climatiques. Dans son héritage, le président Obama a néanmoins parfaitement conscience que son rêve « d’Amérique verte » doit cohabiter avec les ressources fossiles non conventionnelles. Sa nouvelle politique se divise donc entre cette recherche d’indépendance énergétique au travers de la production nationale d’hydrocarbures non conventionnels et d’énergies renouvelables, et la réduction de l’empreinte carbone de son pays.
    Keywords: Etats-Unis,énergie,environnement
    Date: 2016
  18. By: Michel, Stephan; Romano, Alessandro; Zannini, Ugo
    Abstract: In this paper, we argue that the joint use of ex-ante regulation and ex-post liability rules is efficient when there are uncertainty surrounding causal investigations and regulatory myopia. As these conditions are generally met in environmental cases, we provide an explanation for the frequent coexistence of these two instruments to control activities that create a risk for the environment. Moreover, we suggest that a joint use of liability and regulation should more frequently be optimal at the European (Federal) level than at the Country (State) level.
    Keywords: Regulation,Liability,Joint Use,Causal Uncertainty,Regulatory Myopia,Precautionary Principle
    JEL: K13 K32 L50 Q52 Q58
    Date: 2017
  19. By: Hyunju Kang (Korea Capital Market Institute); Hyunduk Suh (Department of Economics, Inha University); Jongmin Yu (Department of Economics, Hongik University)
    Abstract: We conduct an empirical analysis on the effect of air pollution on retail sales, using monthly regional panel data on air quality and large retail store sales in Korea. We account for regional heterogeneity in air pollution and control for various macroeconomic and climatic factors that can affect retail sales. We also use the air quality indicator in the west coastal islands - affected by trans-border pollution, but uncorrelated with economic activity in the mainland - as an instrumental variable. The estimation result shows that one additional day of PM10 level higher than 80 reduces monthly retail sales by about 0.1 percent in general. However, an adaptive pattern appears over time, in particular when the level of air pollution in the previous month was severe.
    Keywords: Air pollution, PM10, Consumption, Large store Retail Sales, Adaptation
    JEL: E21 E60 Q53
    Date: 2017–04
  20. By: Stig Ottosson (Norwegian University of Science and Technology)
    Abstract: Today the terms sustainable development and sustainable innovation are often used. But what is meant by these terms, other than that they in some ways are connected to the terms ?green? and ?ecological?? Studying the literature on the topic leads to the conclusion that there is no precise or established definition of sustainable innovation, sustainability and sustainable development.A conclusion in the paper is that we now need to focus on how to develop new sustainable product innovations, and for these, product development is the most important element as the solutions will affect the environment during the whole Product Life Cycle of the products. Another conclusion is that Dynamic Product Development (DPD?) is a model that seems to satisfy the different definitions on sustainability that have been proposed.The result of a product development project is based on the product developer?s knowledge, experience, and ability. The leadership of an entrepreneur (or intrapreneur) is also important for the level of sustainability of an innovation that is achieved. Therefore, the product developers and entrepreneurs need to be educated in a broader perspective than is common in the technical field today. The product developers must also be monitored in the actual work situation to ensure that new products that are not sustainable are not being marketed. This, in turn, calls for a similar, broader perspective in management education.
    Keywords: Innovation; innovation process; innovation project; sustainability; sustainable innovation.
    JEL: A00 C51 C63
  21. By: Tom Bosserez; Pieter Moonen; Marten Ovaere; Jan Rongé; Niels Smeets; Sarah Van Eynde
    Abstract: tion%20papers/ForeignTravel-TechnicalNot e.pdf
    Keywords: Carbon Compensation Policy, KU Leuven staff mobility
    Date: 2017–02–01
  22. By: EDAMURA Kazuma; MIYAGAWA Tsutomu; UCHIYAMA Katsuhisa
    Abstract: This paper examines whether environmental related investment increases firm value by using the firm level panel data of the Survey of Research and Development, Development Bank of Japan Kigyo Zaimu Data Bank, and CSR Kigyo Soran. In the standard theory of the firm, environmental related investment does not increase firms' profits, but in recent research, it is shown that it could increase firm value in view of the benefits enjoyed by various stakeholders. Regarding the accumulation of investments as a valuable management resource, this paper considers the influence of environmental related investment accumulation on firm value. We test the relationship between research and development investment for environmental technology and investments for environmental protection and Tobin's q, return on assets (ROA), and return on equity (ROE). The estimation results show that environmental related investment increases firm value, and leads to accumulation of useful management resources. In addition, our results indicate that the combination of environmental related investment and active advertisement raises firm value.
    Date: 2017–03
  23. By: Chen, Xi (Yale University); Zhang, Xiaobo (Peking University); Zhang, Xin (Peking University)
    Abstract: While there is a large body of literature on the negative health effects of air pollution, there is much less written about its effects on cognitive performance for the whole population. This paper studies the effects of contemporaneous and cumulative exposure to air pollution on cognitive performance based on a nationally representative survey in China. By merging a longitudinal sample at the individual level with local air-quality data according to the exact dates and counties of interviews, we find that contemporaneous and cumulative exposure to air pollution impedes both verbal and math scores of survey subjects. Interestingly, the negative effect is stronger for men than for women. Specifically, the gender difference is more salient among the old and less educated in both verbal and math tests.
    Keywords: cognitive performance, air pollution, gender difference
    JEL: I24 Q53 Q51 J16
    Date: 2017–03
  24. By: Olivier Deschenes (University of California, Santa Barbara); Michael Greenstone (University of Chicago); Joseph S. Shapiro (Cowles Foundation, Yale University)
    Abstract: The demand for air quality depends on health impacts and defensive investments, but little research assesses the empirical importance of defenses. A rich quasi-experiment suggests that the Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Budget Program (NBP), a cap-and-trade market, decreased NOx emissions, ambient ozone concentrations, pharmaceutical expenditures, and mortality rates. The annual reductions in pharmaceutical purchases, a key defensive investment, and mortality are valued at about $800 million and $1.1 billion, respectively, suggesting that defenses are over one-third of willingness-to-pay for reductions in NOx emissions. Further, estimates indicate that the NBP’s benefits easily exceed its costs and that NOx reductions have substantial benefits.
    Keywords: Health, NOx, Emissions
    JEL: H40 I10 Q40
    Date: 2017–03
  25. By: ENDO Kazumi
    Abstract: This study examines determinants of corporate environmental performance (CEP), focusing on four factors: managerial quality, board structure, ownership structure, and family business. Using a unique dataset on management practices, I find that good management leads to green management. In addition, this study indicates that both board size and board composition are positively associated with CEP and confirms the advisory function of the board. While domestic blockholders exert a quiet diplomacy on firms' strategies, foreign blockholders, who are supposed to seek immediate returns, discourage proactive environmental practices. This study also shows that family businesses, which are characterized by owner-management, are not a significant predictor of CEP once the impacts of the above factors have been partialed out. The results suggest that directors are vulnerable to pressure from short-sighted investors, and that this pressure may drive out good management practices and endanger long-term profitability.
    Date: 2017–03
  26. By: Simone Tagliapietra
    Abstract: Endowed with half of the world’s known oil and gas reserves, the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is a cornerstone of the global energy architecture. This architecture is currently undergoing a structural transformation, prompted by two different forces - decarbonisation policies and low-carbon technology advancements. The energy literature offers no comprehensive analysis of the potential impact of the global energy transformation on the MENA region. This paper seeks to fill this gap by investigating the following research question - are MENA oil exporting countries equipped to prosper in times of global decarbonisation? Making use of the Rentier State Theory and of a business-as-usual projection of the exploitation of oil resources in MENA countries, we highlight on the lack of incentives for MENA oil exporters to pursue paths of economic diversification. On the basis of a scenario-based analysis, we illustrate that, should the Paris Agreement on climate change be implemented, MENA oil exporters would see their oil rents decline over the next few decades. MENA oil exporting countries are still not adequately equipped to prosper in a decarbonising world. Therefore, decarbonisation should represent an incentive for MENA oil exporters to pursue structural processes of transition from rentier to production states.
    Date: 2017–04
  27. By: Martina Sartori; Roberto Roson
    Abstract: This paper provides a summary of results from a series of meta-analyses aimed at estimating parameters for six specific climate change damage functions, referring to: sea level rise, agricultural productivity, heat effects on labor productivity, human health, tourism flows and households' energy demand. All parameters of the six damage functions are estimated for each of the 140 countries and regions in the GTAP9 dataset. a new set of climate change damage functions has been presented, improving earlier estimates in several ways. First, functions and parameters are provided with a large regional disaggregation (140 countries) and in a format which, by referring to the latest GTAP social accounting matrix, makes them easily employable in many CGE and CGE-based models. Information from new, recently available studies, typically from the non economic literature, has been processed in such a way that parameter values for economic variables, like labor productivity, can be estimated. To illustrate the salient characteristics of our estimates, we approximate the change in real GDP for the different effects, in all regions, corresponding to an increase in average temperature of +3°C. After considering the overall impact, we highlight which factor is the most significant one in each country, and we elaborate on the distributional consequences of climate change. In addition to tourism income, variations in agricultural and labor productivity are also very relevant in many countries. Sea level rise, on the other hand, never appears as the primary factor, because of its limited incidence on total land and the relative small share of land income on GDP. Our findings confirm that the negative effects of climate change will be mainly borne by developing countries, located in tropical regions.
    Keywords: Worldwide, Modeling: new developments, Impact and scenario analysis
    Date: 2016–07–04
  28. By: Willenbockel, Dirk
    Abstract: The present study applies purpose-built dynamic computable general equilibrium models for Ghana and Kenya with a disaggregated country-specific representation of the power sector to simulate the prospective medium-run growth and distributional implications associated with a shift towards a higher share of renewables in the power mix up to 2025. In both countries the share of fossil-fuel-based thermal electricity generation in the power mix will increase sharply over the next decade and beyond according to current national energy sector development plans. The overarching general message suggested by the simulation results presented here is that in both countries it appears feasible to reduce the carbon content of electricity generation significantly without adverse consequences for economic growth and without noteworthy distributional effects.
    Keywords: Green growth; Low carbon growth; Sub-Saharan Africa; CGE analysis; computable general equilibrium
    JEL: D58 Q42 Q43
    Date: 2017–03
  29. By: Ferro, Gustavo
    Abstract: Los objetivos del presente estudio son describir y analizar, desde el punto de vista económico, regulatorio e institucional, las más importantes modificaciones del marco normativo del sector de agua potable y saneamiento realizadas o propuestas en los países de América Latina en la última década y media, identificar tendencias comunes, lecciones aprendidas, desafíos pendientes y formular recomendaciones para su superación. Se analiza la situación general del sector en la región, en cuanto a los niveles de cobertura, calidad de servicios, estructura institucional, organización industrial, marcos regulatorios, gobernabilidad de prestadores, políticas de financiamiento, tarifas y subsidios, y participación del sector privado; los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio (ODM) en agua potable y saneamiento; las implicaciones de los nuevos Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) para el sector y los desafíos que su logro representará para la región; y se profundiza en un conjunto de reformas regulatorias específicas que constituyen referencias de buenas prácticas. Para ello se hace una presentación del contexto de la nueva política, resumiéndola y describiéndola y se efectúa su análisis desde el punto de vista económico, regulatorio e institucional.
    Date: 2017–04
  30. By: Casas Varez, Marina
    Abstract: El principal objetivo de este estudio es identificar la relevancia del tema de género en las causas y consecuencias del cambio climático. Los principales resultados muestran que estos son heterogéneos y que en muchos casos agravan las desigualdades de género que existen históricamente en la sociedad. Los impactos diferenciados de los efectos del calentamiento global sobre hombres y mujeres exigen políticas públicas de adaptación y mitigación que reconozcan las diferentes necesidades que tienen ambos géneros y que promuevan la transversalización del enfoque de género en las políticas públicas frente al cambio climático. A este respecto, existen algunos avances en la región pero aún persiste un importante espacio de mejora. Por ejemplo, los Planes de Acción de Género y Cambio Climático (PAGcc), adoptados en algunos países de América Latina y el Caribe, constituyen una importante iniciativa de coordinación intersectorial y ofrecen importantes co-beneficios para insertar la igualdad de género en las políticas públicas frente al cambio climático.
    Date: 2017–03
  31. By: Hakan Cetintas (Kyrgyzstan-Turkey Manas University, Department of Economics); I. Murat Bicil (Balikesir University, Department of Economics); Kumru Turkoz (Balikesir University, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: Elektrik uretiminde fosil yakitlarin kullanimi CO2 emisyonlarinin artmasinda onemli etkenlerin basinda gelmektedir. Bu calismada Turkiye'de 1986-2013 yillari icin yillik veriler ele alinarak fosil yakitlarla CO2 emisyonlari arasindaki uzun donemli iliskiden yola cikilarak uretimde fosil yakit secimi ile ilgili farkli bilesimlere gore olusturulan senaryolara dayali CO2 emisyonu ongoruleri yapilmistir. Farkli uretim senaryolarina gore emisyondaki degismeleri hesaplamak icin Turkiye'de elektrik uretimi Box-Jenkins metodolojisi ile tahmin edilmis ve uretim projeksiyonu kullanilarak farkli yakit bilesimi senaryolari altinda CO2 emisyonlari hesaplanmistir. Buna gore elektrik uretiminde mevcut durumun devami, komure alternatif olarak dogal gaz kullanimi, komurden yenilenebilir enerjiye gecis gibi alternatif senaryolarin CO2 emisyonunu nasil degistirdigi uretim projeksiyonuna bagli olarak degerlendirilmistir.
    Keywords: CO2 Emisyonlari, Enerji Uretimi, Fosil Yakitlar
    JEL: Q2 Q47
    Date: 2017–03
  32. By: Stijn van Weezel
    Abstract: This study exploits a shift in Spring precipitation patterns in the Horn of Africa following the 1998 El Niño to examine the effect of climate change on conflict. Using data for Ethiopia and Kenya and focusing on communal conflict the regression analysis links districts that have experienced drier conditions since 1999 relative to 1981-1998 with higher conflict levels. However, the magnitude of the estimated effect is low and the direction of the effect is as likely to be positive as negative. Moreover the results are sensitive to model specification, not robust to using another outcome variable, and do not generalise well to out-of-sample data. The cross-validation illustrates that the model linking droughts with conflict has a relatively poor predictive performance. The results also show that districts with substantial shares of pastoralism experience higher levels of communal violence, something that is well documented in the qualitative literature, but don’t face higher risks following decreases in precipitation levels.
    Keywords: Horn of Africa; Climate change; Rainfall; Communal conflict
    JEL: D74 Q54 O55
    Date: 2016–12
  33. By: Gerson Javier Pérez-Valbuena; Iván Higuera-Mendieta; Leonardo Bonilla-Mejía
    Abstract: Usando imágenes satelitales de alta resolución, este artículo evalúa si la delimitación de las áreas protegidas que convergen en inmediaciones de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta han prevenido la deforestación, la presencia de asentamientos poblacionales y la infraestructura vial. Las características de las tres áreas de protección (Línea Negra, Resguardos Indígenas y Parques Nacionales Naturales) y la protección ocasionada por el traslape entre estas, son una oportunidad única para evaluar el efecto marginal de las mismas. Con el fin de identificar efectos causales se utilizan regresiones discontinuas, las cuales permiten comparar pixeles a lado y lado de cada una de las fronteras de las áreas protegidas. Los principales resultados muestran que mientras que la Línea Negra no tiene ningún efecto, los Resguardos Indígenas y los Parques Nacionales Naturales han reducido significativamente la deforestación y los asentamientos poblacionales. ****** ABSTRACT: Using high resolution satellite images, this paper assesses whether protected areas surrounding the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta have reduced deforestation, population settlements and roads. The characteristics of the three existing types of protection (Ancestral Indigenous Area Línea Negra, Indigenous Reserves and National Parks), and the protection levels resulting from their overlapping provide a unique opportunity to evaluate their marginal effects. To this purpose, we use regression discontinuity methods, which allow comparing pixels on both sides of the protected areas’ borders. Our main results indicate that while the Línea Negra limit has no detectable effects, Indigenous Reserves and National Parks have effectively prevented deforestation and population settlements.
    Keywords: Areas protegidas, deforestación, regresión discontínua, Colombia
    JEL: Q2 R1 C5
    Date: 2017–04–10

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