nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2016‒08‒21
forty-two papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. The Consequences of Spatially Differentiated Water Pollution Regulation in China By Zhao Chen; Matthew E. Kahn; Yu Liu; Zhi Wang
  3. Labor adaptation to climate variability in Eastern Africa By Dou, Xiaoya; Gray, Clark; Mueller, Valerie; Sheriff, Glen
  4. ClimWood2030 - Climate benefits of material substitution by forest biomass and harvested wood products: Perspective 2030. Final report By Rüter, Sebastian; Werner, Frank; Forsell, Nicklas; Prins, Christopher; Vial, Estelle; Levet, Anne-Laure
  5. The New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme de-link from Kyoto: impacts on banking and prices By Suzi Kerr; Judd Ormsby
  6. A bargaining experiment on heterogeneity and side deals in climate negotiations By Greer Gosnell; Alessandro Tavoni
  7. The Efficiency Cost of Protective Measures in Climate Policy By Christoph Böhringer; Xaquin Garcia-Muros; Ignacio Cazcarro; Iñaki Arto
  8. Energiesuffizienz als Strategie zur Förderung nachhaltiger Stadtentwicklung (sustainable urban energy transition): Akteure und Maßnahmen auf kommunaler Ebene am Beispiel der Stadt Wuppertal By Gröne, Marie-Christine
  9. On the use of agricultural system models for exploring technological innovations across scales in Africa: A critical review By Rötter, Reimund; Sehomi, Fanou; Höhn, Jukka; Niemi, Jarkko; van den Berg, Marrit
  10. Energiesuffizienz - Transformation von Energiebedarf, Versorgungsökonomie, Geschlechterverhältnissen und Suffizienz By Spitzner, Meike; Buchmüller, Sandra
  11. Regulatory Incentives for a Low-Carbon Electricity Sector in China By Flavio Menezes; Xuemei Zhang
  12. The Influence of Political Pressure Groups on the Stability of International Environmental Agreements By Achim Hagen; Juan-Carlos Altamirano-Cabrera; Hans-Peter Weikard
  13. Energy consumption, CO2 emissions and economic growth nexus: Evidence from panel Granger causality test By Hamrita, Mohamed Essaied; Mekdam, Mejdi
  14. Konzept für ein Biodiversitätsmonitoring Landwirtschaft in Deutschland By Dauber, Jens; Klimek, Sebastian; Schmidt, Thomas G.
  15. Climate Change, Vulnerability, Food Security and Human Health in Rural Pakistan: A Gender Perspective By Iqbal, Muhammad; Ahmad, Munir; Mustafa, Ghulam
  16. Understanding compliance in programs promoting conservation agriculture: Modeling a case study in Malawi By Ward, Patrick S.; Bell, Andrew R.; Droppelmann, Klaus; Benton, Tim
  17. The economic value of seasonal forecasts stochastic economywide analysis for East Africa By Rodrigues, Joao; Thurlow, James; Landman, Willem; Ringler, Claudia; Robertson, Richard D.; Zhu, Tingju
  18. Agrobiodiversidad, agricultura familiar y cambio climático By Rodríguez, Adrián G.; Meza, Laura M.
  19. Development of the EU Ecolabel Criteria and Revision of the EU Green Public Procurement Criteria for Cleaning Services By Belmira Neto; Oliver Wolf; Bethany Field; Nicola Jenkin; Max Tam; Benjamin Oscar
  20. Increasing Ambient Temperature Reduces Emotional Well-Being By Clemens Noelke; Mark E. McGovern; Daniel J. Corsi; Marcia Pescador-Jimenez; Ari Stern; Ian Sue Wing; Lisa Berkman
  21. Air Pollution Exposure Indicators: Review of Ground-Level Monitoring Data Availability and Proposed Calculation Method By Jay Turner
  22. Forest Land Value and Rotation with an Alternative Land Use By Skander Ben Abdallah; Pierre Lasserre
  23. Asset Retirement with Infinitely Repeated Alternative Replacements: Harvest Age and Species Choice in Forestry By Skander Ben Abdallah; Pierre Lasserre
  24. Do Trend Extraction Approaches Affect Causality Detection in Climate Change Studies? By Xu Huang; Hossein Hassani; Mansi Ghodsi; Zinnia Mukherjee; Rangan Gupta
  25. Efectos distributivos de las políticas públicas para la mitigación del cambio climático en América Latina: una aproximación con un meta-análisis By Álvarez C., Maximiliano
  26. The impact of trust, risk and disaster exposure on microinsurance demand: Results of a DCE analysis in Cambodia By Fiala, Oliver; Wende, Danny
  27. Optimal Completeness of Property Rights on Renewable Resources in Presence of Market Power By Alexandre Croutzet; Pierre Lasserre
  28. Pollution or Crime: The Effect of Driving Restrictions on Criminal Activity By Paul Carrillo; Andrea López; Arun Malik
  29. Impact of different irrigation systems on water quality in peri-urban areas of Gujarat, India By Vangani, Ruchi; Gerber, Nicolas; Saxena, Deepak; Mavalankar, Dileep; von Braun, Joachim
  30. Development and Adoption of Bt Cotton in India : Economic, Environmental and Health Issues By -, Dr S Saravanan; -, Dr V Mohanasundaram
  31. Development and Adoption of Bt Cotton in India : Economic, Environmental and Health Issues By -, Dr S Saravanan; -, Dr V Mohanasundaram
  32. A cross-sectoral analysis of climate change risk drivers based on companies’ responses to the CDP’s climate change information request By Markus Groth; Annette Brunsmeier
  33. Großschutzgebiete, Biodiversität und räumliche Planung By Heiland, Stefan; Jedicke, Eckhard; Job, Hubert; Meyer, Peter; Nienaber, Birte; Plieninger, Tobias; Pütz, Marco; Rannow, Sven; von Ruschkowski, Eick; Warner, Barbara; Woltering, Manuel
  34. Estimating the marginal impact of large carnivores on the hunting value of roe deer By Häggmark Svensson, Tobias; Elofsson, Katarina
  35. Trade costs shocks and lumpiness of imports: Evidence from the Fukushima disaster By Wagner, Joachim
  36. Distance and Incentives Matter: The Separation of Recyclable Municipal Waste By Michal Struk
  37. Population Exposure to Fine Particles: Methodology and Results for OECD and G20 Countries By Alexander Mackie; Ivan Haščič; Miguel Cárdenas Rodríguez
  38. Local Labor Markets and Natural Resources: A Synthesis of the Literature By Marchand, Joseph; Weber, Jeremy
  39. Property value returns on investment in street trees: a business case for collaborative investment in Brisbane, Australia. By Lyndal Plant; Alicia N. Rambaldi; Neil Sipe
  40. Ecotourism in the Bolivian Amazon: an attribute analysis By Carlos Solis; Felipe Vásquez Lavín; Roberto Ponce Oliva; Dragana Bojovic
  41. Can Natural Gas Save Lives? Evidence from the Deployment of a Fuel Delivery System in a Developing Country By Cesur, Resul; Tekin, Erdal; Ulker, Aydogan
  42. El objetivo versus los instrumentos de la política pública: el caso de una reforma verde para la igualdad en México By Hernández Trillo, Fausto

  1. By: Zhao Chen; Matthew E. Kahn; Yu Liu; Zhi Wang
    Abstract: China’s environmental regulators have sought to reduce the Yangtze River’s water pollution. We document that this regulatory effort has had two unintended consequences. First, the regulation’s spatial differential stringency has displaced economic activity upstream. As polluting activity agglomerates upstream, more Pigouvian damage is caused downstream. Second, the regulation has focused on reducing one dimension of water pollution called chemical oxygen demand (COD). Thus, local officials face weak incentives to engage in costly effort to reduce other non-targeted but more harmful water pollutants such as petroleum, lead, mercury, and phenol.
    JEL: Q25 Q52
    Date: 2016–08
  2. By: Fulvio Castellacci (TIK Centre, University of Oslo); Christine Mee Lie (TIK Centre, University of Oslo)
    Abstract: The paper presents a new taxonomy of green innovators. We make use of firm-level data from the Korea Innovation Survey to investigate different types of eco-innovations, how these relate to each other, and what the main drivers and determinants are. Our empirical methodology is based on a combination of factor, cluster and multinomial logit analysis. The taxonomy points out four groups of green innovators: (1) CO2-reducing; (2) waste-reducing; (3) recycling innovators; (4) pollution-reducing. We also find that R&D policies are more relevant factors enhancing innovations in waste-reducing firms, whereas environmental taxes and regulations are more important drivers of technological change for pollution-reducing companies.
    Date: 2016–08
  3. By: Dou, Xiaoya; Gray, Clark; Mueller, Valerie; Sheriff, Glen
    Abstract: As countries design climate change adaptation policies, it is important to understand how workers alter behavior in response to changes in temperature. Nonetheless, the impact of temperature on labor markets is poorly documented, especially in Africa. We address this gap by analyzing panel surveys of labor choices by sector, contractual arrangement, and migration status in four East African countries. Merging survey information with high-resolution climate data, we assess how workers shift employment in response to temperature anomalies. Results suggest important distinctions between rural and urban areas. In urban areas, only agricultural self-employment and migration are responsive to temperature, with participation in both activities decreasing at high extremes. Urban out-migration is used as a tool to increase incomes in “good” years rather than an adaptation mechanism during bad years. In contrast, out-migration appears to be a means of adapting to high temperatures in rural areas, especially among households with relatively little agricultural land. The combined impact of these forces suggests that a 2 standard deviation increase in temperature results in a 7 percent increase in urban unemployment and no significant impact on rural unemployment.
    Keywords: EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, migration, labor, climate change, economic development, natural resources management, rural areas, urban areas, time allocation, climate adaptation, J22 Time Allocation and Labor Supply, O13 Economic Development: Agriculture, Natural Resources, Energy, Environment, Other Primary Product, O15 Economic Development: Human Resources, Human Development, Income Distribution, Migration, Q54 Climate, Natural Disasters, Global Warming, Q56 Environment and Development,
    Date: 2016
  4. By: Rüter, Sebastian; Werner, Frank; Forsell, Nicklas; Prins, Christopher; Vial, Estelle; Levet, Anne-Laure
    Abstract: The ClimWood2030 study, commissioned by DG CLIMA of the European Commission, quantifies the five ways in which the EU forest sector contributes to climate change mitigation: carbon sequestration and storage in EU forests, carbon storage in harvested wood products in the EU, substitution of wood products for functionally equivalent materials and substitution of wood for other sources of energy, and displacement of emissions from forests outside the EU. It also explores through scenario analysis, based on a series of interlocking models (GLOBIOM, G4M and WoodCarbonMonitor), along with detailed analysis of Forest Based Functional Units, based on life cycle assessment (LCA), the consequences for GHG balances of policy choices at present under consideration. The focus is on the EU-28, but GHG balances for other parts of the world are also considered, notably to assess consequences of EU policy choices for other regions. The five scenarios are (I) The ClimWood2030 reference scenario, (II) Increase carbon stock in existing EU forests, (III) Cascade use - increase recovery of solid wood products, (IV) Cascade use - prevent first use of biomass for energy and (V) Strongly increase material wood use. The study presents detailed scenario results for key parameters, the policy instruments linked to the scenarios, and main conclusions. The ClimWood2030 study, commissioned by DG CLIMA of the European Commission, quantifies the five ways in which the EU forest sector contributes to climate change mitigation: carbon sequestration and storage in EU forests, carbon storage in harvested wood products in the EU, substitution of wood products for functionally equivalent materials and substitution of wood for other sources of energy, and displacement of emissions from forests outside the EU. It also explores through scenario analysis, based on a series of interlocking models (GLOBIOM, G4M and WoodCarbonMonitor), along with detailed analysis of Forest Based Functional Units, based on life cycle assessment (LCA), the consequences for GHG balances of policy choices at present under consideration. The focus is on the EU-28, but GHG balances for other parts of the world are also considered, notably to assess consequences of EU policy choices for other regions. The five scenarios are (I) The ClimWood2030 reference scenario, (II) Increase carbon stock in existing EU forests, (III) Cascade use - increase recovery of solid wood products, (IV) Cascade use - prevent first use of biomass for energy and (V) Strongly increase material wood use. The study presents detailed scenario results for key parameters, the policy instruments linked to the scenarios, and main conclusions.
    Keywords: forest-based sector,climate change,greenhouse gas balance,harvested wood products,substitution,scenario analysis,policy instruments
    Date: 2016
  5. By: Suzi Kerr (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); Judd Ormsby (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research)
    Abstract: The New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (NZ ETS) presents an opportunity to compare the theory of linked emissions trading with practice. From 2009 until late 2012 New Zealand was linked to the Kyoto market and there was no indication that this link would be broken. In November 2012 the New Zealand government announced that it would not proceed with the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol and future linking became uncertain. This de-link was confirmed by the government in December 2013 and it was announced that it would take effect from 31 May 2015. After this date overseas Kyoto units were no longer acceptable for surrender within the NZ ETS. We find that prices within the NZ ETS behaved as theory would predict. In a climate of certain linking, from 2011 when New Zealand began buying overseas units to surrender, New Zealand Unit (NZU) prices were roughly equal to Kyoto prices. Once the possibility of a future de-link emerged, NZU and Kyoto prices decoupled. NZU prices traded at a price reflecting their anticipated future scarcity – for New Zealand as a buyer of units this implies that NZUs traded at a higher price. In anticipation of the coming de-link NZ ETS participants banked (almost) all of their NZUs for future use and used cheap Kyoto units to meet (almost) all of their current obligations. The long delay between the announcement and implementation of de-linking led to a large bank of NZUs.
    Keywords: New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (NZ ETS), climate change, mitigation, emissions trading, linked tradable permit market, Kyoto units, Certified Emission Reductions (CERs), Emission Reduction Units (ERUs), greenhouse gas, carbon markets
    JEL: Q54 Q58
    Date: 2016–08
  6. By: Greer Gosnell; Alessandro Tavoni
    Abstract: The recent global climate change agreement in Paris leaves a wide gap between pledged and requisite emissions reductions in keeping with the commonly accepted 2°C target. A recent strand of theoretical and experimental evidence establishes pessimistic predictions concerning the ability of comprehensive global environmental agreements to improve upon the business-as-usual trajectory. We introduce an economic experiment focusing on the dynamics of the negotiation process by observing subjects’ behavior in a Nash bargaining game. Throughout repeated rounds, heterogeneous players bargain over the allocation of a fixed amount of profit-generating emissions with significant losses attached to prolonged failure to reach agreement. We find that the existence of side agreements that constrain individual demands among a subset of like countries does not ensure success; however, such side agreements reduce the demands of high-emission parties. Our results highlight the importance of strong signals amongst high emitters in reaching agreement to shoulder a collective emissions reduction target.
    Date: 2016–08
  7. By: Christoph Böhringer (University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics); Xaquin Garcia-Muros (Basque Centre for Climate Change (BC3), Bilbao, Spain); Ignacio Cazcarro (Basque Centre for Climate Change (BC3), Bilbao, Spain); Iñaki Arto (Basque Centre for Climate Change (BC3), Bilbao, Spain)
    Abstract: Despite recent achievements towards a global climate agreement, climate action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions remains quite heterogeneous across countries. Energy-intensive and trade-exposed (EITE) industries in industrialized countries are particularly concerned on stringent domestic emission pricing that may put them at a competitive disadvantage with respect to producers of similar goods in other countries without or only quite lenient emission regulation. This paper focuses on climate policy analysis for the United States of America (US) and compares the economic implications of four alternative protective measures for US EITE industries: (i) output-based rebates, (ii) exemptions from emission pricing, (iii) energy intensity standards, and (iv) carbon intensity standards. Based on simulations with a large-scale computable general equilibrium model for the global economy we quantify how these protective measures affect competitiveness of US EITE industries. We find that while protective measures can attenuate adverse competitiveness impacts measured in terms of common sector-specific competitiveness indicators, they run the risk of making US emission reduction much more costly than uniform emission pricing stand-alone. In fact, the cost increase is associated with negative income effects such that the gains of protective measures for EITE exports may be more than compensated through losses in domestic EITE demand.
    Keywords: Unilateral climate policy; competitiveness; computable general equilibrium
    JEL: D21 H23 D58
    Date: 2016–08
  8. By: Gröne, Marie-Christine
    Abstract: Derzeit vollziehen sich in vielen Städten der Industrienationen gesellschaftliche und räumliche Veränderungen. Diese Prozesse stellen große Anforderungen an die Umgestaltung der bisherigen Infrastrukturversorgung der Bevölkerung. Gleichzeitig bilden Städte ein Zentrum der Emission von klimaschädlichen Treibhausgasen, deren Reduktion auf ein Minimum eine der zentralen Aufgaben in der ersten Hälfte dieses Jahrhunderts sein wird. Eine nachhaltige Entwicklung der Städte, die sowohl den sozialen, ökologischen als auch den ökonomischen Ansprüche der BewohnerInnen gerecht wird, ist offen für die Diskussion unterschiedlicher Konzepte und Strategien zur Bewältigung der großen Veränderungsprozesse in den nächsten Jahrzehnten. In einigen Städten und Regionen treten Herausforderungen wie der demographische Wandel, wirtschaftliche und finanzielle Schwierigkeiten sowie Klimawandel schon heute gemeinsam auf. Ein Beispiel ist die Stadt Wuppertal, die im Bergischen Land zwischen Rheinschiene und Ruhrgebiet liegt. Der Handlungsdruck bietet die Chance, als early adopter neue Lösungswege zu gehen und bei erfolgreicher Umsetzung als Vorbilder für andere Kommunen zu dienen. Mit der Frage, wie Städte die Herausforderungen bewältigen können und zu zukunftsfähigen Orten werden, beschäftigt sich die sustainable urban transition Forschung. Dabei stehen bislang technisch orientierte Neuerungen mit ihren sozialen Implikationen wie Energieeffizienz und der Einsatz erneuerbarer Energien im Forschungsinteresse. In diesem Paper wird eine weitere Nachhaltigkeitsstrategie, die Energiesuffizienz, unter Anwendung verschiedener Konzepte des Transition-Ansatzes analysiert und anhand der Befragung von Expertinnen und Experten sowie lokalen Stakeholdern (=Akteuren) in der schrumpfenden Stadt Wuppertal untersucht. Aus theoretischer Sicht stellt sich zum einen die Frage, ob Energiesuffizienz in der Stadtentwicklung ein konkretes Transformationsfeld im Rahmen der sustainable urban transition ist. Zum anderen wird die Frage aufgeworfen, ob Energiesuffizienz als in erster Linie "nichttechnisch" orientierte Strategie mit den zentralen Konzepten der Transition-Forschung zu analysieren ist. Und wenn ja, ob theoretische Erweiterungen/Anpassungen vorgenommen werden sollten. In der Fallstudie wird für Wuppertal endsprechend der Phase der Problemanalyse des transition enabling cycles untersucht, welche Akteure vor Ort entscheidend sind, wie sie Energiesuffizienz heute und in Zukunft sowie ihre eigene Position beurteilen. Es wird der Frage nachgegangen, welche Maßnahmen auf städtischer Ebene aus Akteurs- und Expertensicht dazu geeignet sind, Energiesuffizienz langfristig zu fördern. Dabei wird eine Fokussierung auf zwei Sektoren vorgenommen, die zusammengenommen einen großen Teil des städtischen Energiebedarfs ausmachen: Raumwärme privater Haushalte sowie Personenverkehr. Die Förderung von Energiesuffizienz ist eine sektorübergreifende Aufgabe, die darüber hinaus auf verschiedenen politisch räumlichen Ebenen umgesetzt werden muss. Die Analyse in Wuppertal zeigt dennoch, dass sich die kommunale Ebene als Ansatzpunkt für die Untersuchung von Suffizienz im Bereich Personenverkehr und Raumwärmenachfrage von Haushalten eignet. Obwohl einige Akteure überrascht sind, dass sie als zentral für die Umsetzung von Energiesuffizienz fördernden Maßnahmen angesehen werden, ist das Interesse an dem Thema groß. Es werden zahlreiche Ansatzhebel identifiziert, die auf lokaler Ebene energiesuffizientes Verhalten unterstützen können.
    Abstract: Many cities in industrialized countries currently pass through societal and spatial transformation processes. These processes make high demands on the reconfiguration of the previous infrastructure provision. At the same time, cities in general built a center for the emission of climate-wrecking greenhouse gases (GHG). Reducing these GHG emissions to a minimum is one of the most challenging tasks during the first half of this century. A sustainable urban development which embraces the social, ecological and economic requirements is open to discuss different concepts and strategies to accomplish the transformation processes in the coming decades. In some cities and regions a variety of challenges such as demographical changes, economical and financial difficulties as well as climate change emerge all together. One example is the city of Wuppertal located between Rhineland and Ruhr area. The pressure to act offers the chance to strike a new path as an early adopter. In case of success the city might serve as a role model for other cities. The sustainable urban transition research deals with the question of how cities can cope with long term challenges and become viable for the future. Technological oriented innovations with their social implications such as energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies currently stand in the research focus. In the paper we analyze a third sustainability strategy called energy sufficiency. We apply different concepts of the transition research to this strategy and examine sufficiency on the basis of expert and stakeholder interviews. From a theoretical point of view the question raises if energy sufficiency presents a concrete research field in the sustainable urban transition theory. Moreover, we pose the question if energy sufficiency as a predominantly non-technical strategy can be adequately analyzed by central concepts of the transition theory. If it is the case, does it necessitate amplifications or additions? In the case study of Wuppertal it is examined in accordance with the problem analysis phase of the transition enabling cycle which local stakeholders are important to foster energy sufficiency. How do they rate energy sufficiency today and in the future as well as their role concerning the strategy? Furthermore, we analyze which strategies and measures are suitable to foster energy sufficiency in the long run. A focus is set on two sectors that jointly count for a great deal of urban energy demand: space heating of private households and passenger transport. The promotion of energy sufficiency as a strategy of action is a cross-sectoral task which has to be put into practice on different political and spatial levels. However, the analysis in Wuppertal shows that the local level is an appropriate starting point for the investigation of energy sufficiency in the sectors of space heating of private households and passenger transport. Even though many stakeholders were surprised that they are considered to be very important for the establishment and implementation of energy sufficiency they were interested in the strategy. Moreover, all interviewed stakeholders could imagine supporting energy sufficiency. Many individual measures and general strategies were identified which facilitate energy sufficiency on a local level.
    Date: 2016
  9. By: Rötter, Reimund; Sehomi, Fanou; Höhn, Jukka; Niemi, Jarkko; van den Berg, Marrit
    Abstract: The major challenge of the 21st century is to achieve food security under, roughly, a doubling in food demand by 2050 compared to present, and producing the additional food under marked shifts in climatic risks and with environmentally sound farming practices. Sustainable intensification of agricultural production is required that meets the dual goal of improved environmental sustainability and economic efficiency. Ex ante evaluation of technological innovations to support agricultural production and food security taking into account the various future risks can substantially contribute to achieve this. Here we perceive technological innovations as new or improved agro-technologies and –management practices, such as new breeds, integrated soil fertility practices or labour-saving technologies meeting the goals of sustainable intensification. In this report we present results from three systematic reviews: one on the use of biophysical modelling, the second and third on the use of bio-economic modelling at farm scale and agro-economic modelling at higher aggregation levels, for ex ante evaluation of the effects of (agro ) Technological Innovations (ag-TIs) on sustainable agriculture and food security indicators. To this end, we searched the SCOPUS database for journal articles published between 1996 and 2015. We considered modelling studies at different spatial scales with particular attention to local to national scale studies for the twelve PARI focal countries in Africa . But we also included studies for all other African countries as well as a few studies at supra-national/continental scale. Both, “quick wins” as well as long term benefits from ag-TIs were of interest. The various ag-TIs were furthermore grouped into four classes: (1) water/soil moisture (2) soil nutrients/conservation (3) crop/cropping system, (4) other ag-TIs or (5) combinations of 1 to 4. For each paper, we tried to identify the primary ag-TI analysed, and if there was equal emphasis to more than one, we classified them as combinations. It should be borne in mind that there is some subjectivity in classifying the papers in this way. Results. After various steps of refining “search strings”, screening on relevance and supplementing databases from additional sources, we found 140 relevant biophysical modelling studies, whereby coverage of sub-regions and ag-TIs varied markedly. Most studies were found for East and West Africa, followed by Southern Africa; hardly anything was found for Northern and Middle Africa . A similar pattern appeared for the integrated agro-economic modelling studies at farm scale, for which we found 40 relevant ones. Agro-economic modelling studies at higher aggregation levels showed a somewhat different pattern – and more generally contained little detail on technological innovations. Regarding the share of different primary agro-technologies explored in the biophysical studies we found 45 on crop management, 35 on combined agro-technologies, 31 on soil nutrient management and conservation, 23 on water/soil moisture management, and 6 on other technologies. We found similar shares among the various agro-technology groups for the integrated agro-economic modelling studies at farm scale. Looking at the outcomes from ex ante evaluations we found that many studies are (mostly) positive on effects of single and “conventional” ag-Tis. The majority of biophysical studies is performed at “field scale” and focuses on the effects on productivity (sometimes yield stability); many of these studies were performed in climate variability and change /adaptation research context. Most agro-economic modelling studies that look specifically at ex ante evaluations of ag-TIs are performed at farm or regional (sub-national) scales. While the number of biophysically oriented studies has grown exponentially over the considered period 1996-2015, this is not the case for the agro-economic modelling studies. Looking in more detail at the twelve focal countries of PARI (=Programme of Accompanying Research on Agricultural Innovations) we also find an unbalanced distribution, with most studies found in Kenya, Ethiopia, Mali and Ghana (biophysical modelling studies), and respectively in Kenya and Uganda (agro-economic modelling studies), whereas nothing or little was found for both types of studies in Togo, Zambia and Nigeria. Very few of the biophysically-oriented studies include other information than effects on crop yields, and there are few studies for both biophysical and agro-economic modelling that comprise multi-scale or higher scale analyses; if multi-scale, there are more studies that scale up from field/farm to regional/sub-national level than from field/farm to nation scale or beyond. There is definitely a need to overcome the lack of meaningful integrated multi-scale modelling along the lines proposed in chapters 5-6 of this report. Moreover, less than half of all integrated /agro-economic modelling studies at farm scale explicitly address risk – another clear shortcoming, which requires attention by the research community. A more general conclusion is that there is no application yet of true transdisciplinary research approaches in practice. Hence, there is need for participatory, collaborative (cross-sectoral) and combined modelling approaches with adequate stakeholder involvement throughout the research process. In this respect, some lessons might be learned from pioneering work conducted in Asia and Europe.
    Keywords: Africa, agricultural system models, agro-economic modelling, biophysical modelling, ex ante evaluation, risk, technological innovation, yield variability, Risk and Uncertainty, C61, C63, C65, C68, D81, O32,
    Date: 2016–07
  10. By: Spitzner, Meike; Buchmüller, Sandra
    Abstract: Effizienzpolitiken allein werden nicht mehr ausreichen, um Klimaschutzziele zu erreichen. Diese Erkenntnis setzt sich in der aktuellen Nachhaltigkeitsdebatte immer mehr durch, partiell selbst innerhalb der Green Economy-Diskurse. Wir werden um Politiken der Eindämmung struktureller Energiebedarfs-Erzeugung nicht herumkommen. Allerdings besteht die Gefahr, dass die Forderungen nach Suffizienz und "Maß-Halten" nicht die Erwerbsökonomie und Wachstumspolitiken adressieren, sondern die privaten Haushalte: die genderbedingt erwerbsökonomisch und politisch externalisierte Versorgungsökonomie (Haushaltswirtschaft) und persönliches Handeln. Deshalb ist ein emanzipativer Energiesuffizienz-Politikansatz umso wichtiger. Wie aber lässt sich ein Energie-bezogener Suffizienz-Ansatz des "Genug - es reicht!" anwendungsorientiert und methodisch konkret fassen? Auf welches Sichtbarmachen von den in der Energieforschung und -politik fast immer ausgeblendeten Fragen nach dem gutem Leben, Versorgen und Versorgt werden kommt es an? Wie lassen sich dabei implizite Genderverzerrungen, die aus traditionell an Maskulinität als Norm orientiertem Denken stammen, gemeinsam überwinden? Welche Strategien, welche Potenziale, welche Eingriffspunkte für Energiesuffizienz-Politiken und welcher Art Instrumente resultieren daraus? Die im ersten größeren, vom BMBF geförderten Forschungsprojekt zu diesen Fragen erarbeiteten Analysen, Ansätze und Methoden wurden durch genderkompetente ExpertInnen aus den beteiligten Disziplinen in einer Fokusgruppen-Diskussion reflektiert, kritisch gewürdigt, mit Anregungen, disziplinären Wissensbeständen und praktischen Beispielen bereichert. Der Wuppertal Report 8 präsentiert die Auswertung und die Zusammenfassung des emanzipativen Ansatzes und neuen Methode. Er gibt damit einen Einblick in die vielfältigen Ergebnisse des Gesamtprojekts "Strategien und Instrumente für eine technische, systemische und kulturelle Transformation zur nachhaltigen Begrenzung des Energiebedarfs im Konsumfeld Bauen/Wohnen".
    Abstract: Sufficiency actually is debated as a serious topic. Not at least because of the limits and destructive impacts of growth, producing global environmental damages, unsustainable consumption of ressources and climate change, but also economical and social destabilisations and inequalities. Also green economy and efficiency policies turn out to be no match for these problems. But how to design acceptable and effective sustainable sufficiency policies in concrete sectors like energy? Enabling "good life" without growth imperative (cf. the "sustainable livelihood" approach) necessitates adressing politically the structural production of energy needs and demand. Nevertheless there are emerging risks, not hitherto politics and market driven economy will be adressed by sufficiency, but private households: their care economy as well as the personal acting within. The care economy however already is long ago recognised being in an economical, social and ecological crisis: It is economically exploited, but because of gender biases externalised from being (societal the essential) part of economy and its rationality. The dominant societal masculinity model still comprises significant abstinence resulting i.a. in gender unequal chances of being served and provided. And societal nature relationships of caring are undermined by centering independent social security etc. around income from market. After the "feminisation of the environmental responsibility", pointed out for the waste and transport sector, now "feminisation of the energy sufficiency responsibility"? All the more important is an emancipative (energy) sufficiency approach. What methods are nescessary and adequate designing sustainable, i.e. gender responsive political energy sufficiency strategies and modeling potentials? Which political step ins, actions and types of instruments are resulting from an energy sufficiency approach of "Enough already!"? The analysis, approach and methods as well as their evaluation and enrichment by an interdisciplinary expert focus group discussion, done within a first research project on elaborating energy sufficiency policies, are presented by the Wuppertal Report no. 8.
    Date: 2016
  11. By: Flavio Menezes (School of Economics, University of Queensland); Xuemei Zhang (School of Economics, Southwestern University of Finance and Economics)
    Abstract: This paper reviews the incentives for pursuing a low-carbon electricity sector that are embedded in China’s regulatory and policy framework. To do so, we first describe the industry structure and the regulatory framework. Second, we explicitly review the policies that were developed to promote energy efficiency and renewable energy. These policies range from the introduction of legal requirements to undertake particular actions to pricing mechanism and financial incentives. The paper reviews evidence that the various programs designed to replace less efficient with more efficient power generation units have already produced impressive results. In addition, there has been steady progress in reducing line losses. Thus, supply-side energy efficient initiatives have been, at least, moderately successful. In contrast, we show that demand-side energy efficiency initiatives seem to have gone nowhere. Finally, we tease out the challenges faced by a sector governed by a myriad of complex arrangements, different institutions and agents who face different and often conflicting incentives for pursuing environmental and energy efficiency objectives.
    Keywords: Regulatory Incentives, Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy, Electricity Sector
    Date: 2016–08–08
  12. By: Achim Hagen (Carl von Ossietzky University, Department of Economics); Juan-Carlos Altamirano-Cabrera (Economics Center, World Resources Institute, Washington DC); Hans-Peter Weikard (Wageningen University, The Netherlands)
    Abstract: This paper examines the effects of political pressure groups (lobbies) on the emissions abatement decisions of countries and on the stability of international environmental agreements. We consider two types of lobbies, industry and environmentalists. We determine the influence of lobby-groups on the abatement decisions of countries. This influence affects members of an international environmental agreement as well as outsiders. However, in the case of agreement members, the effects of lobbying are not restricted to the lobby’s host-country but spill over to other member countries and have ambiguous effects on the agreement stability.
    Keywords: interest groups, coalition theory, environmental policy making, international environmental agreements
    JEL: C72 D72 D78 H41 Q28 Q54
    Date: 2016–08
  13. By: Hamrita, Mohamed Essaied; Mekdam, Mejdi
    Abstract: This paper examines the empirical causal relationship between energy consumption, CO2 emissions and economic growth for six oil-exporting countries from the Golf Cooperation Council (GCC) region over the period 2000:2011. Bootstrap panel Granger causality test approach is used which take account the cross-sectional dependency and the heterogeneity across countries. The empirical results support a bi-directional causality between economic growth and energy consumption for Bahrin and one-way Granger causality running from economic growth to energy consumption for United Emirate Arab and Qatar. Regarding to GDP-CO2 emissions nexus, a reverse relationship from CO2 to GDP for Bahrin and Kuwait is found. However, a two-way Granger causality between CO2 emissions and energy consumption for United Arab Emirate is found.
    Keywords: Energy consumption, CO2 emissions, economic growth, bootstrap panel causality test, Cross-sectional dependence, Heterogeneity, GCC.
    JEL: C1 C3 Q2 Q4 Q5
    Date: 2016–07–20
  14. By: Dauber, Jens; Klimek, Sebastian; Schmidt, Thomas G.
    Abstract: Deutschland verfügt derzeit über keine national umfassende Datengrundlage zum Zustand und zur Entwicklung der Biodiversität in Agrarlandschaften. Eine wissenschaftlich belastbare Bestandsaufnahme und differenzierte Bewertung der Trends sowie der Ursachen für die Trendentwicklungen für Agrarräume sind daher nur sehr eingeschränkt möglich. Entsprechend fehlt die wissenschaftliche Datenbasis mittels derer die Wirksamkeit von agrarumweltpolitischen Maßnahmen auf die Biodiversität bewertet werden könnte. Daraus ergibt sich die Notwendigkeit, dass als Grundlage für wissensbasierte politische Entscheidungen, im Hinblick auf die zukünftige Ausgestaltung der Gemeinsamen Agrarpolitik (GAP) der EU und weiterer umweltrelevanter Politiken, dringend Daten aus einem auf die Agrarräume Deutschlands angepassten Biodiversitätsmonitoring (BM)-Landwirtschaft benötigt werden. [...]
    Abstract: There is no comprehensive national database on the state and development of biodiversity in agricultural landscapes of Germany. Therefore, the prospects for an evidence based assessment of the biodiversity trends and the factors causing these trends across different types of agricultural landscapes are limited. Accordingly, our possibilities to inform policy about success or failure of agri-environmental measures with the aim to provide feedback for future improvement of agri-environmental policy are limited as well. A programme for biodiversity monitoring designed to meet the characteristics of agricultural landscapes of Germany is therefore urgently needed. [...]
    Keywords: Agrarräume,Biodiversitätsziele,Indikatoren,Ökologische Flächenstichprobe,agricultural landscapes,biodiversity conservation objectives,Ecological Area Sampling,indicators
    Date: 2016
  15. By: Iqbal, Muhammad; Ahmad, Munir; Mustafa, Ghulam
    Abstract: The study primarily focused on mapping farm households’ vulnerability index and to identify gender differentiated determinants of vulnerability, food security, and health vulnerability. PCA has been applied to generate vulnerability indices by combining different socioeconomic and climatic factors. The study uses data of Climate Change Impact Survey [CCIS (2013)]. The results indicate that high vulnerability to climate change prevails in the study area. Further, the results obtained from descriptive, and ordered Logit, and binary Logit/Probit regression models are suggestive that those households where females are empowered through decision making, entitlement to inheritance, are more educated, and can participate in social gatherings and are allowed to visit hospital are found less vulnerable as compared to male dominant families. Moreover, female empowerment makes farm households more food secure, and lesser vulnerable in terms of health vulnerability. The study also observes the gender specific perceptions to climate change, and findings reveal that male and female decision makers are found perceiving climate change and having some significant differences regarding perceptions.
    Keywords: Climate change, Gender, Health, Food Security
    JEL: Q56
    Date: 2015
  16. By: Ward, Patrick S.; Bell, Andrew R.; Droppelmann, Klaus; Benton, Tim
    Abstract: Land degradation and soil erosion have emerged as serious challenges to smallholder farmers throughout southern Africa. To combat these challenges, conservation agriculture (CA) is widely promoted as a sustainable package of agricultural practices. Despite the many potential benefits of CA, however, adoption remains low. Yet relatively little is known about the decision-making process in choosing to adopt CA. This article attempts to fill this important knowledge gap by studying CA adoption in southern Malawi. Unlike what is implicitly assumed when these packages of practices are introduced, farmers view adoption as a series of independent decisions rather than a single decision. Yet the adoption decisions are not wholly independent. We find strong evidence of interrelated decisions, particularly among mulching crop residues and practicing zero tillage, suggesting that mulching residues and intercropping or rotating with legumes introduces a multiplier effect on the adoption of zero tillage.
    Keywords: MALAWI, SOUTHERN AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, conservation agriculture, technology adoption, land degradation, soil erosion, smallholders, sustainability, zero tillage, land use, land management, multivariate probit, O13 Economic Development: Agriculture, Natural Resources, Energy, Environment, Other Primary Product, Q01 Sustainable Development, Q15 Land Ownership and Tenure, Land Reform, Land Use, Irrigation, Agriculture and Environment,
    Date: 2016
  17. By: Rodrigues, Joao; Thurlow, James; Landman, Willem; Ringler, Claudia; Robertson, Richard D.; Zhu, Tingju
    Abstract: There is growing interest within the climate change and development community in using seasonal forecast information to reduce the losses to agriculture resulting from climate variability, especially within food-insecure countries. However, forecast systems are expensive to establish and maintain, and therefore gauging the potential economic return to investments in forecast systems is crucial. Most studies that evaluate seasonal forecasts focus on developed countries and/or overlook agriculture’s economywide linkages. Yet forecasts may be more valuable in developing regions such as East Africa, where climate is variable and agriculture has macroeconomic importance. We use computable general equilibrium and process-based crop models to estimate the potential economywide value of national seasonal forecast systems in Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, and Zambia. Stochastic seasonal simulations produce value distributions for forecasts of varying accuracy and varying levels of farm coverage. A timely and accurate forecast adopted by all farmers generates average regional income gains of US$113 million per year. Gains are much higher during extreme climate events and are generally pro-poor. The forecast value falls when forecast skill and farm coverage decline. National economic and trading structures, including the importance of agricultural exports, are found to be major determinants of forecast value. Economywide approaches are therefore needed to complement farm-level analysis when evaluating forecast systems in low-income agrarian economies.
    Keywords: EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, forecasting, climate change, modeling, economic value, mathematical models, general equlibrium, seasonal forecasts, stochastic modeling, D58 Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models, Q15 Land Ownership and Tenure, Land Reform, Land Use, Irrigation, Agriculture and Environment, Q54 Climate,
    Date: 2016
  18. By: Rodríguez, Adrián G.; Meza, Laura M.
    Abstract: Los artículos reunidos en este documento se basan en las ponencias y comentarios de los expertos que participaron en el seminario regional Agricultura y Cambio Climático: Agrobiodiversidad, Agricultura Familiar y Cambio Climático, realizado el 20 y 21 de agosto de 2014 en la sede de la Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), en Santiago. El seminario tuvo como objetivo general “promover el diseño de mejores políticas públicas nacionales y regionales para potenciar el rol de la agro biodiversidad y de la agricultura familiar en la adaptación de la agricultura de América Latina y el Caribe al cambio climático”. Los objetivos específicos del seminario fueron: i) presentar enfoques conceptuales y experiencias de valoración de la agrobiodiversidad en la adaptación de la agricultura al cambio climático; ii) fomentar el diálogo de políticas en torno a la adaptación de la agricultura familiar al cambio climático; iii) presentar experiencias concretas de diversificación productiva y adaptación de la agricultura familiar al cambio climático; y iv) potenciar la cooperación regional en políticas de cuidado y promoción de la agrobiodiversidad y agricultura familiar en la adaptación al cambio climático.
    Date: 2016–06
  19. By: Belmira Neto (European Commission – JRC); Oliver Wolf (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Bethany Field (Anthesis UK); Nicola Jenkin (Anthesis UK); Max Tam (Anthesis UK); Benjamin Oscar (Anthesis UK)
    Abstract: The objective of this project is to develop a new EU Ecolabel and revise the existing EU Green Public Procurement (EU GPP) criteria for professional cleaning services. This report investigates the market, operational and sustainability aspects of cleaning services, with a goal to develop a robust evidence base and prioritise key environmental and social issues to support the development of EU Ecolabel criteria and the revision of the EU GPP criteria.
    Keywords: EU Ecolabel, EU Green Public Procurement, Cleaning Services
    Date: 2016–08
  20. By: Clemens Noelke; Mark E. McGovern; Daniel J. Corsi; Marcia Pescador-Jimenez; Ari Stern; Ian Sue Wing; Lisa Berkman
    Abstract: This study examines the impact of ambient temperature on emotional well-being in the U.S. population aged 18+. The U.S. is an interesting test case because of its resources, technology and variation in climate across different areas, which also allows us to examine whether adaptation to different climates could weaken or even eliminate the impact of heat on well-being. Using survey responses from 1.9 million Americans over the period from 2008 to 2013, we estimate the effect of temperature on well-being from exogenous day-to-day temperature variation within respondents' area of residence and test whether this effect varies across areas with different climates. We find that increasing temperatures significantly reduce well-being. Compared to average daily temperatures in the 50 to 60°F (10 to 16°C) range, temperatures above 70°F (21°C) reduce positive emotions (e.g. joy, happiness), increase negative emotions (e.g. stress, anger), and increase fatigue (feeling tired, low energy). These effects are particularly strong among less educated and older Americans. However, there is no consistent evidence that heat effects on well-being differ across areas with mild and hot summers, suggesting limited variation in heat adaptation.
    Keywords: Mental Health; Heat Exposure; Climate Impacts; Subjective Well-Being; Social Inequality
    JEL: I30 Q54
    Date: 2016–07
  21. By: Jay Turner
    Abstract: This paper identifies opportunities to refine OECD’s indicators of air pollution and population exposure to air pollution, and their periodic production for OECD and G20 countries. First, a comprehensive review is conducted of the publicly available ground-level air monitoring data for the selected countries, including their geographic coverage, data quality, comparability, etc. Second, the paper evaluates the potential applications of ground monitoring measurements for the construction of policy-relevant and internationally comparable indicators across OECD and G20 countries. Given the limited public availability of data and the incomplete geographic coverage in countries outside of Europe and North America, this paper concludes that such data are not suitable for the development of the OECD indicators of air pollution and population exposure to air pollution that need to be harmonised across countries and over time. A hybrid approach is instead recommended as a superior alternative that draws on both satellite data combined with a chemical transport model calibrated using ground-based measurements. Ce rapport étudie les possibilités d’affiner les indicateurs de l’OCDE concernant la pollution de l’air et l’exposition de la population à la pollution de l’air, et leur production régulière pour les pays de l’OCDE et ceux du G20. Il propose pour commencer un examen très complet des données publiques de surveillance de l’air au niveau du sol disponibles dans les pays étudiés, en s’intéressant notamment à leur couverture géographique, la qualité des données, leur comparabilité, etc. Il évalue ensuite les possibilités de construire, à l’aide des mesures au sol, des indicateurs pertinents pour l’action publique et comparables dans les pays de l’OCDE et du G20. Après avoir constaté que les données publiques étaient limitées et que leur couverture géographique était incomplète dans les pays hors zones Europe et Amérique du Nord, le rapport conclut que ces données ne conviennent pas pour élaborer les indicateurs de l’OCDE concernant la pollution de l’air et l’exposition de la population qui doivent être harmonisés entre pays et au cours du temps. Il recommande d’opter plutôt pour une approche hybride, basée sur des données satellitaires conjuguées à un modèle de transport chimique étalonné à l’aide de données relevées au niveau du sol, qui semble offrir une meilleure alternative.
    Keywords: ambient air pollution, outdoor air pollution, particulate matter, ground monitoring, ozone, pollution de l’air ambiant, pollution de l’air extérieur, surveillance au sol, particules, ozone
    JEL: I18 O18 Q53 R11
    Date: 2016–08–13
  22. By: Skander Ben Abdallah; Pierre Lasserre
    Abstract: We solve Faustmann’s problem when the land manager plans to switch from the current tree species to some alternative species or land use. Such situations occur when the relative value of the alternative increases faster than the value of the species currently in place. The paper characterizes the land value function and the optimum rotations, highlighting the differences between this non-autonomous problem and the traditional Faustmann’s problem. We show in particular that rotations can be either higher and increasing, or lower and decreasing, compared to the traditional, constant, Faustmann’s rotation.
    Keywords: Forestry; Land value; Faustmann; Alternative Species; Rotation,
    JEL: Q23 Q24
    Date: 2016–08–10
  23. By: Skander Ben Abdallah; Pierre Lasserre
    Abstract: At what age should productive assets be retired? How should replacements be chosen when they differ in their uncertain ability to generate future incomes? As a particular version of that problem, we study the tree harvesting decision with two possible replacement species whose values as timber are stochastic and whose growth functions are deterministic. In the single-rotation (Wicksell) problem starting with a bare piece of land (an empty shop), it is optimal to choose and plant one species immediately if its current value is sufficiently high relative to that of the other species (the alternative equipment). However, if the species are insufficiently price-differentiated, it is preferable to leave the land vacant (the shop empty) despite the opportunity cost of doing so. In the repeated version of the problem, it is never optimal to leave the land bare provided the cost of replacement is null. Furthermore, the optimal harvest (tree retirement) age not only depends on the price and current productivity of the trees in place but also on the price and productivity of the other species, because it may replace the current one. The harvest age reaches a peak at some critical threshold of the relative price that signals the necessity to switch to the alternative species; indeed this is when the opportunity cost of choosing one alternative replacement over the other is the highest. The land value (and also the value of the firm) is similar to an American option with free boundary, infinite expiry period, and endogenous payoff. The paper highlights the opportunity cost of alternative replacement options, and the central role of their volatility in both asset-retirement and replacement-choice decisions. All results are derived analytically; a numerical treatment by the penalty method completes the resolution.
    Keywords: Real options; stochastic prices; American option; asset retirement; replacement option; penalty method; forestry; Faustmann; alternative species; rotation,
    JEL: C61 D81 G11 G13 Q23
    Date: 2016–08–10
  24. By: Xu Huang (The Statistical Research Centre, Bournemouth University, UK); Hossein Hassani (The Statistical Research Centre, Bournemouth University, UK); Mansi Ghodsi (The Statistical Research Centre, Bournemouth University, UK); Zinnia Mukherjee (Author-Name: Department of Economics, Simmons College, U.S.A); Rangan Gupta (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria)
    Abstract: Various scientific studies have investigated the causal link between solar activity (SS) and the earth’s temperature (GT). Results from literature indicate that both the detected structural breaks and existing trend have significant effects on the causality detection outcomes. In this paper, we make a contribution to this literature by evaluating and comparing seven trend extraction methods covering various aspects of trend extraction studies to date. In addition, we extend previous work by using Convergent Cross Mapping (CCM) - an advanced nonparametric causality detection technique to provide evidence on the effect of existing trend in global temperature on the causality detection outcome. This paper illustrates the use of a method to find the most reliable trend extraction approach for data preprocessing, as well as provides detailed analyses of the causality detection of each component by this approach to achieve a better understanding of the causal link between SS and GT. Furthermore, the corresponding CCM results indicate increasing significance of causal effect from SS to GT since 1880 to recent years, which provide solid evidences that may contribute on explaining the escalating global tendency of warming up recent decades.
    Keywords: Trend extraction approaches, causality detection, Convergent Cross Mapping, sunspot number, global temperature, Singular Spectrum Analysis
    Date: 2016–08
  25. By: Álvarez C., Maximiliano
    Abstract: El principal objetivo de este estudio es analizar los efectos potenciales de diversas políticas climáticas sobre la distribución del ingreso en América Latina. Este análisis se realizó con base en un meta-análisis y su meta-regresión y el análisis de las encuestas de ingreso gasto de diversos países de América Latina. Los principales resultados obtenidos de este análisis muestran que en general existe una tendencia a identificar efectos regresivos derivados de la instrumentación de políticas públicas orientadas a la mitigación. Sin embargo, la revisión de la literatura y de las encuestas de ingreso gasto muestran que los resultados son heterogéneos por países y que dependen de factores tales como el instrumento aplicado, la inclusión de estrategias de reciclaje fiscal y del nivel de desarrollo.
    Date: 2016–07
  26. By: Fiala, Oliver; Wende, Danny
    Abstract: Natural disasters are increasing in frequency and intensity and have devastating impacts on individuals, both humanitarian and economic, particularly in developing countries. Microinsurance is seen as one promising instrument of disaster risk management, however the level of demand for respective projects remains low. Using behavioural games and a discrete choice experiment, this paper analyses the demand for hypothetical microinsurance products in rural Cambodia and contributes significant household level evidence to the current research. A general preference for microinsurance can be found, with demand significantly affected by price, provider, requirements for prevention and combinations with credit. Furthermore, financial literacy, risk aversion, levels of trust and previous disaster experience impact the individual demand for flood insurance in rural Cambodia.
    Keywords: microinsurance,trust,risk,discrete choice experiment,Cambodia
    JEL: Q10 Q50 Q54 O10 C25
    Date: 2016
  27. By: Alexandre Croutzet; Pierre Lasserre
    Abstract: There are many instances where property rights are imperfectly defined, incomplete, or imperfectly enforced. The purpose of this normative paper is to address the following question: are there conditions under which partial property rights are economically efficient in a renewable resource economy? To address this question, we treat the level of completeness of property rights as a continuous variable in a renewable resource economy. By design, property rights restrict access to the resource, so that they may allow a limited number of firms to exercise market power. We show that there exists a level of property rights completeness that leads to first-best resource exploitation; this level is different from either absent or complete property rights. Complete rights are neither necessary nor sufficient for efficiency in presence of market power. We derive an analytic expression for the optimal level of property rights completeness and discuss its policy relevance and information requirements. The optimal level depends on i) the number of firms; ii) the elasticity of input productivity and iii) the price elasticity of market demand. We also find that a greater difference between the respective values of input and output requires stronger property rights. In fact, high profits both imply a severe potential commons problem and may be the expression of market power; strong property rights limit the commons problem; their incompleteness offsets market power. Biology also impacts the optimal quality of property rights: when the stock of resource is more sensitive to harvesting efforts, optimal property rights need to be more complete.
    Keywords: Institutions; property rights; entry; market power oligopoly; common access,
    JEL: K L1 Q2 Q3
    Date: 2016–08–10
  28. By: Paul Carrillo; Andrea López; Arun Malik
    Abstract: Driving restriction programs have been implemented in many cities around the world to alleviate pollution and congestion problems. Enforcement of such programs is costly and can potentially displace policing resources used for crime prevention and crime detection. Hence, driving restrictions may increase crime. To test this hypothesis, this paper exploits both temporal and spatial variation in the implementation of Quito, Ecuador's Pico y Placa program and evaluates its effect on crime. Both difference-in-difference and spatial regression discontinuity estimates provide credible evidence that driving restrictions can increase crime rates.
    Keywords: Crime Rate, Criminal Activities, Pollution prevention, Public transport, Road Traffic Control, Crime Prevention, Citizen security, Police Officers, policing resources, criminal activity, pollution prevention, air pollution
    JEL: C20 Q52 R28 R48
    Date: 2016–07
  29. By: Vangani, Ruchi; Gerber, Nicolas; Saxena, Deepak; Mavalankar, Dileep; von Braun, Joachim
    Abstract: The ever-growing population of India, along with the increasing competition for water for productive uses in different sectors – especially irrigated agriculture and related local water systems and drainage – poses a challenge in an effort to improve water quality and sanitation. In rural and peri-urban settings, where agriculture is one of the main sources of livelihood, the type of water use in irrigated agriculture has complex interactions with drinking water and sanitation. In particular, the multi-purpose character of irrigation and drainage infrastructure creates several interlinks between water, sanitation (WATSAN) and agriculture and there is a competition for water quantity between domestic water use and irrigated agriculture. This study looks at the determinants of the microbiological quality of stored drinking water among households residing in areas where communities use different types of irrigation water. The study used multiple tube fermentation method ‘Most Probable Number (MPN) technique, a WHO recommended technique, to identify thermotolerant fecal coliforms and E. coli in water in the laboratory (WHO 1993). Overall, we found that the microbiological water quality was poor. The stored water generally had very high levels of Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination, 80% of the households had water in storage that could not be considered potable as per the World Health Organization (WHO) standards, and 73% of the households were using a contaminated water source. The quality of household storage water was largely unaffected by the major household socioeconomic characteristics, such as wealth, education level or social status. Households using surface water for irrigation had poor drinking water quality, even after controlling for hygiene, behavioral and community variables. Drinking water quality was positively impacted by proper storage and water treatment practices, such as reverse osmosis. Hygiene and sanitation indicators had mixed impacts on the quality of drinking water, and the impacts were largely driven by hygiene behavior rather than infrastructures. Community open defaecation and high village-household density deteriorates household storage water quality.
    Keywords: Irrigation water, Water Quality, Water Storage, Water Treatment, Sanitation and Hygiene, Health Behaviour, India, Gujarat, Consumer/Household Economics, Environmental Economics and Policy, Health Economics and Policy, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, C83, C88, D13, I18, O10, O12, O15, Q25, Q50, Q53,
    Date: 2016–07
  30. By: -, Dr S Saravanan; -, Dr V Mohanasundaram
    Abstract: Bt Cotton, is genetically engineered with Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis), a bio-toxin which comes from soil bacterium. Bt which was isolated from soil in 1911, has been available to farmers as an organic pesticide since 1930..The engineered Bt gene produces a protein that cuts into the guts of specific insects, rendering the cotton resistant to these insects. Biotechnology for control of bollworms is made available in the seed itself. Farmers have to just sow the Bt cotton seeds as they do with conventional seeds. The resulting plants have the in-built ability to produce Bt protein within their body and defend themselves from bollworms. No extra efforts or equipment are needed to utilize this technology. But after the introduction of Bt cotton it brought into focus a variety of issues like economic, environmental and health and it has a controversy against to adopt it. Hence, the present study focused on the above issues.
    Keywords: Bt Cotton, Environment, Health, Economic
    JEL: Q16
    Date: 2016–08–12
  31. By: -, Dr S Saravanan; -, Dr V Mohanasundaram
    Abstract: Bt Cotton, is genetically engineered with Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis), a bio-toxin which comes from soil bacterium. Bt which was isolated from soil in 1911, has been available to farmers as an organic pesticide since 1930..The engineered Bt gene produces a protein that cuts into the guts of specific insects, rendering the cotton resistant to these insects. Biotechnology for control of bollworms is made available in the seed itself. Farmers have to just sow the Bt cotton seeds as they do with conventional seeds. The resulting plants have the in-built ability to produce Bt protein within their body and defend themselves from bollworms. No extra efforts or equipment are needed to utilize this technology. But after the introduction of Bt cotton it brought into focus a variety of issues like economic, environmental and health and it has a controversy against to adopt it. Hence, the present study focused on the above issues.
    Keywords: Bt Cotton, Environment, Health, Economic
    JEL: Q16
    Date: 2016–08–16
  32. By: Markus Groth (Leuphana University Lueneburg, Germany; Climate Service Center Germany (GERICS)); Annette Brunsmeier (not available)
    Abstract: Companies are increasingly concerned with current and future climate change risks that have the potential to generate a substantial change in their business operations, revenue and/or expenditure. Therefore, the paper focusses on the companies’ perspective and aims to create a higher awareness of companies’ risk drivers when it comes to specific challenges of different sectors as well as each company within its sector. Based on companies’ responses to the CDP’s climate change information request 2013, including 125 companies from Germany, Austria and Switzerland, the paper presents a detailed companies´ perspective on climate-related risk-drivers, comprising i) changes in regulation, ii) changes in physical climate parameters and iii) changes in other climate-related developments. Hence, the paper provides insights into climate change and adaptation related risks for companies. Furthermore, the results also facilitate a comparison of risk drivers between and within sectors. This also enables companies to i) position themselves regarding the potential threat they might be facing now and in the future, ii) assess their competitive advantages and disadvantages as well as prioritize risk drivers they have to deal with by evaluating their own position within the sector-specific analysis. Regarding specific threats companies are facing, they furthermore have the possibility to take good practices and innovative ideas from companies out of different sectors into consideration, aiming for an efficient and effective adaptation to climate change. Thus, the study’s findings can also serve as an innovative starting point for further research as well as the practical implementation of adaptation measures.
    Keywords: business sectors, CDP climate change information request, climate change adaptation, climate change mitigation, climate reporting, risk drivers
    JEL: C83 D22 D81 L20 M20 M48 Q54
    Date: 2016–06
  33. By: Heiland, Stefan; Jedicke, Eckhard; Job, Hubert; Meyer, Peter; Nienaber, Birte; Plieninger, Tobias; Pütz, Marco; Rannow, Sven; von Ruschkowski, Eick; Warner, Barbara; Woltering, Manuel
    Date: 2016
  34. By: Häggmark Svensson, Tobias (Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences); Elofsson, Katarina (Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences)
    Abstract: Hunting is an important recreational activity for large numbers of people. The roe deer is one of the most popular types of game in Sweden; however, recently the roe deer population has decreased. It is argued that this decrease is due to an increase in predator populations. The aim of this paper is to identify and compare the impact of lynxes and wolves on the hunting values of roe deer, taking into account that the impact depends on the hunting effort. The impact of the predators on the roe deer harvests is estimated econometrically, using a production function approach that accounts for the abundance of predators and the alternative prey, as well as the climatic conditions. The results show that the marginal cost of wolves is larger than that of additional lynx families in terms of their impact on the roe deer harvest values. The marginal costs of the predators vary with the hunter effort and the presence of alternative prey, which can have implications for policies affecting the regional allocation of the wolves and the lynxes.
    Keywords: Production function approach; Hunting; Costs; Roe deer; Lynx; Wolves.
    JEL: Q26 Q57
    Date: 2016–06–29
  35. By: Wagner, Joachim
    Abstract: This paper uses a difference-in-differences approach to test the hypothesis that the increase in the per-shipment costs of imports from Japan due to the Fukushima disaster in 2011 lead to an increase in the lumpiness of imports from Japan. Using China and the USA as control groups it is found that the Fukushima trade cost shock reduced the average number of import transactions per year at the firm-good level and, therefore, increased the degree of lumpiness of imports from Japan.
    Keywords: Fukushima disaster, trade shock, imports, Germany
    JEL: F14
    Date: 2016–05–17
  36. By: Michal Struk (Department of Public Economics, Masaryk University)
    Abstract: Municipal solid waste represents an increasing environmental issue in modern societies. One way of reducing this waste would be higher separation rate. Multiple studies identify the availability of infrastructure for waste separation facilities (resulting in higher convenience) as the most important factor affecting the willingness to separate. In this paper we compare the effects of two common systems of waste separation: dropoff sites collection and kerbside collection represented by the sack collection. We follow the idea that if reaching the separation site requires less effort, people are more likely to separate and our results prove this. We show that with drop-off sites the paper and plastics separation rate of total municipal solid waste is 7-8%; with kerbside collection system 9-10%. If we add an incentive program, the separated paper and plastics rate can reach more than 15%, which represents a significant increase of the separation rate. Additionally, higher density of drop-off sites can also increase separation rate, but the effect is relatively low, and this approach is often not economical.
    Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste, Recycling, Separation, Kerbside Collection
    JEL: Q53 H41 R11
    Date: 2015–05
  37. By: Alexander Mackie; Ivan Haščič; Miguel Cárdenas Rodríguez
    Abstract: This paper presents progress in elaborating an indicator of population exposure to PM2.5 with the objective to produce internationally harmonised indicators for all OECD and G20 countries. The paper takes stock of the various methodological options, including those based on data from ground-based monitoring, remote sensing, and a hybrid approach. A calculation methodology is described and examples of the indicator are presented for all OECD and G20 countries for the 1990-2013 time period. Possible next steps are identified with the aim of updating the indicator on a regular basis. Ce document présente l’état d’avancement des travaux de développement d’un indicateur de l’exposition de la population aux PM2.5 dont l’objectif est de produire des indicateurs harmonisés au plan international pour les pays de l’OCDE et du G20. Il fait le bilan des différentes options méthodologiques, notamment de celles qui s’appuient sur des données de surveillance au sol, sur des données de télédétection, et sur une approche hybride. Une méthode de calcul est décrite et des exemples sont présentés pour tous les pays de l’OCDE et du G20 pour la période 1990-2013. Le document expose les étapes suivantes envisagées pour assurer une mise à jour régulière de l’indicateur.
    Keywords: outdoor air pollution, remote sensing, human exposure, ambient air pollution, ground monitoring, pollution de l’air ambiant, surveillance au sol, l'exposition humaine, télédétection, pollution de l’air extérieur
    JEL: I18 O18 Q53 R11
    Date: 2016–08–13
  38. By: Marchand, Joseph (University of Alberta, Department of Economics); Weber, Jeremy (University of Pittsburgh)
    Abstract: A primary way that natural resources affect a locality is through the demand for labor, with greater extraction requiring more workers. Shifts in labor demand can be measured through changes in employment and earnings, the main labor market outcomes, or through changes in the population and income, more generally. These changes may spillover to the non-resource economy, and their effects may be felt unequally across the population, thereby altering the distribution of income and the poverty rate. Educational attainment might also be influenced, as people choose between additional schooling and work. We synthesize the literature on the local labor market effects of natural resources by organizing the existing studies according to their measurement of resources and the outcomes that they consider. This synthesis provides an accessible guide to a literature that has boomed in recent years. It also identifies promising avenues for future research and lays a foundation to further generalize these results through an eventual meta-analysis.
    Keywords: local labor markets; natural resources; resource booms
    JEL: J20 J40 Q23 Q33 R23
    Date: 2016–08–05
  39. By: Lyndal Plant (School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Management, University of Queensland); Alicia N. Rambaldi (School of Economics, University of Queensland); Neil Sipe (School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Management, University of Queensland)
    Date: 2016–08–09
  40. By: Carlos Solis; Felipe Vásquez Lavín; Roberto Ponce Oliva; Dragana Bojovic (School of Business and Economics, Universidad del Desarrollo)
    Abstract: At global scale, the relevance of tourism as an economic activity has been increasing in recent years; while in Bolivia, the activity showed sustained growth during the period 2000-2007. Among the different tourism activity types, ecotourism, and other types of allegedly sustainable tourism initiatives are gaining greater popularity. This paper analyzes the ecotourism market in a region characterized by the presence of indigenous communities within the Bolivian Amazon. The analysis includes the tourism demand characteristics, using choice experiments, as well as the expectations about the tourist services that indigenous communities would like to provide. The main conclusion of our study is that there is a gap between what the indigenous communities want to offer and what visitors actually demand
    Keywords: Ecotourism, Economic activity, Bolovian Amazon
    Date: 2016–08
  41. By: Cesur, Resul (University of Connecticut); Tekin, Erdal (American University); Ulker, Aydogan (Deakin University)
    Abstract: There has been a widespread displacement of coal by natural gas as space heating and cooking technology in Turkey in the last two decades, triggered by the deployment of natural gas networks. In this paper, we examine the impact of this development on mortality among adults and the elderly. Our research design exploits the variation in the timing of the deployment and the intensity of expansion of natural gas networks at the provincial level using data from 2001 to 2014. The results indicate that the expansion of natural gas services has caused significant reductions in both the adult and the elderly mortality rates. According to our point estimates, a one-percentage point increase in the rate of subscriptions to natural gas services would lower the overall mortality rate by 1.4 percent, the adult mortality rate by 1.9 percent, and the elderly mortality rate by 1.2 percent. These findings are supported by our auxiliary analysis, which demonstrates that the expansion of natural gas networks has indeed led to a significant improvement in air quality. Furthermore, we show that the mortality gains for both the adult and the elderly populations are primarily driven by reductions in cardio-respiratory deaths, which are more likely to be due to conditions caused or exacerbated by air pollution. Finally, our analysis does not reveal any important gender differences in the estimated relationship between the deployment of natural gas networks and mortality.
    Keywords: mortality, air pollution, natural gas, coal, Turkey, fracking
    JEL: I10 I15 I18 O10 O13 Q42 Q48 Q53
    Date: 2016–08
  42. By: Hernández Trillo, Fausto
    Abstract: Uno de los principales objetivos de México —y más ampliamente de América Latina— es abatir la pobreza y promover una mejor distribución del ingreso, riqueza y oportunidades. Si bien esto representa hoy día uno de los escasos consensos entre los distintos actores de la sociedad, la selección del (los) instrumento(s) para lograrlo está sujeto a un acalorado debate. A tal grado llega este último disenso que se ha llegado a confundir el instrumento tomándolo como el fin último. El propósito de esta nota es mostrar que la consecución del objetivo no debe perderse de vista y que la elección del instrumento para conseguirlo debería ponderarse en menor medida, de acuerdo a las circunstancias —políticas, económicas y sociales— específicas a cada país. En particular, aquí se argumenta que la introducción de un sistema de seguridad social universal es uno de los instrumentos fundamentales para reducir la pobreza y la brecha de desigualdad en el ingreso y oportunidades. Asimismo, se sostiene que una reforma verde puede generar gran parte de los ingresos necesarios para financiar dicho sistema. Antes de ello conviene iniciar describiendo brevemente la evolución de los indicadores clave del desarrollo económico, a saber, el crecimiento económico, el nivel de pobreza y el grado de desigualdad en la distribución del ingreso. A partir de aquí se sugiere una reforma alternativa para el caso de México.
    Date: 2016–07

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