nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2016‒09‒18
39 papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. The Strategic Use of Abatement by a Polluting Monopoly By Martín-Herrán, Guiomar; Rubio, Santiago J.
  2. Climate Database Facilitating Climate Smart Meal Planning for the Public Sector in Sweden By Florén, Britta; Amani, Pegah; Davis, Jennifer
  3. Assessing Indicators and Limits for a Sustainable Everyday Nutrition By Lukas, Melanie; Rohn, Holger; Lettenmeier, Michael; Liedtke, Christa; Wirges, Monika; Wiesen, Klaus; Schweißinger, Johanna; von Lenthe, Charlotte
  4. Do Extreme Weather Events Generate Attention to Climate Change? By Sisco, Matthew R.; Bosetti, Valentina; Weber, Elke U.
  5. Opportunities & Challenges for Green Technology in 21st Century By Aithal, Sreeramana; Aithal, Shubhrajyotsna
  6. Explaining the slow diffusion of new renewable energy in the Argentine electricity market : a wrong policy mix or an unfavourable context ? By German Bersalli
  7. Willingness to Pay for Clean Air: Evidence from the air purifier markets in China By ITO Koichiro; ZHANG Shuang
  8. On the relevance of low-carbon stock indices to tackle climate change By Manuel Coeslier; Céline Louche; Jean-François Hétet
  9. Deforestation Rate in the Long-run: the Case of Brazil By Di Corato, Luca; Moretto, Michele; Vergalli, Sergio
  10. Priority for the Worse Off and the Social Cost of Carbon By Adler, Matthew; Anthoff, David; Bosetti, Valentina; Garner, Greg; Keller, Klaus; Treich, Nicolas
  11. The land use change time-accounting failure By Marion Dupoux
  12. Climate Engineering under Deep Uncertainty and Heterogeneity By Emmerling, Johannes; Manoussi, Vassiliki; Xepapadeas, Anastasios
  13. Pourquoi et comment faut-il sauver la sécurité hydrique ? Changement climatique, écologie politique et services écosystémiques By Yvan Renou
  14. Perspectiva sobre la sostenibilidad de los recursos naturales a largo plazo: caso industria camaronera ecuatoriana By Uzcátegui, Carolina; Solano, Javier; Figueroa, Paulina
  15. Network economics and the environment: insights and perspectives By Sergio Currarini; Carmen Marchiori; Alessandro Tavoni
  16. The Theory of Planned Behaviour and Food Choices: The Case of Sustainable pre-packed Salad By Stranieri, S.; Ricci, E.; Banterle, A.
  17. Analysis of International Documents on the Development of 'Green' Economy and 'Green' Growth By Lipina, Svetlana; Shevchuk, A.V.; Lipina, A.V.; Agapova, E.
  18. Payment for Environmental Services (psa) as Capital Driver and Promoter of Environmental Conservation: the Case of Brazilian Livestock By Machado, Abdias Garcia; dos Santos, Fábio Alexandre
  19. Climate-friendly Products – to buy or not to buy? By Zander, Katrin; Feucht, Yvonne
  20. Turning Human Waste into Renewable Energy: Scope and Options for India By Mukherjee, Sacchidananda; Chakraborty, Debashis
  21. Bridging the Gap: Do Fast Reacting Fossil Technologies Facilitate Renewable Energy Diffusion? By Verdolini, Elena; Vona, Francesco; Popp, David
  22. The U.S. Economy in WWII as a Model for Coping with Climate Change By Hugh Rockoff
  23. Opportunities for advances in climate change economics By Burke, M.; Craxton, M.; Kolstad, C.D.; Onda, C.; Allcott, H.; Baker, E.; Barrage, L.; Carson, R.; Gillingham, K.; Graff-Zivin, J.; Greenstone, M.; Hallegatte, S.; Hanemann, W.M.; Heal, G.; Hsiang, S.; Jones, B.; Kelly, D.L.; Kopp, R.; Kotchen, M.; Mendelsohn, R.; Meng, K.; Metcalf, G.; Moreno-Cruz, J.; Pindyck, R.; Rose, s.; Rudik, Ivan; Stock, J.; Tol, R.S.J.
  24. Natural disasters and human mobility By Mbaye, Linguère M.; Zimmermann, Klaus F.
  25. Should the Carbon Price Be the Same in All Countries? By Antoine D'Autume; Katheline Schubert; Cees Withagen
  26. Waste haven effect: unwrapping the impact of environmental regulation By Thais Nuñez-Rocha
  27. Towards a Sustainable Meat Production with Precision Livestock Farming By Van Hertem, Tom; Lague, Simon; Rooijakkers, Luc; Vranken, Erik
  28. The Impact of Emissions-Based Taxes on the Retirement of Used and Inefficient Vehicles: The Case of Switzerland By Anna Alberini; Markus Bareit; Adan Martinez-Cruz; Massimo Filippini
  29. Urban AgriCulture and Food Systems Dynamics: Urban Gardening and Urban Farming of the Bonn-Rhein-Sieg region, Germany By Hirsch, Darya; Meyer, Christian; Klement, Johannes; Hamer, Martin; Terlau, Wiltrud
  30. Measures to Promote Green Cars: Evaluation at the car variant level By KITANO Taiju
  31. E-waste Management as a Global Challenge (Introductory Chapter) By Florin-Constatin Mihai; Maria-Grazia Gnoni
  32. Evaluation und Erweiterung der Didaktik der kreativen Zerstörung By Breßler, Julia
  33. Energy transition in transportation under cost uncertainty- an assessment based on robust optimization By Claire Nicolas; Stéphane Tchung-Ming; Emmanuel Hache
  34. Inequality and the Social Cost of Carbon By Anthoff, David; Emmerling, Johannes
  35. Woody Biomass Processing: Potential Economic Impacts on Rural Regions By Randall Jackson; Amir B. Ferreira Neto; Elham Erfanian
  36. “An Over View of the Implementation of Precision Farming Projects in Tamil Nadu, India” By Ramamoorthy, Dr. R. Ravikumar; A, Mr Jagan Gopu
  37. Prospects for Renewable Energy Development in Russia and the World By Barinova, V.A.; Laitner, Skip; Lashina, T.A.
  38. Sistemas de Alerta Temprana para Inundaciones: Análisis Comparativo de Tres Países Latinoamericanos By Susana del granado; Anna Maria Stewart Ibarra; Mercy Virginia Borbor; Carol Franco; Moory Romero; Erica Tauzer
  39. Agro-Ecosystem Productivity and the Dynamic Response to Shocks By Jean-Paul Chavas

  1. By: Martín-Herrán, Guiomar; Rubio, Santiago J.
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the effects of the lack of regulatory commitment on emission tax applied by the regulator, abatement effort made by the monopoly and social welfare comparing two alternative policy games. The first game assumes that the regulator commits to an ex-ante level of the emission tax. In the second one, in a first stage the regulator and the monopolist simultaneously choose the emission tax and abatement respectively, and in a second stage the monopolist selects the output level. We find that the lack of commitment leads to lower taxation and abatement that yield larger emissions and, consequently, a larger steady-state pollution stock. Moreover, the increase of environmental damages because of the increase in the pollution stock more than compensates the increase in consumer surplus and the decrease in abatement costs resulting in a reduction of social welfare. Thus, our analysis indicates that the lack of commitment has a negative impact of welfare although this detrimental effect decreases with abatement costs.
    Keywords: Monopoly, Commitment, Emission Tax, Abatement, Stock Pollutant, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, H23, L12, L51, Q52, Q55,
    Date: 2016–09–07
  2. By: Florén, Britta; Amani, Pegah; Davis, Jennifer
    Abstract: The climate impact of food consumption corresponds to about 2 tons of CO2 eq. per capita, representing around 25 % of the total consumption-driven climate change impact in Sweden. There are several diverse ongoing trends of food consumption in Sweden, and their primary drivers are environmental and health considerations. The results of a market research carried out by YouGov (2010) indicated that nearly 75 percent of respondents would buy climate-labeled food, and nearly 50 percent of the respondents would be willing to pay a higher price for such a product. The climate impact from meals could be significantly decreased through small changes in recipes by reducing the amount of ingredients with high carbon footprints or substituting them with other ingredients with the same function but lower carbon footprints. By making more climate-conscious choices, e.g. eating more vegetables as well as poultry, egg and seafood instead of red meat, the climate impact per person and year could be reduced by half. Several recent studies suggest that dietary changes can reduce food-related environmental impacts significantly (e.g. Tilman and Clark, 2014; Hallström et al., 2015; Stehfest, 2014; Röös et al., 2015; Bryngelsson et al., 2016). These studies have mainly explored theoretical dietary scenarios, and not what people actually eat; for example, in one study a model-based theoretical diet, which reduced GHGs by 90%, included unrealistic amounts of only seven food items (Macdiarmid, 2012). Still, this information is important when aiming to guide food producers, public authorities and consumers towards more sustainable and healthy options. The national food agency Sweden updated their dietary advice in 2015, which now also takes environmental consideration into account, besides health impact (SLV, 2015).
    Keywords: Agribusiness,
    Date: 2016–05
  3. By: Lukas, Melanie; Rohn, Holger; Lettenmeier, Michael; Liedtke, Christa; Wirges, Monika; Wiesen, Klaus; Schweißinger, Johanna; von Lenthe, Charlotte
    Abstract: Human nutrition is responsible for about 30% of the global natural resource use. In order to decrease resource use to a level in line with planetary boundaries, a resource use reduction in the nutrition sector by a factor 2 is suggested. A large untapped potential to increase resource efficiency and improve consumers’ health status is assumed, but valid indicators and general guidelines to assess these impacts and limits can barely be found. Therefore we will have a try to define sustainable limits towards the individuals’ daily diet and therefore stimulate current available scientific debate. Within the paper an examination of existing indicators and assessment methods is carried out. We set the focus on health indicators, such as energy intake, and environmental indicators, such as the carbon or material footprint. The paper aims to provide first, an assessment of core indicators to explore the sustainability impact of foodstuff, and second, a deeper understanding and a discussion of sustainable limits for those dimensions of food and nutrition. Therefore we will discuss several ecological and health indicators which may be suitable to assess the sustainabilty impact and indicate differences or similarities. As a result it becomes obvious that several ecological indicators “point in the same direction” and therefore a discussion about the variability and the variety of these indicators has to be faced in the future. Further the definition of sustainable levels per indicator is an essential aspect to get an idea about the needed barriers for a sustainable nutrition, by now first steps had been made, but no binding guidelines are available yet. Therefore the paper suggests a few indications to set up sustainable levels for health and environmental indicators, based on the idea to reduce the resource use level up to 30-50% in 2030.
    Keywords: food, nutritional footprint, footprints, resource-efficiency, resource conservation, natural resource use, sustainability indicators, sustainable levels, Agribusiness, Food Security and Poverty, Health Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2016–05
  4. By: Sisco, Matthew R.; Bosetti, Valentina; Weber, Elke U.
    Abstract: We analyzed the effects of 10,748 weather events on attention to climate change between December 2011 and November 2014 in local areas across the United States. Attention was gauged by quantifying the relative increase in Twitter messages about climate change in the local area around the time of each event. Coastal floods, droughts, wildfires, strong wind, hail, excessive heat, extreme cold, and heavy snow events all had detectable effects. Attention was reliably higher directly after events began, compared to directly before. This suggests that actual experiences with extreme weather events are driving the increases in attention to climate change, beyond the purely descriptive information provided by the weather forecasts directly beforehand. Financial damage associated with the weather events had a positive and significant effect on attention, although the effect was small. The abnormality of each weather event’s occurrence compared to local historical activity was also a significant predictor. In particular and in line with past research, relative abnormalities in temperature (“local warming”) generated attention to climate change. In contrast, wind speed was predictive of attention to climate change in absolute levels. These results can be useful to predict short-term attention to climate change for strategic climate communications, and to better forecast long-term climate policy support.
    Keywords: Climate Attention, Social Media, Extreme Weather, Environmental Economics and Policy, Q54, C81, D80,
    Date: 2016–08–30
  5. By: Aithal, Sreeramana; Aithal, Shubhrajyotsna
    Abstract: Technology has affected the society and its surroundings in many ways and helped to develop more advanced economies including today's global economy. Science has contributed many technologies to the society which include Aircraft technology, Automobile technology, Biotechnology, Computer technology, Telecommunication technology, Internet technology, Renewable energy technology, Atomic & Nuclear technology, Nanotechnology, Space technology etc. have changed the lifestyle of the people and provided comfortability. In order to sustain this comfort of people in the society, they have to worry about the sustainability of the surrounding environment. In this paper, we propose how the technologies can be made sustainable by adding green component so that they can avoid environmental degradation and converted into green technologies to provide a clean environment for future generations. The paper also discuss the opportunities and challenges for green technology for agriculture, green technology for potable water, green technology for renewable energy, green technology for buildings, green technology for aircraft and space exploration, green technology for education, green technology for food & processing, and green technology for health and medicine in 21st century.
    Keywords: Green Technologies, Sustainability, Green Society
    JEL: Q2 Q20 Q42
    Date: 2016–08
  6. By: German Bersalli (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes)
    Abstract: The production and consumption of electricity in Latin America has grown strongly in recent decades (about 4% per year) with an increasing share coming from fossil fuels, which has led to an increase in the carbon intensity of the electricity production. Large hydro still represents a substantial part of the electricity mix in most Latin-American countries. However, the construction of new dams has slowed mainly due to their local environmental consequences. In the last decade, most of these countries showed a growing interest in developing renewable energy technologies (RETs) for power generation, especially wind, solar, biomass, geothermal and small hydroelectric dams. This interest is explained primarily by the need of diversifying the power mix and increase security of supply. Additionally, other policy objectives have been considered, such as the electrification of isolated rural areas, the decrease of energy imports, the creation of new jobs and the reduction of GHG emissions. The latter goal became especially important after the COP21 (Paris, 2015), in which most countries agreed to follow decarbonisation pathways for their economies which means, among other measures, an increased effort to develop green energy. In this context, governments have set relatively ambitious targets and implemented public policies to encourage investment in RETs and thus take advantage of the great potential available. Different policy instruments have been implemented: tax exemptions, feed-in tariffs, feed-in premium, auction systems, tradable certificates, etc. However, even though many years of government effort and public resources have been invested in order to speed up the development, diffusion and implementation of RETs, experiences in different countries show that this is a very slow process. The current share of RETs is still low (or extremely low depending on the country), especially when compared to the ambitions of policy objectives. Support policies for RETs in Argentina is an interesting case to analyse the effectiveness of incentive mechanisms in a context of high risk perception. Recent experience in the electricity sector shows that the application of several theoretically effectives instruments did not produce the expected results despite the large potential available. Could it be explained by a failure in the design and implementation of the main promotion tools or by one unfavorable economic and institutional context and the related barriers?
    Keywords: Electricity Market,Renewable energies integration,Argentine
    Date: 2016–06–19
  7. By: ITO Koichiro; ZHANG Shuang
    Abstract: We develop a framework to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) for clean air from defensive investments. Applying this framework to product-by-store level scanner data on air purifier sales in China, we provide among the first revealed preference estimates of WTP for clean air in developing countries. A spatial discontinuity in air pollution created by the Huai River heating policy enables us to analyze household responses to long-run exposure to pollution. Our model allows heterogeneity in preference parameters to investigate potential heterogeneity in WTP among households. We show that our estimates provide important policy implications for optimal environmental regulations.
    Date: 2016–06
  8. By: Manuel Coeslier (Audencia Business School, LHEEA - Laboratoire de recherche en Hydrodynamique, Énergétique et Environnement Atmosphérique - École Centrale de Nantes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Céline Louche (Audencia Business School); Jean-François Hétet (LHEEA - Laboratoire de recherche en Hydrodynamique, Énergétique et Environnement Atmosphérique - École Centrale de Nantes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: In a context where the necessary transition to a climate-resilient economy creates financing needs as well as new and underestimated financial risks for investors, low-carbon or carbonefficient financial indices represent a rapidly growing and promising instrument. By building and testing representative optimization methodologies for low-carbon stock indices, this study investigates their ability to both (i) allow investors to hedge against climate-related financial risks and (ii) promote companies with higher contribution to the energy transition. The analysis is based on a large European stock index for which we benefit from a complete set of bottom-up calculated environmental indicators, including indirect and avoided carbon emissions figures. The results indicate that mainstream low-carbon indices methodologies fail to address the challenges they are based on and call for further improvements in order to align diversified financial instruments with ambitious climate objectives.
    Keywords: Sustainable finance,lowcarbon indices,Carbon footprint,Financed emissions,Avoided emissions
    Date: 2016–08
  9. By: Di Corato, Luca; Moretto, Michele; Vergalli, Sergio
    Abstract: In this article we study the long-run average rate of forest conversion in Brazil. Deforestation results from the following trade-off: on the one hand, the uncertain value of benefits associated with forest conservation (biodiversity, carbon sequestration and other ecosystem services), on the other hand, the economic profits associated with land development (agriculture, ranching, etc.). We adopt the model by Bulte et al. (2002) as theoretical frame for studying land conversion and then derive, following Di Corato et al. (2013), the associated long-run average rate of forest conversion. We then identify the parameters to be used in our model. The object of our simulation is Brazil and 27 states. Our aim is to compute under several scenarios the time required to develop the remaining forested land in these states. We provide potential future scenarios, in terms of forest coverage, for the next 20, 100 and 200 years. Our results suggest that the uncertainty characterizing forest benefits plays a relevant role in deterring deforestation. We find that these benefits, if growing at a sufficiently high rate, may significantly slow down the conversion process. In contrast, a higher volatility accelerates the process of deforestation. We indicate the Brazilian states where forests are expected to be saturated earlier. In this respect, we find that forestland currently available may be expected to be fully converted within a 200-year horizon.
    Keywords: Deforestation, Long-run, Natural Resources Management, Optimal Stopping, Environmental Economics and Policy, C61, D81, Q24, Q58,
    Date: 2016–09–07
  10. By: Adler, Matthew; Anthoff, David; Bosetti, Valentina; Garner, Greg; Keller, Klaus; Treich, Nicolas
    Abstract: The social cost of carbon (SCC) is a monetary measure of the harms from carbon emission. Specifically, it is the reduction in current consumption that produces a loss in social welfare equivalent to that caused by the emission of a ton of CO2. The standard approach is to calculate the SCC using a discounted-utilitarian social welfare function (SWF)—one that simply adds up the well-being numbers (utilities) of individuals, as discounted by a weighting factor that decreases with time. The discounted-utilitarian SWF has been criticized both for ignoring the distribution of well-being, and for including an arbitrary preference for earlier generations. Here, we use a prioritarian SWF, with no time-discount factor, to calculate the SCC in the integrated assessment model RICE. Prioritarianism is a well-developed concept in ethics and theoretical welfare economics, but has been, thus far, little used in climate scholarship. The core idea is to give greater weight to well-being changes affecting worse off individuals. We find substantial differences between the discounted-utilitarian and non-discounted prioritarian SCC.
    Keywords: Prioritarianism, Social Welfare Function, Social Cost of Carbon, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, Q54, I30,
    Date: 2016–08–30
  11. By: Marion Dupoux
    Abstract: Land use change (LUC) is the second human-induced source of greenhouse gases (GHG). This paper warns about the LUC time-accounting failure in internalizing GHG impacts in economic appraisal (within policies). This emerges from (i) relative carbon prices commonly following the Hotelling rule as if climate change were regarded as an exhaustible resource problem and (ii) a uniform annualization (i.e. constant flows over time) of LUC impacts supported by most energy policies. First, carbon prices time evolution should account for the climate change framework specificities (natural carbon absorption, uncertainty), which makes a departure from the Hotelling rule necessary. Second, there is a carbon dynamic after land conversion: GHG impact flows are strictly decreasing over time. With a theoretical framework, I show that the employment of the uniform annualization, within a benefit-cost analysis, enhances both the discounting overwhelming effect and the carbon price increase, whatever the type of impact (emissions or sequestrations). It results in skewed values of LUC-related projects as long as relative carbon prices deviate from the Hotelling rule. I apply this framework to global warming impacts of bioethanol in France and quantify this bias. In particular, carbon profitability payback periods under the uniform approach do not reflect the LUC effective carbon investment. This potentially modifies the conclusions regarding a project’s achievement of imposed environmental criteria.
    Keywords: benefit-cost analysis, land use change, relative carbon price.
    JEL: D61 H43 Q15 Q16 Q48 Q54
    Date: 2016
  12. By: Emmerling, Johannes; Manoussi, Vassiliki; Xepapadeas, Anastasios
    Abstract: Climate Engineering, and in particular Solar Radiation Management (SRM) has become a widely discussed climate policy option to study in recent years. However, its potentially strategic nature and unforeseen side effects provide major policy and scientific challenges. We study the role of the SRM implementation and its strategic dimension in a model with two heterogeneous countries with the notable feature of model misspecification on the impacts from SRM. We find that deep uncertainty leads to a reduction in SRM deployment both under cooperation and strategic behavior, which is a more relevant issue if countries act strategically. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the heterogeneity in impacts from SRM has an asymmetric effect on the optimal policy and could typically lead to unilateral SRM implementation. We also consider heterogeneous degrees of ambiguity aversion, in which case the more confident country only will use SRM.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Solar Radiation Management, Uncertainty, Robust Control, Differential Game, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Q53, Q54,
    Date: 2016–08–30
  13. By: Yvan Renou (CREG - Centre de recherche en économie de Grenoble - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - Grenoble 2)
    Abstract: Mobilizing a political ecology approach, this article calls for replacing the conventional concept of water security by the hydro-social security’ones to meet the main contemporary water issues. It aims at working for a democratization of hydro-social cycle to strengthen the building of territorialized sustainable development trajectories. From this perspective, the policy implementation of the management of scientific and societal uncertainties of ecosystem services is an essential methodological prerequisite to achieve, through a negotiation process based on democratic monetary valuation, an institutionalized and "securising" compromise between stakeholders.
    Abstract: Mobilisant une approche d’écologie politique, la démarche exposée dans cet article invite à substituer à la notion conventionnelle de sécurité hydrique celle de sécurité hydro-sociale afin de répondre aux principaux enjeux hydriques contemporains, au premier rang desquels figure l’adaptation au changement climatique. Il s’agit alors non plus de procéder à une sociétalisation marchandisée des risques hydriques mais bien d’oeuvrer à une démocratisation des cycles hydro-sociaux afin de consolider le processus de co-construction territorialisée de trajectoires de développement soutenables. Dans une telle perspective, la mise en politique de la gestion des incertitudes scientifiques et sociétales inhérentes aux services écosystémiques représente un pré-requis méthodologique incontournable devant permettre d’aboutir, via un processus de négociation fondé sur l’évaluation monétaire démocratique, à l’élaboration de compromis institutionnalisés "sécurisants".
    Keywords: changement climatique , eau , ecosystème , gestion de l'eau , sécurité hydrique , écologie politique
    Date: 2016–06–01
  14. By: Uzcátegui, Carolina; Solano, Javier; Figueroa, Paulina
    Abstract: Considering the relevance that has taken the welfare of human beings focus on sustainability, both in Latin America and in Ecuador, this paper explores the effects of extractive action and exploitation of natural resources used by the Ecuadorian shrimp industry. The analysis is directed through the concept of sustainable development and the tragedy of the commons, with the aim of harmonizing long-term vision of sustainability in this specific sector. The results show an aggressive expansion of the shrimp industry, which has displaced mangrove forests by pools for shrimp farming and reduced the extent of these forests by 70% from 1980 to 2013; also taking into account the tragedy of the commons, can predict a similar future for this industry, the stage lived in 1999 after the presence of WSV virus, the sector fell by 80% in just one year with serious consequences for local economy. The importance of generating collective and cooperation between those involved actions through legal and regulatory mechanisms that promote a balance between the interaction of nature and humans, replacing the pursuit of individual economic benefit from the social benefit at the prospect arises.
    Keywords: shrimp, tragedy of the commons, sustainable development, natural resources
    JEL: D60 D69
    Date: 2016–07–25
  15. By: Sergio Currarini; Carmen Marchiori; Alessandro Tavoni
    Abstract: Local interactions and network structures appear to be a prominent feature of many environmental problems. This paper discusses a wide range of issues and potential areas of application, including the role of relational networks in the pattern of adoption of green technologies, common pool resource problems characterized by a multiplicity of sources, the role of social networks in multi-level environmental governance, infrastructural networks in the access to and use of natural resources such as oil and natural gas, the use of networks to describe the internal structure of inter-country relations in international agreements, and the formation of bilateral “links” in the process of building up an environmental coalition. For each of these areas, we examine why and how network economics would be an effective conceptual and analytical tool, and discuss the main insights that we can foresee.
    Keywords: networks; environmental externalities; technological diffusion; gas pipelines; common-pool-resources; multi-level governance; coalitions
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2015–09
  16. By: Stranieri, S.; Ricci, E.; Banterle, A.
    Abstract: The demand for sustainable food products is in continuous growth. There are many different instruments that can be used in order to signal to consumers environmentally-friendly characteristics of food products, among which product labelling. Organic certification is probably the most well-known. Many studies have investigated consumer preferences towards organic products (Andersen, 2011; Bravo et al., 2013; Breustedt et al., 2011; Falguera et al., 2012; Gil et al., 2000; Gracia and De Magistris, 2008; Meike and Ulrich, 2014; Krystallis et al., 2006; Lee Wan-Chen et al., 2013). Despite the relevance of this aspect, other crucial labelled product attributes related to the sustainability have not yet been widely investigated (Bazoche et al., 2014; Govindasamy and Italia, 1998; Magnusson and Cranfiled, 2005; Yigezu et al., 2013). The paper aims at understanding the main factors affecting consumer purchase of products that report environmentally-friendly labelled features. The analysis refers to minimally processed pre-packed salad with environmental-friendly labelled characteristics related to integrated pest management. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) (Ajzen, 1985) represents the conceptual framework of this analysis. Purchases of such products show a steady upward trend in Italy (Freshfel, 2015). Most of the research about the food category of minimally processed vegetables focuses on microbiological quality, safety, processing and packaging issues (Fusi et al., 2016) . The analysis on the determinants affecting consumers preferences towards environmental characteristics of such products are still underdeveloped (Sillani and Nassivera, 2015). The paper is organized as follow. The next section will introduce the conceptual framework. Afterword, the methodology is presented. Results and some preliminary final remarks are placed at the end.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2016–05
  17. By: Lipina, Svetlana (Center for Strategic Management and Spatial Developmen of the Council for study of productive forces of the Ministry of economic development of the Russian Federation (SOPS); Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Shevchuk, A.V. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Lipina, A.V. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Agapova, E. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: The work reveals the features of the formation of the world of theoretical, methodological and practical ideas and solutions for the global direction of modern economic systems of developed countries in the sphere of formation of "green" economy, the greening of the socio-economic systems, the development of innovations in the field of environmental protection and rational nature management.
    Keywords: green economy, green growth
    Date: 2016–05–18
  18. By: Machado, Abdias Garcia; dos Santos, Fábio Alexandre
    Abstract: This article aims to discuss the power of finance capital as environmental conservation promoter by building Payment for Environmental Services mechanisms, specifically livestock chain Brazilian court, listing the barriers to its full operation. The creation of cattle, started and accompanied the colonization and development of Brazil at first predominated by an extensive model, with animals coming from Portugal and Spain, with low performance in the tropics and without a systematic work of selection and breeding. It is now one of the main value chains of Brazilian agribusiness, with a herd of more than 200 million head and total export around US $ 7.4 billion in 2014. However, the period in years of livestock development in Brazil, it was often linked to pressure on the deforestation of native forests, mainly in the Amazon and Cerrado biomes. While groups linked to the productive sector argue that deforestation was linked to the Forest Code of 1973 and the national sovereignty of policies in food production from the Federal Government, groups linked to civil society organizations claim that the effect of this expansion is due to market interest and it is funded by national and international financial capital. Financial capital and agricultural production, as theoretical objects of research have generally been treated separately in the context of the economy and even the social sciences in general. In the Amazon, the expansion of the agricultural frontier created in March geo-graphic "Arc of Deforestation", which advances the replacement of natural forests for agricultural production. An expensive process that requires huge sums of financing, mostly coming from public financial institutions. In 2012, with the aprovoção the new version of the Brazilian Forest Code, replacing the version 1973, the Federal Government authorized the creation of support programs and incentives for conservation of the environment, as well as adoption of technologies and best practices that reconcile agriculture and forest productivity. Provided through a literature review, it was identified barriers to building an economic arrangement for structuring a permanent mechanism for Payment for Environmental Services, which would meet the demand created by the new federal law. Interviews with actors and significant entities financially and politically to the livestock sector, were held at the beginning and end of the research to understand the barriers and potentials in the use of Payments for Environmental Services - PSA in the targeting and use of finance capital. It was identified that the most frequently cited beneficiaries are owners and land owners, farmers and traditional communities and indigenous peoples. Still, few laws indicate which eligible land supportable categories for projects and actions of PSA. Furthermore, the legal uncertainty caused by the lack of a specific law for paying agents, agent receiver and inspection agent of PSA prevents actions to migrate the level of models and projects on a national scale. Keywords: beef cattle; payment for environmental services; deforestation; sustainability, payment for environmental services; sustainability; livestock; deforestation
    Keywords: beef cattle, payment for environmental services, deforestation, sustainability, payment for environmental services, sustainability, livestock, deforestation, Agribusiness, Agricultural Finance, Livestock Production/Industries,
    Date: 2016–05
  19. By: Zander, Katrin; Feucht, Yvonne
    Abstract: Although climate change is reported to be an important issue for European citizens, market relevance of climate-friendly labelled products remains limited. Various barriers such as low knowledge, distrust in labels, time preference and uncertainty/risk prevent consumers from acting according to their ethical attitudes. The aim of this contribution is to better understand the factors which influence consumers’ purchase behaviour of climate-friendly labelled products with emphasis on knowledge, trust in labels and time preference. Based on the data obtained by an online survey with 6007 respondents in six European countries (DE, ES, FR, IT, NO, UK) in July 2015 a multinomial regression was conducted. Dependent variable was the actual buying frequency of climate-friendly food. Higher subjective knowledge had a positive impact while lack of trust in labels negatively influenced the probability of purchasing climate-friendly products. Test persons with higher time preference were less likely to buy climate-friendly products and vice versa. This is in line with theoretical considerations according to which the present saving of money and pleasure gains are valued higher than the possible benefits resulting of less future impacts of climate change. In contrast, the effects of different indicators of risk attitudes were ambiguous.
    Keywords: Food labelling, consumer behaviour, attitude behaviour gap, Agribusiness, Consumer/Household Economics,
    Date: 2016–05
  20. By: Mukherjee, Sacchidananda; Chakraborty, Debashis
    Abstract: With rise in population and the ongoing urbanisation drive, the urge to ensure energy security both for the rural and urban areas has emerged as a major challenge in India. The demand for energy has increased in all spheres of life, e.g. for cooking, cultivation, production purposes, transportation, and so on. Although through various government initiatives, adoption of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for cooking has increased, given the vast population, use of biofuels is expected to continue for poorer households. Generation of biogas from cattle waste in India has intensified through policies, but the same from human waste is still in a nascent stage. The present study explores the possibilities of recovering energy and nutrients from human waste by discussing the present system of human waste collection, treatment and disposal in India, followed by the reasons behind the failures of the past initiatives (e.g., Ganga Action Plan, GAP). It further focuses on a few alternative systems and their technical feasibility. It is concluded that various ongoing policies, viz., National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG), ‘Swachh Bharat Mission’ (SBM) - should be coordinated for integrating collection and treatment of human waste for generation of renewable energy.
    Keywords: human waste management, urban wastewater management, renewable energy, resource recovery, biogas generation, public health management, government policy, technology adoption, energy policy, India.
    JEL: I18 Q28 Q35 Q37 Q42 Q48
    Date: 2016–09–12
  21. By: Verdolini, Elena; Vona, Francesco; Popp, David
    Abstract: The diffusion of renewable energy in the power system implies high supply variability. Lacking economically viable storage options, renewable energy integration has so far been possible thanks to the presence of fast-reacting mid-merit fossil-based technologies, which act as back-up capacity. This paper discusses the role of fossil-based power generation technologies in supporting renewable energy investments. We study the deployment of these two technologies conditional on all other drivers in 26 OECD countries between 1990 and 2013. We show that a 1% percent increase in the share of fast-reacting fossil generation capacity is associated with a 0.88% percent increase in renewable in the long run. These results are robust to various modifications in our empirical strategy, and most notably to the use of system-GMM techniques to account for the interdependence of renewable and fast-reacting fossil investment decisions. Our analysis points to the substantial indirect costs of renewable energy integration and highlights the complementarity of investments in different generation technologies for a successful decarbonization process.
    Keywords: Renewable Energy Investments, Fossil Energy Investments, Complementarity, Energy and Environmental Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Q42, Q48, Q55, O33,
    Date: 2016–08–30
  22. By: Hugh Rockoff
    Abstract: During World War II the United States rapidly transformed its economy to cope with a wide range of scarcities, such as shortfalls in the amounts of ocean shipping, aluminum, rubber, and other raw materials needed for the war effort. This paper explores the mobilization to see whether it provides lessons about how the economy could be transformed to meet scarcities produced by climate change or other environmental challenges. It concludes that the success of the United States in overcoming scarcities during World War II without a major deterioration in living standards provides a basis for optimism that environmental challenges can be met, but that the unique political consensus that prevailed during the war limits the practical usefulness of the wartime model.
    JEL: N42
    Date: 2016–09
  23. By: Burke, M.; Craxton, M.; Kolstad, C.D.; Onda, C.; Allcott, H.; Baker, E.; Barrage, L.; Carson, R.; Gillingham, K.; Graff-Zivin, J.; Greenstone, M.; Hallegatte, S.; Hanemann, W.M.; Heal, G.; Hsiang, S.; Jones, B.; Kelly, D.L.; Kopp, R.; Kotchen, M.; Mendelsohn, R.; Meng, K.; Metcalf, G.; Moreno-Cruz, J.; Pindyck, R.; Rose, s.; Rudik, Ivan; Stock, J.; Tol, R.S.J.
    Date: 2016–04–01
  24. By: Mbaye, Linguère M. (African Development Bank Group, and IZA); Zimmermann, Klaus F. (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University, and Harvard University)
    Abstract: This paper reviews the effect of natural disasters on human mobility or migration. Although there is an increase of natural disasters and migration recently and more patterns to observe, the relationship remains complex. While some authors find that disasters increase migration, others show that they have only a marginal or no effect or are even negative. Human mobility appears to be an insurance mechanism against environmental shocks and there are different transmission channels which can explain the relationship between natural disasters and migration. Moreover, migrants' remittances help to decrease households' vulnerability to shocks but also dampen their adverse effects. The paper provides a discussion of policy implications and potential future research avenues.
    Keywords: natural disasters, forced migration, remittances, Insurance, droughts, earthquakes, floods
    JEL: J61 O15 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2016–08–19
  25. By: Antoine D'Autume (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics); Katheline Schubert (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics); Cees Withagen (Department of Economics - VU University Amsterdam)
    Abstract: International di¤erences in fuel taxation are huge, and may be justi…ed by different local negative externalities that taxes must correct, as well as by di¤erent preferences for public spending. In this context, should a worldwide uniform carbon tax be added to these local taxes to correct the global warming externality? We address this question in a second best framework à la Ramsey, where public goods have to be …nanced through distortionary taxation and the cost of public funds has to be weighted against the utility of public goods. We show that when lump-sum transfers between countries are allowed for, the second best tax on the polluting good may be decomposed into three parts: one, country-speci…c, dealing with the local negative externality, a second one, country-speci…c, dealing with the cost of levying public funds, and a third one, global, dealing with the global externality and which can be interpreted as the carbon price. Our main contribution is to show that the uniformity of the carbon price should still hold in this second best framework. Nevertheless, if lump-sum transfers between governments are impossible to implement, international di¤erentiation of the carbon price is the only way to take care of equity concerns. keywords: carbon price, second best, Pigovian taxation
    Keywords: carbon price, second best, Pigovian taxation
    Date: 2016–03
  26. By: Thais Nuñez-Rocha (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: A new branch of the literature on international trade and environment suggests that developing countries are becoming waste havens for their developed counterparts, due to environmental regulation differences with trade partners. This paper analyses the effectiveness of the Basel Convention formalisation in the European Union (EU-WSR), by studying the impact of the EU-WSR on hazardous waste trade, first on the less developed EU countries, and then on regions of developing countries. It does so, by means of a gravity model framework applied to a panel data-set. Results show that there is no enough evidence to call for waste haven effect in the less developed EU countries, with both aggregated and disaggregated measures of environmental regulations, but increasing institution efficiency differences could lead to increasing imports of waste. In the regional analysis, there is no evidence of the efficacy of the EU-WSR. These findings provide insights into the efficacy of European engagements on waste trade, indicating that there is no simple answer as to its effect.
    Keywords: difference-in-differences,international environmental agreements,Hazardous waste,waste haven effect,international trade,log-linear and ppml gravity model
    Date: 2016–05
  27. By: Van Hertem, Tom; Lague, Simon; Rooijakkers, Luc; Vranken, Erik
    Abstract: In future years, modern farmers will be under greater pressure to care for a large number of animals in order to remain economically viable. There is a growing global awareness of welfare conditions in animal production and a tendency towards more intensive production, resulting in a need for better genetics and a more precise way to monitor them. The challenge and the success of intensive farming will lie in how precisely we can steer the animals towards their genetic potential. Sensors have the potential to replace the eyes, ears and nose of the farmer by continuously assessing different key indicators throughout the production process, 24 hours a day and 7 days a week. The continuous automated monitoring of varying needs of individual living farm animals at every moment and anywhere is called Precision Livestock Farming (PLF). The aim of this paper is to describe how PLF-systems are used within the EU-PLF project to work towards an automated assessment of sustainability on farm level, by continuous monitoring of animal behaviour. The roadmap towards a sustainable meat production, viewed from a technologist’s point of view, is described hereafter in four steps. This phase comprises an implementation of PLF tools, where the basic inputs are measured and monitored in function of time. In a next step, a more complete control of the production process is pursued. In this step, the animal is used as a sensor to gather evidence on the animals’ bio response to its environment and management by the farmer. The final step towards the management of the meat production is through the monitoring of emissions and resource efficiency. PLF-technology and continuous monitoring of animal bio responses will improve the understanding of the production process. This will allow the farmer to manage his process by exception. Production data collection and sharing will enhance the transparency throughout the production chain and help the consumer make educated decisions.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Farm Management, Livestock Production/Industries,
    Date: 2016–05
  28. By: Anna Alberini (University of Maryland,USA); Markus Bareit (ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Adan Martinez-Cruz (ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Massimo Filippini (ETH Zurich, Switzerland)
    Abstract: Many countries have adopted policies designed to reduce CO2 emissions from road vehicles. Taxes linked to the CO2 emissions rate or the fuel economy of a vehicle (which is inversely related to its CO2 emissions rate) are examples of such policies. These taxes are usually imposed on new vehicles, and previous evaluations have estimated the increases in the shares or sales of new and fuel-efficient vehicles associated with such taxes. In contrast, we ask whether taxes on new cars that penalize high emitters induce changes in the retirement of used and inefficient vehicles. We exploit natural experiment conditions in Switzerland to analyze the impact of two different “bonus”/“malus” schemes implemented at the cantonal level. In both schemes, the bonus rewards new efficient vehicles. The malus is retroactive in canton Obwalden, in the sense that it is charged on both new and existing high-emitting cars, but it is only applied prospectively to new cars in Geneva. We use a difference-in-difference design within a survival analysis setting. We find that a bonus/malus accelerates the retirement of existing high-emitting vehicles in Obwalden, shortening the expected lifetime of the three most popular make-models by 7 to 11 months. The effect is the opposite in Geneva, where we estimate that the expected lifetime of these three popular models is extended by 5 to 8 months. These findings have important implications about the desirability of bonus/malus schemes and on their design, as well as on old car scrappage programs.
    Keywords: Vehicle retirement, Emissions-based taxes, bonus/malus, difference-in-difference, survival analysis, Switzerland
    JEL: L62 Q4 Q5
    Date: 2016–09
  29. By: Hirsch, Darya; Meyer, Christian; Klement, Johannes; Hamer, Martin; Terlau, Wiltrud
    Abstract: Agricultural activities within the city boundaries have a long history in both developed and developing countries. Especially in developing countries these activities contribute to food security and the mitigation of malnutrition (food grown for home consumption). They generate additional income and contribute to recreation, environmental health as well as social interaction. In this paper, a broad approach of Urban AgriCulture is used, which includes the production of crops in urban and peri-urban areas and ranges in developed countries from allotment gardens (Schrebergarten) over community gardens (Urban Gardening) to semi-entrepreneurial self-harvest farms and fully commercialized agriculture (Urban Farming). Citizens seek to make a shift from traditional to new (sustainable) forms of food supply. From this evolves a demand for urban spaces that can be used agriculturally. The way how these citizens’ initiatives can be supported and their contribution to a resilient and sustainable urban food system increasingly attracts attention. This paper presents an empirical case study on Urban AgriCulture initiatives in the Bonn-Rhein-Sieg region (Germany). Urban AgriCulture is still a niche movement with the potential to contribute more significantly to urban development and constitute a pillar of urban quality of life.
    Keywords: citizen participation, sustainable transition, urban green spaces, social empirical research, food systems, regional food production, Agribusiness, Production Economics,
    Date: 2016–05
  30. By: KITANO Taiju
    Abstract: Automobile firms commonly offer multiple variants for each of their car models. Heterogeneity at the variant level is an important element to be considered when assessing attribute-based policy interventions, such as tax incentives and subsidy for green cars, because of substantial variant-level heterogeneity in the attributes within a model. This paper presents a discrete choice model of product differentiation at the variant level, and estimates the structural parameters of the econometric model using data at different levels of aggregation: model-level sales and variant-level prices and attributes. Using these estimates, this paper examines the policies to promote green cars in Japan.
    Date: 2016–06
  31. By: Florin-Constatin Mihai ("Alexandru Ioan Cuza " University); Maria-Grazia Gnoni (Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento,)
    Abstract: Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment management (E-waste or WEEE) is a crucial issue in the solid waste management sector with global interconnections between well-developed, transitional and developing countries. Consumption society and addiction to technology dictate the daily life in high and middle-income countries where population consumes large amounts of EEE products (electrical and electronic equipment) which sooner become e-waste. This fraction is a fast-growing waste stream which needs special treatment and management due to the toxic potential of public health and environment. On the other hand, the e-waste contains valuable materials which may be recovered (precious metals, Cu) reused and recycled (metals, plastics) by various industries mitigating the consumption of natural resources. The new challenge of e-waste management system is to shift the paradigm from a toxic pollution source to a viable resource in the context of sustainable development.
    Keywords: waste management,E-waste,Recycling,circular economy,Sustainability,Pollution
    Date: 2016–06–29
  32. By: Breßler, Julia
    Abstract: Kreativität, Widersprüchlichkeit, Unsicherheit, Nachhaltigkeit sind handlungsrelevante Phänomene in Lebens- und Arbeitskontexten. Dieses Working Paper widmet sich der Kreativitätsförderung in nachhaltigen Kontexten aus lerntheoretischer Sicht und evaluiert die Umsetzung einer expansiven Bildungskonzeption. Dabei werden die Komponenten Thematik, Lernprozess, Lernziele und Methodik adressiert. Aufgrund der Evaluation lassen sich so Implikationen für die expansive Bildungskonzeption finden und Erkenntnisse im Rahmen der Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung und pfadabhängiger Prozesse gewinnen.
    Abstract: Creativity, contradiction, uncertainty, sustainability are relevant phenomena in living and working contexts. This working paper aims to promote creativity from a learning theory perspective and evaluate the implementation of an expansive conception of education. The topic, the learning process, the learning objectives and the methodology will be addressed. Thus implications for the expansive conception of education can be made. Furthermore, effects arose in the field of environmental education and path-dependent processes.
    Keywords: Evaluation,Lernen durch Expansion,Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung in der Hochschuldidaktik,Pfadbrechung durch expansives Lernen,Evaluation,expansive learning,environmental education,path dependence
    Date: 2016
  33. By: Claire Nicolas; Stéphane Tchung-Ming; Emmanuel Hache
    Abstract: To improve energy security and ensure the compliance with stringent climate goals, the European Union is willing to step up its efforts to accelerate the development and deployment of electrification, and in general, of alternative fuels and propulsion methods. Yet, the costs and benefits of imposing norms on vehicle or biofuel mandates should be assessed in light of the uncertainties surrounding these pathways, in terms of e.g. cost of these new technologies. By using robust optimization, we are able to introduce uncertainty simultaneously on a high number of cost parameters without notably impacting the computing time of our model (a French TIMES paradigm model). To account for the different nature of the uncertain parameters we model two kinds of uncertainty propagation with time. We then apply this formal setting to French energy system under carbon constraint. As uncertainty increases, as does technology diversification to hedge against it. In the transportation sector, low-carbon alternatives (CNG, electricity) appear consistently as hedges against cost variations, along with biofuels. Policy implications of diversification strategies are of importance; in that sense, the work undertaken here is a step towards the design of robust technology-oriented energy policies.
    Keywords: Robust optimization; Climate change; Energy transition; Transportation policy.
    JEL: C61 O33 Q47 R40
    Date: 2016
  34. By: Anthoff, David; Emmerling, Johannes
    Abstract: This paper presents a novel way to disentangle inequality aversion over time from inequality aversion between regions in the computation of the Social Cost of Carbon. Our approach nests a standard efficiency based Social Cost of Carbon estimate and an equity weighted Social Cost of Carbon estimate as special cases. We also present a methodology to incorporate more fine grained regional resolutions of income and damage distributions than typically found in integrated assessment models. Finally, we present quantitative estimates of the Social Cost of Carbon that use our disentangling of different types of inequality aversion. We use two integrated assessment models (FUND and RICE) for our numerical exercise to get more robust findings. Our results suggest that inequality considerations lead to a higher (lower) SCC values in high (low) income regions relative to an efficiency based approach, but that the effect is less strong than found in previous studies that use equity weighting. Our central estimate is that the Social Cost of Carbon increases roughly by a factor of 2.5 from a US perspective when our disentangled equity weighting approach is used.
    Keywords: Social Cost of Carbon, Inequality, Climate Change, Discounting, Equity Weighting, Integrated Assessment Model, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, D63, H43, Q54,
    Date: 2016–08–30
  35. By: Randall Jackson (Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University); Amir B. Ferreira Neto (Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University); Elham Erfanian (Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University)
    Abstract: This paper estimates the economic and environmental impacts of introducing woody biomass processing (WBP) in a rural area in central Appalachia. WBP is among the most promising additions to energy generation portfolios for reducing import dependency and at the same time providing economic opportunity to stimulate regional economies, especially in rural regions where economic development options are often limited. We use an input-output framework to assess regional economic impacts of introducing WBP under three different pathways, fast pyrolysis, ethanol and coal/biomass to liquids. Based on an analysis of local biomass feedstock supply and using the results of life cycle assessments to parameterize the three production functions, we find that the proposed WBP will increase the regional output by $333.3 to $564.0 million dollars; it will increase income by $51.31 to $70.75 million dollars and employment by 850.7 to 1670 jobs in the region. Of these impacts, the direct portions are 63% to 77% of the total impact, depending on the chosen pathway. The results from the accompanying environmental assessment show that only the ethanol pathway has both economic and environmental benefits.
    Keywords: woody biomass processing, input output analysis, life cycle assessment, central Appalachia, rural economic development
    JEL: R58 R15 Q51
    Date: 2016–08
  36. By: Ramamoorthy, Dr. R. Ravikumar; A, Mr Jagan Gopu
    Abstract: The major problem for the failure of agricultural sector in India is believed to not taking the modern methods and innovations from the knowledge quarters to the agricultural field. Without the meeting of technology and ground level implementation, the benefits of modern technology and science cannot be optimal. Unsuitability of technology given the local agro-climatic conditions, unawareness of technology due to a communication gap, unwillingness to take unknown risks due to lack of trust, lack of knowledge, cultural barriers, lack of adequate credit of support for investment which is a prerequisite to the adoption of technology, to overcome these barriers, sound management of the technology dissemination need to be followed. The demonstration conducted by the Official of the project at Krishnagiri block, in Pennaiyar river sub basin, Alapatti tank in Krishnagiri district reveals that the initial demonstration implemented in the period of October 2008 to March 2009 with the 39 farmers and covered 26 hectare. The sustainability is very important aspect to measure the success or failure of the precision farming in the implemented area hence 134 farmers with 40 ha coverage showed that the real demonstration effects on farmers were adopted and sustained with precision farming through the year with various multi crops cultivated by the farmers because of higher yield, least inputs and more than that huge income from the farm. Followed by the last year Oct 2011 to Mar 2012 the total area of demonstration covered 110 ha and the impact also 110 ha with the overall demonstration which spread across the area with the total sustainability area is 448 ha.
    Keywords: Precision Farming, Modern Technology, Adoption of Technology, Sustainability.
    JEL: Q16
    Date: 2016–09–12
  37. By: Barinova, V.A. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Laitner, Skip (American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy); Lashina, T.A. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: The paper studied the economic aspects of the use of renewable energy sources (RES) in Russia and the world, studied the world practice of state policy in the field of renewable energy, as well as the characteristic of the main tendencies of development of renewable energy. The analysis of the implementation mechanisms of the state renewable energy incentives in Russia, including content analysis of the legal framework of such incentives.
    Keywords: renewable energy sources, Russia
    Date: 2016–05–18
  38. By: Susana del granado (Institute for Advanced Development Studies); Anna Maria Stewart Ibarra (Centro de Salud Global y Ciencia Traslacional, SUNY Universidad Médica Septentrional -); Mercy Virginia Borbor (Facultad de Ingeniería Marítima, Ciencias Oceánicas y Recursos Naturales, ESPOL); Carol Franco (Virginia Tech, Departamento de Recursos Naturales y Medio Ambiente); Moory Romero (Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo y la Autoridad Plurinacional de la Madre Tierra); Erica Tauzer (Centro de Salud Global y Ciencia Traslacional, SUNY Universidad Médica)
    Abstract: Los países de América Latina y el Caribe estan afectados por eventos climáticos extremos. En República Dominicana, Ecuador y Bolivia existe un incremento en el riesgo a sucesos extremos en general y a inundaciones en particular. El objetivo de este estudio es comparar los Sistemas de Alerta Temprana (SATs) para inundaciones, identificar los problemas, las lecciones aprendidas y a partir de ello hacer recomendaciones. Con este fin , se analizaron los indicadores relacionados a inundaciones y SATs. Desde septiembre de 2014 hasta julio de 2015, se realizaron 32 entrevistas estructuradas a los más destacados actores, de las principales instituciones, a nivel local y nacional. Encontramos que existen sistemas de monitoreo sólidos, y por ello, se ha trabajado en la mayoría de los casos fortaleciendo la parte técnica y de pronósticos para inundaciones. Sin embargo, en los tres países todavía existe una brecha entre el pronóstico técnico y la comunicación/respuesta de la comunidad. La diferencia entre un fenómeno natural y un desastre puede ser un Sistema de Alerta Temprana, que tome como eje central la participación de las comunidades y la coordinación con las autoridades. Es necesario fortalecer los SATs que existen localmente dando a las comunidades herramientas necesarias y coordinando los sistemas locales y nacionales para dar una alerta, reacción y acción oportunas.
    Keywords: Sistemas de Alerta Temprana,inundaciones, Bolivia, Ecuador, República Dominicana
    JEL: Q51 Q51 Q52
  39. By: Jean-Paul Chavas
    Abstract: This paper investigates the nonlinear dynamic response to shocks, relying on a threshold quantile autoregression (TQAR) model as a flexible representation of stochastic dynamics. The TQAR model can identify zones of stability/instability and characterize resilience and traps. Resilience means high odds of escaping from undesirable zones of instability toward zones that are more desirable and stable. Traps mean low odds of escaping from zones that are both undesirable and stable. The approach is illustrated in an application to the dynamics of productivity applied to historical data on wheat yield in Kansas over the period 1885-2012. The dynamics of this agroecosystem and its response to shocks are of interest as Kansas agriculture faced major droughts, including the catastrophic Dust Bowl of the 1930’s. The analysis identifies a zone of instability in the presence of successive adverse shocks. It also finds evidence of resilience. We associate the resilience with induced innovations in management and policy in response to adverse shocks.
    JEL: O13 O3 Q1
    Date: 2016–09

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