nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2016‒10‒30
forty-five papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. National climate policies in times of the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) By Burmeister, Johannes; Peterson, Sonja
  2. Cows, Sheep and Science: A Scientific Perspective on Biological Emissions from Agriculture By Michele Hollis; Cecile de Klein; Dave Frame; Mike Harvey; Martin Manning; Andy Reisinger; Suzi Kerr; Anna Robinson
  3. Agricultural Emissions Mitigation in New Zealand: Answers to Questions from the Parliamentary Commisioner for the Environment By Suzi Kerr
  4. Co2 content of electricity losses By Daniel Daví-Arderius; María-Eugenia Sanin; Elisa Trujillo-Baute
  6. The Environmental, Economic and Social Condition of the Phou Khao Khouay National Protected Area's Green Peafowl Species Conservation Zone By Tsechalicha, Xiong; Pangxang, Yiakhang; Phoyduangsy, Saysamone; Kyophilavong, Phouphet
  7. Pollution Haven and Corruption Paradise By Fabien CANDAU; Elisa DIENESCH
  8. Corporate Carbon Emission and Financial Performance: Does Carbon Disclosure Mediate the Relationship in the UK? By Yang Stephanie Liu; Xiaoyan Zhou; Jessica Yang; Andreas Hoepner
  9. Pathways toward Zero-Carbon Electricity Required for Climate Stabilization By Richard Audoly; Adrien Vogt-Schilb; Céline Guivarch
  10. Reviving the Ganges water machine: potential and challenges to meet increasing water demand in the Ganges River Basin By Amarasinghe, Upali A.; Muthuwatta, Lal; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Surinaidu, Lagudu; Natarajan, R.; Chinnasamy, Pennan; Kakumanu, Krishna Reddy; Prathapar, Sanmugam A.; Jain, S. K.; Ghosh, N. C.; Singh, S.; Sharma, A.; Jain, S. K.; Kumar, S.; Goel, M. K.
  11. A combined approach to assess the impact of Ecological Focus Areas on regional structural development By Sahrbacher, Amanda; Hristov, Jordan; Brady, Mark; Sahrbacher, Christoph; Günther, Josef
  12. Financial development and environmental quality: The way forward By Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain; Ahmad, Nawaz; Alam, Shaista
  13. The role of conflict for optimal climate and immigration policy By Fabien Prieur; Ingmar Schumacher
  14. Resource Agency Relationship with Privately Known Exploration and Extraction Costs By François Castonguay; Pierre Lasserre
  15. Biodiversity productive effects in milk farms of western France: a multi-output primal system By Bareille, François; Dupraz, Pierre
  16. Are South African consumers arm-chair environmentalists? Implications for renewable energy By Nomsa Phindile Nkosi; Johane Dikgang
  17. Cost efficiency of smallholder payment for ecosystem services (PES) scheme in rural Kenya By Benjamin, Emmanuel Olatunbosun; Sauer, Johannes
  18. Effects of Stricter Environmental Regulations on Resource Development By Ian Lange; Michael Redlinger
  19. Pollution, décès prématuré et compensation By Grégory Ponthière
  20. When Growth Obliges: Social Responsibility of Farms in Light of the Technological Treadmill By Balmann, Alfons; Chatalova, Lioudmila; Valentinov, Vladislav; Gagalyuk, Taras
  21. Phou Khao Khouay National Protected Area: A Field Survey of Green Peafowl (Pavo Muticus) By Vongkhamheng, Chanthavy
  22. COMPARING GREENING RULES AND ALTERNATIVES WITH REGARD TO INCOME EFFECTS AND PRODUCTION PATTERN By Zander, Peter; Uthes, Sandra; Schläfke, Nicole; Neubert, Josephine; Hufnagel, Johannes; Berger, Gert
  23. Pollution, Unequal Lifetimes and Fairness By Grégory Ponthière
  24. La Economía del Cambio Climático en Honduras: Mensajes Clave 2016 By -
  25. Exploring the polycentric city with multi-worker households: an agent-based microeconomic model By Rémi Lemoy; Charles Raux; Pablo Jensen
  26. Government Spending Multipliers in Natural Resource-Rich Developing Countries By Jean-Pascal Nganou; Juste Some; Guy Tchuente
  27. Technological innovation systems for biorefineries – A review of the literature By Bauer, Fredric; Coenen, Lars; Hansen, Teis; McCormick, Kes; Palgan, Yuliya Voytenko
  28. Greening up or not? The determinants of political parties' environmental concern: an empirical analysis based on European data (1970-2008) By Benjamin Michallet; Giuseppe Gaeta; François Facchini
  29. A neo-institutionalist approach to ecodesign practices in France: The case of Rowenta By Marie-France Vernier
  30. The Legal Foundations of Payments for Environmental Services in Lao PDR By Scheufele, Gabriela; Smith, Hilary; Tsechalicha, Xiong
  31. Agri-environmental measures and on-farm labour employment By Unay-Gailhard, Ilkay; Bojnec, Štefan
  32. Effects of Wildlife Resources on Community Welfare: Income, Poverty and Inequality By Herbert Ntuli; Edwin Muchapndwa
  33. Eco-certified contract choice among coffee farmersin Brazil By Sylvaine Lemeilleur; Julie Subervie; Anderson Edilson Presoto; Roberta de Castro Souza; Maria Sylvia Macchione Saes
  34. The causal factors of international inequality in CO2 emissions per capita: A regression-based inequality decomposition analysis By Duro Moreno, Juan Antonio; Teixidó Figueras, Jordi; Padilla, Emilio
  35. Formaldehyde (HCHO) as a Hazardous Air Pollutant: Mapping surface air concentrations from satellite and inferring cancer risks in the United States By Lei Zhu; et al
  36. Boulevard to broken dreams, part 2: implementation of the Polonoroeste road project in the Brazilian Amazon, and the World Bank's response to the gathering storm By Robert H. Wade
  37. Energy recovery from domestic and agro-waste streams in Uganda: a socioeconomic assessment By Gebrezgabher, Solomie; Amewu, Sena; Taron, Avinandan; Otoo, Miriam
  38. Projections of Irrigated Acreage and Water Requirements for Western Water Resource Regions By Ruttan, V.W.
  39. Phou Chomvoy Provincial Protected Area: A Biodiversity Baseline Assessment By Vongkhamheng, Chanthavy
  40. Farmers’ Perceptions to Manage Climatic-Socio-Economic Constraints of Rice Cultivation in West Bengal, India By Mitra, Susmita
  41. Rapport final de la Tâche 1 du Projet INCERDD « prise en compte des INCertitudes pour des Décisions Durables » - ANR Ville Durable By Laurent Dupont; Laure Morel; Lamia Brissel; Olivier Chery; Mauricio Camargo; Julien Hubert; Alissia Gouju; Jonathan Lacroix
  43. Evaluación Ambiental Estratégica (Fase 2). Diagnóstico Ambiental Estratégico de la Región Metropolitana de Santiago By Gerardo Ubilla-Bravo; Romina Echaiz-Alarcón
  45. The Effect of Air Pollution on Investor Behavior: Evidence from the S&P 500 By Anthony Heyes; Matthew Neidell; Soodeh Saberian

  1. By: Burmeister, Johannes; Peterson, Sonja
    Abstract: Given that the carbon price in the EU Emissions Trading System is only around 5€/tCO2 while consensus about a more stringent EU climate policy is very unlikely in the near future, we explore the potential scope and optimal design of additional national climate policies in the current EU policy framework. In particular, we suggest to implement a type of carbon price floor in the national EU ETS sectors that either allows for i) shifting emissions to non-ETS sectors like housing and transport or ii) retiring EU-wide emission allowances. In a simple theoretical framework with two countries and two sectors, we show that these two policy options are efficient up to a certain carbon price threshold. Moreover, efficiency is the highest at an optimal carbon price level equaling a weighted sum of the price differentials between ETS and non-ETS sectors. In order to determine the empirical relevance, we conduct a numerical partial equilibrium analysis of the EU carbon market in 2020. We find that Germany shows the highest potential to reduce EU-wide inefficiencies. With a price floor of 36€/tCO2 in 2020, Germany could reduce national climate policy costs by 13% if emissions are shifted from the ETS to non-ETS sectors. If they are willing to take on additional costs by retiring emission allowances, they are able to reduce EU ETS emissions by 1.6%.
    Keywords: Climate policy,EU Emission Trading System,Overlapping regulation,Carbon price floors,Abatement costs
    JEL: Q58 H21 H23 D58
    Date: 2016
  2. By: Michele Hollis (Freelance); Cecile de Klein (AgResearch); Dave Frame (Victoria University of Wellington); Mike Harvey (National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research); Martin Manning (Victoria University of Wellington); Andy Reisinger (New Zealand Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Research Centre); Suzi Kerr (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); Anna Robinson (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research)
    Abstract: Biological emissions from agriculture (methane and nitrous oxide) make up almost half New Zealand’s total greenhouse gas emissions, so their importance relative to carbon dioxide is of particular policy interest. Motu Economic and Public Policy Research brought together a group of New Zealand climate change and agriculture specialists to respond to questions posed by the Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment on the science. The paper finds that the overriding need to reduce carbon dioxide emissions is scientifically uncontentious. For the climate to stabilise, net carbon dioxide emissions must ultimately be cut to zero. There is debate about whether, when and how much action to take on other gases. Some scientists advocate a comprehensive multi-gas approach, arguing that will be more cost-effective. It may already be too late to limit warming to two degrees without mitigating agricultural greenhouse gases. Others advocate a focus on carbon dioxide or on all long-lived gases (including nitrous oxide), with concerted mitigation of methane (a short-lived gas) only once carbon dioxide emissions are falling sustainably towards zero. There is support for ‘easy wins’ on all gases, but it is unclear how easy it is for New Zealand to reduce total nitrous oxide and methane emissions while maintaining production. The report summarises current and emerging options, and discusses methods to calculate methane and nitrous oxide emissions at the paddock, farm, regional and national scale. Finally, the report considers metrics used for comparison between gases, focusing on Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Global Temperture change Potential (GTP). The authors reached a consensus that the ‘right’ value depends on the policy goal and could change substantially over time; and if the main policy goal is to cost-effectively limit global average warming to two degrees above pre-industrial levels, then the value of methane should be less than the GWP100 value of 28 until global carbon dioxide emissions have begun to decline steadily towards zero. There is no agreement beyond this on the best value to use; the arguments reflect judgments about politics, economics, and the intersection of policy and science.
    Keywords: Agriculture, emissions, science
    JEL: Q52 Q54 Q58 R14
    Date: 2016–10
  3. By: Suzi Kerr (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research)
    Abstract: This paper explores how New Zealand should address agricultural greenhouse gas emissions: methane and nitrous oxide. The starting point is the internationally agreed-upon goal of limiting global warming to below two degrees, and New Zealand’s commitment to contribute its ‘fair share’ to the international climate-change mitigation effort. The report focuses on the role of mitigating biological agricultural emissions within that, and how New Zealand could most cost-effectively mitigate its own emissions and contribute to the mitigation of agricultural emissions abroad. This paper complements a partner paper (Hollis et al 2015) that discusses the science relating to agricultural greenhouse gases.
    Keywords: Climate change, mitigation, agriculture, New Zealand, methane, nitrous oxide, livestock, metrics, policy
    JEL: Q18 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2016–10
  4. By: Daniel Daví-Arderius (University of Barcelone & Chair of Energy Sustainability, IEB); María-Eugenia Sanin (Université d´Evry Val d´Essonne & Ecole Polytechnique); Elisa Trujillo-Baute (University of Warrick & Chair of Energy Sustainability, IEB)
    Abstract: Worldwide, countries are implementing policies to develop greener energy markets. In Europe, the ¨2030 Energy and Climate Package¨ asks for further reductions of GHG, renewable sources integration, and energy efficiency targets. These objectives may counterbalance each other modifying the electricity flows, and hence, affecting the electricity losses. Precisely, the extra amount of energy necessary to cover losses is the departure point from which we analyze the impact of losses on CO2 emissions. With this purpose we use Spanish market and system data with hourly frequency from 2011 to 2013. Our results show that electricity losses significantly explain CO2 emissions, with higher CO2 emissions when covering losses that those on the average system. Additionally, we find that the market closing technologies used to cover losses have positive and significant impacts on CO2 emissions: when polluting technologies (coal or combined cycle) close the market, the impact of losses on CO2 emissions is greater in comparison with the rest of technologies (CHP, renewables or hydropower). From these results we make some policy recommendations to reduce the impact of losses on CO2 emissions.
    Keywords: Electricity losses; CO2 Emissions; Electricity markets; Renewable energy
    JEL: L11 Q40 Q50 Q54
  5. By: Chang, Chiao-Ya; Zimmermann, Andrea; Heckelei, Thomas
    Abstract: Being the fastest growing food producing sector, aquaculture has the potential to provide high quality protein sources and meet increasing future food demand. However, the raising concerns over competition for land - direct and through feed competition – and sustainability as well as restrictive regulations may limit the expansion of aquaculture. We provide a thorough literature review of the complex interlinkages across aquaculture, land use and sustainability. As these relationships have, to our knowledge, not systematically been analyzed before, the literature review is of an explorative character and touches and combines various topics in and around aquaculture (e.g. environmental sustainability, political regulation). However, it is always centered on global aquaculture and land use. In order to answer key questions as: (1) how aquaculture contributes to food security?, (2) how sustainable is aquaculture?, and (3) how aquaculture connects with agriculture?, we combine existing literature from various disciplines (e.g. aquaculture, agricultural economics, land use) for a thorough description of the relationships and give an overview of quantitative models for economic and environmental impact assessment. Additionally, this study provides a conceptual idea for the construction of a fisheries module in the CAPRI model (Britz, 2005) including a suitable classification of fish species for policy advice in the EU. Based on the understanding and concept developed in this paper, the fisheries module will be implemented and refined in the CAPRI model in a later step. It will be used for analyzing the impacts of the expansion of aquaculture on land use and simulating policies to enhance aquaculture sustainability.
    Keywords: Aquaculture, Sustainability, Land use, Modelling, Aquafeed, CAPRI model, Land Economics/Use, Livestock Production/Industries,
    Date: 2016
  6. By: Tsechalicha, Xiong; Pangxang, Yiakhang; Phoyduangsy, Saysamone; Kyophilavong, Phouphet
    Abstract: This Research Report presents baseline information for the development of a Payments for Environmental Services scheme based on the situation of the Green Peafowl Protection Zone within the Phou Khao Khouay National Protected Area in central Lao PDR. It identifies threats to wildlife arising from current management practices and suggests possible management actions to achieve improvements in the protection of the Green Peafowl.
    Keywords: resource use, wildlife management, habitat protection, biodiversity conservation practices, payments for environmental services, Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2014–12
  7. By: Fabien CANDAU; Elisa DIENESCH
    Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new perspective to analyze the impact of institutions, environmental standards, and globalization on relocations of polluting firms in countries with lax environmental regulation (called pollution havens). Via a simple theoretical extension from the Economic Geography literature, we characterize the main features of pollution havens: a good market access to high-income countries and corruption opportunities. Using structural and reduced-form estimations, we analyse these determinants by exploiting a unique database on the number of European affiliates located abroad. A 1% increase in access to the European market from a pollution haven fosters relocation there by 0.1%. We also find that corruption in these countries lowers environmental standards, which strongly attract polluting firms: a 1% increase in this indirect effect of corruption fuels relocation by 0.28%. We test the economic significance of these empirical findings via simulations. The protection of the European market (e.g., a carbon tax on imports) to stop relocations to pollution havens must be high (a decrease of the European market for Morocco and Tunisia equivalent to 13%) not to say prohibitive (31% for China).
    Keywords: Multinational firms; Environmental Regulation; Europe; Corruption; Market Access; Trade
    JEL: F12 Q5 Q53
    Date: 2016–10
  8. By: Yang Stephanie Liu (Keele Management School, Keele University); Xiaoyan Zhou (ICMA Centre, Henley Business School, University of Reading); Jessica Yang (Henley Business School, University of Reading); Andreas Hoepner (ICMA Centre, Henley Business School, University of Reading)
    Abstract: Academic debate relating to the link between corporate environmental disclosures, environmental performance and financial performance is persistent and controversial. In this paper, we investigate whether and if so, how, carbon emission performance is related to corporate financial performance and how disclosures of carbon emission in the annual and standalone reports mediate such relationship. Specifically, we construct a 42-item disclosure index to quantify the quality of corporate carbon emission information of 62 FTSE 100 companies from the period of 2010 to 2012. We find that while carbon emission is negatively associated with financial performance, it is positively related to the level of carbon disclosures which is significantly and positively related to financial performance. The findings show that market responses to excessive carbon emission; however, companies with poor carbon performance tend to use disclosure strategically to manage the legitimacy threat and to reduce the information asymmetry.
    Keywords: carbon emission, carbon disclosure, financial performance, firm value, mediation analysis
    Date: 2016–06
  9. By: Richard Audoly (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Adrien Vogt-Schilb (The World Bank - The World Bank, CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Céline Guivarch (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper covers three policy-relevant aspects of the carbon content of elec-tricity that are well established among integrated assessment models but under-discussed in the policy debate. First, climate stabilization at any level from 2 • C to 3 • C requires electricity to be almost carbon-free by the end of the century. As such, the question for policy makers is not whether to decarbonize electricity but when to do it. Second, decarbonization of electricity is still possible and required if some of the key zero-carbon technologies — such as nuclear power or carbon capture and storage — turn out to be unavailable. Third, progres-sive decarbonization of electricity is part of every country's cost-effective means of contributing to climate stabilization. In addition, this paper provides cost-effective pathways of the carbon content of electricity — computed from the results of AMPERE, a recent integrated assessment model comparison study. These pathways may be used to benchmark existing decarbonization targets, such as those set by the European Energy Roadmap or the Clean Power Plan in the United States, or inform new policies in other countries. These pathways can also be used to assess the desirable uptake rates of electrification technolo-gies, such as electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles, electric stoves and heat pumps, or industrial electric furnaces.
    Keywords: climate change mitigation,life cycle assessment,power supply,carbon intensity JEL: Q01,Q4,Q54,Q56
    Date: 2014–11–03
  10. By: Amarasinghe, Upali A.; Muthuwatta, Lal; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Surinaidu, Lagudu; Natarajan, R.; Chinnasamy, Pennan; Kakumanu, Krishna Reddy; Prathapar, Sanmugam A.; Jain, S. K.; Ghosh, N. C.; Singh, S.; Sharma, A.; Jain, S. K.; Kumar, S.; Goel, M. K.
    Abstract: Although the Ganges River Basin (GRB) has abundant water resources, the seasonal monsoon causes a mismatch in water supply and demand, which creates severe water-related challenges for the people living in the basin, the rapidly growing economy and the environment. Addressing these increasing challenges will depend on how people manage the basin’s groundwater resources, on which the reliance will increase further due to limited prospects for additional surface storage development. This report assesses the potential of the Ganges Water Machine (GWM), a concept proposed 40 years ago, to meet the increasing water demand through groundwater, and mitigate the impacts of floods and droughts. The GWM provides additional subsurface storage (SSS) through the accelerated use of groundwater prior to the onset of the monsoon season, and subsequent recharging of this SSS through monsoon surface runoff. It was identified that there is potential to enhance SSS through managed aquifer recharge during the monsoon season, and to use solar energy for groundwater pumping, which is financially more viable than using diesel as practiced in many areas at present. The report further explores the limitations associated with water quality issues for pumping and recharge in the GRB, and discusses other related challenges, including availability of land for recharge structures and people’s willingness to increase the cropping intensity beyond the present level.
    Keywords: Water demand, Water resources, Water supply, Water use, Water storage, Water quality, Water accounting, River basin management, Groundwater irrigation, Groundwater depletion, Groundwater recharge, Domestic water, Irrigation water, Surface water, Runoff water, Industrial uses, Climate change, Monsoon climate, Flooding, Drought, Cost benefit analysis, Aquifers, Solar energy, Renewable energy, Pumping, Cropping systems, South East Asia, India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Tibet, Ganges River Basin, Agribusiness, Crop Production/Industries, Demand and Price Analysis, Industrial Organization, International Development, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2016
  11. By: Sahrbacher, Amanda; Hristov, Jordan; Brady, Mark; Sahrbacher, Christoph; Günther, Josef
    Abstract: This paper aims to investigate how the implementation of Ecological Focus Areas (EFA) measures of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) will affect regional agricultural development, the economic performance of farms and land use changes in two case study areas in Sweden and Germany. The research approach combines agent-based modelling (ABM) with stakeholder interactions to evaluate how different policy scenarios involving a portfolio of selected measures will affect farm sizes, profits and incomes as well as farms’ choices of EFA measures. Results show that structural impacts of EFA measures are minor in both regions compared with general impacts of external and internal convergence of Pillar 1 payments. Most preferred alternatives (fallow land in Sweden and catch crops in Germany) are rather cost and income preserving than decisive for the conservation of biodiversity. However general concern regarding the future of biodiversity and potential benefits for a sustainable agriculture was revealed during stakeholder workshops. This should further encourage initiatives towards future exchanges in order to better spatially target ecosystem services and reward efforts and outcomes accordingly.
    Keywords: Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), EFA measures, biodiversity, ecosystem services, stakeholder interactions, agent-based modelling (ABM), Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2016
  12. By: Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain; Ahmad, Nawaz; Alam, Shaista
    Abstract: The present paper re-examines the asymmetric impact of financial development on environmental quality in Pakistan for the period 1985Q1 to 2014Q4. A comprehensive index of financial development is generated using Bank- and Stock market-based financial development indicators. The results show that inefficient use of energy adversely affects the environmental quality. This suggests adoption of energy efficient technology at both production and consumption levels. These technologies would be helpful to improve environmental quality, enhance the productivity in long-run and save energy. Bank-based financial development also impedes the environment. The government should encourage lenders to ease the funding for energy sector and allocate financial resources for environment friendly businesses rather than wasting them in consumer financing.
    Keywords: Financial development, Growth, Energy, CO2 emissions
    JEL: C1
    Date: 2016–10–07
  13. By: Fabien Prieur (TSE-R (INRA)); Ingmar Schumacher (IPAG Business School)
    Abstract: In this article we investigate the role that internal and external conflict plays for optimal climate and immigration policy. Reviewing the empirical literature, we put forward five theses regarding the link between climate change, migration, and conflict. Based on these theses, we then develop a theoretical model in which we take the perspective of the North who unilaterally chooses the number of immigrants from a pool of potential migrants that is endogenously determined by the extent of climate change. Accepting these migrants allows increases in local production which not only increases climate change but also gives rise to internal conflicts. In addition, those potential migrants that want to move due to climate change but that are not allowed to immigrate may induce external conflict. While we show that the external and internal conflict play a significant yet decisively different role, it is the co-existence of both conflicts that makes policy making difficult. Considering only one conflict induces significant immigration but no mitigation. Allowing for both types of conflict, then depending on parameters, either a steady state without immigration but with mitigation will be optimal, or a steady state with a larger number of immigrants but less mitigation. Furthermore, we find the possibility of Skiba points, signaling that optimal policy depends on initial conditions, too. During transition we examine the substitutability and complementarity between the mitigation and immigration policy.
    Keywords: climate change, immigration, conflict, mitigation
    JEL: Q54 Q56 F22
    Date: 2016–10
  14. By: François Castonguay; Pierre Lasserre
    Abstract: We analyze exploration and extraction under asymmetric information. The principal delegates the exploitation of a resource to an agent (a mining firm) who possesses private information about the cost of exploration and learns further extraction cost information once reserves have been established and constrain extraction. The principal can only commit to current period royalty contracts: one discovery-transfer menu; one extraction-royalty menu conditional on reserves discovered. Compared with the symmetric information first best, avoiding adverse selection in extraction requires the optimum mechanism to increase discoveries by the lowest cost type and possibly others. This is tempered by a countervailing effect stemming from information asymmetry in exploration which tends to reduce discoveries, especially by higher cost types. We further detail implications on the forms taken by the inefficiencies associated with asymmetric information: abandoned reserves, excessive use of low-cost exploration prospects, and inefficient levels of technological sophistication in exploration and extraction sectors.
    Keywords: Nonrenewable resources; asymmetric information; endogenous stock of resource; incentive mechanisms,
    JEL: D82 H21 L72 Q38
    Date: 2016–10–25
  15. By: Bareille, François; Dupraz, Pierre
    Abstract: It is widely recognized that human activities and especially agriculture have negative impacts on biodiversiy. However, biodiversity can also benefit to farmers through its positive effects on production. This two-way causality relationship between biodiversity and agriculture has raised numerous authors to examine the behaviour of farmers regarding environment. However, only few empirical studies have analysed biodiversity management considering previous results in production economics. Indeed, they usually do not take into account farmers’ strategic choices. These studies did notably not correct for the endogenous bias linked to simultaneity of choices between input and output levels and did not take into account market evolution. On the other hand, production economic studies have rarely introduced ecological feedbacks in the production function and prefer to analyse environmental effects in an ex-post way. On this paper, we estimate crop and milk primal production functions of a sample of mixed farms of western France. Our sample is composed of 5654 FADN observations from 2002 to 2014 in French regions of Bretagne, Basse-Normandie and Pays-de-la-Loire. We estimate the productive effect of biodiversity taking into account for the variable input endogenous biases and joint technology specificity. Using Three Stage Least Square method, we estimate linear and quadratic of both production functions with ad-hoc addition of variable input demand functions. We measure biodiversity through the utilization of landscape metric indicators. For the first time in this literature, we examine the effect of two kind of biodiversity: arable land biodiversity and permanent grassland biodiversity. Our preliminary results seem to confirm previous results of the literature on the productive effect of arable land biodiversity on crop production. For the first time in empirical economics analysis, we find that permanent grasslands enhance crop production. On the other side, milk production is less sensible to biodiversity but it seems that permanent grasslands decrease milk production. The effect of arable land biodiversity on milk production is not robust for the moment. Our results can be useful for policymakers as they bring new insights on the management of biodiversity by farmers.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management,
    Date: 2016
  16. By: Nomsa Phindile Nkosi; Johane Dikgang
    Abstract: Discussions between policymakers about renewable energy have gained momentum in recent years, amid growing recognition of the need for more investment in green energy sources. The question is whether households in developing countries like South Africa will support green energy actions if it comes at an additional cost or whether they are simply arm-chair environmentalist. To assess this, we use the contingency valuation method (CVM) to identify the determinants of support for renewable energy. It is vital that households’ determinants of the additional cost burden associated with renewable energy are assessed, in an effort to win public acceptance of the introduction of renewable energy. The US$966 willingness to pay (WTP) for renewable energy represents a significant premium over generation costs, and signals social acceptance of renewable energy. Most importantly, given the wide degree of heterogeneity in WTP models, a clear message to policymakers and stakeholders is that they need to do more to communicate the economic and environmental benefits associated with renewable energy.
    Keywords: bivariate probit, renewable energy, willingness to pa
    JEL: Q20 Q40 Q50
    Date: 2016–10
  17. By: Benjamin, Emmanuel Olatunbosun; Sauer, Johannes
    Abstract: Smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa that sequestrate carbon through agroforestry provide ecosystem services that generate payment for ecosystem services (PES). When these farmers are inadequately compensated for the provision of additional ecosystem services they have no incentive to participate while over-compensation may lead to inefficient schemes. Stakeholders must consider farm-level interactions between agricultural production and ecosystem services’ provision when evaluating the adequate level of compensation and efficiency of PES scheme. We address this by measuring the marginal cost of ecosystem services based on farm level bio-economic interactions. A classification of the relationship between marketed agricultural output and non-marketed ecosystem services into complementary, supplementary or competitive is conducted. We use the flexible transformation function for our theoretical analysis and surveyed 120 smallholder farmers receiving PES for agroforestry carbon sequestration in Kenya. The results suggest that the joint production for a number of smallholder farms in Kenya may not be of a complementary nature. PES schemes could be designed in a more efficient manner if they would target smallholder farms based on the aforementioned classification by offering a range of contracts to encourage competitive bidding.
    Keywords: Cost-efficiency, PES, agroforestry, smallholders, Kenya, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2016
  18. By: Ian Lange (Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines); Michael Redlinger (Department of Natural Resources, State of Alaska)
    Abstract: As technology and our ability to alter the natural world expand, it may lead to change in the level or type of externalities that economic activity places on society. This may prompt changes in the laws and regulations governing activity to limit the new externalities. While new regulations will change the distribution of rents around, welfare is impacted if the regulations alter the pace of economic activity. This analysis seeks to understand whether changes in oil and gas regulation brought about by the shale revolution have restricted the pace of drilling and production. This hypothesis is tested using data on North Dakota and Montana both before and after North Dakota increased the level of bonding required to operate in the state as well as stricter rules on waste disposal. Using regression discontinuity and difference-in-differences methods, results generally find that the new regulations had no statistical impact on the pace of drilling and production. While the average impact of the regulations on production was statistically indistinguishable from zero, it is found that smaller operators reduced their production and larger operators increased theirs. These results are instructive for policymakers who weigh the loss of economic welfare against improved environmental quality when deciding on new regulations.
    Keywords: Oil and Gas Regulation, Shale Oil, Drilling, Firm Exit
    JEL: L51 L71 Q35 Q53
    Date: 2016–10
  19. By: Grégory Ponthière (ERUDITE - Equipe de Recherche sur l’Utilisation des Données Individuelles en lien avec la Théorie Economique - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12, PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC), PSE - Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: Nous étudions la compensation des personnes décédées prématurément dans une économie où la production génère de la pollution, et où la pollution réduit, au-delà d’un certain seuil, les chances de survie. Pour ce faire, nous caractérisons l’optimum égalitarien ex post et nous le comparons à l’équilibre de laissez-faire et à l’optimum utilitariste. Lorsque le seuil de pollution au-dessus duquel une mortalité prématurée apparait est élevé, l’optimum égalitarien ex post requiert une pollution égale à ce seuil, et inférieure à celles prévalant au laissez-faire et à l’optimum utilitariste.Mais lorsque le seuil critique de pollution est faible, le niveau de pollution associé à l’optimum égalitarien ex post est égal à celui qui prévaut au laissez-faire, et supérieur à celui associé à l’optimum utilitariste.
    Keywords: Mortalité prématurée,Pollution,Mortalité,Compensation
    Date: 2014–12
  20. By: Balmann, Alfons; Chatalova, Lioudmila; Valentinov, Vladislav; Gagalyuk, Taras
    Abstract: The agricultural sector in Germany, in the EU, and other industrialised countries remains in the spotlight of controversial societal debates that testify to an advancing alienation between modern agriculture and society. Key issues include animal welfare, environmental externalities, industrialisation of agricultural production, and extinction of family farms. As higher animal welfare or environmental standards are requested by society, the respective agricultural debates take on ideological tenors. The present paper addresses of the legitimacy of and the need for supporting the agricultural sector. We ask to what extent the existing economic conditions allow the agricultural sector on the one hand to benefit from agricultural innovations and on the other hand to meet societal expectations. The analysis builds on two concepts: the agricultural treadmill theory, which assumes the agricultural sector to be under a permanent economic pressure, and the concept of corporate social responsibility, which presumes that firms have an interest to comply with societal expectations. We describe and analyse the internal mechanisms of these concepts theoretically and conceptually. We then discuss opportunities which may help to overcome the increasing alienation of agriculture and society.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Livestock Production/Industries,
    Date: 2016
  21. By: Vongkhamheng, Chanthavy
    Abstract: This report presents results of a survey of the endangered Green Peafowl (Pavo Muticus) in Phou Khao Khouay (PKK) National Protected Area (NPA), conducted between 28th March to 3rd April, 2015 by participatory teams made of villagers from nearby villages and soldiers from PKK-NPA Management Unit. A three-day training workshop was first provided to the 12 participants, by experienced conservation biologists from the Lao Wildlife Conservation Association (Lao WCA), on basic techniques of Green Peafowl survey and conservation, including the use of navigation tools (compass, GPS, maps) and field data recording. Participants were then divided into six teams of two people to conduct the ground field survey. The target area was divided into 2x2 km-grid cells, and a central point was placed in each to provide a reference for the teams to use as listening posts that were spaced two kilometer apart. Given the current knowledge of presence and distribution of Green Peafowls provided by local villagers and NPA staff, we only focused our field survey on six grid cells (approximate 24 km2 or 240 hectares in area). Listening for bird calls was conducted in the morning between 6:00am to 8:00 am, and the evening between 5:00pm to 6:00pm (peak calls of birds). Teams also walked to search for Green Peafowl signs (feathers, footprint, droppings), mainly nearby the waterholes along streams, in the day time after the completion of listening to bird calls. Listening at each point was made by a team for two consecutive days. This resulted in two mornings’ and two evenings’ observations at each point. Calls were recorded on data forms giving the detailed compass bearings, type of calls (males or females), times and the numbers of calls. Signs of birds were also recorded giving detailed information on GPS coordinates and other related information. Our findings provide clear evidence that the Green Peafowl remains in existence in the PKK-NPA. Of the six listening posts, four recorded Green Peafowl calls, which accounted for a minimum estimate of approximately 8 individuals (or clusters). Other signs of Green Peafowls, e.g., features and footprints, were also recorded by survey teams in two other surveyed grid cells where Green Peafowl calls had not been heard. Given the above findings it is suggested that immediate conservation actions are required to secure a viable population of this last remaining population of Green Peafowl in the Lao PDR. The major threats to the Green Peafowl, e.g., direct hunting, and collecting of its eggs, need to be removed. Participatory anti-poaching teams, made up of villagers and staff from the military’s PKK-NPA conservation unit, should be established and supported to conduct continuous forest patrols, and a public awareness campaign in the target villages are a high priority. It is suggested that a specific regulation for species conservation needs to be developed, and effectively enforced through a participatory approach.
    Keywords: Phou Khao Khouay National Protected Area, Green Peafowl survey, Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2015–05
  22. By: Zander, Peter; Uthes, Sandra; Schläfke, Nicole; Neubert, Josephine; Hufnagel, Johannes; Berger, Gert
    Abstract: With the motivation to reduce pressures on natural resources, and biodiversity, in particular, the 2013 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform introduced ‘Greening rules’, which farmers have to meet to receive a greening payment as part of their total CAP payment. Concerns have been raised by practitioners and scientists since, questioning the effectiveness and fairness of Greening. Yet empirical evidence for the effects of Greening is still insufficient. This paper examines how Greening and an alternative biodiversity oriented scenario affect the land use pattern and income of different farm types in three northern German regions (Diepholz, Uelzen, Oder-Spree). A bio-economic modelling framework is used to implement the scenario. The results show that Greening has only moderate impact on land use patterns and at the same time causes only low compliance costs. Our alternative scenario could deliver a higher biodiversity impact in terms of area with goal oriented measures but also leads to higher on-farm costs. Nevertheless, compliance costs are also in this scenario far below the current payment Level.
    Keywords: Greening, biodiversity decline, bio-economic modelling, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2016
  23. By: Grégory Ponthière (ERUDITE - Equipe de Recherche sur l’Utilisation des Données Individuelles en lien avec la Théorie Economique - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12, PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC), PSE - Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: Pollution is a major cause of mortality, leading to substantial inequalities in lifetime well-being across individuals. This paper characterizes the optimal level of pollution in a two-period OLG economy where pollution deteriorates survival conditions. We compare two long-run social optima: on the one hand, the average utilitarian optimum, where the long-run average well-being is maximized, and, on the other hand, the ex post egalitarian optimum, where the well-being of the worst-o¤ at the stationary equilibrium is maximized. It is shown that the ex post egalitarian optimum involves a higher level of pollution in comparison with the utilitarian optimum. This result is robust to introducing health expenditures in the survival function. Finally, we examine the decentralization of those two social optima, and we compare the associated optimal taxes on capital income aimed at internalizing the pollution externality.
    Keywords: Fairness,Mortality,Pollution,OLG model
    Date: 2014–12
  24. By: -
    Abstract: La CEPAL ha colaborado en la iniciativa “La Economía del Cambio Climático en Centroamérica” (ECC CA) desde 2008 con el propósito de estimar y evidenciar los impactos de la variabilidad y el cambio climático y propiciar la discusión sobre políticas públicas en sectores clave. La iniciativa ha sido encabezada por los ministerios de ambiente y de hacienda o finanzas de los gobiernos de la región con apoyo de sus Consejos de Ministros (CCAD y COSEFIN) y del SIECA. A esta iniciativa se han sumado los ministerios de agricultura y salud con sus Consejos de Ministros (CAC y COMISCA). Esta publicación es un resumen de los análisis de impactos potenciales del cambio climático y de las discusiones sobre opciones de políticas públicas en Honduras generadas en el marco de la iniciativa ECC CA.
    Date: 2016–10–27
  25. By: Rémi Lemoy (University of Luxembourg [Luxembourg], LET - Laboratoire d'économie des transports - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État [ENTPE] - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Charles Raux (LET - Laboratoire d'économie des transports - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État [ENTPE] - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Pablo Jensen (IXXI - Institut Rhône-Alpin des Systèmes Complexes - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon, LET - Laboratoire d'économie des transports - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État [ENTPE] - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Phys-ENS - Laboratoire de Physique de l'ENS Lyon - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon)
    Abstract: We propose an agent-based dynamics which leads an urban system to the standard equilibrium of the Alonso, Muth, Mills (AMM) framework. Starting for instance from a random initialization, agents move and bid for land, performing a kind of local search and finally leading the system to equilibrium rent, density and land use. Agreement with continuous analytical results is only limited by the discreteness of simulations. We then study polycentrism in cities with this tool. Two job centers are introduced, and the economic, social and environmental outcomes of various polycentric spatial structures are presented. We also introduce two-worker households whose partners may work in different job centers. When various two-worker households are mixed, polycentrism is desirable, as long as centers are not moved too far apart from each other. The environmental outcome is also positive, but housing surfaces increase.
    Keywords: urban economics,location choice,polycentric city,two-worker households,agent-based model
    Date: 2016–10–14
  26. By: Jean-Pascal Nganou; Juste Some; Guy Tchuente
    Abstract: This paper estimates the government spending multiplier for natural resource-rich low-income countries (LICs). Kraay (2014) identification strategy exploits the long lags between approval and eventual disbursement of loans to isolate a predetermined component of public spending associated with past loan approval decisions taken before the realization of contemporaneous shocks. However, he did not take into account the fact that natural resource extraction in a developing country can be linked to loan approvals and subsequent disbursements. Moreover, natural resources are an important source of public revenue for many LICs. For these reasons, we correct loans disbursement and control for natural resource rent to identify the government spending multiplier. Our estimates suggest that in the short run, the government spending multiplier is around 0.7 for natural resource-rich LICs. Government spending has a permanent impact on the real economic activity in resource-rich countries while having a transitory long-run impact in other countries.
    Keywords: Government spending multipliers; fiscal policy; natural resources
    JEL: E62 O23
    Date: 2016–09
  27. By: Bauer, Fredric (Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University); Coenen, Lars (CIRCLE, Lund University); Hansen, Teis (Department of Human Geography, Lund University); McCormick, Kes (IIIEE, Lund University); Palgan, Yuliya Voytenko (IIIEE, Lund University)
    Abstract: The concept of a bioeconomy can be understood as an economy where the basic building blocks for materials, chemicals and energy are derived from renewable biological resources. Biorefineries are considered an integral part of the development towards a future sustainable bioeconomy. The purpose of this literature review is to synthesize current knowledge about how biorefinery technologies are being developed, deployed, and diffused, and to identify actors, networks and institutions relevant for these processes. A number of key findings can be obtained from the literature. First, investing more resources in R&D will not help to enable biorefineries to cross the ‘valley of death’ towards greater commercial investments. Second, while the importance and need for entrepreneurship and the engagement of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is generally acknowledged, there is no agreement how to facilitate conditions for entrepreneurs and SMEs to enter into the field of biorefineries. Third, visions for biorefinery technologies and products have focused very much on biofuels and bioenergy with legislation and regulation playing an instrumental role in creating a market for these products. But there is a clear need to incentivize non-energy products to encourage investments in biorefineries. Finally, policy support for biorefinery developments and products are heavily intertwined with wider discussions around legitimacy and social acceptance.
    Keywords: bioeconomy; biorefineries; biorefinery technology; technological innovation systems
    JEL: L73 O33 Q23 Q55
    Date: 2016–10–19
  28. By: Benjamin Michallet (PSE - Paris School of Economics, CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Giuseppe Gaeta (University of Naples); François Facchini (UP11 - Université Paris-Sud - Paris 11, CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Why do parties offer environmental policies in their political programs? While a number of papers examine the determinants of citizens' pro-environmental behaviour, we know little about the extent to which political parties adjust their platform towards environmentalism. We investigate this process through data provided by the Manifesto Project Dataset (CMP) for 20 European countries over the period 1970-2008. Following the literature on public concern towards environment, we examine economic, environmental and political determinants. Our findings provide evidence that political parties' environmental concern is strongly correlated with their political ideology and with country-level economic conditions.
    Keywords: environmental concern,political parties,electoral manifestos
    Date: 2015–05–20
  29. By: Marie-France Vernier (ESDES Recherche - ESDES - École de management de Lyon - Université Catholique de Lyon)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to identify conditions that favor the emergence of innovations with low environmental impacts. We base our study on the case of ecodesign in the industrial sector, and our analysis rests on the neo-institutional literature. We emphasize relationships among firmsto better understand new practices and how they develop whileconsideringthe environment in which companies evolve. We therefore evaluate the nature of the changes that occur in ecodesign.
    Keywords: Isomorphism,Ecodesign,Industrial Sector
    Date: 2015–05
  30. By: Scheufele, Gabriela; Smith, Hilary; Tsechalicha, Xiong
    Abstract: This report analyses the legal foundations for the design and implementation of PES schemes in the Lao PDR and provides recommendations to address potential legal barriers. Key challenges that may limit the supply effectiveness and efficiency of PES schemes in the Lao context include investment risks to buyers and sellers; liability risks to agents; potentially high transaction costs due to administrative requirements; and restrictions in the range of legally eligible ES supply actions. Drivers of these challenges include aspects of the land tenure system; land use restrictions (including access) that may limit the range of eligible supply actions; approval and registration requirements that may apply to some supply actions; requirements of business registration and the payment of taxes that may apply to ES sellers; feasibility of PES contracting and enforcement; and potential challenges in establishing an impartial, accessible and fair mechanism for grievance, conflict resolution and redress.
    Keywords: business registration, land categories, land tenure, PES schemes, PES contracting, Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2015–02
  31. By: Unay-Gailhard, Ilkay; Bojnec, Štefan
    Abstract: This study aims to contribute to the better understanding of how voluntary-based policy intervention has affected the farm structure, especially the evolution of on-farm labour. The analysis on the relationship between farms that participated in agri-environmental measures (AEMs) and evolution of their on-farm labour is investigated during the period 2004–2014 with using Slovenian Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN). More specially, the relationship between AEMs and hired labour use is explained by farm size and farm type divisions. The results of statistical analysis give evidence that hired labour use is positively correlated by AEMs in all farm size classes. Regardless of farm size, increase in the demand for hired labour use in AEM adopted farms could be explained by the requirements of environmental farming practices that are often more labour intensive than the traditional farming practices. Farm type division analysis reveals that the correlation between AEMs and hired labour use is significantly positive, depending on the farm type. For field crop farms, we observe a weak correlation between AEM payments and total labour use. This could explain with the application of AEM practices do not necessary perceived the hired labour use as a complementary to family labour by filed crop farm managers.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management,
    Date: 2016
  32. By: Herbert Ntuli; Edwin Muchapndwa
    Abstract: This paper demonstrates the importance of wildlife in the portfolio of environmental income in the livelihoods of poor rural communities living adjacent to a national park. The results show that wealthier households consumed more wildlife products in total than relatively poor households. However, poorer households derive greater benefit from the consumption of wildlife resources than wealthier households. Excluding wildlife compromised the relative contribution of environmental resources while at the same time increasing the relative contribution of farm and wage income. Environmental income had more impact in terms of poverty reduction in the lower income quintiles than in the upper quintiles. Wildlife income alone accounted for about 5.5% reduction in the proportion of people living below the poverty line. Furthermore, wildlife income had an equalizing effect bringing about a 5.4% reduction in measured inequality. Regression analysis suggests that the likelihood of belonging to a wealthier category of income increased with an increase in environmental income. As expected, household wealth significantly and positively affect environmental income generated by households. This seems to suggest that wildlife-based land reform also needs to empower poor households in the area of capital accumulation while imposing restraint on capital investments by well-off households.
    Keywords: wildlife, environmental income, poverty, inequality, dependence, Zimbabwe
    JEL: D63 I32 I38 Q22
    Date: 2015–10
  33. By: Sylvaine Lemeilleur; Julie Subervie; Anderson Edilson Presoto; Roberta de Castro Souza; Maria Sylvia Macchione Saes
    Abstract: We survey Brazilian coffee farmers’ preferences for attributes of voluntary sustainability standards using a choice experiment. We collected original data from 250 coffee farmers who live in the state of Minas Gerais who were asked to choose from several hypothetical buying contracts for eco-certified coffee. Our results suggest that both cash and non-cash payments may motivate farmers to participate in sustainability standard certification schemes that require improved agricultural practices. Preferences for non-cash rewards such as long-term formal contracts or technical assistance, however, appear highly heterogeneous. Results moreover show that the minimum willingness-to-accept for the adoption of composting is twice as high as the average price premium for certified coffee in the current context, which may partly explain why most coffee farmers continue to be reluctant to enter the most stringent eco-certification schemes such as the organic standard
    Date: 2016–09
  34. By: Duro Moreno, Juan Antonio; Teixidó Figueras, Jordi; Padilla, Emilio
    Abstract: This paper uses the possibilities provided by the regression-based inequality decomposition (Fields, 2003) to explore the contribution of different explanatory factors to international inequality in CO2 emissions per capita. In contrast to previous emissions inequality decompositions, which were based on identity relationships (Duro and Padilla, 2006), this methodology does not impose any a priori specific relationship. Thus, it allows an assessment of the contribution to inequality of different relevant variables. In short, the paper appraises the relative contributions of affluence, sectoral composition, demographic factors and climate. The analysis is applied to selected years of the period 1993–2007. The results show the important (though decreasing) share of the contribution of demographic factors, as well as a significant contribution of affluence and sectoral composition. JEL classification: C19; D39; Q43. Keywords: CO2 emissions, international emissions inequality, regression-based decomposition.
    Keywords: Models economètrics, Distribució (Teoria econòmica), Energia -- Aspectes econòmics, 33 - Economia, 504 - Ciències del medi ambient,
    Date: 2016
  35. By: Lei Zhu; et al
    Date: 2016–10
  36. By: Robert H. Wade
    Abstract: This is the second part of the essay on the circumstances that led the World Bank to embrace norms and operational policies for environmental and indigenous people's protection in the late 1980s, as traced through the turbulent history of the Polonoroeste road project in the Brazilian Amazon. Polonoroeste became the spearhead with which environmental NGOs made their first attack on the Bank for participating in large-scale environmental and indigenous peoples' destruction.
    Keywords: policy norms; rainforests; indigenous peoples; World Bank; environmental NGOs; government of Brazil; US Congress; Indonesian Transmigration Project
    JEL: I3 O13 Q5
    Date: 2016–07
  37. By: Gebrezgabher, Solomie; Amewu, Sena; Taron, Avinandan; Otoo, Miriam
    Abstract: Recovering energy from waste offers dual benefits – a) improved waste management, and b) provision of reliable energy to households, institutions and commercial entities. In this report, we present a socioeconomic assessment of three energy business models (briquette manufacturing, on-site (public toilet) energy generation, and agro-waste electricity generation) based on feasibility studies carried out in the city of Kampala, Uganda. We assess the potential economic, environmental and social impacts of waste-to-energy business models taking into consideration a life cycle of emissions to provide decision makers with the overall costs and benefits of the models to society versus a business-as-usual scenario.
    Keywords: Resource recovery, Water reuse, Energy generation, Business management, Models, Socioeconomic environment, Environmental impact assessment, Economic analysis, Fuels, Fuelwood, Agriculture, Residues, Transport, Briquettes, Social impact, Gasification, Biogas, Greenhouse gases, Methane, Emission, Benefits, Household wastes, Electricity generation, Sanitation, Excreta, Waste management, Wastewater, Farmers, Public health, Rivers, Uganda, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Consumer/Household Economics, Farm Management, Health Economics and Policy, Production Economics,
    Date: 2016
  38. By: Ruttan, V.W.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy,
  39. By: Vongkhamheng, Chanthavy
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2015–10
  40. By: Mitra, Susmita
    Abstract: Paddy/Rice cultivation in West Bengal became the research focus in the late eighties when the state moved to a high-agricultural-growth-path from a less than all-India average. However, currently there exist so many climatic-socio-economic constraints which are hardly addressed in the recent literature. Poor farmers are the hardest hit and understanding their perceptions as well as abysmal socio-economic conditions is important to identify areas where intervention is needed. The objective of this paper is twofold, first, to explore qualitative and quantitative information about farmers’ perceptions on climatic-socio-economic constraints, and second, to suggest an agricultural management way out to deal with those. Apart from field survey and focused group discussions, Mann-Kendall test and Coefficients of Variation have been calculated on observed meteorological parameters to substantiate whether farmers’ perceptions match with reality. Although exact negative impact of climate change on yield is difficult to capture because of high yield variety (HYV) seeds, however, farmers revealed about direct and indirect climatic effects on quantity and quality of rice. Primary survey also exposed socio economic challenges like increase in yield (with HYV seeds) at the cost of variety loss; decline in soil fertility due to excessive use of chemical fertilizer; increase in input costs more than output price; declining profitability; seasonal unemployment; lack of employment opportunity and institutional credit; all of which cumulatively resulting in farmers’ withdrawal and crop shifting from paddy. Based on the farmers’ suggestions, the paper perceives a framework of organic fertilizer production to solve many of these contemporary problems simultaneously.
    Keywords: Farmers’ Perceptions, Climatic-Socio-Economic, West Bengal, Paddy/Rice
    JEL: Q12 Q18
    Date: 2016–10–17
  41. By: Laurent Dupont (ERPI - Equipe de Recherche sur les Processus Innovatifs - UL - Université de Lorraine); Laure Morel (ERPI - Equipe de Recherche sur les Processus Innovatifs - UL - Université de Lorraine); Lamia Brissel (ERPI - Equipe de Recherche sur les Processus Innovatifs - UL - Université de Lorraine); Olivier Chery (ERPI - Equipe de Recherche sur les Processus Innovatifs - UL - Université de Lorraine); Mauricio Camargo (ERPI - Equipe de Recherche sur les Processus Innovatifs - UL - Université de Lorraine); Julien Hubert (ERPI - Equipe de Recherche sur les Processus Innovatifs - UL - Université de Lorraine); Alissia Gouju (ERPI - Equipe de Recherche sur les Processus Innovatifs - UL - Université de Lorraine); Jonathan Lacroix (ERPI - Equipe de Recherche sur les Processus Innovatifs - UL - Université de Lorraine)
    Abstract: Cette tâche s’appuie sur l’application de méthodes issues du génie industriel à des problématiques urbaines pour caractériser la filière des acteurs concernés, révéler les besoins de ces derniers et mobiliser le(s) regard(s) complémentaire(s) de communautés de pratiques pour enrichir la lecture de l’environnement de l’objet d’étude. Concernant les incertitudes relatives à l’identification des alternatives de gestion, les travaux s’appuient d’abord sur l’identification de la filière des acteurs concernés par l’objet étudié (ex: élus et techniciens locaux, services déconcentrés de l’état, habitants, entreprises, associations, etc.) La mobilisation de l’expertise des acteurs et des panels de communauté de pratiques, notamment les usagers permet de construire une vision étendue de la “filière” des acteurs avec en perspective la destination finale du projet (les usages liés) et la prise en compte de son cycle de vie. Systématiquement, des acteurs clés ont été identifiés puis interviewés en vue d’appliquer le modèle RARe et la méthode Kano pour faire ressortir les besoins et les hiérarchiser. Au delà des besoins, une analyse plus complète de l'environnement des acteurs et du terrain étudié est réalisé sur la base d’un état de l’art et surtout la mobilisation de communauté de pratiques au sein de l’espace EMA (Environnement et Méthodologie d’Accélération) afin d’appréhender le plus largement possible la complexité des terrains. La diversité des besoins est mise en perspective avec les enjeux de la durabilité et les contraintes existantes. L’identification des stratégies est extrapolée de l’analyse des besoins adaptée au cas d’étude sélectionnés et du contexte global du terrain. Les résultats obtenus sont les suivants : •Concernant la problématique des réseaux, la dimension plus technique que stratégique a été bien mise en évidence. L’étude a été menée sur le territoire de la Communauté Urbaine du Grand Nancy. Les alternatives de gestion portent sur l’affectation des moyens globaux (lorsque ceux-ci sont disponibles) et de leur répartition entre inspection, maintenance et réhabilitation. •Concernant la problématique des inondations, l’étude a été menée sur le territoire de la commune de Dieulouard. Les alternatives de gestion retenues identifiées portent sur l’application du PPRI actuel, l’application d’une politique de réduction de la vulnérabilité existante, la réduction de l’aléa par la réalisation d’une digue. Cette approche issue du génie industriel nécessite d’être adaptée au contexte spécifique des problématiques de territoires pour lesquels la complexité, et donc les incertitudes dans le processus de décision, sont plus importantes. Ceci est notamment dû au fait que le territoire concentre des demandes multiples et des attentes parfois contradictoires. La confrontation des besoins permet de souligner les motivations ou objectifs potentiels à prendre en compte dans une stratégie de développement durable. A noter que la répétition et la confrontation du protocole scientifique proposé à la réalité des terrains ont permis d’affiner le mode opératoire quant à l’application de la démarche. Une partie du temps de la recherche et les expérimentation ont permis de constituer une communauté de praticien sur un champs d’application original tout en renforçant la robustesse de la méthode. Une approche complémentaire, non identifié au démarrage du projet consisterait à réinterroger le territoire du Grand Nancy sur la gestion globale de l’eau et du risque inondation à partir des résultats obtenus pour de territoire de Dieulouard. Une logique comparative entre deux territoires d’envergure différente permettrait d’affiner le modèle et d’intégrer plus finement les échelles possible d’intervention (taille du territoire, nombre des acteurs potentiellement concernés, processus de gouvernance impliqués, etc.) Au delà de l’apport pour les communautés de praticien, nos travaux participent d’une meilleure connaissance des acteurs, de leur intervention sur le territoire et de leur interdépendance sur la question de la gestion globale de l’eau. En France ce domaine est déjà largement étudié et décrit. Des rapports et ouvrages techniques sont disponibles pour les techniciens et décideurs. Une littérature et des dispositifs de vulgarisation générique sont également disponibles. Néanmoins, au niveau local, à l’échelle micro, la question de l’eau et des aléas qui lui sont liés peuvent rapidement faire l’objet d’une « ignorance », d’un oubli, comme les événements de la nuit du 21/22 mai 2012 l’ont montrés aux citoyens grand-nancéiens. Caractériser les besoins dans une visée durabilité autour de ces questions et phénomènes peut, non seulement, être un prétexte à un débat pédagogique et démocratique sur la gestion globale de l’eau auprès du, et entre, le plus grand nombre (citoyens, jeunes professionnels, experts aguerris, élus, etc.) et par capillarité heuristique, permettre de questionner et d’investiguer collectivement un certain nombre d’enjeux de société.
    Keywords: Incertitude,Méthode Kano,Génie industriel,Communauté de pratiques,Risque inondation ,Projet urbain durable,Développement durable,concertation,Analyse des besoins
    Date: 2015–04–01
  42. By: Wellner, Marie; Theuvsen, Ludwig
    Abstract: Alternative Lebensmittelnetzwerke (ALN), wie Community Supported Agriculture (CSA), Urban Agriculture oder Abo- und Lieferdienste, breiten sich zunehmend in urbanen Ballungsräumen und deren Umfeld aus. Mit einem regionalen Lebensmittelangebot, das Verbrauchern durch eine kurze Wertschöpfungskette den direkten Kontakt zur Lebensmittelproduktion ermöglicht, versprechen ALN eine hohe Transparenz sowie positive ökologische, soziale und ökonomische Effekte auf den urbanen, den peri-urbanen sowie den ruralen Raum. Die Beziehung zwischen Konsumenten und Verbrauchern sowie zwischen Stadt und Land wird im besonderen Maß durch das CSA-Konzept gestärkt, das in der deutschen Wissenschaft bisher kaum Beachtung gefunden hat. Anhand einer Literaturanalyse gibt der Beitrag eine Übersicht zum gegenwärtigen Stand der Forschung zu ALN und CSA. Die Abgrenzung der einzelnen ALN ermöglicht es erstmals, das Forschungsgebiet eindeutig zu umreißen. Anschließend werden die Kernelemente des CSA-Konzepts vor dem Hintergrund der Regionalvermarktung dargestellt und ein Ausblick über den weiteren Forschungsbedarf gegeben.
    Keywords: Erzeuger-Verbraucher-Gemeinschaft, lokale Versorgungsstrukturen, Entwicklung von Community Supported Agriculture, landwirtschaftliche Nischenstrategie, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Farm Management, Marketing,
    Date: 2016
  43. By: Gerardo Ubilla-Bravo (Gobierno Regional Metropolitano de Santiago); Romina Echaiz-Alarcón (Universidad de Chile [Santiago])
    Abstract: En el presente informe se desarrolla el primer diagnóstico ambiental estratégico (bajo el enfoque de la Evaluación Ambiental Estratégica -EAE-) de la Región Metropolitana de Santiago. El estudio comprende las seis provincias de la Región en el marco de la formulación del Plan Regional de Ordenamiento Territorial (PROT). Para el desarrollo examinamos cuatro componentes: i) aire, ii) agua, iii) suelo, iv) vegetación y fauna. En cada uno de estos se analiza: el marco legal, el diagnóstico del elemento valorado, la variable clave, la descripción del objetivo y el diagnóstico de otras variables relevantes.
    Keywords: Plan Regional de Ordenamiento Territorial,Evaluación Ambiental Estratégica,Diagnóstico ambiental,Región Metropolitana de Santiago
    Date: 2014–10
  44. By: Hannus, Veronika; Sauer, Johannes
    Abstract: Existing agricultural sustainability standards are rarely applied in Germany despite persistent public attention being paid to sustainable farming and growth in markets for sustainable food. Beside the effects of sustainability requirements, important effects of organizational elements in standard design are expected to influence farmers’ standard acceptance. Therefore the development of a utility model is the behavioural economic basis for further research on farmers’ preferences in sustainability standard design. In this preliminary study, organizational standard elements are identified from the literature within the following categories: transactional and direct costs; market effects; risk of application; and farmers’ identification and social gains.
    Keywords: sustainability, assessment systems, standards, farm-level decision-making, farm management, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management, Institutional and Behavioral Economics,
    Date: 2016
  45. By: Anthony Heyes; Matthew Neidell; Soodeh Saberian
    Abstract: We provide detailed empirical evidence of a direct effect of air pollution on the efficient operation of the New York Stock Exchange, linking short-term variations in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Manhattan to movements in the S&P 500. The effects are substantial – a one standard deviation increases in ambient PM2.5 reduces same-day returns by 11.9% in our preferred specification – and remarkably robust to a variety of specifications and a battery of robustness and falsification checks. Furthermore, the intra-day effects that we observe are difficult to reconcile with competing hypotheses. Despite investors being dispersed geographically we find strong evidence that the effect is strictly local in nature, consistent with the high concentration of market influencers in New York. While we are agnostic as to the underlying mechanism, we provide evidence suggestive of the role of decreased risk tolerance operating through pollution-induced changes in mood or cognitive function.
    JEL: G02 J24 Q53
    Date: 2016–10

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