nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2016‒08‒28
33 papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. The environmental impact of vehicle circulation tax reform in Germany By Malina, Christiane
  2. Mesure de la pauvreté multidimensionnelle selon l’approche par Counting : application à la Mauritanie By Philippe Le Coent; Raphaelle Préget; Sophie Thoyer
  3. Urbanization and Environmental Quality in Africa By Effiong, Ekpeno
  4. Emission Trading in India: A Study of Two Schemes By Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik Ranjan
  5. On the Treatment of Emissions Trading and Green and White Certificates in Cost–Benefit Analysis By Johansson, Per-Olov
  6. Let the Data Speak: Revisiting the Environmental Kuznets Curve in Africa By Effiong, Ekpeno; Oisaozoje, Alex
  7. Evaluation report of the regional dialogue on energy efficiency and renewable energy policy in The Caribbean By -
  8. Evaluating Regional Emissions Trading Pilot Schemes in China’s Two Provinces and Five Cities By Wang, Huizhi
  9. Climate Impacts in the Sahel and West Africa: The Role of Climate Science in Policy Making By Kirsty Lewis; Carlo Buontempo
  10. What Would it Take to Reduce US Greenhouse Gas Emissions 80% by 2050? By Geoffrey Heal
  11. The structure of the climate debate By Richard S. J. Tol
  12. Environmental Zoning and Urban Development: Natural Regional Parks in France By Julien Salanié; Thomas Coisnon
  13. Managing Groundwater Quantity-Quality: Competitive Myopic Equilibrium Extraction, Competitive Extraction with Limited Foresight, and Optimal Extraction By Keith Willett; Sanchari Ghosh
  14. Price of Long-Run Temperature Shifts in Capital Markets By Ravi Bansal; Dana Kiku; Marcelo Ochoa
  15. An agent-based stock-flow consistent model of the sustainable transition in the energy sector By Ponta, Linda; Raberto, Marco; Teglio, Andrea; Cincotti, Silvano
  16. Impact Assessment of the National Greening Program of the DENR: Scoping or Process Evaluation Phase - Institutional Component By Luna, Maria Paz G.
  17. Estimating Path Dependence in Energy Transitions By Kyle C. Meng
  18. The U.S. Economy in WWII as a Model for Coping with Climate Change By Hugh Rockoff
  19. Typology of environment-related provisions in regional trade agreements By Monteiro, José-Antonio
  20. Política fiscal ambiental en el Ecuador: avances y desafíos By Almeida Sánchez, María Dolores
  21. Willingness to Pay for Revegetating the City of Subiaco’s Railway Reserve. A Choice Experiment to Determine Public Preferences By de Vos, Gunther; Kragt, Marit E; Pandit, Ram
  22. Tradable Permits in Cost–Benefit Analysis. A Numerical Illustration By Johansson, Per-Olov
  23. Natural Disasters and Human Mobility By Mbaye, Linguère Mously; Zimmermann, Klaus
  24. Identification of mechanisms for financing of energy efficiency and renewable energy initiatives to increase investment in the Commonwealth of Dominica By -
  25. Model confirmation in climate economics By Antony Millner; Thomas K. J. McDermott
  26. Changes in Institutional Design, Expropriation Risk and Extraction Path By Mohammad Kemal; Ian Lange
  27. Sharing for people, planet or profit? Analysing motivations for intended sharing economy participation By Lars Böcker; Toon Meelen
  28. Hambre y Derecho a la Alimentación: la agenda 2030 en Centroamérica y la República Dominicana By Gómez Bruera, Hernán
  29. Diving Tourism and Fisheries in Marine Protected Areas: Market Values and New Approaches to Improve Compliance in the Maldives Shark Sanctuary By Zimmerhackel, Johanna S; Pannell, David J; Meekan, Mark; Kragt, Marit E; Rogers, Abbie
  30. The persistence of air pollution in four mega-cities of China By Luis Alberiko Gil-Alaña; Carlos Pestana Barros; Zhongfei Chen
  31. Hedging with Trees: Tail-Hedge Discounting of Long-Term Forestry Returns By Hultkrantz, Lars; Mantalos, Panagiotis
  32. Horizontes 2030: a igualdade no centro do desenvolvimento sustentável By -
  33. Estudio sobre lineamientos, incentivos y regulación para el manejo de los Pasivos Ambientales Mineros (PAM), incluyendo cierre de faenas mineras: Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de), Chile, Colombia y el Perú By Oblasser, Angela

  1. By: Malina, Christiane
    Abstract: A core political strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from road transportation in Germany is to incentivize the purchase of motor vehicles with relatively low tailpipe CO2 emissions. Consequently, since mid-2009, owners of new cars in Germany face an annual vehicle circulation tax that is partially levied according to vehicles' CO2 emission index. In this paper, I estimate the effect of CO2 -based vehicle circulation taxation in Germany on annual CO2 combustion emissions from passenger cars and CO2 climate costs using a nested logit approach on a novel panel-dataset containing registration, cost and vehicle characteristic information on approximately 7,000 unique vehicle models and approximately 19.5 million new vehicle registrations in Germany from 2007 to 2013. This approach first yields vehicle model specific estimates for the elasticity of new vehicle registrations with regard to the circulation tax. These elasticities are used to estimate changes in new vehicle registrations by model, which are then combined with model-specific CO2 emission factors and segment-specific annual distances driven to yield total emission changes attributable to the change in vehicle circulation tax. Finally, physical changes in emissions are converted into changes in monetary climate damages. Uncertainty in the elasticity of new vehicle registrations by segment with regard to vehicle circulation tax, the fuel economy and corresponding CO2 emission indices of vehicles, distances traveled by market segment, and in the monetary damages resulting from CO2 emissions are propagated through the analysis. Overall I find statistically significant, but relatively small reductions in CO2 emissions and climate costs due to the change in taxation: When simulating the ceteris paribus effect of the most stringent taxation regime implemented in 2014 on the pre-tax change models available in 2008, median registrations are estimated to decrease by approx. 9,500 vehicles, or 0.3 per cent of total new registrations. In addition, changes in registrations of individual vehicle models within each market segment lead to a relatively small reduction of segment- specific CO2 emission indices (0.03 to 0.1 per cent across segments). The reduction in new registrations and reduction in CO2 emission indices decrease median CO2 combustion emissions from newly registered vehicles by 35,000 t (90 per cent confidence interval: 31.000 to 39.000 t), and climate costs by € 1.1 Million (90 per cent confidence interval: € 0.1 to 2.2 Million), or 0.4 per cent of total CO2 emissions and climate costs from newly registered cars.
    Keywords: vehicle circulation tax,road transportation,climate costs,nested logit model
    Date: 2016
  2. By: Philippe Le Coent; Raphaelle Préget; Sophie Thoyer
    Abstract: In the economic literature on the motivations underlying voluntary contributions to environmental public goods, little attention is granted to the way the overall objective of the environmental program is framed. A program which contributes to an increase of environmental quality can be perceived differently from a program designed to bring back the environmental quality to its original level, after it was damaged by human intervention, even if net environmental gain is equivalent in both programs. How does it impact participation rates and contribution levels? This paper addresses this issue in the context of agri-environmental contracts for biodiversity conservation. It compares farmers’ willingness to participate in two equivalent agri-environmental schemes, one being framed as part of a biodiversity offset program, the other one as a biodiversity conservation program. We demonstrate with a discrete choice experiment that biodiversity –offsets programs must offer a greater payment to enroll farmers compared to the latter. This is explained by the sensitivity of farmers to environmental issues.
    Date: 2016–08
  3. By: Effiong, Ekpeno
    Abstract: Africa’s rapid urbanization pose challenges for her sustainable development. This paper investigates the environmental impact of urbanization for 49 African countries from 1990 to 2010. Using the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology (STIRPAT) framework, a recently developed semi-parametric panel fixed-effects regression technique, and two atmospheric air pollutants, namely carbon dioxide (CO2) and ambient particulate matter PM10 emissions, the evidence indicates that urbanization reduces environmental pollution. The semi-parametric analysis reveals that the result is more pronounced with PM10 but weaker for CO2 emissions. Moreover, there is no evidence to confirm the Kuznets hypothesis of an inverted U-shaped curve between urbanization and environmental pollution. To reap the benefits of urbanization, there is need for a strategic urban planning with basic infrastructure investment that promotes a green environment.
    Keywords: Urbanization; Environmental Quality; STIRPAT; Semi-parametric method; Africa.
    JEL: C14 C33 O55 Q2 Q20 Q5 R11
    Date: 2016–07–31
  4. By: Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik Ranjan
    Abstract: The paper reviews two schemes in India that have some degree of resemblance with the market based emission trading mechanism like EU-ETS. The first scheme is an innovative emission trading scheme on an air pollutant namely respiratory solid particulate matter (RSPM) with serious potential health implication. The scheme has been piloted in industrial clusters of three polluting states in India (Gujarat, Maharashtra and Tamilnadu). Although the scheme is not on CO2, this happens to be the first of its kind emission trading system in a developing country that mimics the EU-ETS system. The scheme shifts away from the traditional command and control regulation where the industrial point sources have to comply with the norms set by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) or else pay a high penalty. It instead sets a pollution target for an area based on ambient air quality standard and allocates permits to industrial point sources that would then be traded based on gains or shortfalls from compliance after verification. For setting the baseline and verification the scheme relies on a continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) that provides real-time information on emission and resolves much of the problems that are otherwise prevalent with spot checking and also minimises the problem that potentially arises with suspicious or wrong reporting by third-party auditors. The second scheme known as Perform Achieve and Trade (PAT) scheme is a flagship programme of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency, Ministry of Power, Government of India, under the National Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE). The programme also resembles a cap and trade mechanism and involves trading in energy saving certificates between energy intensive industrial production units identified as designated consumers (DCs). Although the scheme does not involve any direct trading based on absolute or relative CO2 emissions but the potential unit of energy saved (expressed in tonnes of oil equivalent) could easily be converted into CO2 emission equivalent. The scheme has the potential to pave the way for creating a more holistic market for emission trading in India. The scheme also holds lot of promises in linking with the international carbon offsets market through adjustments and harmonisation in monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV). In the light of this, the paper also provides a review of the operation and institutional mechanism of the scheme and explores the potential in its linking with other international carbon offsetting schemes.
    Keywords: emission trading, air pollution, energy efficiency, emission trading, air pollution, energy efficiency, Q490, Q480, Q530, Q580
    Date: 2016–01
  5. By: Johansson, Per-Olov (CERE and HHS)
    Abstract: There are conflicting views on how to handle permits for greenhouse gases in cost-bene fit analysis. This paper aims at clarifying within a simple general equilibrium model how to treat di fferent kinds of tradable permits in economic evaluations of projects. Within a framework that reminds of the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), the paper looks at cost-benefi t rules for a small project providing a public good, interpreted as a shortcut for infrastructure, using a fossil fuel and a renewable as inputs. In addition, it illustrates the Samuelson condition for the optimal provision of the public good, discusses briefly how to assess the EU permit system for sectors not covered under the EU ETS, as well as taxes and permits used to combat acid rain, and provides an illustration of the magnitude of the bias incurred if permits are valued at the marginal damage cost. The paper also introduces electricity ("green") certi ficates, a cousin to tradable permits, as well as well as energy savings ("white") certi ficates. Finally, a cap on the output of a commodity is considered.
    Keywords: Cost-benefit analysis; greenhouse gases; emissions trading; tradable permits; general equilibrium; Samuelson condition; EU ETS; non-ETS; acid rain; electricity certificates; renewable portfolio standards; energy savings certificates; output cap
    JEL: H21 H23 H41 H43 I30 L13
    Date: 2016–08–16
  6. By: Effiong, Ekpeno; Oisaozoje, Alex
    Abstract: This paper revisits the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis and applies a flexible semi-parametric panel fixed effects technique to identify a definite shape of the income-pollution relationship for a sample of 49 African countries for the period 1990-2010. Compared with standard panel data techniques which yield different conclusions, the former reveals that the income-pollution nexus is monotonically increasing and decreasing for CO2 and PM10 emissions respectively. Hence, the effect of economic growth differs with each atmospheric pollutant; and is not sufficient for improving environmental quality. There is need for policies that emphasizes sustainable economic growth and the use of cleaner energy sources.
    Keywords: Environmental Kuznets Curve; Air pollutants; Semi-parametric method; Africa.
    JEL: C14 C33 O55 Q5
    Date: 2016–07–31
  7. By: -
    Abstract: This document presents the evaluation report of the “Regional dialogue on energy efficiency and renewable energy policy” meeting, aimed at presenting one of the key targeted outputs of the GIZ/ECLAC project titled: “Sustainable energy in the Caribbean: Reducing the carbon footprint in the Caribbean through the promotion of energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy technologies.” The objective of the meeting was to foster dialogue and to share experiences among Caribbean countries on issues related to energy efficiency and renewable energy policy, with a view towards crafting better strategies for enhancing the subregion’s energy security in the face of the challenge of global climate change.
    Date: 2016–07–18
  8. By: Wang, Huizhi
    Abstract: With the highest energy use and greenhouse gas emissions around the world, China has begun to adopt comprehensive approaches to control its CO2 emissions and fight climate change. China has committed to reduce its carbon intensity by 40% to 45% compared to 2005 levels by 2020. In 2011, China initiated the development of seven regional carbon trading scheme (ETS) pilots in two provinces (Guangdong and Hubei) and five cities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Chongqing and Shenzhen) and has embarked on an ambitious pathway for establishing a national carbon market in 2017. This paper provides an overview and analysis of China’s carbon emission trading market. A background and design characters of China’s seven ETS pilots are introduced. Market performance and compliance are summarized. Linkage existed in China’s carbon emission trading market is identified.
    Keywords: China, emissions trading schemes, performance, China, emissions trading schemes, performance
    Date: 2016–01
  9. By: Kirsty Lewis; Carlo Buontempo
    Abstract: Given that the population of the Sahel depends largely on rain-fed agriculture and transhumant livestock rearing, there is a growing concern about the future climate of the region as global warming may alter the availability of water resources. The lack of consensus on climate projections for West Africa results partly from the inability of climate models to capture some basic features of present-day climate variability in the region. As a result, climate model projections are difficult to analyse in terms of impacts and provide little guidance to inform decision making on adaption and resilience-building. However, by engaging with users of climate information to better understand their activities and their sensitivities to weather and climate, and by looking beyond the user to understand the wider systems context in which climate change occurs, progress can be made in interpreting climate impacts. This paper reviews the latest climate projections for West Africa and considers alternative ways in which the knowledge generated from climate science can be understood in the context of preparing for an uncertain future that provides practical help for decision makers. La population du Sahel étant dépendante de l’agriculture pluviale et de l’élevage transhumant, les futures conditions climatiques de la région constituent un sujet de préoccupation majeure, le réchauffement climatique pouvant affecter la disponibilité des ressources en eau. L’absence de consensus sur les projections climatiques en Afrique de l’Ouest résulte en partie de l’incapacité des modèles à saisir certaines des caractéristiques de la variabilité actuelle du climat. Les impacts des projections des modèles climatiques sont ainsi difficiles à analyser et peu d’informations utiles à la décision en termes d’adaptation et de renforcement de la résilience sont disponibles. Néanmoins, en travaillant de pair avec les utilisateurs d’informations climatiques pour mieux comprendre leurs activités et leur sensitivité aux conditions météorologiques et au climat tout en saisissant le contexte général des systèmes dans lequel le changement climatique se produit, l’interprétation des conséquences climatiques s’améliore. Dans un contexte marqué par l’incertitude sur l’avenir, cette note passe en revue les projections climatiques les plus récentes sur l’Afrique de l’Ouest et aborde des approches alternatives d’interprétation des sciences du climat, susceptibles d’apporter une aide concrète aux décideurs.
    Keywords: climate change, climate projections, climate variability, West Africa, climate science, projections climatiques, sciences du climat, variabilité du climat, changement climatique, Afrique de l’Ouest
    JEL: Q54 Q58
    Date: 2016–08–25
  10. By: Geoffrey Heal
    Abstract: I investigate the cost and feasibility of reducing US GHG emissions by 80% from 2005 levels by 2050. The US has stated in its Paris COP 21 submission that this is its aspiration, and Hillary Clinton has chosen this as one of the goals of her climate policy. I suggest that this goal can be reached at a cost in the range of $42 to $176 bn/year, but that it is challenging. I assume that the goal is to be reached by extensive use of solar PV and wind energy (66% of generating capacity), in which case the cost of energy storage plays a key role in the overall cost. I conclude tentatively that more limited use of renewables (less than 50%) together with increased use of nuclear power might be less costly.
    JEL: Q40 Q42 Q54
    Date: 2016–08
  11. By: Richard S. J. Tol
    Abstract: First-best climate policy is a uniform carbon tax which gradually rises over time. Civil servants have complicated climate policy to expand bureaucracies, politicians to create rents. Environmentalists have exaggerated climate change to gain influence, other activists have joined the climate bandwagon. Opponents to climate policy have attacked the weaknesses in climate research. The climate debate is convoluted and polarized as a result, and climate policy complex. Climate policy should become easier and more rational as the Paris Agreement has shifted climate policy back towards national governments. Changing political priorities, austerity, and a maturing bureaucracy should lead to a more constructive climate debate.
    Date: 2016–08
  12. By: Julien Salanié; Thomas Coisnon
    Abstract: This study provides an empirical analysis of the effects of environmental zoning on urban development. It focuses on the case of Natural Regional Parks (NRPs) in France. Of the environmental zoning instruments used in France, NRPs extend over the widest physical area. The analysis uses a quasi-experimental empirical approach (difference-in-differences) to evaluate the effects of NRPs on urban development at the municipality level. Three potential side-effects of NRPs on urban development in the regulated area are investigated. First, the long-term effects of environmental zoning on housing and population flows are analysed using French National Census data in the period from 1968-2011. Second, annual data on building permits granted in the period from 2003-2012 are used to estimate the short-term effects of NRPs on housing supply. Finally, the effects of NRPs on land-use in the regulated area using high-resolution geospatial data are evaluated. The results of the empirical analysis reveal that NRPs have had heterogeneous effects on urban development in regulated areas. Compared to development in neighbouring areas, some NRPs have discouraged urban development in the regulated area, in line with their intended objectives. However, in other cases NRPs have actually favoured urban development. In most cases, however, the policy had no significant effect on urban development within the regulated area.
    Keywords: urban development, Environmental zoning, Natural regional parks
    JEL: Q24 Q26 R14
    Date: 2016–08–25
  13. By: Keith Willett; Sanchari Ghosh
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to cast the groundwater quality-quantity problem in a joint resource management model structure that captures the spatial features of groundwater extraction and pollution. Groundwater use is developed under three types of common property extraction criteria namely- myopic extraction, extraction with limited foresight and optimal extraction. The analytical solutions under the three cases show that under optimal extraction, spatial externalities influence the use of water and fertilizer while for the myopic case the marginal decision rule is impacted by the pumping decisions of competitors spatially in previous time periods, and is not accompanied by any user cost for later periods. The diffuse nature of the resource has policy implications in terms of managing groundwater across space and over time given both quantity and quality considerations.
    Date: 2016
  14. By: Ravi Bansal; Dana Kiku; Marcelo Ochoa
    Abstract: We use the forward-looking information from the US and global capital markets to estimate the economic impact of global warming, specifically, long-run temperature shifts. We find that global warming carries a positive risk premium that increases with the level of temperature and that has almost doubled over the last 80 years. Consistent with our model, virtually all US equity portfolios have negative exposure (beta) to long-run temperature fluctuations. The elasticity of equity prices to temperature risks across global markets is significantly negative and has been increasing in magnitude over time along with the rise in temperature. We use our empirical evidence to calibrate a long-run risks model with temperature-induced disasters in distant output growth to quantify the social cost of carbon emissions. The model simultaneously matches the projected temperature path, the observed consumption growth dynamics, discount rates provided by the risk-free rate and equity market returns, and the estimated temperature elasticity of equity prices. We find that the long-run impact of temperature on growth implies a significant social cost of carbon emissions.
    JEL: G0 G12 Q43 Q5
    Date: 2016–08
  15. By: Ponta, Linda; Raberto, Marco; Teglio, Andrea; Cincotti, Silvano
    Abstract: Major structural changes to the current fossil-fuel based economic system are needed in order to address the climate change challenge. To this purpose, effective Renewable Energy Sources (RES) support policies, along with concrete efforts towards the improvement of energy efficiency, have been adopted in many countries. One of these policies is the feed-in-tariff (FiT) mechanism, according to which electricity produced by RES is sold at guaranteed prices (feed-in tariffs), which are higher than market ones, for fixed periods of time. In this paper, we investigate how to foster a sustainability transition of the energy system towards an economically and ecologically sustainable growth path by using an enriched version of the Eurace model. Eurace has been enriched by including an energy sector where electricity is demanded by domestic producers and is supplied by a fossil-fuel based power producer as well as a renewable-energy based one. Both power producers undertake pricing and capacity investment decisions based on the price of imported fossil fuel and feed-in tariff government policy. In particular, we investigate how the economy is affected by the fiscal costs of financing the feed-in tariff mechanism and by the benefits of lower fossil fuels imports, in order to devise the policy with the best cost-benefit trade-off for the macroeconomy as a whole. Results show that the feed-in-tariff policy is effective in fostering the sustainability transition of the energy sector and that it increases the level of investments in the economy with a slightly positive impact on the unemployment rates. Moreover, we observe that its financing costs do not impact government finances in a relevant way. On the other hand, the higher level of investments occurs at the expense of the production of consumption goods, therefore with a negative impact for the living standards, at least according to the perspective of a consumerist society. However, if factors like better employment rates and the reduced GHG emissions are also taken into account, along with consumption, by an appropriate preference function, the final outcome on well-being should be probably deemed as favourable.
    Keywords: sustainability transition, energy sector, feed-in tariff, agent-based modelling
    JEL: C63 Q01 Q42 Q43 Q56
    Date: 2016–08–18
  16. By: Luna, Maria Paz G.
    Abstract: The National Greening Program (NGP) comes after a dip in the country's forest cover and a decade after a large reforestation program was judged to be unsustainable. Large-scale reforestation globally has met with limited success but as a jump-start mechanism that carpet bombed large denuded areas with reforestation effort, the NGP seems to have succeeded in at least two of its measured metrics. As a bonus, the uniformity and strict monitoring of the program, both in survival rates and financial flows, can be used to clean up the Department of Environment and Natural Resources bureaucracy if complaints can be acted on swiftly, and results are communicated to complainants. To ensure efficiency and sustainability, a succeeding program would need to diversify methods based on scale, existing forest cover, and implementer's motivations; use strategic policy interventions and targeted protection measures; and be implemented by an organization with a clear reforestation and forest production mandate and with skills for dispute resolution, organizing, and efficient technology transfer. Digital media would also have to be taken advantage of for mapping, public buy-in, crowd-sourced strategies, and methods and transparency.
    Keywords: Philippines, National Greening Program (NGP), reforestation, forestry law enforcement, tree planting, geotagging trees, forestry agency
    Date: 2016
  17. By: Kyle C. Meng
    Abstract: Addressing climate change requires transitioning away from coal-based energy. Recent structural change models demonstrate that temporary interventions could induce permanent fuel switching when transitional dynamics exhibit strong path dependence. Exploiting changes in local coal supply driven by subsurface coal accessibility, I find that transitory shocks have strengthening effects on the fuel composition of two subsequent generations of U.S. electricity capital. To facilitate a structural interpretation, I develop a model which informs: tests that find scale effects as the relevant mechanism; recovery of the elasticity of substitution between coal and non-coal electricity; and simulations of future carbon emissions following temporary interventions.
    JEL: N51 N52 O41 Q35 Q43 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2016–08
  18. By: Hugh Rockoff (Rutgers Department of Economics)
    Abstract: During World War II the United States rapidly transformed its economy to cope with a wide range of scarcities, such as shortfalls in the amounts of ocean shipping, aluminum, rubber, and other raw materials needed for the war effort. This paper explores the mobilization to see whether it provides lessons about how the economy could be transformed to meet scarcities produced by climate change or other environmental challenges. It concludes that the success of the United States in overcoming scarcities during World War II without a major deterioration in living standards provides a basis for optimism that environmental challenges can be met, but that the unique political consensus that prevailed during the war limits the practical usefulness of the wartime model.
    Keywords: World War II, Climate Change, Infrastructure
    JEL: N4
    Date: 2016–08–25
  19. By: Monteiro, José-Antonio
    Abstract: The last 25 years have witnessed a rapid increase in regional trade agreements (RTAs). Although RTAs generally aim at lowering tariff and non-tariff trade barriers, an increasing number of trade agreements extend their scope to cover specific policy areas such as environmental protection and sustainable development. This paper establishes a comprehensive typology and quantitative analysis of environment-related provisions included in RTAs. The analysis covers all the RTAs currently into force that have been notified to the WTO between 1957 and May 2016, namely 270 trade agreements. While environmental exceptions, along with environmental cooperation continue to be the most common types of environment-related provisions, many other different types of provisions are incorporated in an increasing number of RTAs. The common feature of all environment-related provisions, including environmental exceptions, is their heterogeneity in terms of structure, language and scope.
    Keywords: Regional Trade Agreements,Environment,Sustainable Development
    JEL: F13 F18
    Date: 2016
  20. By: Almeida Sánchez, María Dolores
    Abstract: En las últimas décadas se observa un creciente deterioro del medio ambiente y una intensificación de los fenómenos climáticos asociados al cambio climático. Es posible, desde el ámbito económico, entender a este deterioro ambiental y el problema del cambio climático como la consecuencia lógica de diversas externalidades negativas (Stern, 2007). En este contexto, la política fiscal es un instrumento fundamental para reducir o eliminar las externalidades negativas asociadas al medio ambiente y al mismo tiempo fomentar el crecimiento económico, el empleo y en general el bienestar de la población. En América Latina existen pocas experiencias, la mayor parte recientes, de uso de la política fiscal ambiental para enfrentar los problemas ambientales, como la contaminación atmosférica, el cambio climático, entre otros. En este contexto, el objetivo del presente documento es sistematizar las iniciativas ejecutadas por el Gobierno de Ecuador en materia de fiscalidad e iniciativas ambientales, analizando los avances logrados en los últimos años así como los desafíos y recomendaciones para avanzar hacia un desarrollo más sustentable.
    Date: 2016–07–15
  21. By: de Vos, Gunther; Kragt, Marit E; Pandit, Ram
    Abstract: This work was undertaken to fulfil the requirements for Mr. de Vos’ Master degree in Environmental Science (Environmental Management) at the University of Western Australia. His supervisors were Dr Marit Kragt (UWA) and Dr Ram Pandit (UWA)
    Keywords: Conservation, Choice Modelling, Public Preferences, Urban Greenery, Western Australia, Wildlife Management, Environmental Economics and Policy, Q28, Q51, Q57,
    Date: 2016–08–25
  22. By: Johansson, Per-Olov (CERE and HHS)
    Abstract: There are di fferent views with respect to the treatment of tradable permits for greenhouse gases in cost-benefi t analysis. This note aims at illustrating numerically within a simple general equilibrium model how to treat tradable permits in economic evaluations of projects. The note looks at a cost-benefi t rule for a large project providing a public good interpreted as a shortcut for infrastructure, using a fossil fuel and a renewable as inputs. The paper also evaluates a small or marginal project involving the same output and inputs. In addition, it illustrates the Samuelson condition for the optimal provision of the public good. The note is a supplement to CERE Working Paper No 2015:11 and SSE Working Paper in Economics No 2015:3. The model used here may also be useful in advanced courses to illustrate general equilibrium cost-benefi t analysis.
    Keywords: Cost{bene t analysis; greenhouse gases; tradable permits; general equilibrium; Samuelson condition; numerical illustration
    JEL: H21 H23 H41 H43 I30 L13
    Date: 2016–05–11
  23. By: Mbaye, Linguère Mously; Zimmermann, Klaus
    Abstract: This paper reviews the effect of natural disasters on human mobility or migration. Although there is an increase of natural disasters and migration recently and more patterns to observe, the relationship remains complex. While some authors find that disasters increase migration, others show that they have only a marginal or no effect or are even negative. Human mobility appears to be an insurance mechanism against environmental shocks and there are different transmission channels which can explain the relationship between natural disasters and migration. Moreover, migrants’ remittances help to decrease households’ vulnerability to shocks but also dampen their adverse effects. The paper provides a discussion of policy implications and potential future research avenues.
    Keywords: natural disasters, forced migration, channels, remittances, migration as insurance, floods, earthquakes, droughts, International Relations/Trade, J61, O15, Q54, Q56,
    Date: 2016–08
  24. By: -
    Abstract: This document identifies mechanisms for financing investments in energy efficiency and renewable energy initiatives in the Commonwealth of Dominica. The overall objective of this study is to examine financing opportunities which will provide greater incentives for the development of energy efficiency measures and implementation of renewable energy technologies.
    Date: 2016–05–15
  25. By: Antony Millner; Thomas K. J. McDermott
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2016–07–18
  26. By: Mohammad Kemal (SKKMIGAS); Ian Lange (Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines)
    Abstract: The impact of expropriation risk on the extraction path of non-renewable resources has been shown as theoretically ambiguous. It depends on capital intensity of the extraction process and the size of resource stocks. By employing producing field-level data in the South East Asia region, we observe the impact of a change in institutional design of oil governance in Indonesia on expropriation risk and extraction path. From the empirical results, we make an inference that a change in oil governance reduces expropriation risk, and the impact of the reduction on the extraction path is different for different sizes of resource stock. The results confirm the theory that for small resource stocks, reduction in expropriation risk leads to a slower extraction path. This reiterates the importance of strengthening ownership rights such that expropriation risk can be reduced, over-extraction can be avoided and more sustainable economic welfare can be achieved.
    Keywords: oil governance, expropriation risk, extraction path
    JEL: Q32 Q35 Q48
    Date: 2016–08
  27. By: Lars Böcker; Toon Meelen
    Abstract: The sharing economy is a fast-growing and heavily debated phenomenon. This study provides an overview of motivations of people willing to participate in different forms of the sharing economy. A survey was held amongst 1,330 respondents from Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Using stated preference data, we investigate the relative importance of (1) economic, (2) social and (3) environmental motivations to participate in peer-to-peer sharing. Hereby we consider differences between (a) sectors of the sharing economy, (b) socio-demographic groups, and (c) users and providers. Results are descriptive as well as based on ordered logit models. Notable differences are observed in the motivations for sharing between sectors. To a lesser extent there is variety in sharing drivers between socio-demographic groups. Finally, users seem more economically motivated than providers of goods..
    Date: 2016–08
  28. By: Gómez Bruera, Hernán
    Abstract: Al abordar el problema del hambre y la desnutrición, la más reciente Conferencia Regional sobre Desarrollo Social de América Latina y el Caribe organizada por la CEPAL (Lima, Perú, 2 a 4 de noviembre de 2015) puso énfasis en la necesidad de tratar estos asuntos desde la óptica del derecho a la alimentación, establecido en la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos y el Pacto de Derechos Económicos, Sociales y Culturales. En el documento preparatorio de dicha conferencia se señala que el Objetivo 2 de los Objetivos para el Desarrollo Sostenible es relevante en tanto aborda la problemática de la alimentación y la nutrición de una manera más integral y considera la seguridad alimentaria como un derecho humano fundamental, cuya conculcación limita la capacidad de ejercicio de los derechos políticos y el desarrollo de una democracia participativa. En línea con este planteamiento, uno de los objetivos principales de este estudio es conocer el estado del arte que en la subregión ha tenido el enfoque de derechos en las políticas de seguridad alimentaria y nutricional y, en particular, la promoción del derecho humano a la alimentación,
    Date: 2016–01
  29. By: Zimmerhackel, Johanna S; Pannell, David J; Meekan, Mark; Kragt, Marit E; Rogers, Abbie
    Abstract: This working paper describes Ms. Zimmerhackel’s proposal for PhD research at the School of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Western Australia. At the time of writing, the research has not yet been conducted.
    Keywords: diving tourism, shark sanctuary, compliance, market valuation, decision models, Environmental Economics and Policy, Q22, Q26, Q57,
    Date: 2016–08–04
  30. By: Luis Alberiko Gil-Alaña; Carlos Pestana Barros; Zhongfei Chen
    Abstract: This paper analyses long range fractional dependence of China pollution in four major cities, namely Beijing, Shangai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen from September 28 of 2013 to December 12 of 2015. Unit roots hypotheses are tested by using fractional integration methods using both uncorrelated and autocorrelated errors. The results reveal that the pollution is persistent, meaning that it will continue until strong anti-pollution measures are adopted. Policy implication is derived.
    Keywords: Chinese cities, pollution, unit roots, AR
    JEL: C22 O11
    Date: 2016–02
  31. By: Hultkrantz, Lars (Örebro University School of Business); Mantalos, Panagiotis (Department of Economics and Statistics, School of Business and Economics Linnaeus University)
    Abstract: Tail-hedge discounting is based on decomposition of returns from long-term investments in a fraction (gamma) that is correlated with consumption and another that is not. The first part is discounted at a discount rate that includes a risk premium, the other with the risk-free rate. We estimate gamma for forestry on Swedish data for stumpage prices and GDP per capita 1909- 2012. We demonstrate in three forestry cases that the result considerably changes the expected present value of long-term forestry investments.
    Keywords: discounting; far distant future; declining discount rates; forestry; forest economics; cost-benefit analysis
    JEL: D61 D63 D81 D92 Q23
    Date: 2016–08–17
  32. By: -
    Abstract: O mundo vive uma mudança de época. A comunidade internacional, respondendo aos desequilíbrios econômicos, distributivos e ambientais do estilo de desenvolvimento dominante, aprovou recentemente a Agenda 2030 para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável e seus 17 Objetivos. Este documento, que a Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe (CEPAL) apresenta aos Estados membros no trigésimo sexto período de sessões, complementa analiticamente essa Agenda com base na perspectiva estruturalista do desenvolvimento e sob o ponto de vista dos países da América Latina e do Caribe. Suas propostas se concentram na necessidade de impulsionar uma mudança estrutural progressiva que aumente a incorporação de conhecimento na produção, garanta a inclusão social e combata os efeitos negativos da mudança climática. As reflexões e propostas para avançar rumo a um novo estilo de desenvolvimento mantêm seu foco no impulso à igualdade e à sustentabilidade ambiental. A criação de bens públicos globais e de seus correlatos no âmbito regional e de políticas nacionais é o núcleo a partir do qual se expande a visão estruturalista para um keynesianismo global e uma estratégia de desenvolvimento concentrada num grande impulso ambiental.
    Date: 2016–05
  33. By: Oblasser, Angela
    Abstract: Las actividades mineras, además de reportar beneficios sociales y económicos, deben internalizar de manera efectiva los impactos ambientales y sociales que generan. Para dar cumplimiento a estos desafíos se considera indispensable proveer de lineamientos sobre los incentivos para la regulación de los Pasivos Ambientales Mineros (PAMs), incluyendo el cierre de faenas mineras. Este informe presenta un análisis detallado de como Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de), Chile, Colombia y Perú enfrentan su propia realidad en relación a la situación de los PAMs, con la finalidad última de responder a una actualización y compilación de la información ya existente,y de identificar de los desafíos y recomendaciones que estos países se plantean en el camino hacia la mejor gestión de la minería en su territorio.
    Date: 2016–08

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