nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2016‒11‒06
thirty papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. China?s Carbon Emissions Report 2016 By Zhu Liu
  2. Análisis sectorial de la huella de carbono para la economía chilena: un enfoque basado en la matriz insumo-producto By Ramón E. López; Simón Accorsi; Gino Sturla
  3. Limit Pricing, Climate Policies, and Imperfect Substitution By Gerard van der Meijden; Cees Withagen
  4. Mechanisms and projects for reducing greenhouse gases emissions in Russia By Bukvić, Rajko; Kartavykh, Marina; Zakharov, Vladimir
  5. Policy networks in energy transitions: The cases of carbon capture and storage and offshore wind in Norway By Håkon Endresen Normann
  6. Essays in environmental economics and policy By van den Bijgaart, Inge
  7. Varieties of carbon voluntarism in contemporary capitalism By Louison Cahen-Fourot
  8. “Climate Change Mitigation and the Role of Technologic Change: Impact on selected headline targets of Europe’s 2020 climate and energy package ” By Germá-Bel; Stephan Josep
  9. Evaluating Economy-Wide Benefit Cost Analyses By V. Kerry Smith; Min Qiang Zhao
  10. Politicians, Pollution and Performance in the Workplace: The Effect of PM on MPs By Anthony Heyes; Nicholas Rivers; Brandon Schaufele
  11. Assessment of biowaste losses through unsound waste management practices in rural areas and the role of home composting By Mihai, Florin-Constantin; Ingrao, Carlo
  12. New evidence of environmental efficiency on the export performance By Sakamoto, Tomoyuki; Managi, Shunsuke
  13. ¿Parques de papel? Áreas protegidas y deforestación en Colombia By Leonardo Bonilla Mejía; Iván Higuera Mendieta
  14. Providing efficient network access to green power generators: A long-term property rights perspective By Georgios Petropoulos; Bert Willems
  15. The falling sperm counts story": A limit to growth? By Johanna Etner; Natacha Raffin; Thomas Seegmuller
  16. Carbon pricing, forward risk premiums and pass-through rates in Australian electricity futures markets By Pawel Maryniak; Stefan Trueck; Rafal Weron
  17. Economic Impacts of Agriculture in Eight Northeastern States By Ben Campbell; Laura Dunn; Adam Rabinowitz
  18. Harvard Climate Justice Coalition et al. vs. Harvard Corporation et al. - Application for FAR By Franta, Benjamin
  19. Pricing Mechanisms for Surface Water Rights: Trading with a Common Pool By Sanchari Ghosh; Keith Willett
  20. Damming Trans-boundary Rivers: A Welfare Analysis of Conflict and Cooperation By Yuyu Zeng; Harold Houba; Ariel Dinar; Miroslav Marence
  21. East Side Story: Historical Pollution and Persistent Neighborhood Sorting By Stephan Heblich; Alex Trew; Yanos Zylberberg
  22. A Model of the International Steam Coal Market ( COALMOD-World) By Franziska Holz; Clemens Haftendorn; Roman Mendelevitch; Christian von Hirschhausen
  23. Emissions trading schemes in Japan: their potential and possible impact By Masaru Ichihashi; Shunsuke Yano
  24. Ökonomische und ökologische Betrachtungen zur Erhöhung der Methanausbeute von Biogasanlagen By Kleine-Möllhoff, Peter; Dürr, Claudio
  25. ‘Split incentive(s)’ et rénovation énergétique des logements By Sandrine Meyer; Kevin Maréchal
  26. Towards a sustainable convention: values and practices in the French stone fruits’value chain By El Hadad Gauthier, Fatima; Kessari, Myriam; Palma, Giulia; Temri, Leïla; Tozanli, Selma
  27. Reduce, Reuse or Recycle? Household Decisions over Waste Prevention and Recycling By Ferrara, Ida; Missios, Paul
  28. Le développement durable, une « théorie » pratique ? By Yvon Pesqueux
  30. El enfoque de brechas estructurales de desarrollo y los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible aplicado al análisis de las provincias argentinas: documento metodológico By -

  1. By: Zhu Liu
    Abstract: Climate change driven by anthropengic carbon emissions is one of the most serious challenges facing human development. China is currently the world?s largest developing country, primary energy consumer, and carbon emitter. The nation releases one quarter of the global total of carbon dioxide (9.2 Gt CO2 in 2013), 1.5 times that from the US. Nearly three-quarters (73%) of the growth in global carbon emission between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Without mitigation, China?s emissions could rise by more than 50% in the next 15 years. Given the magnitude and growth rate of China?s carbon emissions, the country has become a critical partner in developing policy approaches to reduce global CO2 emissions.China is a country with significant regional differences in terms of technology, energy mix, and economic development. 1 Understanding the characteristics and state of regional carbon emissions within China is critical for designing geographically appropriate mitigation policies, including the provincial cap and trade system that is projected to be lanuched in 2017. In this study, I summarize the key features and drivers of China?s regional carbon emissions and conclude with suggestions for a low carbon policy for China.The principal findings are:Provincial aggregated CO2 emissions increased from 3 billion tons in 2000 to 10 billion tons in 2016. During the period, Shandong province contributed most to national emissions, followed by Liaoning, Hebei, and Shanxi provinces. Most of the CO2 emissions were from raw coal, which is primarily burned in the manufacturing and the thermal power sectors.Significant differences exist among provinces in terms of CO2 emissions. Analyses of per capita emissions and emission intensity indicate that provinces located in the northwest and north had higher per capita. CO2 emissions and greater emission intensities than the central and southeast coastal regions. Developing areas have intensive resource use and their economic structure is dominated by heavy industries with higher sectoral emission intensity. These areas contribute to most of the growth in national emissions and are the main drivers of China?s carbon intensive economic structure.An analysis of the factors that affect China?s CO2 emissions shows that technology heterogeneity is directly connected to China?s carbon growth. The dissimilar rate of adoption of energy efficient technologies among regions is a major barrier to China?s CO2 mitigation, and thus needs more attention from researchers and policy makers.
    Date: 2016–01
  2. By: Ramón E. López; Simón Accorsi; Gino Sturla
    Abstract: This study develops and applies a method to calculate sectorial carbon footprint based on the input-output matrix. This method captures in a better way the net emissions attributable to each sector considering sectoral interlinks. This method is applied for the first time to the Chilean economy. We compare the results using this method with those obtained using the conventional methodologies based only on the direct sectoral fuel uses. This comparison shows that the results are dramatically different. It shows that certain sectors which using the conventional approach appear to be quite mild in terms of emissions, are much dirtier (e.g., the mining industry) while other sectors traditionally considered high emitters revealed to be much less dirty (e.g., electricity and gas). These differences entail large implications for carbon reducing policies as the carbon tax burden would have to be quite different depending on the methodology used to estimate sectoral emission footprints. Based on this methodology we analyze the effectiveness of carbon taxes to reduce the CO2 emissions and compared with an alternative regulatory framework that induces a “cleaner” composition of the energy matrix. An international comparison puts Chile as a relatively clean economy but with a trend showing an increase in the emissions per unit of output, mainly due to the use of carbon intensive fuels.
    Date: 2016–10
  3. By: Gerard van der Meijden (VU University Amsterdam, the Netherlands); Cees Withagen (VU University Amsterdam, the Netherlands)
    Abstract: The effects of climate policies are often studied under the assumption of perfectly competitive markets for fossil fuels. In this paper, we allow for monopolistic fossil fuel supply. We show that, if fossil and renewable energy sources are perfect substitutes, a phase will exist during which the monopolist chooses a limit pricing strategy. If limit pricing occurs from the beginning, a renewables subsidy increases initial extraction, whereas a carbon tax leaves initial extraction unaffected. However, if the initially fossil fuels are cheaper than renewables, a renewables subsidy and a carbon tax lower initial extraction, contrary to the case under perfect competition. Both policy instruments lower cumulative extraction. If fossil fuels and renewables are imperfect but good substitutes, the monopolist will exhibit `limit pricing resembling' behavior, by keeping the effective price of fossil close to that of renewables for considerable time. The empirical question whether energy demand is elastic or inelastic has less drastic implications for the fossil price and extraction paths than under perfect substitutability.
    Keywords: Limit pricing; non-renewable resource; monopoly; climate policies
    JEL: Q31 Q42 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2016–10–21
  4. By: Bukvić, Rajko; Kartavykh, Marina; Zakharov, Vladimir
    Abstract: The article considers the problem of reduction of greenhouse gases emissions, one of the main anthropogenic causes of increasing carbon concentration in the atmosphere, and consequently the global climate change. In the second half of the XX century many schemes for involving market mechanism in solving these problems were proposed. These efforts increased in the last decade of XX century and finally the Kyoto Protocol supported many flexible mechanisms, as a solution for these problems. In spite of all these efforts, during the first period of its implementation (2008–2012) the emissions of carbon increased. This issue has been especially pronounced in Russia, one of the main global emitters. The paper explores the mechanisms and projects in Russia, and its importance for reducing the GHG emissions and fulfilling the commitments of Kyoto Protocol and other international documents.
    Keywords: greenhouse gases (GHG), the Kyoto Protocol, flexible mechanisms, Russian actions
    JEL: H23 K32 L51 Q53 Q56 Q57
    Date: 2015
  5. By: Håkon Endresen Normann (TIK Centre, University of Oslo)
    Abstract: This paper employs the concept of policy networks to study how interest groups and actors compete over the influence of energy and climate policy. It is argued that the creation of learning arenas is critical for the development of immature technologies. The paper then analyses two large efforts to secure state funding of large-scale demonstration projects for offshore wind and carbon capture and storage technology in Norway. The paper describes a range of similarities between these two technologies in terms of scale, maturity, and costs, and in the way they represent possible solutions to the problem of climate change. However, the paper also describes enormous differences in government support towards full-scale demonstration. These differences are then explained in the analysis, which shows how different network structures facilitate different levels of access to the policy making process. The paper provides insights into how the interests of political parties influence the potency for solutions tied to climate and energy problems. The paper therefore contributes to the discourse on the role of politics in sustainable transitions.
    Date: 2016–10
  6. By: van den Bijgaart, Inge (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management)
    Abstract: The dissertation consists of five chapters in Environmental Economics and Policy. The first three chapters consider (optimal) policy in situations where multiple market failures interact, or there exist restrictions on the type or scope of policy instruments available to the policymaker. The first chapter assesses under what conditions, and what type of, unilateral policy can prevent rising global emission concentrations. The second chapter analyzes second-best optimal environmental policy responses to real and financial shocks when firms are subject to credit constraints. The third chapter explores optimal transitory tax policy when the adjustment to a new consumption bundle is slow due to habit formation and the lack of habit internalization. The last two chapters focus on the size of the environmental externality, and the evaluation of policy effectiveness respectively. The fourth chapter develops a closed-form formula to compute the social cost of carbon (SCC), which explains the parameter-driven SCC variation of a mainstream IAM without systematic bias, and allows for an analytic breakdown and quantification of how different sets of parameters contribute to the SCC distribution. The fifth and final chapter is an empirical assessment of the effect of car registration and road taxes on vehicles average CO2 emissions from new vehicles in the EU15 countries over the period 2001-2010.
    Date: 2016
  7. By: Louison Cahen-Fourot (Centre d'Economie de l'Université de Paris Nord (CEPN))
    Abstract: We investigate national greenhouse gases mitigation objectives, labeled as carbon voluntarism, in the context of contemporary globalized finance-led capitalism. Using principal components analysis and clustering, we delineate a typology of OECD and BRICS countries from the standpoint of the assumed underpinnings of carbon voluntarism: the productive structure of the economy, the relative position in global GHG chains, the levels of income and capitalist development, the political demand for the environment, the class structure of GHG emissions and financialization. The least carbon voluntary countries appear to be at the beginning of global GHG chains and to rely heavily on the primary sector. They have a weak political demand for the environment and a more unequal class structure of emissions. The most carbon voluntary countries have a higher political demand for the environment, a more equal class structure of emissions, weaker financialization, and greater reliance on the tertiary sector. These countries are also net importers of GHG emissions.
    Keywords: capitalism, carbon voluntarism, climate change, COP21, financialization, global GHG chains, greenhouse gases, political demand for the environment
    Date: 2016–09
  8. By: Germá-Bel (Departament of Economic Policy & GiM-IREA, University of Barcelona. Av. Diagonal 696; 08034 Barcelona, Spain.); Stephan Josep (Departament of Economic Policy & GiM-IREA, University of Barcelona. Av. Diagonal 696; 08034 Barcelona, Spain.)
    Abstract: The European Union launched a set of policies as part of its 2020 climate and energy package aimed at meeting its 20/20/20 headline targets for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. This paper evaluates how successful new-to-the-market climate change mitigation technologies (CCMT) are in helping EU member states (MS) to reach these goals and, furthermore, whether there are differences between sectors subject to EU-wide polices. To do so, we seek to relate CCMT patent counts to two specific headline targets: (1) achieving 20% of gross final energy consumption from renewables, and (2) achieving a 20% increase in energy efficiency. Our results provide the first ex-post evaluation of the effectiveness of these technologies for combating climate change. Moreover, our sectoral impact assessment points to significant differences in the way in which these technologies contribute to policy goals across sectors.
    Keywords: Environmental Policy; Climate Change; Technological Change; Patent Count Data. JEL classification: O33; O38; Q55; Q58.
    Date: 2016–10
  9. By: V. Kerry Smith; Min Qiang Zhao
    Abstract: This paper examines a new strategy for evaluating whether the size of a new environmental regulation requires that benefit cost analyses consider general equilibrium effects. Size in the context refers to both the magnitude and distribution of cost increases across sectors and the benefits attributed to the rules. Rogerson’s [2008] static, general equilibrium model describing how tax policy affects time allocations between market and non-market activities is extended to include air pollution as a non-separable element in the representative household’s preferences. The paper makes three contributions to the literature. First, the calibrated parameters of the model are used to evaluate how the introduction of air quality, as a non-separable, external influence on the household’s non-market activities, affects the conventional explanation for the labor market transition in developed economies. Second, all current CGE assessments of conventional environmental policies in the U.S. and Europe ignore the feedback effects of policies for emissions and behavior. This analysis demonstrates their importance by using an amended version of the Rogerson model to compare calibrations with and without these feedback effects. Finally, a calibrated model is used to gauge the plausibility of the benefit estimates from EPA’s partial equilibrium (PE) assessment of the recent Clean Power Plan. This analysis finds the upper limit of the PE estimates for the annual ancillary benefits of the plan (due to its effects on conventional air pollutants) is implausibly large.
    JEL: D58 D61 H41
    Date: 2016–10
  10. By: Anthony Heyes (Department of Economics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON); Nicholas Rivers (Graduate School of Public and International Affairs and Institute of the Environment, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON); Brandon Schaufele (Business, Economics and Public Policy, Ivey Business School, University of Western Ontario, London, ON)
    Abstract: Applying methods of textual and stylometric analysis to all 119,225 speeches made in the Canadian House of Commons between 2006 and 2011, we establish that air pollution reduces the speech quality of Canadian Members of Parliament (MPs). Exposure to fine particulate matter concentrations exceeding 15µg=m3 causes a 3.1 percent reduction in the quality of MPs speech (equivalent to a 3.6 months of education). For more difficult communication tasks the decrement in quality is equivalent to the loss of 6.5 months of schooling. Our design accounts for the potential endogeneity of exposure and controls for many potential confounders including individual fixed effects. Politicians are professional communicators and as such the analysis provides further evidence of the detrimental impact of air pollution on workplace performance, with an effect size around half that established in recent research for workers engaged in physical work tasks. Insofar as the changed speech patterns reflect diminished mental acuity the results make plausible substantial effects of air pollution on productivity not just in communication-intensive but a wider set of creative and cognitively-intensive work settings.
    Keywords: Air Pollution, Analysis of Speech, Non-Health Impacts, Workplace Performance
    JEL: Q52 Q53
    Date: 2016
  11. By: Mihai, Florin-Constantin; Ingrao, Carlo
    Abstract: The paper examines the biowaste management issues across rural areas of Romania in the context of poor waste management infrastructure in the last decade (2003-2012). Biowaste is the main fraction of municipal waste, thus a proper management is a key challenge in order to sustain a bioeconomy in the near future. The amount of biowaste generated and uncollected by waste operators is generally uncontrolled disposed if not recovered through home composting. The paper points out the role of home composting in diverting the biowaste from wild dumps and landfills for the regions covered or not by waste collection services. Home composting and the biowaste losses are further assessed based on several scenarios (worse-case, pessimistic, realistic, optimistic) where the net loads of greenhouse gasses (GHG) are calculated at national and regional levels. The transition of home composting techniques, from open piles to plastic bins with respect to standard guidelines will improve the home composting performance in terms of compost quality and net GHG’s savings, supporting a bio-based economy which will lead towards a sustainable rural development. Regional disparities are revealed across Romanian counties and the paper opens new research perspectives regarding which options should be adopted by counties and rural municipalities in the biowaste management process.
    Keywords: home composting, biowaste, rural areas, waste management; GHG’s emissions
    JEL: K32 O18 Q15 Q51 Q53 Q54 Q56 Q57 R11 R58
    Date: 2016–10
  12. By: Sakamoto, Tomoyuki; Managi, Shunsuke
    Abstract: This article investigates the relationship between the environment-related efficiency and export performance according to the recent international trade theory which has offered to a theoretical model to quantify the Ricardian comparative advantage. We find that the energy and environmental efficiency can be a source of the comparative advantage in industries. The largest magnitude and the smallest of the efficiency on exporting are estimated to be NOx and energy efficiency, respectively. The empirical results further show that the efficiency has a smaller impact on export performance in relatively less footloose industries, and the impact of the efficiency is found to depend on industrial characteristics.
    Keywords: Comparative advantage, trade and environment, energy efficiency, pollution emissions per production
    JEL: Q40 Q53 Q56
    Date: 2016
  13. By: Leonardo Bonilla Mejía; Iván Higuera Mendieta
    Abstract: Este documento estudia el efecto de las áreas protegidas -naturales y étnicas- en la deforestación en Colombia utilizando imágenes satelitales de deforestación para el periodo 2001-2012. El análisis combina dos metodologías: regresiones discontinuas en las áreas declaradas antes de 2001 (largo plazo) y diferencias en diferencias en las más recientes (corto plazo). Los resultados muestran que en general las áreas protegidas han sido efectivas a la hora de frenar la deforestación. Estos efectos se mantienen y en el largo plazo se amplifican en zonas densamente pobladas y cercanas a las carreteras, lo cual sugiere que, en un contexto en el que abundan las actividades ilegales, las áreas protegidas son menos efectivas cuando la presencia del Estado es limitada. ******ABSTRACT: This paper assesses the effects of protected areas in Colombia using forest loss satellite-imagery for the period 2001-2012. We combine two strategies: regression discontinuity for protected areas created before 2001 (long run) and differences in differences for areas create afterwards (short run). Overall, results indicate that protected areas have a significant effect at reducing deforestation. These effects hold and are amplified in the long run near densely populated areas and roads, which suggests that, in a context of abundant illegal activities, protected areas are limited by weak state presence.
    Keywords: Áreas protegidas, deforestación, Colombia, regresión discontinua
    JEL: Q23 Q50 Q57 Q58
    Date: 2016–10–31
  14. By: Georgios Petropoulos; Bert Willems
    Abstract: Coordinating the timing and location of new production facilities is one of the challenges of liberalized power sectors. It is complicated by the presence of transmission bottlenecks, oligopolistic competition, and the unknown prospects of low-carbon technologies. The authors build a model encompassing a late and early investment stage, a clean (green) and dirty (brown) technologies, and a single transmission bottleneck and compare dynamic efficiency of several market designs. Allocating network access on a short-term competitive basis distorts investment decisions as brown firms will pre-empt green competitors by investing early. Compensating early investors for future network congestion, as for instance in the E.U., only exacerbates this problem. Dynamic efficiency is restored with long-term transmission rights that can be traded on a secondary market (iusvendendi). As early investment lowers the resale value of the transmission rights, brown firms will invest optimally. The authors show that dynamic efficiency does not require the existence of physical rights for accessing the transmission line (ius utendi), but financial rights on receiving the scarcity revenues generated by the transmission line (ius fructendi) suffice.
    Date: 2016–11
  15. By: Johanna Etner; Natacha Raffin; Thomas Seegmuller
    Abstract: We develop an overlapping generations model of growth, in which agents differ through their ability to procreate. Based on epidemiological evidence, we assume that pollution is a cause of this health heterogeneity, affecting sperm quality. Nevertheless, agents with impaired fertility may incur health treatments in order to increase their chances of parenthood. In this set-up, we analyse the dynamic behaviour of the economy and characterise the situation reached in the long run. Then, we determine the optimal solution that prevails when a social planner maximises a Millian utilitarian criterion and propose a set of available economic instruments to decentralise the optimal solution. We underscore that to correct for both the externalities of pollution and the induced-health inefficiency, it is necessary to tax physical capital while it requires to overall subsidy mostly harmed agents within the economy. Hence, we argue that fighting against the sources of an altered reproductive health is more relevant than directly inciting agents to incur health treatments.
    Keywords: Pollution; Growth; Fertility; Health.
    JEL: O44 Q56 I18
    Date: 2016
  16. By: Pawel Maryniak; Stefan Trueck; Rafal Weron
    Abstract: We investigate the impacts of the carbon tax (effective July 2012 to July 2014) on wholesale electricity prices in the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM). Analyzing spot and futures contracts in four major regional markets, we first compute ex-ante forward risk premiums in the pre-tax period, then use them to derive market-implied carbon premiums and pass-through rates in the carbon tax and post-tax periods. We find that carbon premiums and pass-through rates became increasingly higher, once the Clean Energy Bill had been introduced and subsequently passed in 2011. We also find strong evidence for a quick reaction of the extracted carbon premiums to changes in opinion polls for the Australian federal election in 2013 and the decision to repeal the tax. On the other hand, during periods where market participants could be relatively certain that the tax would be effective, we find expected carbon pass-through rates between 65% and 140%, which seem to be inversely related to emission intensities.
    Keywords: Carbon tax; Carbon pass-through rate; Forward risk premium; Electricity market; Spot and futures prices
    JEL: C51 C53 G13 Q41 Q58
    Date: 2016–11–02
  17. By: Ben Campbell (University of Connecticut); Laura Dunn (University of Connecticut); Adam Rabinowitz (University of Connecticut)
    Abstract: The objective of this report was to provide information to producers, policy makers, and other interested stakeholders on the both the agricultural producer perceived and data driven regulatory environment of Northeastern states. Notably the specific objectives were: Identify regulatory perceptions of Northeastern agricultural producers; quantify the regulatory environment via a data driven index computation; rank states within the Northeast as well as select comparable states throughout the United States; provide recommendations on the state level to lessen the regulatory burden for Northeastern states. Findings: Overall, agricultural producers in the Northeast indicated the number of regulations to be increasing since 2010. Furthermore, the amount of time and money spent on the regulations was also increasing. State regulations were found to have the most impact on producers changing their farming practices, followed by federal and to a lesser extent municipal regulations. Perceptions of regulatory impact are not always consistent with data driven indices. Several states ranking low on regulatory burden had a majority of agricultural producers perceiving there to be a high regulatory burden. In contrast, some states with a high burden had the perception of “just-right” or under-regulated. New Jersey was found to be the least regulated state while Maine and New Hampshire were the most regulated, according to this study’s calculations. It is important to note that these rankings are relative to the other states in this study. On the whole, Northeastern states were more regulated than comparison states from around the United States. Of the sixteen states in the regulatory index, five of the bottom six were in the Northeast. Northeastern states, in general, moved around in how well they performed in the different policy components. Some states scored well in tax policy regulation but low in labor while others did well in labor but scored poorly in environmental. Thus individual components are important to consider with respect to regulatory impact. Using the results from the report it is clear that each state has areas where they can improve their regulatory burden on agricultural producers. Some states need to focus on lessening the burden of taxes while others may need to focus on labor or environmental policies. Furthermore, this report does find support for the anecdotal evidence that Northeastern states by and large have more regulatory burdens than comparable states throughout the United States.
    Date: 2015–11
  18. By: Franta, Benjamin
    Date: 2016–01
  19. By: Sanchari Ghosh (Northeastern State University); Keith Willett (Oklahoma State Univeristy)
    Abstract: Economic studies have shown that when instream flow constraints are binding and surface water possesses public good characteristics, water transfers on the basis of consumptive use will lead to third party externalities and often entail high transaction costs. One major reason is the dominance of bilateral trading or multilateral trading having a high likelihood of strategic behavior. This paper proposes an alternative institutional arrangement called smart markets which maximize the aggregate efficiency gains from trading by allowing trades to be consummated through a common pool. The analytical model with instream flow constraints being binding, shows, that the shadow prices evolving from the centralized solution, incorporates the third party external costs imposed by any trader. Thus the financial burden of compensating victims who are affected by lower flows downstream or insufficient availability of water for diversions, are avoided.
    Keywords: consumptive use rights, inflow stream rights, water rights markets, third-party externalities, computer-assisted smart markets
    JEL: Q25 Q28
    Date: 2016–09
  20. By: Yuyu Zeng (VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands); Harold Houba (VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands); Ariel Dinar (University of California, Riverside, United States); Miroslav Marence (UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, The Netherlands)
    Abstract: Dams are essential for water storage and hydropower generation, but change river flow patterns and endanger local environments. Dam projects may further exacerbate already existing problems in trans-boundary rivers. We consider three scenarios of institutional factors: (1) each country pursues its own interests, (2) efficient cooperation along the river and (3) partial cooperation among neighboring countries. We conduct cost-benefit analyses for these scenarios incorporating dam projects and their externalities. We demonstrate our approach for the Mekong River incorporating expert hydrological knowledge regarding installed hydropower capacity and dam location instead of the standard economic assumptions of such costs. Our results show that cooperation between Laos and Cambodia internalizes the negative impacts of dam construction in Laos on fishery in Cambodia, and Laos refrains from building some planned dams. Our results also hint that the 1995 Mekong agreement among Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam is internally stable.
    Keywords: Trans-boundary river basin management; Institutional factors; Dams; Externalities; Welfare analysis; Conflict and cooperation
    JEL: C61 C70 D60 Q20 Q50 R10
    Date: 2016–10–24
  21. By: Stephan Heblich; Alex Trew; Yanos Zylberberg
    Abstract: Why are the East sides of former industrial cities like London or New York poorer and more deprived? We argue that this observation is the most visible consequence of the historically unequal distribution of air pollutants across neighborhoods. In this paper, we geolocate nearly 5,000 industrial chimneys in 70 English cities in 1880 and use an atmospheric dispersion model to recreate the spatial distribution of pollution. First, individual-level census data show that pollution induced neighborhood sorting during the course of the nineteenth century. Historical pollution patterns explain up to 15% of within-city deprivation in 1881. Second, these equilibria persist to this day even though the pollution that initially caused them has waned. A quantitative model shows the role of non-linearities and tipping-like dynamics in such persistence.
    Keywords: Neighborhood sorting, historical pollution, deprivation, persistence, environmental disamenity
    JEL: R23 Q53 N90
    Date: 2016–11
  22. By: Franziska Holz; Clemens Haftendorn; Roman Mendelevitch; Christian von Hirschhausen
    Abstract: Coal is at the core of the debate about climate change mitigation policies, yet the internationalmarket for it is not well represented in most energy models. This paper presents the COALMODframework which is a model of the international steam coal market that can be readily used toexplore implications of climate policies, but also to analyze market structure or to investigate issue ofsupply security. It features a detailed representation of both domestic and international steam coalsupply, based on endogenously calculated Cost, Insurance, Fright (CIF) costs, and prices that take intoaccount additional rents. It features endogenous investment into production, land transport, andexport capacity, as well as an endogenous mechanism assessing production cost increase due toresource depletion. We provide a detailed model and data description and illustrate the features ofthe model by analyzing to scenarios derived from the IEA World Energy Outlook (New Policies and450ppm scenario), highlighting the functionalities of the model.
    Keywords: Future coal markets, Partial equilibrium modeling, International trade
    JEL: C72 C69 L11 L71 Q41
    Date: 2016
  23. By: Masaru Ichihashi (Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Hiroshima University); Shunsuke Yano (Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University)
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of introducing an emissions trading scheme (ETS) in Japan using an input-output model. Using demand forecast data from the Ministry of the Environment (2012), we examined the impacts of two cases: one in which emissions were reduced without introducing a scheme (the business as usual (BAU) case) and one in which a scheme was introduced (ETS case). In both cases, the aggregate repercussion effects were negative, but the negative impact was significantly greater in the ETS case (1.3 trillion JPY, which is approximately 0.14% of GDP). The negative repercussion effects are consistent with the results from MOE (2012). However, our study showed positive repercussion effects on employment regardless of employment status. This occurs because the labor absorptive capacity is low in sectors such as steel, where demand will decline due to the introduction of a scheme, so there is a small impact on employment; in contrast, sectors that benefit from the adoption of the scheme have high labor absorptive capacities. Accordingly, the adoption of an ETS in Japan would be positive for jobs but would not have a significant impact in terms of stimulating output.
    Keywords: Emissions Trading Scheme; Japanese Economy Growth; Input-Output model; Repercussion Effects;
    JEL: Q51 Q56 R11 R15
    Date: 2016–10
  24. By: Kleine-Möllhoff, Peter; Dürr, Claudio
    Abstract: Wie kann der erhöhte Anteil durch Photovoltaik und Windkraft fluktuierend erzeugter Energie im Stromnetz ausgeglichen werden? Biogas- und Biomethananlagen sind interessante technologische Lösungen zur Stabilisierung des Stromnetzes. Die Umsetzung der Biomasse zu Methan erfolgt aber aufgrund von Wasserstoffmangel im Biogasreaktor nicht vollständig. Daher werden derzeit verschiedene Ansätze verfolgt, die verwertbare Gasausbeute zu erhöhen. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird untersucht, welche Möglichkeiten zur Erhöhung der Methanausbeute von Biogasanlagen bestehen und wie sich diese ökologisch und wirtschaftlich darstellen. Zunächst werden der aktuellen Forschungs- und Entwicklungsstand zur Erhöhung der Methanausbeute in Biogasanlagen dargestellt und die verschiedenen Prozesse der Wasserstoffherstellung und Methanisierung beschrieben. In einem Vergleich werden die vorteilhaftesten Verfahren dargestellt. Diese bilden die Grundlage für die ökologischen und ökonomischen Betrachtungen zu vier ausgewählten Szenarien. Für das wirtschaftlich vorteilhafteste Szenario wird das CO2-Minderungspotential auf den gesamtdeutschen Markt skaliert. Abschließend werden der weitere Forschungs- und Entwicklungsbedarf in dem Themengebiet ermittelt, sowie politische Rahmenbedingungen und deren Auswirkungen auf die Biogastechnologie kritisch beleuchtet.
    Date: 2016
  25. By: Sandrine Meyer; Kevin Maréchal
    Abstract: Les logements présents sur le marché locatif résidentiel sont globalement de moins bonne qualité que celle des logements occupés par leurs propriétaires. Une des principales raisons invoquées pour expliquer ce phénomène repose sur la notion de ‘split incentive’ (ou non-alignement des intérêts) entre le propriétaire et le locataire. Or, non seulement sur les plans stratégique (moindre dépendance à l’importation de sources d’énergie d’origine fossile) et économique (création d’emploi et d’activités au niveau local), mais surtout sur les plans environnemental (lutte contre le changement climatique) et sociétal (dont lutte contre la précarité énergétique), la rénovation énergétique de l’ensemble du parc de logements existants est reconnue comme une pierre angulaire des politiques à mettre en oeuvre pour atteindre les différents objectifs visés, notamment au niveau de l’Union Européenne. Si, pour ces diverses raisons, l’on cherche à promouvoir la rénovation énergétique des logements loués, tant en nombre qu’en niveau d’ambition, résoudre le ‘split incentive’ est essentiel. Ce document propose donc de faire le point à la fois sur cette thématique particulière du ‘split incentive’ dans le marché locatif résidentiel, et sur les différentes pistes évoquées pour tenter de le solutionner. Nous verrons par ailleurs que certaines réflexions ne s’arrêtent pas uniquement au secteur résidentiel locatif et pourraient également améliorer l’efficience énergétique de logements occupés par leurs propriétaire(s).
    Date: 2016–10–24
  26. By: El Hadad Gauthier, Fatima; Kessari, Myriam; Palma, Giulia; Temri, Leïla; Tozanli, Selma
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2016
  27. By: Ferrara, Ida; Missios, Paul
    Abstract: Households have choices when it comes to reducing waste sent to landfills: reduction of consumption or packaging, reuse of goods purchased, or recycling. In this paper, we adopt a holistic approach to the analysis of these choices as separate but related facets of households' waste management behaviour. Theoretically, households produce waste as a by-product of their consumption and must then deal with it either by curbside disposal or by recycling. To the extent that managing additional waste is costly even if only in terms of time, households may also engage in waste prevention, that is, produce less waste by reducing their consumption level and/or changing their consumption patterns in favour of less waste-intensive products. As curbside disposal, waste prevention and recycling relate to the same problem and are linked via several constraints, we employ a three-equation mixed process estimation strategy which allows for the error terms of the three equations to be correlated. For the study, we rely on an original data set that permits defining waste prevention comprehensively from a list of 19 waste prevention activities, that provides for a more balanced policy representation (in terms of presence versus absence of unit pricing), and that covers a wide range of attitudinal elements, values, and norms. Given the richness of the data set, we also examine individuals' decisions over recyclable items that carry a refundable deposit in terms of both purchasing and returning habits, with particular attention to the interaction between a refundable deposit system and unit pricing.
    Keywords: Curbside Disposal, Recycling, Waste Prevention, Unit Pricing, Deposit-Refund System, Values, Norms, Attitudes, Mixed-Process Model
    JEL: D04 H31 Q53 Q58
    Date: 2016–10–31
  28. By: Yvon Pesqueux (LIRSA - Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Recherche en Sciences de l'Action - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM])
    Abstract: Affirmer que le développement durable est une « théorie » pratique, c’est dire qu’il n’est pas comme cela une pratique, ajouter les deux arguments du « flou » et de l’« ambiguïté », c’est mettre en avant sa dimension duale (un phénomène global qui s’aborde comme tel ou bien l’agrégation de micro phénomènes) et sa dimension rhétorique dans la mesure où c’est l’argumentation qui est mise en avant qui lui sert de support en affirmant l’idée sage de mesure, de conformité actant les deux dimensions de séduction et de promesse face à la rhétorique vieillissante (dépassée ?) du développement, bref une rhétorique d’un développement sage qui sera couplée avec les questions pourtant différentes du « bio » et du « vert » dans une assimilation entre « durable, bio et vert ». Il s’agit avant tout d’une notion dont on doit accepter qu’il ne fait pas comme cela concept. La notion repose ainsi sur la référence à la très floue demande sociale
    Keywords: développement durable, environnement, management
    Date: 2016–10–21
  29. By: Kraft, Karina
    Abstract: CSR nimmt eine wichtige Stellung in Unternehmen der Ernährungsindustrie ein. Neben den Verbrauchern üben auch weitere interne und externe Stakeholder Druck auf die Unternehmen aus. Folglich veröffentlichen immer mehr Unternehmen (freiwillig) Nachhaltigkeitsberichte, um über die Aktivitäten zu informieren. Fraglich ist jedoch, inwiefern die CSR-Aktivitäten in der Unternehmensstrategie verankert sind oder ob die Maßnahmen willkürlich getroffen werden. Als Grundlage dient die Stakeholder-Theorie, welche besagt, dass Unternehmen die Anforderungen der Stakeholder in ihren Maßnahmen und Entscheidungen berücksichtigen müssen. Ziel dieses Beitrags ist es zu zeigen, in welchen Bereichen die Unternehmen ihre Schwerpunkte hinsichtlich der ökologischen, ökonomischen und sozialen Dimensionen setzen.
    Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Stakeholder Theorie, Qualitative Content Analyse, Agribusiness, Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2016
  30. By: -
    Abstract: En el presente documento se recogen los principales aspectos de la perspectiva de brechas estructurales de la CEPAL y se realiza una revisión que permite adaptar este enfoque al estudio de las heterogeneidades regionales al interior de la Argentina. La aplicación de este enfoque se plantea como un instrumento analítico para identificar, caracterizar y cuantificar las distintas brechas, entendidas como las restricciones para el desarrollo que se evidencian en cada una de las provincias argentinas.
    Date: 2016–10–26

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