nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2015‒11‒01
forty papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. A New Carbon Tax in Portugal: A Missed Opportunity to Achieve the Triple Dividend? By Alfredo Marvão Pereira; Rui M. Pereira; Pedro G. Rodriguesa
  2. Energy Consumption, CO2 Emissions, and Economic Growth: A Moral Dilemma By Antonakakis, Nikolaos; Chatziantoniou, Ioannis; Filis, George
  3. Environmental and Economic Impact of Carbon Credit in Makassar City in Indonesia By Yuzuru Miyata; Hiroyuki Shibusawa; Takahide Fukuda
  4. Right to a healthful environment: Flagship of fundamental human rights – An international perspective By Sri Yogamalar; Abdul Haseeb Ansari
  5. Climate change related risks, opportunities and adaptation actions in European cities – Insights from responses to the CDP cities program By Teresa Oberascher
  6. Tracing Brazilian states’ CO2 emissions in domestic and global trade By Denise Imori; Joaquim Jose Martins Guilhoto
  7. Countervailing Duties on Green Goods: Implications for the WTO rules (Japanese) By YOMOGIDA Morihiro
  8. Toward a low carbon growth in Mexico : is a double dividend possible ? A dynamic general equilibrium assessment By Gissela Landa; Frédéric Reynès; Ivan Islas; François-Xavier Bellock; Fabio Grazi
  9. Tracing Brazilian regions? CO2 emissions in domestic and global trade By Denise Imori; Joaquim Guilhoto
  10. Correcting agglomeration economies: How air pollution matters By Marion Drut; Aurélie Mahieu
  11. Economic Impact of CO2 Emissions and Carbon Tax in Electric Vehicle Society in Toyohashi City in Japan By Yuzuru Miyata; Hiroyuki Shibusawa; Tomoaki Fujii
  12. Environmental Macroeconomics: A critical literature review and future empirical research directions By Halkos, George; Paizanos, Epameinondas
  13. An Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis for Deforestation in Brazilian Amazon By Daniel Bouchardet; Alexandre Porsse
  14. Building alliances for territorial management in forest-based landscapes: the case of Caçador Model Forest in southern Brazil By Maria Augusta Doetzer Rosot; Yeda Maria Malheiros De Oliveira; Maria Izabel Radomski; Marilice Cordeiro Garrastazu; Denise Jeton Cardoso; André Eduardo Biscaia De Lacerda; Nelson Carlos Rosot
  15. Convergence in per capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions: a panel data approach By Guilherme de Oliveira; Giana de Vargas Moraes
  16. The role of livestock portfolios and group-based approaches for building resilience in the face of accelerating climate change: An asset-based panel data analysis from rural Kenya By Ngigi, Marther W.; Müller, Ulrike; Birner, Regina
  17. Economic approach to nature conservation - Land use change. By Pedro Nogueira
  18. The Global Economic Burden of Violent Conflict By Olaf J. de Groot; Carlos Bozzoli; Tilman Bruck
  19. Is Unemployment Good for the Environment? By Meyer, Andrew
  20. Tax Policies, Agriculture and the Environment By Miller, Steven
  21. Offset Credits in the EU ETS: A Quantile Estimation of Firm-Level Transaction Costs By Helene Naegele
  23. The added value of modern Decision Support Systems (DSS) against forest fires in a global scale By Stavros Sakellariou; Stergios Tampekis; Fani Samara; Olga Christopoulou
  24. Decomposition of sectoral water consumption: a subsystem SAM model for Extremadura, Spain. By Alberto Franco Solís; Francisco Javier De Miguel Vélez
  25. The role of SMEs in sustainable regional development and local business integration: The case of Lublin region (Poland) By Anna Arent; Matylda Bojar; Nelson Duarte; Francisco Diniz
  26. What if We Adopt a Resilience Thinking Approach in the Urban Governance for Emission Reduction? By Giulia Sonetti
  27. Environmental Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment: Firm-level evidence from Vietnamese manufacturing (Japanese) By JINJI Naoto; TSURUMI Tetsuya
  28. An estimate of the energy production potential of agricultural biomss in the 壗dz Province By Natalia Szubska-Wodarczyk
  29. Measuring lost recreational benefits in Fukushima due to harmful rumors using a Poisson-inverse Gaussian regression? By Katsuhito Nohara; Masaki Narukawa
  30. Urban sprawl between continuity and rupture of uses and identities By Latifa Benyounes-Ferahta
  31. Market Structure and Sustainable Use of Natural Resources By Yuri Yegorov
  32. Paying smallholders not to cut down the Amazon forest: Impact evaluation of a REDD+ pilot project By Gabriela Simonet; Julie Subervie; Driss Ezzine-de-Blas; Marina Cromberg; Amy Duchelle
  33. A quantitatively effectiveness of hybrid sewerage systems allowing rainwater flow into sewage facilities for disaster prevention of inland flooding By Hiroaki Shirayanagi; Yukisada Kitamura
  34. An evaluation of energy-environment-economic efficiency for EU, APEC and ASEAN countries By Soushi Suzuki; Peter Nijkamp
  35. Environmental Development of Rural Russia: Innovative Projects and Social Environment By Kurakin, Alexander; Nikulin, Alexander Michailovich; Trotsuk, Irina Vladimirovna
  36. Green Shipping By Hella Engerer
  37. Use and non-use values in an applied bioeconomic model of fisheries and habitat connections By Claire W. Armstrong; Viktoria Kahui; Godwin K. Vondolia; Margrethe Aanesen; Mikołaj Czajkowski
  38. Natural Resources and Economic Growth : A Meta-Analysis By Tomas Havranek; Roman Horvath; Ayaz Zeynalov
  39. Does Customary Land Tenure System Encourage Local Forestry Management in Zambia? A Focus on Wood Fuel. By Mulenga, Brian P.; Nkonde, Chewe; Ngoma, Hambulo
  40. The Green Entrepreneurial State By Mariana Mazzucato

  1. By: Alfredo Marvão Pereira (Department of Economics, The College of William and Mary); Rui M. Pereira (Department of Economics, The College of William and Mary); Pedro G. Rodriguesa (Center for Administration and Public Policies, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal)
    Abstract: In 2014, the Portuguese government appointed a Commission for Environmental Tax Reform that formulated a carbon-tax proposal designed to achieve three dividends: to help Portugal meet the European Union’s target for emissions reductions by 2030, to boost long-term employment and GDP above their pre-carbon tax levels, and to strengthen public finances by lowering public indebtedness. A key feature of this proposal was a judicious set of mixed strategies to recycle all carbon-tax revenues back into the economy. In this note, we show how the carbon tax that the Portuguese Parliament eventually approved deviated from such guidelines, and ultimately failed to achieve the triple dividend. We argue that authorities need to quickly amend the existing legislation to avoid this misguided attempt turning into a missed opportunity to improve environmental, macroeconomic, and fiscal outcomes.
    Keywords: Carbon Tax; Triple Dividend; Economic Growth; Fiscal Consolidation; Dynamic General Equilibrium; Portugal.
    JEL: D58 H63 O44
    Date: 2015–10–01
  2. By: Antonakakis, Nikolaos; Chatziantoniou, Ioannis; Filis, George
    Abstract: In this study we examine the dynamic interrelationship in the output-energy-environment nexus by applying panel vector autoregression (PVAR) and impulse response function analyses to data on energy consumption (and its subcomponents), carbon dioxide emissions and real GDP in 106 countries classified by different income groups over the period 1971-2011. Our results reveal that the effects of the various types of energy consumption on economic growth and emissions are heterogeneous on the various groups of countries. Moreover, causality between total economic growth and energy consumption is bidirectional, thus making a case for the feedback hypothesis. However, we cannot report any statistically significant evidence that renewable energy consumption, in particular, is conducive to economic growth, a fact that weakens the argument that renewable energy consumption is able to promote growth in a more efficient and environmentally sustainable way. Finally, in analysing the case for an inverted U-shaped EKC, we find that the continued process of growth aggravates the greenhouse gas emissions phenomenon. In this regard, we cannot provide any evidence that developed countries may actually grow-out of environmental pollution. In the light of these findings, the efficacy of recent government policies in various countries to promote renewable energy consumption as a means for sustainable growth is questioned. Put differently, there seems to be a moral dilemma, between high economic growth rates and unsustainable environment and low or zero economic growth and environmental sustainability.
    Keywords: Energy Consumption, Economic Growth, CO2 Emission, Panel Vector Auto Regression, Panel Impulse Response Function.
    JEL: C33 O13 O44 P28 P48 Q42 Q56
    Date: 2015–10–23
  3. By: Yuzuru Miyata; Hiroyuki Shibusawa; Takahide Fukuda
    Abstract: Economic measures are advanced to environmental problems in EU nations. The economic approach imposes a constant economic load on activities negatively affecting the environment, and it is also a technique for giving a constant profit for activities conserving the environment. The whole society is expected to be environmental-friendly state by this incentive. Moreover, this method has the advantage for inventing new technologies and efficient production processes. The direct regulation is pointed out as an environmental conservation measure. However dependence on the regulatory control has the anxiety to decline the economic vitality of firms. Therefore, the economic approach that does not decrease inventiveness and the autonomy of each firm becomes important. Carbon credit can be taken as one of the economic measures for controlling global warming. The upper limits of CO2 emissions are assigned to each firm or country, and the carbon credit is defined as a credit of the volume of CO2 emissions generated by economic activities. The mechanism in which the total CO2 emission is controlled by buying and selling the carbon credit is called emission right trading. The present study focusses on the carbon credit. Although researches on environmental and economic impact by carbon credit at a country level have already been conducted, studies on such a topic in developing countries emitting large CO2 and/or a city level have hardly been found. Hence, the present study analyzes the environmental and economic impact of introduction of carbon credit in Makassar City, which is a main city in east Indonesia, by employing a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The reason selecting Indonesia as a study country is that CO2 emissions in Indonesia considering the swiddens and the peaty land are ranked at the third place in the world. The reason selecting Makassar City as a study region is that there is an enough forest in surroundings of Makassar City and a big amount of the CO2 forest absorption can be expected for issuing the carbon credit. Moreover, it is another reason that there is an input-output table in Makassar City, and data that is necessary to construct a computable general equilibrium model is available. In this paper, Makassar City is assumed to issue a carbon credit and sell it to other regions. Numerical simulations are implemented to analyze the environmental and economic impact of the carbon credit. The simulation results show a decrease in CO2 emissions and an increase in household utility in Makassar City by selling the carbon credit to other regions.
    Keywords: carbon credit; global warming; Makassar; Indonesia; CGE
    JEL: Q50 Q53 Q54 Q56 Q58
    Date: 2015–10
  4. By: Sri Yogamalar (Monash University Malaysia); Abdul Haseeb Ansari (International Islamic University Malaysia)
    Abstract: The right to a healthful environment gained global recognition with the growing trend in environmental consciousness and development of human awareness over the past decades. This human right is interlinked to our environment because an ecosystem which is otherwise will affect all living organisms to the very root of their existence. It is said that the right to a healthful environment is the flagship of all fundamental human rights. This stems from the indubitable fact that the survival of mankind is totally dependent on a clean, healthy and pollution-free environment. This paper delves into the constitutions of 23 nations in 6 different continents, with the right to a healthful environment as the central theme. It also explores the status, adequacy and enforcement of this basic human right as a constitutional right. To what extent Mother Nature is protected and how effective our environmental safeguards are, directly and indirectly, have reciprocal effects on the sustainable development of a country. In the midst of facing today’s global environmental challenges, it is the fervent hope of every citizen to live a decent life with reasonable living conditions for survival, and preservation of human dignity and sanity. This can only be achieved if the greed of the developed countries gradually erodes in the face of abating the sufferings of mankind by having a heart for humanity. Going back to basics, the right to a healthful environment actually relates to the sustainable survival of the humankind because it encompasses fresh air to breathe, safe and clean drinking water, sufficient nutritious food, proper homes for shelter and adequate sanitation facilities for the sustenance of all biota. Without securing and maintaining a healthful environment for present and future generations to come, mankind will drastically be deprived from enjoying the fundamental human rights that make life worth living.
    Keywords: Constitution, human rights, environment, fundamental liberties, anthropogenic, right to health, judicial activism, enforcement
    JEL: Q51
  5. By: Teresa Oberascher (Vienna University of Economics and Business)
    Abstract: Cities, home to more than half of the world’s population and important economic hubs, are vulnerable to climate change and worthy to protect. To address these challenges, implementing adaptation measures is inevitable. The paper provides insights into climate change related risks, opportunities and adaptation actions based on responses by 40 European cities to the 2014 CDP Cities Information Request. The analysis shows that 92.5% of the responding European cities report that they face physical risks arising from climate change and that they identify more intense rainfall as the most relevant physical risk. Furthermore, more than half of the participants indicate that they are facing social risks due to climate change with increased risk to already vulnerable populations being the most important one. However, 72.5% of the cities report that they see economic opportunities arising from climate change. Already, 55% of the observed European cities indicate that they have implemented adaptation action plans and 82.5% of all cities are putting adaptation action into practice. City governments show great awareness, interest and knowledge in addressing climate change issues, yet there is still demand for information and guidance. Moreover, the variety of answers shows that there is no “one-size fits all solution” for cities to adapt to climate change. Thus, the findings can also serve as an innovative starting point for further research as well as the practical implementation of adaptation measures.
    Keywords: adaptation actions, adaptation planning, CDP, cities, climate change, climate change adaptation, climate change opportunities, climate change risks.
    JEL: H11 H41 Q54 Q58 R50
    Date: 2015–10
  6. By: Denise Imori; Joaquim Jose Martins Guilhoto
    Abstract: The current Brazilian position on climate change has been formalized with the law of National Climate Change Policy, which provides a legal framework for national actions aimed at mitigation and adaptation. Within PNMC, the country has defined its national voluntary reduction targets for greenhouse gases emissions, with reductions between 36.1% and 38.9% of projected emissions by 2020. The distribution of the corresponding mitigation efforts by regions is of great concern in a large country like Brazil. In fact, most of Brazilian states have established public policies on climate change. In this context, questions raised in the literature on global climate change, such as the environmental responsibility for emissions embodied in trade, also apply at the regional level, and perhaps even to a larger extent. In order to analyze at regional level the current relationship between Brazil’s CO2 emissions and domestic and global value chains, in this study we adopt a new framework that combines a world input-output table with an inter-regional input-output table. Also, a new database is compiled on Brazilian states’ energy use (by fuel) and related CO2 emissions at sectoral level, based on states’ official energy balances. We are able to evaluate the CO2 emissions in each of the 27 Brazilian states, considering their respective productive structure, energy use, as well as their trade with other states or foreign countries. We find that, in 2008, emissions from the production of inter-regionally traded goods and services corresponded to 36% of Brazilian CO2 emissions. There is great variation among states concerning their emissions intensities and carbon content of their trade relationships with their states and foreign countries.
    Keywords: CO2 emissions; input-output analysis; global value chains
    JEL: Q56 C67 R15
    Date: 2015–10–17
  7. By: YOMOGIDA Morihiro
    Abstract: This paper examines an optimal countervailing duty on green goods such as photovoltaic products. In 2013, the United States imposed a maximum of 49.79% countervailing duty on imports of photovoltaic products from China because subsidized exports of China significantly injured the U.S. producers. In response to this trade conflict, some economists and legal scholars argue that the World Trade Organization (WTO) rule should be modified in order to restrict or prohibit the imposition of countervailing duties on photovoltaic products. The reason is that subsidies for photovoltaic products could improve the environmental quality because it helps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions with promoting the use of solar power, and countervailing duties could counteract such environmental benefits. Although this argument seems to be reasonable from an economic viewpoint, none of them have undergone a formal economic analysis. We develop a theoretical model that incorporates the features of China-U.S. trade in photovoltaic products and use the model to examine how the United States' countervailing duty should be modified when the U.S. government maximizes national welfare that includes external environmental benefits generated by the use of green goods such as photovoltaic products. We show that an optimal countervailing duty should be lowered for green goods as compared to ordinary goods that do not generate environmental benefits even when a domestic production subsidy is optimally set to internalize the external effect. We also discuss implications for existing proposals for modification of the WTO rules on subsidy and countervailing measures for green goods.
    Date: 2015–10
  8. By: Gissela Landa (OFCE (OFCE)); Frédéric Reynès (Nederlandse Organisatie voor Toegepast Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek); Ivan Islas (Instituto Nacional de Ecología y Cambio Climático (INEC)); François-Xavier Bellock (Agence Française de Féveloppement (AFD)); Fabio Grazi (Agence Française de Féveloppement (AFD))
    Abstract: This paper simulates the medium- and long-term impact of proposed and expected energy policy on the environment and on the Mexican economy. The analysis has been conducted with a Multi-sector Macroeconomic Model for the Evaluation of Environmental and Energy policy (Three-ME). This model is well suited for policy assessment purposes in the context of developing economies as it indicates the transitional effects of policy intervention. Three-ME estimates the carbon tax required to meet emissions reduction targets within the Mexican “Climate Change Law”, and assesses alternative policy scenarios, each reflecting a different strategy for the recycling of tax revenues. With no compensation, the taxation policy if successful will succeed in in reducing CO2 emissions by more than 75% by 2050 with respect to Business as Usual (BAU), but at high economic costs. Under full redistribution of carbon tax revenues, a double dividend arises and the policy is beneficial both in terms of GDP and CO2 emissions reduction.
    Keywords: Climate policy; Energy economy modelling; Energy system; Double dividend
    Date: 2015–10
  9. By: Denise Imori; Joaquim Guilhoto
    Abstract: The current Brazilian position on climate change has been formalized with the law of National Climate Change Policy (PNMC, in Portuguese), established in December 2009, which provides a legal framework for national actions aimed at mitigation and adaptation. Within PNMC, the country has defined its national voluntary reduction targets for greenhouse gases emissions, with reductions between 36.1% and 38.9% of projected emissions by 2020. The distribution of the corresponding mitigation efforts by regions is of great concern in a large country like Brazil, with substantial regional variation in economic development, physical geography, production system, and energy consumption. In fact, most of Brazilian states have established public policies on climate change. Out of the 27 states, three have mandatory targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions: São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, in the most developed Southeast region; Mato Grosso do Sul, in the Central-West region; as well as Paraíba, in the Northeast region. In this context, questions raised in the literature on global climate change, such as the environmental responsibility for emissions embodied in trade, also apply at the regional level, and perhaps even to a larger extent. In order to analyze at regional level the current relationship between Brazil?s CO2 emissions and domestic and global value chains, in this study we adopt a new framework that combines a world input-output table (WIOT) with an inter-regional input-output table (IRIOT). In our approach, we have chosen not to take one of the datasets (say the WIOT) as a starting point and adapt the other dataset (i.e. the IRIOT) accordingly, instead we construct input coefficients for which both datasets are used. For the empirical application, we use the WIOT for 2008 that was constructed in the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) project. It is a full inter-country input-output table covering 40 countries and the rest of the world as a 41st country. Our IRIOT for 2008 covers the 27 Brazilian states. Both the WIOT and the IRIOT were aggregated to 28 compatible industries. Also, a new database is compiled on Brazilian states? energy use (by fuel) and related CO2 emissions at sectoral level, based on states? official energy balances and estimates of national greenhouses gases emissions for 2008 from Brazil?s Ministry of Science and Technology. We are able to evaluate the CO2 emissions in each of the 27 Brazilian states, considering their respective intra-regional productive structure, energy use, as well as their trade with other states or foreign countries. In this way, our results reveal how CO2 emissions are produced in Brazilian regions by means of domestic and global value chains.
    Keywords: CO2 emissions; input-output analysis; Brazil; global value chains
    JEL: Q56 C67 R15
    Date: 2015–10
  10. By: Marion Drut; Aurélie Mahieu
    Abstract: This paper aims to correct standard measures of agglomeration economies to account for air pollution generated by commuting. This paper examines the impact of nitrogen oxide (NOX) ? a pollutant mainly released by transportation ? on worker productivity. On one side, literature on agglomeration economies highlights the positive role of employment density on productivity, without accounting for the environmental impact of a better accessibility. On the other side, several studies (Graham, 2007; Rice et al., 2006) show that new transportation infrastructures or policies have a positive effect on accessibility, thus enlarging the opportunities offered to workers and leading to increased labor productivity. However, additional commuting trips may be induced by enhanced accessibility, and generates higher levels of polluting emissions (Goodwin, 1999; Litman, 2011). Epidemiological studies show that atmospheric pollution has a negative and significant impact on human health (see e.g., Currie et al. (2009a, 2009b)), implying lower labor productivity (Lavy et al., 2012; Graff Zivin and Neidell, 2012). This article aims at correcting estimations of agglomeration economies by accounting for air pollution resulting from commuting. More specifically, we consider local air pollution as a determinant of labor productivity and integrate it in the theoretical framework estimating agglomeration economies in order to assess the extent to which pollution limits the full efficiency of production capacities. We use aggregate data for the year 2009 for the 304 French metropolitan employment areas. First, we estimate the effects on labor productivity per worker of employment density, controlling for standard variables. In line with the literature, the results show an increase in productivity of 0.03% for a 1% increase in employment density. Second, we include NOX emissions as a proxy for atmospheric pollution. In line with epidemiological studies, we find that air pollution negatively impacts labor productivity. A 1% increase in the level of NOX emissions leads to almost 0.1% decrease in productivity. Third, we compare the models with and without air pollution. When pollution is accounted for, the positive effect of employment density on productivity is reduced. Finally, we focus on an illustrative case to show the magnitude of the reduction of agglomeration economies when local air pollution is considered. When NOX emissions are included in the model, the productivity gains of agglomeration are reduced by more than 13%. We conclude that accounting for air pollution (NOX) in the econometric model of agglomeration economies allows ?correcting? the effect of density on productivity, confirming that pollution matters. Indeed, introducing new transportation infrastructures and policies improves the accessibility of an area, which enlarges the positive externalities (agglomeration economies) stemming from increased density, but which also generates additional pollution due to induced trips. Yet pollution limits the full efficiency of production capacities.
    Keywords: Agglomeration economies; accessibility; air pollution; transportation policies
    JEL: O18 R23
    Date: 2015–10
  11. By: Yuzuru Miyata; Hiroyuki Shibusawa; Tomoaki Fujii
    Abstract: In this paper, we explore the economic impact of promotion and realization of an electric vehicle society (EVS) in Toyohashi City in Japan. More concretely, this paper emphasizes a computable general equilibrium (CGE) modeling approach to evaluate the following issues: economic impacts of subsidies for promotion of an EVS, economic impacts of carbon tax for reducing CO2, industrial structure change towards an EVS, and modal shift occurring towards an EVS. Our simulation results demonstrate that after applying 5 ~ 25% up subsidies to five industries including electric vehicle (EV) manufacturing, EV transport, solar power, cogeneration and other transport, the total industrial output and city GDP increase. A large growth rate is found in industries where subsidies are introduced, but non-ferrous metal industry also grows without subsidies due a repercussion effect. Moreover, it is interesting that decreasing proportions are found in oil and coal product, mining, heat supply and gasoline vehicle (GV) transport industries. However the total CO2 emission in Toyohashi City is increased being interpreted as a rebound effect. All the commodity prices decrease since subsidies are given to some industries. Hence Toyohashi CityÂfs economy shows a direction where the demand for conventional vehicles and energy use are decreased, conversely, the demand for EVs and renewable energy are increased illustrating a different life style from the current one. Regarding CO2 emissions, we introduced a carbon tax of 1,000 yen/t-CO2 for industries except the five industries mentioned above. As a result the total CO2 emission is decreased and the equivalent variation shows a positive value as compared with the base case. Thus introducing 5 ~ 25% subsidies and the carbon tax can really represent a realistic alternative society to EVS in Toyohashi City.
    Keywords: CGE model; electric vehicle; carbon tax; solar power; Toyohashi City
    JEL: Q00 Q01 Q50 Q51 Q53 Q55
    Date: 2015–10
  12. By: Halkos, George; Paizanos, Epameinondas
    Abstract: In the existing literature much attention has been given to the toolbox of regulatory policy instruments at the disposal of policy makers for addressing environmental concerns. Microeconomic treatment of environmental policy considers the optimal allocation of a given scale of resource flow within the economy, but neglects the scale and composition of economic activity relative to the ecosystem that supports it. An ecological approach to macroeconomics requires the appreciation of physical constraints to economic growth. This paper presents the theoretical underpinnings and the empirical findings of the literature on the link between economic growth and environmental quality, as well as of the relationship between fiscal policy and environmental degradation, by reviewing the relevant literature. The empirical findings on both relationships are not robust and are therefore inconclusive. The paper provides conclusions and directions for future research which may assist to solve this ambiguity on the examined relationships.
    Keywords: Environmental Macroeconomics; Economic growth; Natural resources; Fiscal policy.
    JEL: E62 P28 Q01 Q28 Q32 Q56
    Date: 2015–10
  13. By: Daniel Bouchardet; Alexandre Porsse
    Abstract: Historically, development in Brazilian Amazon was promoted by permits of deforestation and little territory control or supervision. However, due to the importance of this biome for biodiversity and ecosystem balance in a global perspective, Brazilian`s government has tighten deforestation control. Since 2004, political, institutional and market mechanisms have been implemented and annuals rates reduced from near 20,000 km² to 6,000 km² in 10 years. Despite several empirical agents behavior models in literature indicate for a spatial process of deforestation, all aspects of the spatial dynamic of deforestation has not been explored yet. In this context, this work studies the spatial pattern of deforestation in a cross-section and time perspective using exploratory spatial data analysis techniques. For these purposes, we used global and local analysis estimating Moran`s I statistic and Local Indicator of Spatial Association clusters maps. Data consisted in annual deforestation by municipality for Brazilian`s Legal Amazon, composed by 686 municipalities, within a 12 year period: from 2002 to 2013. Statistics were estimated for three variables: absolute deforestation and two indexes calculated annually by municipality. The first one represents the fraction of the total area deforested in each year and the second one is the cumulative sum of the first index. Considering the absolute deforestation analysis we clarify locations that most contribute for deforestation in a macro regional perspective. The purpose of the first index is to identify municipalities with most environmental degradation and the second index tries to capture a maximization behavior of land use agents. Global univariate results indicate the existence of high spatial correlation dependency. Moreover, despite the efficacy of the policy mechanisms adopted for controlling and reducing the level of deforestation in Legal Amazon, Moran`s I positive values show persistent spatial concentration of deforestation. This suggests that policy control mechanisms have achieved relative success to reduce the average deforestation but have not influenced its spatial dispersion. As expected, local analysis show clusters in Arch of Deforestation region, known for being the key region of deforestation. Furthermore, the low frequency of divergent neighbors, i. e., high-low and low-high clusters, supports the hypothesis of high spillover effects, as pointed out by high Moran`s I values. Comparing annual results show that municipalities with historically high relative deforestation rate presented reduction in forest area conversion, as their detachment in clusters ceased, although we cannot judge if by market, legal or political aspects. Also, we highlight the different implication of cross sectional and temporal analyses for policy selection. Municipalities that detaches in cross section should suffer control and legal action and detachment in temporal analysis indicates necessity of environmental recover and conservation actions.
    Keywords: Amazon; Deforestation; Spatial dynamic
    JEL: Q28
    Date: 2015–10
  14. By: Maria Augusta Doetzer Rosot; Yeda Maria Malheiros De Oliveira; Maria Izabel Radomski; Marilice Cordeiro Garrastazu; Denise Jeton Cardoso; André Eduardo Biscaia De Lacerda; Nelson Carlos Rosot
    Abstract: Model Forests (MFs) are social and participatory processes aiming at the sustainable development of a territory where the forest plays an important role. Individuals and organizations share knowledge and combine expertise and resources to provide income-generating opportunities, balancing social, economic, and ecological values. The concept originated in the late 80s, in Canada, and was launched internationally in Rio-92 Conference under the name of 'Model Forests', which adopts network strategies ('International Model Forest Network - IMFN' and regional networks as the Latin America Caribbean Model Forests Network (LAC-Net)). In Brazil, the system is coordinated by the Brazilian Forest Service and to date consists of two MFs in the Southeast and one in the South. The latter is located in the region of Araucaria Forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems of the Atlantic Forest. The high degree of landscape fragmentation and a very restrictive environmental legislation regarding the use of native forest are both major drivers of a well-known polarization between ?development? and ?conservation? viewpoints. Those conflicts of interests combined with low Human Development Indices, poor income distribution and environmental liabilities observed in the municipality of Caçador, in Santa Catarina State, motivated the creation of a MF in the region. The process is being conducted by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) since 2007. During the four subsequent years, public meetings and workshops were held in order to present and discuss the Model Forest approach with the local community. In 2012, individuals, organizations and local stakeholders joined the Caçador Model Forest Council. At the same year, the Council submitted a formal proposal for the creation of the MF and in 2013 the Model Forest area was visited by representatives of LAC-Net and IMFN. Finally, on June 17, 2013, Caçador Model Forest (BMCDR) was officially approved as a member of the Network, covering the entire territory of the municipality with 98,000 hectares. BMCDR mission is to provide better quality of life and environmental conservation through participatory management of the territory, strengthening family farming and the cultural identity and promoting the improvement, conservation and use of forest and water resources. The year 2014 was devoted to the process of discussing Caçador Model Forest governance model approaches and constructing its strategic plan, which comprises four major issues to be addressed during the next five years: promoting the local identity; use and conservation of the Araucaria Forest; use and conservation of water and the promotion and dissemination of BMCDR resources.
    Keywords: Model forest; sustainable forest management; rural development
    JEL: Q23
    Date: 2015–10
  15. By: Guilherme de Oliveira; Giana de Vargas Moraes
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to estimate a dynamic panel data to test the convergence hypothesis in per capita CO2 emissions. The empirical approach uses random and fixed effects estimators to obtain the converge rate to 118 countries of the Extend Pen World Table, distributed in global and regional samples of countries. Our results show that the convergence rate increases when country-specific effects are considered in the model. In general, Asian and Latin American countries are converging faster to steady-state than the average of countries. The opposite was observed in Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development member countries. In addition, stable and strong convergence rates were found in global and regional large samples, a new result regarding previous literature.
    Keywords: Carbon dioxide emissions; conditional convergence; economic growth; environmental dynamics; panel data
    JEL: Q5 Q52 C33
    Date: 2015–10–22
  16. By: Ngigi, Marther W.; Müller, Ulrike; Birner, Regina
    Abstract: This study examines the impact of multiple shocks on assets by employing two waves of a panel data set of 360 rural households in three agro-ecological zones in Kenya. To control for unobserved heterogeneity, a ‘within’ household fixed effects model was employed. One major finding is that climatic shocks negatively affect households’ livestock holdings -apart from small ruminant and non-ruminant livestock due to their higher adaptive capacity. Consequently, households rely on two major coping strategies to smooth their consumption level: (1) adjusting their livestock portfolios, and (2) borrowing from group-based approaches. The latter strategy is particularly important for poor households in safeguarding their already low asset base. The findings suggest that livestock protection policies, such as diversification of livestock portfolios, promotion of fodder banks and index-based livestock insurance, are substantial. Scaling-up of group-based approaches would augment poor households’ recovery and resilience against multiple shocks in the face of accelerating climate change.
    Keywords: multiple shocks, livestock, group-based approaches, rural Kenya, Consumer/Household Economics, Farm Management, Health Economics and Policy, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, C33, D13, I18, O12, O13, Q54,
    Date: 2015–10
  17. By: Pedro Nogueira
    Abstract: The relationship between land use and biodiversity is important to understand the decision support systems in order to attain sustainability. Nowadays, land use and biodiversity management is focused on protected areas, discarding other habitats, tending to favor exclusive property rights over the territory, thus creating unfeasible solutions for society. Azores has 420 endemic species and subspecies, being these protected by the Directives of Habitats and Birds. A better understanding of endemic species value is a remarkable tool to preserve biodiversity, thus affecting social welfare. The aim of this paper is to understand the relationship between land use and endemic species richness. For this, spatial endemic richness for different taxa (Bryophytes, Vascular Plants, Mollusks, Arthropods and Vertebrate) was identified at the spatial scale. After that was use SPSS and Geoda to explain endemic species richness with the mosaic of land uses and underlying environmental conditions, to allow soil use management and conservation measures to be determined through the integrated organization of landscape and not only by the definition of protected areas. First, we selected particular places where land use decisions were taken, reflecting trade-offs and through the opportunity cost of different land uses and the implicit values of different degrees of endemic species. After that, we determined estimated models considering neighborhood effects between geographical units, using GeoDa. Results are consistent and explain in a much adjusted way the relationship between land use and endemic species richness, allowing to determine the existent trade-offs between land use and species richness.
    Keywords: Biodiversity conservation; land use; spatial interaction; integrated management; opportunity cost.
    Date: 2015–10
  18. By: Olaf J. de Groot (Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (CEPAL)); Carlos Bozzoli (Universidad Torcuato di Tella, Buenos Aires); Tilman Bruck (IGZ – Leibniz Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops, Großbeeren, Germany, ISDC and HiCN)
    Abstract: Calculating the impact of different societal challenges, such as climate change, HIV/AIDS or cancer, uncovers the scale, distribution and structure of their economic burdens. Since violent conflict affects billions of people worldwide, the analysis of its impact is important. Using an integrated economic model accounting for multiple forms of conflict, we find that in the absence of violent conflict since 1960, global GDP in 2007 would have been 15.7% (10.9 trillion USD) larger. Furthermore, global income inequality would have been significantly lower. The largest absolute impacts are associated with domestic strife in China and India while Afghanistan suffers the largest relative burden. In contrast, many developed economies actually benefit from war. This shows that violent conflict is an integral part of the world economic structure, with a burden possibly exceeding that of climate change.
    Date: 2015–07
  19. By: Meyer, Andrew (Department of Economics Marquette University)
    Abstract: Environmental quality is a public good, potentially impacted by everybody. Individual level pro-environmental behavior affects environmental quality in the aggregate. Therefore, it is important to understand what causes individual’s pro-environmental behaviors to change. We quantify the causal effect of one determinant, unemployment, using an EU-27 population representative Eurobarometer survey. Drawing on results from the theory of the private provision of public goods, and recognizing that unemployment decreases income and the opportunity cost of time, we formulate testable predictions that unemployment will decrease the extent of pro-environmental behaviors that require monetary contributions and increase the extent of pro-environmental behaviors that mainly require time/effort. Instrumental variables regressions provide empirical evidence to support these hypotheses. Changes in the unemployment rate within a sub-national region provide the exogenous variation needed to identify the causal effect. Several supplemental questions on the survey provide evidence that environmental issues lose saliency and economic issues gain saliency when one becomes unemployed, suggesting that interested parties may wish to emphasize cost savings of pro-environmental behavior rather than environmental benefits during times of increased unemployment.
    Keywords: instrumental variables, pro-environmental behavior, Eurobarometer survey, unemployment
    JEL: Q01 Q50 J60 H41
    Date: 2015–03
  20. By: Miller, Steven
    Abstract: This paper reviews agricultural tax policies, with particular emphasis on Michigan, that have potential implication to environmental outcomes. In this, non‐environmental tax policies are considered that may impact environmental outcomes through secondary channels. Such channels are discussed along with possible policy implications.
    Keywords: Fresh cucumbers, picking cucumbers, industry statistics, market conditions, Crop Production/Industries, Y10,
    Date: 2015–04–17
  21. By: Helene Naegele
    Abstract: International offset certificates trade at lower prices than European Union Allowances (EUAs), although they are substitutes within the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) for CO2. Firms therefore had a strong incentive to use the cheaper certificates. However, a considerable number of firms did not use their allowed offset quota and, by doing so, seemingly forwent profits. While most of the literature on emissions trading evaluates the efficiency of regulation in a frictionless world, in practice firms incur costs when complying with regulation. In order to assess the relevance of managerial and information-related transaction costs, this study examines the use of international offset credits in the EU ETS. It establishes a model of firm decision under fixed entry costs and estimates the size of transaction costs rationalizing firm behavior using semi-parametric binary quantile regressions. Comparing binary quantile results with probit estimates shows that high average transaction cost result from a strongly skewed underlying distribution. I find that for most firms the bulk of transaction costs stems from participation in the EU ETS in general, rather than additional participation in the offset trade.
    Keywords: Environmental policy, EU ETS, emissions trading, transaction costs, binary quantile estimation
    JEL: C25 D23 H23 Q58
    Date: 2015
  22. By: Balázs Sándor Gál (University of Miskolc)
    Abstract: If humanity wants to learn from theirearlier mistakes,required energy demand what need to the economy and living standards increase in, and technological obsolescence due to the loss of capacity should meet renewable sources, or replaced. It is particularly in those cases where the economic, technological or environmental conditions allow it. In several cases can encounter on the analysis of these developments in economic, environmental and social aspects. There several methods for the implementation of the measurements, but in most cases only one or two aspects examined. However, the enforcement of the principle of sustainability requires a complex comparison what we need to make any type of energy or energy-production methods in case of the most ideal ways of generating energy. Way for selecting adjusted to the economic, social and natural environment.
    Date: 2015–10–15
  23. By: Stavros Sakellariou; Stergios Tampekis; Fani Samara; Olga Christopoulou
    Abstract: Forest fires constitute one of the greatest hazards for the viability and sustainable development of forests with consequences both on natural and cultural environment, undermining the economy and the quality of life of local and regional populations. The outbreaks of forest fires could stem from either natural or anthropogenic causes. The latter usually compose the greatest percentage of ignition of forest fires especially at the Mediterranean regions. The best strategic to grapple with forest fires while taking under consideration both functional and economic efficiency is considered of primary importance. To this effect, great share have the usage and adoption of decision support systems (DSS) which contain tools of G.I.S. and satellite technology and function as information systems which support the managers responsible for eliminating the forest fires. DSS make up a valuable tool for prevention and fighting against forest fires and lately they are adopted at growing rate at global level. The basic models-subsystems which comprise the structural elements for confronting forest fires and most DSS use are the following: 1) Retrieval, analysis, update, edit and prediction models of geospatial (geomorphology - topography, socioeconomic and environmental data), meteorological and satellite data, 2) Risk indexes and thematic maps (past fire incidents - records, moisture data etc.) of indigenous vegetation and forest fuel, 3) Fire propagation and behavior models and 4) Utilizing of interactive programs for the preparation, plans establishing, coordination and prompt dispatch of specific forces of the fire department (human force, land or aerial firefighting forces or even a combination). Definitely, the sub-systems of the most DSS can be used independently depending on the main purpose, such as for prevention or suppression procedures; for the financial estimation of the planned mission; for the smoke detection and the prediction of its repercussions on the human health etc. Hence, the paper aims to a comparative assessment of the most contemporary DSS which are in use in different geographic scales -such as national and federal level- as well as to a thorough exploration of the effectiveness and contribution of such systems to the confronting of forest fires.
    Keywords: forest fires; decision support systems; g.i.s.; remote sensing
    Date: 2015–10
  24. By: Alberto Franco Solís; Francisco Javier De Miguel Vélez
    Abstract: Though most direct water use is generally associated with agriculture, and therefore with the production of food, there is a clear consensus that considering indirect water uses is a relevant factor to be considered in any environmental analysis. In this regard, the subsystems input-output approach makes it possible to isolate the water relations of a limited number of activities as part of the entire production sphere and thus obtain specific production information of them. However, not directly related with production, the demand of goods and services closely linked to available income, also play a significant role in water consumption. Hence, in this paper we propose an extension of the input?output subsystem model to account for all transactions within a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) and capture the entire flow by which water depletion is caused and transmitted throughout the economic system. Our approach, which divides the water consumption into different components, illustrates how the individual patterns of water depletion differ among economic agents. The starting point of the subsystems representation consists of the decomposition of the N accounts of a SAM system into two categories of institutions: m endogenous and s exogenous. By taking into account this separation of the accounts, in this paper, we analyze separately all the endogenous economic agents, and for each one, we apply a subsystem division of its water consumption. The empirical application is for the Spanish regional economy of Extremadura, and the economic and environmental data are for the year 2005. Our results show that large asymmetries exist not only in the quantitative contribution of the different economic agents to water consumption, but also in the decomposed effects of this contribution. In particular, this decomposition allows illustration of the pull effects of the SAM economic agents on the others, and this shows the effective consumption caused by one agent, no matter which is the agent that causes the end water consumption. Models such as the one presented here also have limitations, like the shortage of data or parameter specification. However, they are of great interest to define the direction that environmental or economic policies should take if we are to reduce water consumption or increase water use efficiency levels.
    Keywords: water; subsystem input-output approach; social accounting matrix.
    Date: 2015–10
  25. By: Anna Arent; Matylda Bojar; Nelson Duarte; Francisco Diniz
    Abstract: This paper analyses the role of SMEs in regional development, focusing the particular case of This paper analyses the role of SMEs in regional development, focusing the particular case of Lublin Region in Poland. By using a questionnaire presented to firms that are operating in manufacturing and construction sectors were analysed several issues related to firms themselves, and their sustainability strategies. The sustainability strategy was measured through the combination of the three main perspectives in sustainable development: Economic, Social, and Environmental. This study aims, in a first stage, to analyse entrepreneurs? view of their role in local and regional development, by the adoption of sustainability strategies at the three identified levels. After that, it will also be explored the relation between sustainable development and other variables such as: business local integration, firm age, number of years in the actual location, or firm legal form. As mentioned, the methodology adopted was the questionnaire, in order to get entrepreneurs opinion. In order to guarantee a valid sample, and considering the number of firms operating in this region, it was calculated the number of a valid sample, and due to the results obtained after a pilot study it was identified a valid sample of 44 questionnaires. However, due to the number of firms operating in the manufacturing and construction businesses (above 34.000) it was decided to collect some more questionnaires. At the end 314 questionnaires answered by managers from SMEs operating the in region of Lublin, acting the in the manufacturing and construction sectors, were accepted for this analysis. As main results it was identified that the major concern of entrepreneurs is related to the economic perspective. The second most important perspective was the environmental and at last the social one. In general the results were very positive. Most of firms present a proactive attitude towards to sustainable development, arguing that they adopt sustainability strategies (Economic, Social, and Environmental) at their management policies and strategies. However it was noticed that while older firms (above 10 years old) present greater concern with social and environmental issues, younger firms, are focusing in the economic perspective.
    Keywords: SMEs; Sustainable Development; Local/Regional Development
    JEL: M10 O14 O18 O44
    Date: 2015–10
  26. By: Giulia Sonetti
    Abstract: In recent times, the contribution of technology and standard energy indicators in urban governance for a wiser use of energy resources has been called in debate, emphasising the potential role of traditional ecological knowledge, individual lifestyles, and in general a wider long-term thinking about the sustainability goal of policy makers. A resilience perspective may help in exploring the contribution of community resilience when dealing with human factors and energy consumptions trends. The paper analyses these relations by observing a special portion of city represented by university campuses. In particular, energy data from the Sustainability Office of the Hokkaido University, in Japan, coupled with surveys with campus users in the effort to reduce their energy consumption, are red under a resilience lens. Results showed that although collective responses did produce sparkling and virtuous outcomes, there were not enough to reach the targets fixed by the national government in terms of electric and thermal energy percentage reduction. Conclusions outline the possibility of systematic efforts to break through the current curricular paradigms in reducing public building energy consumption, using new ways to foster cultural identity protection and resilience thinking in urban governance action toward a low carbon society.
    Keywords: Sustainability Assessment; University Campus; Community Resilience
    Date: 2015–10
  27. By: JINJI Naoto; TSURUMI Tetsuya
    Abstract: In this study, we investigate how inward foreign direct investment (FDI) influences the environmental actions of local firms in the host country. We use firm-level data of Vietnam manufacturing firms for the period 2007-2008. Environmental actions are measured in five indexes, including adoption of environmental management system, certification of environmental standards, and application of cleaner production. We estimate the direct effect of foreign ownership share and three types of spillover effects on the environmental behavior of firms. Spillover effects include horizontal, forward, and backward spillovers. We find positive and statistically significant direct effects and negative and significant horizontal spillovers. We also find positive and significant backward spillovers when firms engage in international trade. Moreover, we find heterogeneity in both direct and spillover effects among source countries of FDI.
    Date: 2015–10
  28. By: Natalia Szubska-Wodarczyk
    Abstract: The analysis has demonstrated the theoretical energy-production potential of biomass in the areas of fallow and waste land. Moreover, at this stage, the economic potential of bringing the land into cultivation also seems justifiable. However, there is a need to estimate the cost of processing and energy production by power plants and co-generating power plants. It is necessary to analyse the inclusion of tools for supporting production of renewable energy, as well as to plan the location of decentralised units. Production of biomass for energy purposes requires, first of all, retaining balance between the use of agricultural area for food and energy production. Due to the specific nature of rural areas, it is necessary to develop an integrated approach to land management in order to support sustainable development. There is a need to move away from the model of intensive agriculture in the direction of sustainable agriculture. Development of energy-producing agriculture is conditioned by the modernisation and technological progress in order to displace the conventional model. Agriculture is a sector that has a significant impact on the environment and on quality of life of the population. Therefore, it is an area where it is necessary to initiate action for sustainable development. According to the 2009/28/EC Directive, Poland should achieve the level of 15% of energy being obtained from renewable resources in the total consumption in 2020. This goal will not be achieved without focusing activities on the development of dispersed energy production, including the activation of rural areas. The aim of the study is: • to estimate energy production potential of fallow soil and fallow land in the £ód¼ Province on the basis of selected energy crops, • to calculate the minimum price of energy crops. The following analysis verifies the main research hypothesis, i.e., that the £ód¼ Province has a theoretical and economical energy-production potential of biomass production in the areas of fallow soil and fallow land. This paper presents a model of uncultivated agricultural land under appropriately selected energy crops. The main goal of this work is to estimate energy production potential of fallow soil and fallow land in the £ód¼ Province on the basis of selected energy crops and to calculate the minimum price of energy crops. The Net Present Value (NPV) method was used to calculate the minimum price, and the literature studies to build the model using. The following analysis verifies the main research hypothesis, i.e., that the £ód¼ Province has a theoretical and economical energy-production potential of biomass in the areas of fallow soil and fallow land. The hypothesis was verified positively. The study shows that practicing energy willow achieved the lowest price for generation of 1 MWh .
    Keywords: biomass; energy crops; the minimum price; energy and climate policy
    JEL: Q1 Q4 Q5
    Date: 2015–10
  29. By: Katsuhito Nohara; Masaki Narukawa
    Abstract: The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake hereafter, 'the Earthquake' and the accident involving radiation leakage at Tokyo Electric Power CompanyÂfs Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant No. 1 hereafter, 'NPP No. 1' brought fame to Fukushima Prefecture but not in a positive way. In general, economic damage caused by misinformation is defined as Âgdamage caused by groundless rumors, in particular, economic damage suffered by people or groups caused by improper news coverage, even though they have essentially nothing to do with an event or accident.Âh (Kojien sixth edition, 2008) This means that tourism in a given area will be affected by news coverage and misinformation that differ from the facts (for example, degradation in environmental quality at a recreation site), tourists will be deterred, and the economy at the site will be negatively affected. However, the degree to which such news coverage and misinformation affect peopleÂfs activities is largely dependent on those peopleÂfs state of mind. It is impossible to determine the exact number of visits that would have been made to the region in question had there been no such news coverage, no harmful rumors, and no environmental degradation. Thus, after the sensational news coverage about radiation at NPP No. 1, the inclusion of people in the survey sample who had never visited Fukushima Prefecture would have skewed the expected trip numbers and overestimated the monetary loss of tourism. This paper estimated the recreational benefits lost in Fukushima Prefecture due to rumor-driven economic damage from the NPP No. 1 radiation leakage accident in March 2011 to March 2014. Considering the hypothetical scenario in which a radiation leakage accident did not occur in Fukushima, we asked survey respondents how many times they would have visited the prefecture in this scenario and analyzed the responses using the Hypothetical Travel Cost Model. Since the survey participants were people who had actually visited the prefecture, we considered our data as pseudo on-site sampling. We thus expanded the Poisson-Invese Gaussian hereafter, 'PIG' regression model, which will improve the standard Poisson regression model in the analysis of count data with strong overdispersion, into a random effect model. In addition, to deal with the data collected through on-site sampling, we applied ShawÂfs correction to the PIG random effect model and used it to estimate the demand function for the recreational trip. The estimation results showed that Fukushima PrefectureÂfs lost recreational benefits due to rumor-driven economic damage totaled approximately 2.85 trillion yen over the three years from the radiation leakage accident to March 2014.
    Keywords: harmful rumor; hypothetical travel cost; Poisson-inverse Gaussian regression
    JEL: Q26 Q51 C35
    Date: 2015–10
  30. By: Latifa Benyounes-Ferahta
    Abstract: Research Objective: Valuing emerging identities outskirts registering requalification strategy spaces generated by the phenomenon of urban sprawl in a sustainable development perspective Today, mutations in which the city is subject engender the urban landscape degradation.In this context, development and planning procedures which codify the scales of intervention, strategic planning at the operational scope, were developed , without providing meaningful answers to the problem of controlling urban sprawl, or to produce spaces marked by quality. Furthermore, sustainable development policy tends to register urban development strategies in a qualitative approach that is based on the economic and environmental social triptych, but calls for the need of a device intended to refer to the context in s adapt to temporality and to unite the many dimensions of urban and timeframes to be able to spatialize these principles. Hence, their mobilization to try to develop strategies for reclaiming spaces dormant. Then manifests the need to promote the quality of the urban environment and calls for its requalification. In this context, development and planning procedures which codify the scales of intervention, strategic planning at the operational scope, were developed. So far they have not managed to make significant responses to the problem of regulation of urban sprawl or to produce spaces marked by quality and urbanity. The following questions arise: What are the mechanisms to regulate urban sprawl? How to update the settings to promote sustainable quality of the living environment in peri-urban areas? How to approach a multidisciplinary, multidimensional and multi scalar reflection on peri-urban areas for a sustainable redevelopment? To answer these questions, we adopt a methodology that crosses the SWOT method for a relevant diagnosis and issues appropriately identified and AMC method to evaluate the advantages of sustainability. Empirical verification will be done on a selected site. The results of our research will result in: 1. Radar charts that indicates the parameters that must be weighed 2. Quality Indicators
    Keywords: urban sprawl; sustainability; retraining; upgrading; identities
    Date: 2015–10
  31. By: Yuri Yegorov
    Abstract: Sustainable use of natural resources becomes an important issue today not only due to global warming and pollution issues but also because of critical pressure on the Earth?s regeneration possibility. We cannot use classical microeconomic approach here for two reasons: a) impossibility to create natural resources, both exhaustible and renewable, by simple use of labour and capital (like it is done on most of macroeconomic growth models); b) important role of spatial distribution and transport cost than leads to both overharvesting and under-harvesting in some regions. Due to these externalities market organization is extremely important for sustainability, and this question will be studied here in theoretical framework. The goal of this paper is to study the role of market structure for the sustainable harvesting of natural resources. This work is theoretical and uses explicit spatial structure as a component of production function. It continues other works of Yegorov (2005, 2007, 2009) where economic production function accounted explicitly for topological properties of geographical space. Contrary to the previous works, this uses also reproduction equation for renewable resources. The intensity of harvesting follows from market structure and is driven not only by population density but also by land ownership, land rent, transport cost and discount for future. The results show that overharvesting can originate in purely market laws because it does not account for an interaction between economy and nature. The models show that optimal harvesting of natural resources is highly sensitive to such economic parameters as the price of final good, energy price index, land rent and time discount. Land ownership by small farmers keeps the hope of more sustainable resource exploitation because they do not care about land rent and virtually have no time discount. However, they can also overexploit the resource if they have no idea about its dynamics under harvesting. Super-rational farmers who have such knowledge can choose lower land slots and exploit them moderately. However, they can loose competition to farmers who are rational only in economic sense and overexploit their land slots. References 1. Yegorov Y. (2005) Role of Density and Field in Spatial Economics? ? In: Yee Lawrence (Ed). Contemporary Issues in Urban and Regional Economics. Nova Science Publishers, 2005, N.Y., p.55-78. 2. Yegorov Y. (2007) Dynamics of Spatial Infrastructure with Application to Gas and Forest, 6th Conference on Applied Infrastructure Research (Infraday), TU Berlin, Germany, 5-6 October 2007. 3. Yegorov Y. (2009) Socio-economic influences of population density. Chinese Business Review, vol.8, No. 7, p.1-12.
    Keywords: land use; harvesting; sustainability; market; optimization
    JEL: R11 R12 R14 R40
    Date: 2015–10
  32. By: Gabriela Simonet; Julie Subervie; Driss Ezzine-de-Blas; Marina Cromberg; Amy Duchelle
    Abstract: We estimate the additional effects of a REDD+ pilot project offering Payments for Environmental Services to reduce deforestation by smallholders in the Brazilian Amazon. We collected original data from 181 individual farmers. We use DID-matching and find evidence that supports the parallel trend assumption. We estimate that an average of 4 ha of forest have been saved on each participating farm in 2014, at the expense of pastures versus croplands. This amounts to a decrease in the deforestation rate of about 50 percent. We find no evidence of leakage effects. Finally, we find that the project is cost-effective.
    Date: 2015–10
  33. By: Hiroaki Shirayanagi; Yukisada Kitamura
    Abstract: In Japan, recent low birthrate and aging population have progressively led to a crisis for infrastructure. In particular, the quantity of drainage from homes and factories is remarkably decreasing, along with the decline of economic activity resulting from the overseas move of Japanese companies. As a result, a condition of overcapacity of sewage systems has arisen. On the other hand, the risks of natural disaster, such as damage from local flooding by heavy rain, are rapidly increasing. But the capacity of rainwater drainage systems remains chronically short. We suggest that underground space is not being used effectively in urban sewage systems. In our study, which focused on the rainwater sewage systems and sewage systems of enormous social capital infrastructure, we commented on the conditions and problems of two systems. To improve the spatial conditions of the two systems, we suggested that space reallocation is required. As such, we proposed a framework of hybrid sewerage systems and showed its various benefits in terms of environmental issues and disaster prevention of inland flooding. Targeting a specific district in Japan, we estimated that the capacity of rainwater drainage systems would improve from 61.6mm/hr. to 65.0 mm/hr. by introducing hybrid usage of sewerage systems. The possibility of inland flooding damage in this district could be reduced up to 20.7%. Realizing hybrid sewerage systems would contribute greatly to appropriate reallocation policy for underground water system space, compared with the river reforming works and the rainwater drainage pipesÂf constructions. Considering the problem from an institutional viewpoint, the sewage business is planned and operated based on the decisions of city planners, so to construct and perform hybrid sewerage systems, it is important to re-adjust the duties of various relevant authorities. From a technical viewpoint, to allow rainwater into sewage facilities, it is important to devise rules for controlling rainfall inflow and outflow to and from sewage disposal plants. Namely, it is required that inflow loads are reduced at sewage disposal plants. We approach the institutional and technical problems in carrying out hybrid sewerage systems. We suggest that rainwater drainage systems should be treated as a part of whole city systems, as opposed to separating rainwater drainage systems and sewage systems. We construct the Intelligent Rainwater and Sewage Systems (IRSS) concept for handling environment issues and disaster prevention by fully utilizing the capacities of rainwater drainage systems and sewage systems. Finally, we should still expect and be prepared for minimal damage such as local flooding, and should work for a sustainable life environment in the long term. To improve city planning in safety, relief and comfort, we hope IRSS can be included as a part of space reallocation policies by fully exploiting unused capacities.
    Keywords: hybrid sewerage systems; disaster prevention of inland flooding; infrastructure
    JEL: O38 O53 R11 R53 R58
    Date: 2015–10
  34. By: Soushi Suzuki; Peter Nijkamp
    Abstract: This paper aims to offer an advanced assessment methodology for sustainable national energy-environment-economic efficiency strategies, based on an extended Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) in which distinct countries are regarded as Decision Making Units (DMUs). The aim is to show how much various countries can improve their combined efficiency profile. Standard DEA models use a uniform input reduction or a uniform output increase in their improvement projections. The development of novel efficiency-improvement solutions based on DEA has greatly progressed in recent years. A recent example is the Distance Friction Minimisation (DFM) method, which aims to generate an original contribution to efficiency-enhancement strategies by deploying a weighted projection function, while it may address both input reduction and output increase as a strategy of a DMU. To design a feasible improvement strategy for low-efficiency DMUs, we develop a Target-Oriented (TO) DFM model that allows for less ambitious reference points that remain below the efficiency frontier. The TO-DFM model calculates then a Target-Efficiency Score (TES) for inefficient DMUs. This model is able to compute an input reduction value and an output increase value in order to achieve this TES. However, in many real-world cases the input factor may not be immediately flexible or adjustable, due to indivisibility (or lumpiness) of the input factor. Usually, a DEA model does not include such a non-controllable or a fixed factor. In this study, we aim to integrate the TO-DFM model with a fixed factor (FF) model in order to cope with realistic circumstances in our search for an efficiency improvement projection in combined energy-environment-economic strategies of individual nations. The present paper aims to offer an original contribution to efficiency enhancement in national sustainability strategies by means of the above described DEA approach. After the description of the methodology, a complementary Super-efficiency (SE) approach to DEA is used in our comparative study on the efficiency assessment of energy-environment-economic targets for the EU, APEC and ASEAN (A&A) countries, using appropriate data sets ranging from the years 2003 to 2012. In the present study, we consider two inputs (primary energy consumption and population) and two outputs (CO2 and GDP), including a fixed input factor, namely the ?population? production factor that cannot be flexibly adjusted. On the basis of our DEA analysis results, it appears that EU countries exhibit generally a higher efficiency than A&A countries. In particular, it turns out that Cyprus, Luxembourg and Ireland may be seen as super-efficient countries in the EU, and Brunei as a high performance country in A&A. The above-mentioned TO-DFM-FF projection model is used to address realistic circumstances and requirements in an operational sustainability strategy for efficiency improvement in inefficient countries in the A&A region.
    Keywords: dea; fixed factor; energy-environment-economic efficiency; eu; apec; asean
    JEL: C00 Q48
    Date: 2015–10
  35. By: Kurakin, Alexander (National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Nikulin, Alexander Michailovich (Independent); Trotsuk, Irina Vladimirovna (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: In the first chapter are indicated the general logic and history of innovation in Russian agriculture, namely: agrotechnical ensure agricultural activity at the beginning of the twentieth century, the Soviet experience in implementing agroinnovatsy and objective conditions of innovative development of agrarian and industrial complex in the post-Soviet period. The second presents the results of empirical research conducted by the Center for Agricultural Research in the three districts of the Altai Territory. In conclusion summarizes the basic provisions and the findings of the work carried out.
    Keywords: innovations, agriculture
    Date: 2014–08–11
  36. By: Hella Engerer
    Abstract: Der Seeweg ist der für den internationalen Handel wichtigste Transportweg. Über 80 Prozent der Frachtmengen werden global per Schiff transportiert. Der Seeverkehr verursacht vielfältige Umweltbelastungen: Dazu gehört neben Havarien undLeckagen, der Einleitung von Abwässern und der Müllentsorgung vor allem auch die Emission von Luftschadstoffen. Die Verminderung dieser Umweltbelastungen und grundsätzlich die Verbesserung des Umweltschutzes in der Schifffahrt wird als „Green Shipping“ bezeichnet. In jüngerer Zeit steht dabei die Verminderung der Treibhausgasemissionen im Vordergrund. Weltweit sind etwa 2,5 Prozent der Treibhausgasemissionen auf den Seetransport zurückzuführen. Um die Emissionen zu senken, wurden unter anderem in bestimmten Seefahrtgebieten verschärfte Grenzwerte eingeführt. So ist seit Anfang 2015 für Fahrten in der Nord- und Ostsee sowie im Ärmelkanal der Schwefelgehalt im Kraftstoff auf 0,1 Prozent limitiert. Damit die Grenzwerte eingehalten werden, muss die bestehende Schiffsflotte umgerüstet werden. So kann ein Schiff mit Filteranlagen nachgerüstet oder mit einem schadstoffärmeren Kraftstoff als dem in der Seefahrt überwiegend verwendeten, stark schwefelhaltigen Schweröl betrieben werden. Für die Zukunft ist eine weitere Zunahme des Seetransports und der durch ihn verursachten Luftschadstoffe zu erwarten. Die bislang auf EU-Ebene sowie weltweitgetroffenen Übereinkünfte reichen indes nicht aus, um die durch die Schifffahrt verursachten Treibhausgasemissionen nachhaltig zu senken.
    Date: 2015
  37. By: Claire W. Armstrong (University of Tromsø; The Arctic University of Norway); Viktoria Kahui (University of Otago); Godwin K. Vondolia (University of Tromsø; The Arctic University of Norway); Margrethe Aanesen (University of Tromsø; The Arctic University of Norway); Mikołaj Czajkowski (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw)
    Abstract: In addition to indirect support to fisheries, marine habitats also provide non-use benefits that are overlooked in most existing bioeconomic models. Our paper expands a dynamic bioeconomic fisheries model in which the presence of natural habitats not only reduces the cost of fishing, via aggregation effects, but also supplies non-use benefits. The theoretical model is illustrated with the analysis of cold water corals in Norway where two fishing methods are considered – destructive bottom trawl and non-destructive coastal gear. Non-use values of cold water corals in Norway are estimated using a discrete choice experiment. Both the theoretical model and its empirical applications show how non-use values impact upon the optimal fishing practices.
    Keywords: renewable, non-renewable, habitat, fishery, bioeconomic, use and non-use value
    JEL: Q22 Q32 Q51
    Date: 2015
  38. By: Tomas Havranek (Czech National Bank); Roman Horvath; Ayaz Zeynalov
    Abstract: An important question in development studies is how abundance of natural resources affects long-term economic growth. No consensus answer, however, has yet emerged, with approximately 40% of empirical papers finding a negative effect, 40% finding no effect, and 20% finding a positive effect. Does the literature taken together imply the existence of the so-called natural resource curse? In a quantitative survey of 402 estimates reported in 33 studies, we find that overall support for the resource course hypothesis is weak when potential publication bias and method heterogeneity are taken into account. Our results also suggest that three aspects of study design are especially effective in explaining the differences in results across studies: 1) including an interaction of natural resources with institutional quality, 2) controlling for the level of investment activity, and 3) distinguishing between different types of natural resources.
    Keywords: Natural resources, economic growth, institutions, publication selection bias, meta-analysis
    JEL: Q30 O13 C51
    Date: 2015–10
  39. By: Mulenga, Brian P.; Nkonde, Chewe; Ngoma, Hambulo
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2015–09
  40. By: Mariana Mazzucato (SPRU (Science Policy Research Unit), School of Business, Management & Economics, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9SL, U.K.)
    Abstract: The paper considers the direct, strategic investments that have been made by international public institutions creating and shaping (not only fixing) green technology. It builds on the key themes found in The Entrepreneurial State: debunking public vs. private sector myths.
    Keywords: Financial institutions; environment; economic development; technological change; industrial policy
    JEL: G20 O13 O16 O38 L52
    Date: 2015–10

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